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Юридические формы защиты прав потребителей

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

?aoa?ao

“TH?eaee/aneea oi?iu caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae”.

Auiieiee

o/aiee 11 “A” eeanna

oeieu ? 46

Aeeueyiianeee Aeaenaiae?

?oeiaiaeeoaee –

o/eoaeue iauanoaiciaiey – Aaiaoeia A.I.

no. i?aiiaeaaaoaeue ?A?OA –

Aaneia E.A.

?ycaiue 2000/2001 o/. aiae

TH?eaee/aneea iniiau caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

1.1 ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

1.2 I?aaiu iauae e niaoeeaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee.

1.3 Oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

1.4 Ianoiua i?aaiu.

Iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

2.1 Iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeoaeae.

2.2 Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa.

2.3 Yenia?oiay eaai?aoi?ey.

I?aai iio?aaeoaeae ia noaeaaioth caueoo.

3.1 A eaeeo neo/ayo iio?aaeoaeue eiaao i?aai ia noaeaaioth caueoo.

3.2 Eae iaaeaeiaaoue ?aoaiea noaea.

3.3 Eneiaia cayaeaiea.

Ii?aeueiue a?aae e aai aiciauaiea.

Oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iio?aaeoaeae – eiia/iay oeaeue yeiiiieee.

Anooieaiea.

A yoii aiaeo y caeai/eaath 11 eeann. Ia?aaei iiie ioe?uaaaony aieueoay
aei?iaa a aeeciue, e iia i?eae?ony ?aoaoue iiiai ?acee/iuo i?iaeai.
*aeiaae – oeaio?aeueiay oeao?a a yeiiiieea, eioi?ay aunooiaao a aeaoo
?ieyo: i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaey. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iio?aaeoaeue caueu?i niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii – “Caeii i caueoa i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae”. Ai iiiaeo aeeoaeneeo neooaoeeyo ii iicaieyao ?aaeueii
caueoeoue eioaeueee, caei?iauea e iieie iaoeo ethaeae. Ii canoaaeyao
?aaioaoue i?iaeaaoeia e i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeia?iniaanoii e ea/anoaaiii. A
oa/aiea aeaoo iineaaeieo eao y na?ue?cii caieiaeny yoei caeiiii, aue
o/anoieeii ai?iaeneeo (1999 aiae – 1 ianoi, 2000 aiae – 2 ianoi),
iaeanoiuo (1999 aiae – 1 ianoi, 2000 aiae – 1 ianoi), iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo
(1999 aiae – 4 ianoi, 2000 aiae – 3 ianoi) ieeiieaae. N/eoath, /oi yoe
ciaiey ioaeiu eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. A naiae ?aaioa
iaae ?aoa?aoii iia au oioaeinue naeaeaoue aeoeaio ia oii, eaeea i?aaiu a
?ycaie i?ecaaiu caueuaoue i?aaa iio?aaeoaey, /oiau caoai ?anneacaoue yoi
iaeiieeannieeai, ?iaenoaaiieeai e ae?ocueyi.

1.1 ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

Aeaaiui i?ioanneiiaeii, aaconeiaii, yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Oi?ioi
ecaanoii, /oi a ethaii oeeaeeeciaaiiii ainoaea?noaa ca niaethaeaieai
ii?yaeea a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo aeecie neaaeyo ainoaea?noaaiiua neoaeau.
Ieienoa?noai cae?aaiio?aiaiey ioaa/aao ca oi, /oiau iai auea aia?aiy
ieacaia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay iiiiuue. *oiau iao/aiea a oeiea
anaaaea auei ia aeieaeiii o?iaia, naiaa?aiaiii aaiaeeeenue iiaua
i?aaeiaou n o/?oii eciaiaiey a?aiaie, /oiau ana oeieueieee auee
iaania/aiu o/aaieeaie, aea e i?inoi /oiau ia anao aeaoae oaaoeei oeie –
nouanoaoao Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iiiai/eneaiiua ?aeiiiua
i?aaiecaoeee, eo?e?othuea oeieu. E oae iiaeii aeieai ia?aae?aoue
?acee/iua iaeanoe aeecie e iacuaaoue ioaaonoaaiiua ca ieo i?aaiecaoeee.

Ainoaea?noai caeiiii ooaa?aeeei iaeioi?ua iaoe i?aaa eae iio?aaeoaeae.
Ii caaea/a ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a ethaie iaeanoe – ia oieueei
i?aaenoaaeoue ii?aaeae?iiua i?aaa, ii e iaania/eoue eo ?aaeueiia
niaethaeaiea. Aeey yoiai ainoaea?noai nicaea?o niaoeeaeueiua
i?aaiecaoeee, iaaeaeyy eo iniauie i?aaaie ii eiio?ieth ca niaethaeaieai
iio?aaeoaeueneiai e eiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

1.2 I?aaiu iauae e niaoeeaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee.

I?aaiu iauae eiiiaoaioeee – yoi i?aaiecaoeee, ia eioi?ua aiceiaeaiu
ooieoeee caueou i?aa a?aaeaeai a oeaeeeii, a ia oieueei eae
iio?aaeoaeae. Yoi ieeeoeey, i?ieo?aoo?a, noae. Caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae
aeey oaeeo i?aaiia – eeoue iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?aaiu aioo?aiieo aeae (ieeeoeey) i?eieiatho iia?aoeaiua ia?u i?e
ia?ooaiee i?aa iio?aaeoaeae (ninoaaeytho i?ioieieu i ia?ooaieyo i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae, i?iaiaeyo i?iaa?ee ii aeaeiaai e cayaeaieyi a?aaeaeai e
o.i.). Anee aan iaaaneee eee ian/eoaee, iaiaioee, au aiieia iiaeaoa
ia?auaoueny a ieeeoeeth.

Caaea/a i?ieo?aoo?u – iaaeci? ca caeiiiinoueth ai anao noa?ao aeecie
iauanoaa. I?ieo?aoo?a caueuaao eioa?anu iio?aaeoaeae a oii neo/aa, anee
iio?aaeoaeue a neeo aic?anoa eee ninoiyiey caei?iauey ia iiaeao
caueoeoue naie i?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii eeai anee ia?ooaiea auoiaeeo ca
?aiee a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e neaaeoao i?eaea/ue ia?ooeoaeae
e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe (iaaeaaii a Oaieiaiii Eiaeaena ?O iiyaeeanue
noaouey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaiai iio?aaeoaeae).

Noae auiieiyao iniaoth ?ieue a io?aia i?aa a?aaeaeai. Caaea/a noaea –
iauaeoeaii ?acia?aoueny a eiioeeeoa ii niaoeeaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?a e, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?eioaeeoue ia?ooeoaey oaeiaeaoai?eoue caeiiiua
o?aaiaaiey iio?aaeoaey.

I?aaiu niaoeeaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee – yoi ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu,
iniiaiie caaea/ae eioi?uo yaeyaony eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai eioa?ania
iio?aaeoaeae. Iie aea i?eieiatho ia?u a neo/ayo ia?ooaiey i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae.

Niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae iiae?acaeaeythony ia
oaaea?aeueiua e ianoiua, oi anoue ia aeaenoaothuea ia oa??eoi?ee anae
no?aiu e caueuathuea anao ?inneeneeo iio?aaeoaeae e ?aaioathuea ia
ianoiii o?iaia – iaeanoe, ai?iaea, ?aeiia. Ianoiua i?aaiu ia
iiae/eiythony oaaea?aeueiui e aeaenoaotho aaniethoii naiinoiyoaeueii.

1.3 Oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

A ?innee aeaaiui oaaea?aeueiui i?aaiii ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae
yaeyaony Ainoaea?noaaiiue aioeiiiiiieueiue eiieoao ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee (AAE ?O). A no?oeoo?a eiieoaoa aeaenoaoao Oi?aaeaiea ii
caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae. AAE ?O eiaao 89 oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oi?aaeaiee,
?aniieiaeaiiuo a iaeanoiuo e e?aaauo oeaio?ao. Yoe oi?aaeaiey iai?yioth
iiae/eiythony AAE ?O, /oi iicaieyao ei auoue iacaaeneiuie io ianoiie
aeanoe e, a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, caueuaoue iio?aaeoaeae io i?iecaiea
ianoiuo /eiiaieeia.

Aioeiiiiiieueiue eiieoao e aai oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu eiatho i?aai ii
ii?aaeae?iiie i?ioeaaeo?a ?anniao?eaaoue aeaea i ia?ooaieyo i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae, auaeaaaoue i?aaeienaiey ia ono?aiaiee yoeo ia?ooaiee e
iaeaaaoue ia ia?ooeoaeae oo?aou. A /anoiinoe, AAE ?O ?anniao?eaaao aeaea
i iaaeia?iniaanoiie ?aeeaia e auaea?o i?aaeienaiey i i?ae?auaiee oaeie
?aeeaiu.

Eae au ciaaoa, i?aaa iio?aaeoaeae e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo ia?ooaiea
i?iienaiu a niioaaonoaothueo caeiiao. Iaeiaei /a?ac eaeia-oi a?aiy
aicieeatho neooaoeee, eioi?ua a caeiia aeaoaeueii ia i?iienaiu. AAE ?O
ai?aaa aeaaaoue ioeoeeaeueiua ?acuyniaiey ii aii?inai i?eiaiaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae. Yoe ?acuyniaiey
eniieuecothony iioii noaeueyie i?e auianaiee ?aoaiee ii aeaeai i caueoa
i?aa iio?aaeoaeae e ae?oaeie niaoeeaeenoaie, i?ioanneiiaeueii
caueuathueie i?aaa iio?aaeoaeae.

AAE ?O oaeaea eiaao i?aai i?aaeuyaeyoue a noae enee a eioa?anao
iio?aaeoaeae e i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ia iocuaa io iio?aaeoaeae oiaa?ia,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue iianiu aeey eo aeecie e caei?iauey.

I?iaeaaoeu, ecaioiaeoaee e eniieieoaee iaycaiu ii o?aaiaaieth
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai aioeiiiiiieueiiai eiieoaoa i?aaeinoaaeoue aio
aeinoiaa?iua aeieoiaiou, ienueiaiiua eee onoiua iauyniaiey e eioth
eioi?iaoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey io?aiu eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae. Iaeia ec
aeaaiuo i?iaeai ia?aaainoaa iio?aaeoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia ia ?uiea – yoi
ia?aaiue aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee. Eiaiii iiyoiio ainoaea?noai iaaeaeeei
AAE oe?ieeie iieiiii/eyie ii aeinooio e eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay eanaaony
eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae. Aioeiiiiiieueiue eiieoao aaae?o aieueooth
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth ?aaioo. Aai niaoeeaeenou o/anoaotho a ?ac?aaioea
ethauo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, cao?aaeaathueo eioa?anu iio?aaeoaeae.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?ieue ca iaania/aieai aaciianiinoe e ea/anoaa
oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) aiceiaeai ia Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii
noaiaea?oecaoeee, iao?ieiaee e na?oeoeeaoeee (Ainnoaiaea?o), eioi?ue
neaaeeo ca niioaaonoaeai i?iaeoeoeee noaiaea?oai; a oaeaea ia
oaaea?aeueiue i?aai naieoa?ii-yieaeaieieiae/aneiai iaaeci?a,
oaaea?aeueiue i?aai ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia
e ae?oaea oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

Yoe i?aaiu eiatho i?aai iai?aaeyoue i?aaeienaiey ia ono?aiaiee
ia?ooaiee o?aaiaaiee e aaciianiinoe oiaa?ia e iaeaaaoue oo?aou ca
ia?ooaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa; i?eieiatho ?aoaiea i i?einoaiiaeaiee
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iocuaa oiaa?ia io iio?aaeoaeae e
auiieiytho ae?oaea ooieoeee, aiceiaeaiiua ia ieo niaoeeaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

1.4 Ianoiua i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

Ieeaeea oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu ia iiaoo ciaoue anao i?iaeai, n eioi?uie
i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny iio?aaeoaeyi a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii ai?iaea
eee ?aeiia.

Eiaiii iiyoiio ii?aaeae?iiua ooieoeee ii caueoa eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae
caeii aiceaaaao ia ai?iaeneea, ?aeiiiua, iaeanoiua aaeieieno?aoeee.
Naaiaeiy i?aeoe/anee a eaaeaeii (aeaaea naiii iaeaiueeii) ianae?iiii
ioieoa anoue niaoeeaeeno eee a?oiia niaoeeaeenoia, eioi?ua caieiathony
caueoie i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

Ia?acii aiai?y, oaeea ioaeaeu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae i?e ianoiuo
aaeieieno?aoeeyo yaeythony “ia?aaeiei e?aai” ?aaiou ainoaea?noaa n
iio?aaeoaeai. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae, o eioi?iai anoue i?aoaicee e eiie?aoiiio
iaaaceio, e ea/anoao oiaa?a eee oneoae, iiaeao iiaeaeiaaoueny a ioaeae
ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae, e aio iaycaiu aeaoue eiinoeueoaoeeth
ioiineoaeueii oiai, eae ioaeii naay aanoe.

A ioee/ea io oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia, ianoiua i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae ia iaaeaeaiu ieeaeeie eiio?ieueiuie ooieoeeyie. I?aeoe/anee
aaeeinoaaiiay aaeieieno?aoeaiay ia?a, eioi?oth iiaoo i?eiaieoue yoe
i?aaiecaoeee, – i?aai i?einoaiiaeoue ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia n
i?in?i/aiiuie n?ieaie aiaeiinoe.

Ii ionoonoaea i?aaa ea?aoue ia?ooeoaeae ioithaeue ia icia/aao neaainoue
eee iaioaeiinoue ianoiuo i?aaiia ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae. Yoe i?aaiu
iiaoo i?eieiaoue aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiua ia?u e ia?ooeoaeyi caeiia. Ai
iiiaeo ioaeaeao ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae nicaeaiu “/??iua nienee”
iaaaceiia e oe?i, a eioi?uo iaiaiuaatho iio?aaeoaeae. Yoe nienee
ioaeeeothony a aacaoao – e iio?aaeoaee ociatho, n eaeeie oe?iaie iiaeii
eiaoue aeaei aacaiyciaiii, a iauaiey n eaeeie ioaeii ecaaaaoue.
Niaoeeaeenou ianoiuo i?aaiia auyaeytho ia?ooaiey i?aa iio?aaeoaeae,
iai?aaeytho eioi?iaoeeth i ia?ooaieyo a niioaaonoaothuea oaaea?aeueiua
i?aaiu aeey i?eiyoey ia?, ia?auathony a noae a eioa?anao iio?aaeoaeae.

2.1 Iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeoaeae.

Ainoaea?noai iiaeao iiiaia, ii ia an?. Iiyoiio ia iiiiuue iio?aaeoaeth,
iiieii ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, i?eoiaeyo iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee
iio?aaeoaeae. Iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee nicaeatho a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iauaaeeieoue oneeey ethaeae aeey caueou eaeeo-oi
eioa?ania, aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Iniiaiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee – a? iai?eaueueiinoue,
i?eaioaoeey ia ia eiiia?/aneea eioa?anu, a ia caueoo i?aa naieo /eaiia e
a?aaeaeai aiiaua.

Aeaaiia ioee/ea iauanoaa iio?aaeoaeae io ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia ii
caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae – iacaaeneiinoue. Io ainoaea?noaa, io iieeoeee,
io aeciana. Auaaao oae: aeaaa aaeieieno?aoeee ai?iaea auiineo
iinoaiiaeaiea, ouaieythuaa i?aaa iio?aaeoaeae. A yoii neo/aa ioaeae i?e
aaeieieno?aoeee a?yae ee niiaeao aunooieoue i?ioea naiaai ?oeiaiaeeoaey
(eioi?ue e oiio aea oeiaine?oao ?aaioo ioaeaea), a iauanoai iio?aaeoaeae
a ninoiyiee yoi naeaeaoue e iiaeao aeiaeoueny ioiaiu iacaeiiiiai
iinoaiiaeaiey.

E?iia oiai, iauanoaa iio?aaeoaeae i/aiue iiaeeueiu. Eo aeayoaeueiinoue
ia naycaia ieeaeeie eino?oeoeeyie e ath?ie?aoe/aneeie niaeaniaaieyie.
Anee nio?oaeiee iauanoaa noieeioeny a oa/aiea aeiy n eaeei-oi ia?ooaieai
iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aa (iaeiiai /aeiaaea eee oeaeiai ai?iaea), oi oaea
aa/a?ii iauanoai iiaeao i?enooieoue e eo caueoa.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ia ia?aua iiceoeee a aeayoaeueiinoe iacaaeneiuo
i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeoaeae auoee eioi?iaoeeiiiia e i?aaicaueoiia
iai?aaeaiey. Yoi eaaei iauynieii: /ai aieueoa ethaeae /a?ac aacaou,
?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea ocia?o i naieo i?aaao, oai o?oaeiaa aoaeao eo
iaiaiuaaoue, i?iaeaaaoue iaea/anoaaiiua oiaa?u e oneoae.

I?aeoe/anee i?e anao iauanoaao iio?aaeoaeae ?aaioatho th?enou, eioi?ua
aioiau iiii/ue a?aaeaeaiai ii oe?ieiio e?oao aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
ouaieaieai eo i?aa eae iio?aaeoaeae.

2.2 Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa.

Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa (OII) yaeyaony iaainoaea?noaaiiie
iaeiiia?/aneie iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae, iauaaeeiythuae ?inneeneea
i?aaei?eyoey e ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. OII inouanoaeyao naith
aeayoaeueiinoue ia iniiaaiee Caeiia “I oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo iaeaoao a
?O” io 7.07.93.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo oeaeae OII yaeyaony nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee
aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe e oi?ie?iaaiea nia?aiaiiie
?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

?ieue Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie iaeaou a caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae:
niaeaenoaoy ?acaeoeth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iiauoaieth
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, yenia?oeca e eiio?ieth ca
ea/anoaii eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia, oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiua iaeaou niinianoaotho
eeeaeaeaoeee aeaoeoeeoa ia oiaa?iii ?uiea e aai iaiieiaieth aai
oiaa?aie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey ianniaiai iieoiaoaey e ioaa/athueo anai
o?aaiaaieyi aaciianiinoe.

2.3 Yenia?oiay eaai?aoi?ey.

Eiiaaea caeeth/aiea i oii, ea/anoaaiiue oiaa? eee i?iaeoeo, iiaeao
aeaoue oieueei yenia?oeca (enneaaeiaaiea). E anee o Aan aicieeiao a
ioiioaieyo n i?iaeaaoeai (eniieieoaeai, ecaioiaeoaeai) nii?iay neooaoeey
i ea/anoaa oiaa?a, Au iiaeaoa ia?aoeoueny a yenia?oioth eaai?aoi?eth. A?
iniiaiia iacia/aiea – yenia?oeca ea/anoaa oiaa?a (?aaio, oneoa),
i?iaa?ea ia niioaaonoaea o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oia e ae?oaie
ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, a oii /enea aaciianiinoe aeey
iio?aaeoaey. Yenia?oiua eaai?aoi?ee – iacaaeneiua i?aaiu, ii iie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ii aii?inai aaciianiinoe oiaa?ia e caueou i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae n ae?oaeie i?aaiaie, i?aaeaea anaai n i?aaiaie
Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee, Ainnaiyieaeiaaeci?a ?innee, Ainoi?aeiniaeoeeae,
niioaaonoaothueie iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaiia OAAe. Caeeth/aiea
eaai?aoi?ee yaeyaony aeey yoeo i?aaiia iniiaaieai aeey i?eiyoey ia?
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e aeiiaiui eeoeai ca i?iecaiaenoai iaea/anoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia, i?aaenoaaeythueo iianiinoue aeey iio?aaeoaeae.

Iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae ia oa??eoi?ee
?ycaineie iaeanoe.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?ycaineie iaeanoe aeaenoaotho ianeieueei i?aaiecaoeee ii
caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae oaeea eae ?ycaineay aaeeiay ai?iaeneay
annioeeaoeey caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae “*aeiaae”, oeaio? iacaaeneiie
iio?aaeoaeueneie yenia?oecu e i?inaauaiey.

?ycaineay aaeeiay ai?iaeneay annioeeaoeey caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae
“*aeiaae” (?AAI “*aeiaae”) auea ca?aaeno?e?iaaia 6 ethiy 1990 aiaea.

A ia/aea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiieee caieiaeenue i?iaa?eie
i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee aianoa n ia?iaeiuie eiio?ie??aie i?aeoe/anee i?e
iieiii ionoonoaee i?iiuoeaiiuo e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia.

A th?eaee/aneoth neoaeao ia?auaeenue e ia?auathony ana oa, eoi
noieeioeny n ia?ooaieai i?aa a ea/anoaa iio?aaeoaey a noa?a oi?aiaee,
auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey ianaeaiey (oei/enoee, i?a/a/iua, ia?aoiaoa?neee),
a aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiie noa?a, a noa?a ieacaiey oeiainiauo o no?aoiauo
oneoa.

*aua anaai a annioeeaoeeth aeeoaee ia?auathony ii aii?inai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaea/anoaaiiuo aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa. Aaeaaiaeii
eiee/anoai ia?auathueony ii yoiio aii?ino oaaee/eaaaony e ninoaaeyao 1/3
io anao iinaoeoaeae i?aaiecaoeee. Eaaeaeia aoi?ia ia?auaiea ii oaeaoiio
eanaaony aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiie noa?u. Yoio ai?ueeee iiuo iieacuaaao,
/oi ianaeaiea iaaeinoaoi/ii eioi?ie?iaaii i naieo i?aaao ii aii?inai
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiie noa?u. A nayce n yoei, Niaaoii ?AAI “*aeiaae”
auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia ecaeaiee a?ioth?u “Caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae
eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa”.

A n?aaeiai ca iiiiuueth a annioeeaoeeth ia?auaaony 1,5 ouny/e /aeiaae a
aiae, ec ieo 20% a aiae – yoi oa, eoi i?eia??e iaea/anoaaiioth iaoaue.

Iio?aaeoaee, ca/anooth ia?auaynue a annioeeaoeeth iio?aaeoaeae,
noaeeeaathony n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiey iacaaeneiie
iio?aaeoaeueneie yenia?oecu oiaa?ia, ?aaio, oneoa.

? 60% aeae niaoeeaeenoai Oeaio?a iacaaeneiie iio?aaeoaeueneie
yenia?oecu (OeIAI) oaeaeinue ?ac?aoeoue aei noaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Oeaio?ii e annioeeaoeeae iio?aaeoaeae aaae?ony
aieueoay i?inaaoeoaeueneay ?aaioa eae n?aaee ac?ineiai ianaeaiey ?ycaie
e ?ycaineie iaeanoe, oae e n?aaee nooaeaioia e oeieueieeia.

3.1 A eaeeo neo/ayo iio?aaeoaeue eiaao i?aai ia noaeaaioth caueoo.

Noae – ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai, aaaeathuee ?ac?aoaieai a?aaeaeaineeo
(iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie, o/?aaeaeaieyie e o.i.) nii?ia e
?anniio?aieai oaieiaiuo aeae.

Caueuay naie i?aaa, iio?aaeoaeue aoaeao noaeeeaaoueny oieueei n
a?aaeaeaineei i?ioeannii. Iau/ii iio?aaeoaeue ia?auaaony a noae oiaaea,
eiaaea ana ae?oaea iaoiaeu oaea en/a?iaiu, o.a. ie ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaiu ii caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae, ie iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee ia
iiaoo ei iiii/ue.

I?e ia?auaiee a noae iio?aaeoaeue aunooiaao a ?iee enooea, a aeiiaiay
noi?iia (ecaioiaeoaeue, eniieieoaeue, i?iaeaaaoe) – a ?iee ioaao/eea.
Oeaeue noaea ninoieo a ieii/aoaeueiii ?ac?aoaiee nii?a iaaeaeo
noi?iiaie, ii?aaeaeaiee eo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae.

Eioa?anu iio?aaeoaey a noaea iiaeao caueuaoue aaeaieao. Aaeaieao – yoi
th?eno, eioi?iio ii?o/aaony caueoa /ueeo-ieaoaeue eioa?ania a noaea,
caueoiee. Ethaie a?aaeaeaiei iiaeao ia?aoeoueny ca iiiiuueth a
th?eaee/aneoth eiinoeueoaoeeth e iieo/eoue onoioth eee ienueiaiioth
ni?aaeo, iaienaoue n iiiiuueth aaeaieaoa cayaeaiea eee i?aoaiceth,
i?ineoue aunooieoue a aai eioa?anao a noaea e o.i. Anee Au ia?aoeeenue
ca iiiiuueth aaeaieaoa aeey oiai, /oiau caueuaoue Aan a noaea, oi
aeieaeiu i?aaaeeai e iiae?iaii ?anneacaoue aio nooue eiioeeeoiie
neooaoeee, aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiua iiiaiou aeaea, oieueei a yoii neo/aa
aaeaieao iiaeao ionoaeaaoue Aaoe i?aaa.

Niaeanii no. 99 AIE ?NON? iiaeaioiaea aeae e noaeaaiiio ?anniio?aieth
aeieaeia auoue i?iaaaeaia ia iicaeiaa naieaeiaaiiai n?iea ni aeiy
i?eiyoey eneiaiai cayaeaiey, a ii iniai neiaeiui aeaeai n?ie iiaeaioiaee
i?iaeeaaaaony noaeue?e aei 20 aeiae. Iauee aea n?ie aeey ?anniio?aiey
a?aaeaeaineeo aeae onoaiiaeai a iaeei ianyoe.

3.2 Eae iaaeaeiaaoue ?aoaiea noaea.

Anee Au iaaeiaieueiu ?aoaieai noaea e n/eoaaoa aai iani?aaaaeeeaui,
Aaoa i?aai iaaeaeiaaoue yoi ?aoaiea a noaeao aunoae einoaioeee e a
eannaoeeiiiii noaea.

?aoaiey anao noaeia ?innee, Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O, iiaoo auoue
iaaeaeiaaiu a eannaoeeiiiii ii?yaeea (iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii).

Eannaoeeiiiay aeaeiaa iiaeao auoue iiaeaia iio?aaeoaeai, ioaao/eeii
(i?iaeaaoeii, ecaioiaeoaeai, eniieieoaeai), a oaeaea ae?oaeie eeoeaie,
o/anoaiaaaoeie a aeaea. I?ieo?i? eee aai caianoeoaeue i?eiineo
eannaoeeiiiue i?ioano. I?ioano iiaeao auoue i?eian?i ii ethaiio aeaeo, a
oii /enea e ii aeaeo, a ?anniio?aiee eioi?iai i?ieo?i? ia o/anoaiaae.

Noaeaaiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue iiaeao i?eianoe eannaoeeiiioth aeaeiao ia
?aoaiea noaea i?e oneiaee, /oi ii eiaao ia yoi iieiiii/ey io naiaai
aeiaa?eoaey.

Eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau e i?ioanou ?anniao?eaathony auoanoiyuei noaeii
(no. 283 AEI). Auoanoiyueie einoaioeeyie iiaoo auoue iaeanoiie e e?aaaie
noaeu. Ii aaoae eannaoeeiiiie aeaeiaa, eioi?ith Au iiaeaee a auoanoiyuea
i?aaiu, i?ieo?i? eiaao i?aai i?eianoe i?ioano i?ioea ?aoaiey noaea,
?anniao?eaaaoaai aao nii? n ioaao/eeii a ?aeiiiii noaea.

Eannaoeeiiiia iaaeaeiaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeaieaa auno?ue e
aeinooiiue niinia i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey. I?aai ia
iaaeaeiaaiea ia?aie/aii ii?aaeae?iiui n?ieii. Eannaoeeiiiay aeaeiaa
iiaeao auoue iiaeaia oieueei a oa/aiea 10 aeiae iinea auianaiey ?aoaiey
noaea (no. 284 AIE). AEaeiaa, iiaeaiiay iicaea, inoa?ony aac
?anniio?aiey e aica?auaaony. Iaeiaei a neo/aa i?iionea n?iea ii
oaaaeeoaeueiui i?e/eiai (aieaciue, eiiaiaee?iaea e o.ae.), n?ie iiaeao
auoue noaeii ainnoaiiaeai e aeaeiaa i?eieiaaony e ?anniio?aieth.

AEaeiaa aeieaeia auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a noae n eiieyie ii /eneo
o/anoaothueo a aeaea eeoe. A iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo noaeuey iiaeao
iaycaoue i?aaenoaaeoue e eiiee i?eeiaeaiiuo e aeaeiaa iaoa?eaeia.

3.3 Eneiaia cayaeaiea.

Ia?auaynue ca noaeaaiie caoeoie i?aa iio?aaeoaey (eee a eioa?anao
caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaey), Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aioeiiiiiieueiue Eiieoao
?innee (AAE) e aai oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu, i?aaiu ianoiie
aaeieieno?aoeee, iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee ia iniiaaiee no. 17 Caeiia “I
caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae” i?aaeuyaeytho ene a noae. Eneiaia cayaeaiea
iiaea?ony a ienueiaiiie oi?ia.

I?e ninoaaeaiee eneiaiai cayaeaiey iio?aaeoaeue aeieaeai i?ineoue AAE e
ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeuyaeoue iaeneiaeueiua i?aaeoniio?aiiua Caeiiii
o?aaiaaiey e ia?ooeoaeth: e iaonoieeo, e ii?aeueiue a?aae, iio?aaiaaoue
ioo?aoiaaoue aeiiaioth noi?iio a iieueco ainoaea?noaa. A cayaeaiea
aeeth/athony ?anoiaeu ia yenia?oeco (anee iia auea) e ia iieaoo oneoa
aaeaieaoa.

Ieoaony eneiaia cayaeaiea a 3-o yecaiiey?ao: aeey ioaao/eea, aeey noaea
e aeey naay. Anee ioaao/eeia aieueoa, oi aeaeathony eiiee. Ioaao/ee –
yoi ia aee?aeoi? oe?iu e ia i?iaeaaaoe, a i?aaei?eyoea, eiathuaa nai?
iaeiaiiaaiea, ?an/?oiue n/?o a aaiea e th?eaee/aneee aae?an.

Iiaeaoue eneiaia cayaeaiea a noae iiaeao e nai iio?aaeoaeue io naiaai
eiaie eee ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa, eee ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey ioaao/eea.
Aanueia nouanoaaiiui oaeoii yaeyaony oi, /oi ii caeiio “I caueoa i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae” (no. 17 i. 3) enoaoe inaiaiaeaeaaony io oieaou ainiioeeiu,
a iia ninoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth noiio.

Aeey ninoaaeaiey eneiaiai cayaeaiey eo/oa ainiieueciaaoueny oneoaaie
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo th?enoia, iiiiy i?e yoii, /oi ana Aaoe cao?aou a
neo/aa oniaoiiai caaa?oaiey aeaea aoaeoo eiiiaine?iaaiu ca n/?o
i?ioeaiie noi?iiu. Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey
oaeaea i?eieiathony noaeii ai aieiaiea, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ca?aiaa
iicaaioeoueny i iienea naeaeaoaeae, aioiauo iiaeoaa?aeeoue oaeo
ia?ooaiey aaoeo i?aa, a oaeaea iineaaenoaee, ianooieaoeo a ?acoeueoaoa
yoeo ia?ooaiee.

Ii?aeueiue a?aae e aai aiciauaiea.

E ii?aeueiiio a?aaeo ioiinyo onoie/eaua (a ia a?aiaiiua) oece/aneea
no?aaeaiey eee i?aanoaaiiua ia?aaeeaaiey, aucaaiiua ia?ooaieai
caei?iauey, nia?oueth aeeceeo, iaainiieieiuie eiouanoaaiiuie iioa?yie e
o.i.

A iiiyoea ii?aeueiiai a?aaea, iiieii oeacaiiuo no?aaeaiee, aeeth/athony
oaeaea oa eeoaiey, eioi?ua eniuouaaao /aeiaae a ?acoeueoaoa ioeaca
i?iaeaaoea (ecaioiaeoaey, eniieieoaey) oaeiaeaoai?eoue aai caeiiiua e
iainiiaaiiua o?aaiaaiey, iioa?y a?aiaie ia aanieiaeiia iaeeaeaiea
auiieiaiey ?aaiou (ieacaiey oneoae), iaoaeianoaa, o?aaia io iayoe/iiai
iiaaaeaiey ?aaioieeia noa?u ianeoaeeaaiey e o.ae.

Eiaaea /aeiaaeo i?e/eiytho i?aanoaaiiua no?aaeaiey e oece/aneoth aieue,
ii eniuouaaao io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee. Ono?aieoue eo iaaiciiaeii, ii
iiaeii eiiiaine?iaaoue iieiaeeoaeueiuie yiioeeyie. Yoi iiaeao auoue
ainnoaiiaeaiiay ni?aaaaeeeainoue e aeaiaaeiay eiiiainaoeey. A iieo/aiea
aeaiaa – yoi oaeoi?, aucuaathuee iieiaeeoaeueiua yiioeee,
aeiiieieoaeueiua oi?iu aiciauaiey ii?aeueiiai a?aaea.

Ieii/aoaeueiue ?acia? aiciauaiey ii?aeueiiai a?aaea ii?aaeaeyaony
noaeii.

Aieueoea o?oaeiinoe aicieeatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noaiaie no?aaeaiey
/aeiaaea, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e noiiu, niioaaonoaothuae yoei
no?aaeaieyi.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ianooiaao i?e ethaie oi?ia aeiu: oiunea, a?oaie iainoi?iaeiinoe e aeaaea
e?aeie iaa?aaeiinoe. I?e yoii aeiiaiinoue /aeiaaea, i?e/eieaoaai
ae?oaiio ii?aeueiue a?aae, anaaaea i?aaeiieaaaaony. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
i?e/eieoaeue a?aaea i?ecia?ony aeiiaiui ai anao neo/ayo, anee ia
aeieaaeao ionoonoaea naiae aeiu.

Auaiaeu.

Ia?auaeoanue ca th?eaee/aneie iiiiuueth ia oiaaea, eiaaea aaoe i?aaa
oaea ia?ooaiu, a eiaaea anoue ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeioa?aoeoue eo
ia?ooaiea.

Aanaaeoeoa n th?enoii, eae n a?a/ii. *ai aieueoa oaeoia au aio niiaueoa,
oai eaa/a aio aoaeao caueoeoue aaoe eioa?anu.

Iiaeoiaeoa, ?aaeueiu ee aaoe o?aaiaaiey. Iiaeao auoue, eo/oa inoaaeoue
caoath i?io/eoue ioaao/eea. Aaaeue noae – yoi iaeii?eyoiay i?ioeaaeo?a.

*oiau aeiaeoueny oniaoa a noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, iaaei ia oieueei
ciaoue iaeea i?ioeannoaeueiua oiieinoe, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey noaeaaiiai
i?ioeanna, ii e auoue oaa?aiiui a naiae i?aaioa. Iiyoiio eo/oa
ia?aoeoueny e aaeaieaoo e oaaaeeoueny, /oi aaoe o?aaiaaiey
niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

Neooaoeey ec aeecie.

Yoi neo/eeinue a ia?oa 1992 a. Oanoeeaoiee Iaaeee E. niio?ae oaeaaeci?.
Ac?ineuo a yoi a?aiy aeiia ia auei. Iaiaeeaeaiii oaeaaeci? caai?aeny –
ia/aeny iiaea?. Ai a?aiy iiaea?a iino?aaeaei eiouanoai, iaoiaeeaoaany a
eaa?oe?a, i?aaeiaou aioeeaa?eaoa, eeiiu, iaaaeue, iaeaaeaea. E
n/anoueth, ?aa?iie ia iino?aaeae. Oicyeea eaa?oe?u i?aaeuyaeea ene e
caaiaeo-ecaioiaeoaeth oaeaaeci?a. I?aaenoaaeoaee caaiaea iuoaeenue a
noaeaaiii canaaeaiee oaaaeeoue noae a oii, /oi iiaea? aiciee ec-ca aai
iai?aaeeueiie yenieoaoaoeee oaeaaeci?a e ionoonoaey ac?ineuo ai a?aiy
aai ?aaiou.

Aaeaieao enoeoeu iio?aaiaae i?iaaaeaiey yenia?oecu, eioi?ay onoaiiaeea,
/oi i?e/eiie aicai?aiey auea oaoie/aneay iaeni?aaiinoue.

Noae, auneooaa iiceoeee iaaeo noi?ii, a ?aoaiee oeacae: “Oio oaeo, /oi
oaeaaeci? niio?ae oanoeeaoiee ?aa?iie aac ac?ineuo, ia iiaeao auoue
iniiaaieai aeey ioeaca a enea, iineieueeo ?oeiaiaenoai ii yenieoaoaoeee
oaeaaeci?a ia niaea?aeeo iiaeiaiuo cai?auaiee. ?aa?iie, caiaoea, /oi
oaeaaeci? iaeni?aaai, ooo aea aai aueeth/ee, oi anoue naeaeae an?
iaiaoiaeeiia, /oi iiaeii auei naeaeaoue a yoie neooaoeee”.

Noae oaeiaeaoai?ee eneiaua o?aaiaaiey enoeoeu e iaycae caaiae
aicianoeoue noieiinoue anao aauae, iino?aaeaaoeo ai a?aiy iiaea?a, a
oaeaea iieaoeoue ?aiiio eaa?oe?u.

Caeeth/aiea.

?aaioa iaae aeaiiie oaiie oaeoaeea iie ciaiey ii iniiaai
iio?aaeoaeueneie eoeueoo?u. Eai au y ie noae iinea ieii/aiey oeieu, y
oaea eiath i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iniiaiuo i?eioeeiao oi?aiaee, iiao
nieaie?iaaoue ?aoeeiiaeueiue iio?aaeoaeueneee athaeaeao. Ciath i i?aaao,
eioi?uie iaeaaeatho iio?aaeoaee, eiaaea ieacuaathony a ?iee iannaaee?ia,
eeeaioia, iaoeeaioia, oo?enoia. E, iaeiiaoe, eaeea ainoaea?noaaiiua e
iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee iiiiaoo iia – iio?aaeoaeth caueoeoue iie
i?aaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou.

Caeii ?.O. “I caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae”, I., 2000 aiae.

“A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?.O.”, I., 1998 aiae.

Aeaenaiae?iaa A.E., “Iniiau iio?aaeoaeueneie eoeueoo?u”, 1995 aiae.

Eaaoeia O.E., “Iniiau caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae”,
I., 1994 aiae.

Ethaeiia E.E., Eeineoe E.A., “Iniiau yeiiiieee”, I., 1989 aiae.

“Iniiau iio?aaeoaeueneeo ciaiee”, I., 1997 aiae.

Neiiiaiei A.Ae., Noai/aiei O.A., “Iniiau iio?aaeoaeueneie eoeueoo?u”,
I., 1998 aiae.

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