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Ieienoa?noai Aioo?aiieo Aeae ?innee

Iineianeee TH?eaee/aneee Einoeooo

eaoaae?a a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo aeenoeeieei

Eo?niaay ?aaioa.

ONUIIAEAIEA.

Iao/iue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue-

Auiieiee:

neooaoaeue o/.a?oiiu

2 eo?na

?yaeiaie ieeeoeee

Iineaa-1998a.

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
3

1.Enoi?ey onuiiaeaiey……………………………………4

2.Iiiyoea onuiiaeaiey……………………………………9

3.Iniiaaiea onuiiaeaiey………………………………..10

4.Oneiaey onuiiaeaiey……………………………………13

5.Ii?yaeie onuiiaeaiey…………………………………..17

6.Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey…………………………………….21

7.Onuiiaeaiea aeaoae eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie…..25

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………..28

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u…………………….32

I?eeiaeaiea ?1…………………………………………….33

I?eeiaeaiea ?2…………………………………………….34

I?eeiaeaiea ?3…………………………………………….35

Aaaaeaiea.

Iuiaoiaa ninoiyiea aaciaaeci?iinoe e i?aaiia?ooaiee ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey eciaieaoaeny
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
io?aceeenue ia aeaoyo.

Iinoiyiioth oaiaeaioeeth a noi?iio oaaee/aiey eiaao nioeeaeueiia
ne?ionoai. Ec /enea aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae, oieueei
5% aeaoae aeaoe-ne?iou, ana inoaeueiua eiatho ?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ua ii oai
eee eiui i?e/eiai (eeoaiu ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa, o?iie/aneea aeeiaieeee,
ia?eiiaiu, ioauaatho n?iee iaeacaiey, aacaanoii ionoonoaotho,
oeeiiythony io ?iaeeoaeueneeo iaycaiiinoae e ae?.) ia caieiathony eo
ainieoaieai, eeai ii ninoiyieth caei?iauey ia iiaoo inouanoaeyoue naie
?iaeeoaeueneea iaycaiiinoe. A iineaaeiea aiaeu nioeeaeueiia ne?ionoai
i?eia?aei iiaua iniaaiiinoe:aeaoe ii aeia ?iaeeoaeae ieacuaathony ia
oeeoea e noaiiayony aiiaeaie, iii?ioaeeaie, aani?eci?iuie.A n?aaenoaao
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee iaiaeiie?aoii ianoaeaeaeenue i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n
oneiaeieaoeiny iinea aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Naiaeiiai eiaeaena ?O
ii?yaeeii onuiiaeaiey. Onuiiaeaiea yaeyaony iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie
oi?iie ono?ienoaa aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae. Yoa oi?ia
iaeeo/oei ia?acii iaania/eaaao caueoo i?aa ?aaaiea, iineieueeo ii
iieiinoueth i?e?aaieaaaony a i?aaiaii ioiioaiee e ?iaeiui aeaoyi e
i?eia?aoaao a eeoea onuiiaeoaeae ?iaeeoaeae e ?iaeioth naiueth.

Ia oneiaeiaia ee i?ioeaaeo?a aei noaiaie, ia iaania/eaathuae
yooaeoeaioth ?aaeecaoeeth i?aa onuiiaeyaiuo e onuiiaeoaeae ia
onuiiaeaiea. Ia yoii e aoaeao ?anneacaii a iiae eo?niaie ?aaioa.

1.Enoi?ey onuiiaeaiey.

Onuiiaeaiea eae «eneonnoaaiiia nuiianoai», eae i?eai «noi?iiiaai» a
ninoaa naiuee niaa?oaeinue a Ae?aaiae?one aua ai a?aiaia ycu/anoaa. A
ii?o, eiaaea ia niaio ycu/anoao i?eoei o?enoeainoai, onuiiaeaiea
inouanoaeyeinue oea?eiaueth iin?aaenoaii iniaiai aeoa, enoiaeyuaai io
oea?eiaiie aeanoe. Iii inayuaeinue iniaui oea?eiaiui ia?yaeii
«nuiioai?aiuey». Aeey oiai /oiau onuiiaeaiea eiaei neeo, iii iiaeeaaeaei
ooaa?aeaeaieth aia?oeaeueiui a?oea?aai i?e niaethaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai
oea?eiaiiai ia?yaea. Oaeeie auee o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaoeany e
onuiiaeaieth ii?iaie aecaioeeneiai i?aaa, iiae aeeyieai eioi?uo oiaaea
iaoiaeeeanue ?onue. *oi aea eanaaony ?onneiai iau/iiai i?aaa, oi iii
i?aaeoniao?eaaei ?aciua i?ioeaaeo?u onuiiaeaiey, nio?aiyaoeany aeieaia
a?aiy. A eo /enea:

ia?yae oeeoeaiiai ?iaeaeaiey. Aeey aieueoae aeinoiaa?iinoe a iaeioi?uo
ianoiinoyo ia iieioth ?iaeaieoeo iaaeaaaee ?oaaoeo, enia/eaiioth
e?iaueth. Eieoe?iaaoue ?iaeu iia e ioae/eia. N/eoaeinue, /oi ia?yae,
eieoe?othuee ?iaeu ?aaaiea ioae/eiie, nii?iaiaeaeae onuiiaeaiea ei
?aaaiea; aeaieoueaa ia aaeiaa a?aoa; oaeoe/aneee i?eai onuiiaeyaiiai a
aeii; iniaue aeiaiai?iue aeo iaaeaeo onuiiaeoaeai e onuiiaeyaiui.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, onuiiaeaiea auei ecaanoii aua oiaaea, eiaaea
nouanoaiaaea ae?aaiyy naiuey n iao?ea?oaeueiui iooeii naiaenoaa ai
aeaaa, a eioi?oth iaeeiaeiai aoiaeeee e aeaoe, e ?aau, e i?eiyoua a
naiueth (i?eiaee) ec /oaeie naiuee. Ii anee ?aiaa onuiiaeaiea
aucuaaeinue iio?aaiinoueth nio?aieoue /eneaiiinoue, i?i/iinoue iaueiu,
oi ni a?aiaiai ana io/aoeeaae noaiiaeony ae?oaay oeaeue onuiiaeaiey —
eiaoue ianeaaeieea, eioi?ue iiieiae au aeooe aacaeaoiuo noi?oaia. Yoi
aue naiaia?aciue ioaieinie ae?aaiinoe, iineieueeo a ii?o o?enoeainoaa
caaioo i aeooa oniioaai iiaeii auei ii?o/eoue oea?eae, a a ycu/aneea
a?aiaia i?eianaiea aio aea?oa ninoaaeyei eneeth/eoaeueioth iaycaiiinoue
aai aeaoae. Aianoa n oai i?e onuiiaeaiee o/eouaaeenue eioa?anu ia
oieueei onuiiaeoaey, ii e onuiiaeyaiuo, iniaaiii oao, eoi oo?aoee
nianoaaiioth naiueth.

Aeieaia a?aiy i?aaeea, eanathueany onuiiaeaiey, ia iiaeaa?aaeenue
nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi e ii-i?aaeiaio ioee/aeenue aieueoei
?aciiia?aceai. Ii ii ia?a oe?aieaiey /anoiinianoaaiie/aneeo ia/ae a
naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo ana aieueoaa cia/aiea noaei i?eia?aoaoue
i?aaeienaiea: iaeuecy onuiiaeyoue naieo iacaeiiiuo aeaoae. Oai naiui
nicaeaaaeenue i?aa?aaeu ia iooe aiciiaeiiai iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia
nianoaaiiinoue onuiiaeoaey ni noi?iiu aai iacaeiiiuo aeaoae.

A ia?eiae ?aoi?i Iao?a I onuiiaeaieth eae oaeiaiio niaoeeaeueii aieiaiey
ia oaeaeyeinue. Oi aea auei oa?aeoa?ii aeey yiioe oea?noaiaaiey
Aeaoa?eiu II, eioi?ay iiiai caieiaeanue oe?aieaieai i?aaiauo iniia
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai ?acee/iiai ?iaea
ioiioaiee, a oii /enea naiaeiuo e iniaaiii naycaiiuo n caueoie i?aa
aeaoae. Ii niaoeaeueiuo caeiiia, iinayuaiiuo onuiiaeaieth eae oaeiaiio,
oiaaea ia auei. Eeoue a ii?yaeea eneeth/aiey iia ?ac?aoeea aeaoi
a?aoueyi a?aoai Inoa?iaiai onuiiaeoue noa?oaai aioea eo nano?u.
Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ?ac?aoaiea iineoaeeei a aeaeueiaeoai iniiaaieai aeey
ae?oaeo onuiiaeaiee n niaeaney naiie eiia?ao?eoeu a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii
neo/aa.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, iinayuaiiia onuiiaeaieth, noaei ?acaeaaoueny a
iniiaiii a ia/aea 19a. 11 ieoya?y 1803 a. iiyaeeny Oeac, iicaieythuee
aacaeaoiui aeai?yiai onuiiaeyoue aeeaeaeoeo caeiiii?iaeaeaiiuo
?iaenoaaiieeia «/a?ac ia?aaea/o ei i?e aeecie oaieeee e aa?aa».
Ianeieueei iicaea iiyaeyaony oeaeay na?ey oeacia, niaoeeaeueii
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey onuiiaeaiey. Ana iie ia?auaee aieiaiea ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaoeinieoaeueiiai niaethaeaiey i?eioeeia nineiaiinoe i?e
onuiiaeaiee aeai?yiaie, eoioeaie, ieaeieie aieineeie /eiaie e o.ae.
Onuiiaeaiea eeoeaie, i?eiaaeeaaeaueie e aeai?yineiio nineiaeth, a oi aea
a?aiy iieo/eei cia/aiea aaiaaeiae/aneiai. Ii nouanoaiaaei iii ia oieueei
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey oaanathuae oaieeee, ii e n oeaeueth i?eia?aoaiey
?aaaieii iiaie naiuee.

N na?aaeeiu 19a. noaee iiyaeyoueny i?aaeea, ieacaaoea aeeyiea ia
onuiiaeaiea, e a eo /enea oa, /oi iicaieyee onuiiaeyoue ia oieueei
ne?io. Iaeiaei, anee ?iaeeoaee ?aaaiea auee aeeau, o?aaiaaeinue eo
niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea. Caiaoiie aaoie a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
iinayuaiiii onuiiaeaieth, noae Caeii io 12 ia?oa 1891 a. «I aeaoyo
onuiiaeaiiuo e ocaeiiaiiuo» . Yoio caeii ?ac?aoae ia oieueei ocaeiieoue,
ii e onuiiaeyoue iacaeiiii?iaeaeaiiuo aeaoae. I?e/ai ?ani?ino?aiyeinue
oaeia ?ac?aoaiea ia anao aeaoae aacioiineoaeueii e eo nineiaiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e aa?ieniiaaaeaieth. Onuiiaeoaeyie oiaea iiaee auoue
ana eeoea, ca eneeth/aieai ia?a/aiiuo ii naiaio naio ia aaca?a/ea. Ii
aaiaeeeenue e iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey. Oae, onuiiaeyoue auei ?ac?aoaii
eeoue oai, eoi ia eiae nianoaaiiuo caeiiiuo eee ocaeiiaiiuo aeaoae.
Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyee iauaia e naeueneea iauaaoaee. Ia iiaee auoue
onuiiaeoaeyie oaeaea eeoea iieiaea o?eaeoeaoe eao. A ?acoeueoaoa
onuiiaeaiey onuiiaeaiiue n/eoaeny anooieaoei n onuiiaeoaeai a
aeeaeaeooth ?iaenoaaiioth naycue. Ii i?eia?aoae ana i?aaa, i?eieiae ia
naay ana iaycaiiinoe, ioiinyueany e caeiiiui aeaoyi. A yoi a?aiy
onuiiaeaiea iiieiaeinue oaea aieaa oe?iei — ia oieueei eae n?aaenoai
?aoaiey eiouanoaaiiuo i?iaeai, ii e eae aeo, eiathuee ii?aeueiia
cia/aiea. A ethaii neo/aa iii oanii naycuaaeinue n iioeaaoeeae
iiaaaeaiey onuiiaeoaey, a iioiio onuiiaeaiea aeaeeeinue ia ianeieueei
eaoaai?ee. A ia?aoth aoiaeeei onuiiaeaiea ii iaauaieth, eioi?ia
n/eoaeinue naiui oeaiiui, iineieueeo iaauaaoee onuiiaeoue iau/ii aeaeae
ana, /oiau onuiiaeaiiiio ?aaaieo auei o iaai oi?ioi. Ai aoi?oth
eaoaai?eth aoiaeeei onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea i?eaycaaoaeny e iaio
ei?ieeeoeae. E iaeiiaoe, a o?aoueth, iaiaa aeaeaoaeueioth — onuiiaeaiea
ca iaa?aaeo. N/eoaeinue, /oi oeaiiinoue oaeiai aeoa iaaaeeea.

Naiae Caeiiia A?aaeaeaineeo, aieoaaoee iiiaiaaeiaie iiuo i?aaiaie
eoeueoo?u i?ioeiai, ii-i?aaeiaio any/anee io?aiye i?eioeei nineiaiinoe.
Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai io?aaeaeinue a eiie?aoiuo i?aaiauo i?aaeienaieyo.
Oae, onuiiaeaiea aeai?yiaie inouanoaeye ie?oaeiie noae, iauaiei e
naeueneee iauaaoaeue onuiiaeyee ?aaaiea aeaaiaea?y aai i?eienea e naiae
naiuea e o.ae. Ii e?iia ?ac?aoaiey ia onuiiaeaiea nouanoaiaaee
ii?aaeaeaiiua cai?aou, eioi?ua /aua anaai naycuaaeenue n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaethaeaiey oea?eiaiuo i?aaeienaiee. Iai?eia?,
cai?auaeinue onuiiaeaiea eeoe o?enoeaineiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey
iao?enoeaiaie e, iaiai?io. Aianoa n oai i?aaei?eieiaeenue any/aneea ia?u
e oiio, /oiau ia ia?ooeoue eioa?anu caeiiiuo ianeaaeieeia. Iiyoiio Naiae
Caeiiia A?aaeaeaineeo ia aeiioneae onuiiaeaiey /oaeeo aeaoae, anee o
onuiiaeythuaai auee nianoaaiiua caeiiiua eee ocaeiiaiiua aeaoe.
Nio?aiyeenue e nouanoaiaaaoea i?aaeaea i?aaeea ii iiaiaeo ?acieoeu a
aic?anoa onuiiaeoaey e onuiiaeyaiiai, niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae, iiaeoiia
?aaaiea ia aai onuiiaeaiea e ae?.

E?iia iaueo i?aaiauo i?aaeienaiee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey onuiiaeaiey,
nouanoaiaaee niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeea, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea onuiiaeaiea
ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee aeaoae. Oae, ii I?aaeeai ia onuiiaeaiee ieoiioeaa
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai e Iineianeiai ainieoaoaeueiuo aeiiia a aic?anoa aei
naie eao ia eo onuiiaeaiea o?aaiaaeinue e?iia niaeaney iaoa?e ?ac?aoaiea
ia/aeuenoaa ainieoaoaeueiiai aeiia. Onuiiaeaiea ainieoaiieea noa?oa naie
eao aeiioneaeinue aac niaeaney aai iaoa?e. Ae?oaie i?eia?: ?aaaiea,
i?eianaiiiai a ainieoaoaeueiue aeii n iao?eeie i ?iaeaeaiee, iiaeii auei
onuiiaeoue oieueei iinea aeinoeaeaiey ei o?ao eao, a i?e ionoonoaee
oaeie iao?eee — ii enoa/aiee oanoe iaaeaeue ni aeiy ioaea/e a
ainieoaoaeueiue aeii. *oi eanaaony i?ioeaaeo?u onuiiaeaiey,
nouanoaiaaaoae a ?innee a eiioea 19 a., oi i?inoioie iia ia ioee/aeanue.
Ii?aaeaeyeanue iia Onoaaii a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa a
caaeneiinoe io nineiaey onuiiaeoaey. Aeey aeai?yi yoa i?ioeaaeo?a auea
iniaaiii neiaeiie e ninoiyea ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia: ninoaaeaiey aeoa ia
onuiiaeaiee o iioa?eona; i?aaenoaaeaiey yoiai aeoa ia ?ac?aoaiea
ie?oaeiiai noaea ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa onuiiaeoaey; ooaa?aeaeaiey yoiai
aeoa noaeaaiie iaeaoie. I?e ?anniio?aiee oiaeaoaenoaa ia onuiiaeaiee
ie?oaeiui noaeii iiaeoineia o/?aaeaeaiea aeieaeii auei i?aaenoaaeoue
«oaeinoiaa?aiea» , iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaa, /oi onuiiaeaiea ia ia?aoeony ai
a?aae onuiiaeyaiiio.

A ?acoeueoaoa ninoiyaoaainy onuiiaeaiey aicieeaee ioiioaiey, eioi?ua
auee oieueei i?eaeeaeaiu e ioiioaieyi e?iaii?iaenoaaiiui, ii iieiinoueth
n ieie ia niaiaaeaee. Nouanoaiaaee aeiaieueii iiiai/eneaiiua ia?aie/aiey
ia yoio n/ao, eioi?ua eanaeenue ?aciuo noa? ioiioaiee. Iai?eia?,
onuiiaeoaeue iia ia?aaeaoue naith oaieeeth onuiiaeaiiiio oieueei i?e
oneiaee, /oi ii ia iieuecoaony aieueoeie i?aaaie ninoiyiey. Ia?aaea/a
onuiiaeaiiiio oaieeee iioiinoaaiiiai aeai?yieia aeiioneaeanue oieueei ii
Auni/aeoaio niecaieaieth. Onuiiaeaiiue ia i?eia?aoae iinea nia?oe
onuiiaeoaey i?aaa ia aai iaineth e o.i. Noaiiaynue ianeaaeieeii a
«aeaaii?eia?aoaiiii» eiouanoaa onuiiaeoaey, onuiiaeaiiue aianoa n oai ia
i?eia?aoae ?aaiiai i?aaa ianeaaeiaaiey ia eiaiea onuiiaeoaey, ia
eiathuaai ?iaeiuo nuiiaae, a eiathuaai eeoue aei/a?ae. Aianoa n oai ii
caeiiai ?inneeneie Eiia?ee onuiiaeaiiue nio?aiye i?aai ianeaaeiaaiey ii
caeiio iinea naieo ?iaeeoaeae e eo ?iaenoaaiieeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey eiioea 19 e ia/aea 20 a. oa?aeoa?ii eniieueciaaiea
onuiiaeaiey i?aaeaea anaai aeey io?aiu eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania
onuiiaeoaey-ianeaaeiaeaoaey. Iaeiia?aiaiii aeaaiaea?y onuiiaeaieth
inouanoaeyeanue caueoa i?aa ?aaaiea iooai aai ono?ienoaa a naiueth
onuiiaeoaey. Iniaia cia/aiea yoi eiaei aeey ine?ioaaoeo aeaoae. A
naeueneie aea ianoiinoe onuiiaeaiea aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue onuiiaeoaeth
i?eia?anoe aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aai/ea ?oee a aeiiaoiai naeueneii
oicyenoaa. E, /oi ia iaiaa aaaeii, n iiiiuueth onuiiaeaiey oicyeneiio
nuio iiaeii auei ecaaaeaoue aieineie neoaeau, oae eae onuiiaeaiiue iia
aai caiaieoue a neo/aa i?ecuaa. Iiyoiio nouanoaiaae niaoeeaeueiue caeii,
aaea aiai?eeinue, /oi aeey eniieiaiey aieineie iiaeiiinoe eiaao cia/aiea
onuiiaeaiea aeaoae ia noa?oa iyoe eao. Iaiaeiaaaeiui aeey onuiiaeoaey
niia?aaeaieai auei aai aeaeaiea eiaoue a i?aeeiiiii aic?anoa iiiiuieea e
ei?ieeueoea. Ii iiyoue-oaee aeaeaei ia anaaaea onuiiaeoaeue
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny niia?aaeaieyie iaoa?eaeueiiai, aeaeiaiai oa?aeoa?a. Ia
auei ?aaeeinoueth e onuiiaeaiea eae niinia oaeiaeaoai?aiey anoanoaaiiuo
/oanoa ethaae e i?eaycaiiinoe, ia iaoiaeyueo i?eiaiaiey ca ionoonoaeai
nianoaaiiuo aeaoae.

Ia?aue naiaeiue eiaeaen ?innee iineaieoya?ueneiai ia?eiaea ia
i?aaeoniao?eaae onuiiaeaiey aiana. Aeaaiie i?e/eiie iaaiciiaeiinoe
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee ii onuiiaeaieth auei no?aieaiea
ono?aieoue anyeoth iiiuoeo yenieoaoaoeee o?oaea iaeieaoieo aeaoae. E
oiio aea ioiaea i?iaeaia ia?aaea/e eiouanoaa io
onuiiaeoaey-ianeaaeiaeaoaey e onuiiaeaiiiio, iineieueeo ia?anoae
nouanoaiaaoue einoeooo ianeaaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei iio?aaiinoue a onuiiaeaiee
ia en/acea. Iia iauyniyeanue, ai-ia?auo, niia?aaeaieyie yeiiiie/aneeie,
aeaaiui ia?acii iio?aaiinoueth e?anoueyi eiaoue a naiuea aua iaeiiai
?aaioieea, e ai-aoi?uo, ?inoii /enea aacaeiiiuo aeaoae, iioa?yaoeo naith
naiueth, ?iaeeoaeae ec-ca nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iio?ynaiee,
cao?iioaoeo ana noa?u aeecie e ana neie ianaeaiey, iniaaiii aeaoneiai.

Auoiaeii ec iieiaeaiey a ia?aii neo/aa noaei i?aaeoniio?aiiia Caiaeueiui
eiaeaenii i?eia/anoai. Ii a ioee/ea io onuiiaeaiey iniiao i?eia/anoaa
ninoaaeye aeiaiai? iaaeaeo niaa?oaiiieaoiei i?eiaeii e e?anoueyineei
aeai?ii n oeaeueth «noaoai o?oaeiaie». *oi aea eanaaony ono?ienoaa iannu
ine?ioaaoeo aeaoae, ei/othueo ii anae ?innee a iieneao e?iaa e ieue, oi
yoo neooaoeeth iuoaeenue ?ac?aoeoue n iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo aeaoneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Oai ia iaiaa ine?ioaaoeo aeaoae iiae ?aciuie i?aaeeiaaie
i?iaeieaeaee a?aoue a naiueth, eniieuecoy aeaaiui ia?acii i?aaeea,
eanathueany iiaee (iiia/eoaeuenoaa). Ii nio?aiaiea i?e yoii i?aaiaie
nayce ?aaaiea n aai ?iaeeoaeyie ia anao ono?aeaaei. Aio ii/aio ia
i?aeoeea ca eeoeaie, i?eiyaoeie ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai ia ainieoaiea,
i?eciaaaeinue i?aai i?enaaeaaoue naiaio iiaeiia/iiio oaieeeth iiaeoia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaiaoiaeeiinoue aic?iaeaeaiey einoeoooa onuiiaeaiey
noaiiaeeanue ana aieaa i/aaeaeiie. Aio ii/aio iacaaeieai aei i?eiyoey
iiaiai, aoi?iai ii n/aoo naiaeiiai eiaeaena iiyaeeny Aeae?ao AOeEE e NIE
?NON? io 1 ia?oa 1926 a. «Ia eciaiaiee Eiaeaena caeiiia ia aeoao
a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey, a?a/iii, naiaeiii e iiaeoineii i?aaa», eioi?ui
aaiaeeeanue iiaay aeaaa, iinayuaiiay niaoeeaeueii onuiiaeaieth.

Eiaeaen caeiiia i a?aea, naiuea e iiaea 1927 a. oaeaeye onuiiaeaieth
n?aaieoaeueii iaei aieiaiey. Aai i?aaeienaiey a yoie /anoe eeai eiaee
iauee, o?aaeeoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?, eeai niaea?aeaee iniaaiiinoe,
i?iaeeeoiaaiiua iiauie o?aaiaaieyie a?aiaie. Ii nooe aeaea
nouanoaiaaaoee aaeaie a ?innee i?eioeei nineiaiinoe aue nio?aiai e
i?iaeieaeae aeeoue, ii oieueei a eiii iaeeea. Oae, ie i?e eaeeo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao ia aeiioneaeinue onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea eeoeaie, ia
eiathueie i?aaa auoue iiaeoiaie. A yoi auee eeoea, eeoaiiua
ecae?aoaeueiuo i?aa, i?e/eneyaiua e «a?aaeaeaaiui eeannai». N/eoaeinue,
/oi iaeuecy aeiionoeoue, /oiau ainieoaieai onuiiaeaiiuo caieiaeenue «
a?aaeaeaaiua yeaiaiou», eioi?uo auaiiyee, aunaeyee, ?aneoea/eaaee eae
eeanniauo a?aaia. E oiio aea n/eoaeinue, /oi eoeae ia iiaeao aeaoue
naiaio onuiiaeaiiiio ?aaaieo iaaeeaaeauaa oeieueiia ainieoaiea,
iineieueeo aeaoe eoeaea i?eieiaeenue a oeieo i?e aaeaioiuo ianoao e a
iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue. Iiaeaa?aaeny niiiaieth e aii?in i oii, iiaeao ee
eaeie-ieaoaeue iyiiai iaania/eoue onuiiaeaiiiio ei ?aaaieo ii?iaeueiia
iauanoaaiiia, o?oaeiaia ainieoaiea.

Ii eiaeaeno 1927 a. i?aaiaui iniiaaieai onuiiaeaiey auei iinoaiiaeaiea
(?aoaiea) i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, iinea auianaiey eioi?iai
onuiiaeaiea ?aaeno?e?iaaeinue a i?aaiao caiene aeoia a?aaeaeaineiai
ninoiyiey. Ioiaieoue onuiiaeaiea iiaeii auei aeaiyeei iooai: n iiiiuueth
eeai i?aaiia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, eiaaea ia yoii i?ineee ?iaeeoaee,
aac niaeaney eioi?uo ninoiyeinue onuiiaeaiea, eeai noaea.

I?aaiaua i?aaeienaiey oiai a?aiaie ioiineoaeueii onuiiaeaiey auee
i?aaeaeueii eaeiie/iuie, /oi ii?iaeaeaei iiiaeanoai i?iaeai a
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie i?aeoeea. E ii ia?a iaeiieaiey iiuoa noaiiaeeinue
ynii, /oi nouanoaothueo i?aaiauo ii?i aeey iineaaeiaaoaeueiie caueou
onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii. E /eneo iaeaieaa ino?uo
ioiineeny aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe onuiiaeaiey aac niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae.
Iooue e caueoa i?aa ?aaaiea a oaeeo neo/ayo aue ioe?uo aua a 1934 a.
oee?eoey?ii Ia?eiii?ina ?NON?, ?ac?aoaaoei onuiiaeaiea aac niaeaney
?iaeeoaeae, anee aieaa aiaea auei iaecaanoii eo ianoii?aauaaiea, a
oaeaea eiaaea iie aeeee ioaeaeueii e ia o/anoaiaaee a ainieoaiee e
niaea?aeaiee ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai.

Onuiiaeaiea aeaoae a aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1941—1945 aa.
iicaieeei iaeaa/eoue noaeueao oao, eoi iioa?ye ?iaeeoaeae, e noaei
naiaia?aciui neiaieii i?iyaeaiey enoeiiiai iao?eioecia e aoiaiiinoe.
Onuiiaeaiea aeaoae, iaoiaeyueony a yaaeoaoeee, iioa?yaoeo naith naiueth
e ?iaeeoaeae, i?eiyei ianniaue oa?aeoa? aacioiineoaeueii e
iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe onuiiaeoaey e onuiiaeyaiiai. N oeaeueth
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aeaenoaiaaaoaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii onuiiaeaieth a
1943 a. aue ecaeai Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? «Ia
onuiiaeaiee». Yoi aue aua iaeei oaa e oe?aieaieth i?aaiauo i?aaeiinueie
onuiiaeaiey. Ii oieueei nionoy iiiai eao, a 1969 a. Eiaeaen i a?aea e
naiuea ?NON? aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii e ouaoaeueii o?aaoee?iaae ioiioaiey,
naycaiiua n onuiiaeaieai. E /oiau auei ynii, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i aeaoyo
iaiaai iiea, a oaenoa yoiai eiaeaena noae oeao?e?iaaoue iiieii oa?ieia
«onuiiaeaiea» oa?iei «oaei/a?aiea». Niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeea, iinayuaiiua
onuiiaeaieth aac niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae, eciaiaieth oaieeee, eiaie,
io/anoaa onuiiaeyaiiai, ioiaia onuiiaeaiey oieueei a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea,
e i?i/ea iaeaa/aee aiciiaeiinoue oaeiai onuiiaeaiey, eioi?ia ioaa/aei
eioa?anai ?aaaiea e iaeiia?aiaiii ia aeiioneaei iaii?aaaeaiiiai
ia?ooaiey i?aa aai ?iaeeoaeae, ae?oaeo eeoe. Oneiaeieeny aaaeouee
eaeoiioea onuiiaeaiey — eioa?anu ia oieueei onuiiaeyaiiai, ii e eeoe,
aeaeathueo ia?anoe ?iaeeoaeueneea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, no?aiyueony e
oiio, /oiau eo naiuey auea iieiie, a iiae eioa?anaie onuiiaeyaiiai noaee
iiieiaoue i?aaeaea anaai aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aai ainieoaiey,

Aeaaea aaaeue iaci? iniiaiuo yoaiia ?acaeoey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
onuiiaeaiee a ?innee iaaeyaeii aeaiiino?e?oao, eae a?aiy e naiaia?acea
oiai eee eiiai io?acea enoi?ee Ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai neacaeenue ia
onuiiaeaiee, eioi?ia, eacaeinue au, iineei /anoiue oa?aeoa?. Oai ia
iaiaa eiaiii onuiiaeaiea ai ana a?aiaia eae ca?eaei io?aaeaei
iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia naiaeiua ioiioaiey.

2. Iiiyoea onuiiaeaiey.

Onuiiaeaiea(oaei/a?aiea)—iaeaieaa i?aaeiiae/eoaeueiay oi?ia ono?ienoaa
aeaoae-ne?io e aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae. Onuiiaeaiea-
yoi ia?aoiae i?aa e iaycaiiinoae io aeieiae/aneeo ?iaeeoaeae (?iaeeoaey)
?aaaiea e onuiiaeoaeyi (onuiiaeoaeth), i?e eioi?ii ?aaaiie a i?aaiaii
ioiioaiee iieiinoueth i?e?aaieaaaony e aeieiae/aneei aeaoyi onuiiaeoaey.
I?e yoii, anoanoaaiii, oo?a/eaathony ana i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ?iaeiuo
(aeieiae/aneeo) ?iaeeoaeae ?aaaiea.

Aaeaaiaeii a ?innee onuiiaeyaony ieiei 30 oun. aeaoae. I?e yoii ieiei 18
ouny/ aeaoae onuiiaeyaony io/eiaie, ia/aoaie e 12 oun. — iinoi?iiieie
a?aaeaeaiaie ec ?iaeeeueiuo ioaeaeaiee aieueieoe, ?iaeaeiiia, aeiiia
?aaaiea e ae?oaeo aeaoneeo o/?aaeaeaiee, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony aeaoe,
inoaaoeany aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae.

Onuiiaeaiea yaeyaony naiie i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie oi?iie ono?ienoaa aeaoae,
inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae ia ainieoaiea a naiueth.
Onuiiaeoaee, aeia?iaieueii i?eieiay ia naay anth iieiioo iaycaiiinoae,
aiceiaeaiiuo caeiiii ia ?iaeeoaeae, i?e?aaiaiu e iei ai anao ioiioaieyo
e iaaeaeaiu oaie aea i?aaaie.

Oneiaey e ii?yaeie onuiiaeaiey, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, aicieeathuea a
?acoeueoaoa onuiiaeaiey, a oaeaea ioiaia onuiiaeaiey ?aaeaiaioe?oaony
Naiaeiui eiaeaenii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, Caeiiii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee io 21 aaaonoa 1996 a. ? 124-OC “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen ?NON?”, Iieiaeaieai
i ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e aeaoae, yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, ia onuiiaeaiea a?aaeaeaiai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai, ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 15 naioya?y 1995a. ? 917, iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 3 aaaonoa 1996a. ? 919 “I
ii?yaeea i?aaiecaoeee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai o/aoa aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac
iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae.”, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauie aeoaie Ieiia?aciaaiey
?innee e Ieicae?aaiaaei?iia ?innee.

3.Iniiaaiea onuiiaeaiey.

Iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey onuiiaeaiey yaeyaony th?eaee/aneee aeo
eiiiaoaioiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia, ii iiaiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao —
?aoaiea noaea. Aieaecuyaeaiea onuiiaeoaey iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony eae
iaeii ec oneiaee onuiiaeaiey. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi oaeei ia?acii
i?eieaeaaony i?aaiaia cia/aiea aieaecuyaeaiey onuiiaeoaey. ?aoaiea ia
onuiiaeaiee i?eieiaaony noaeii, e i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey onuiiaeaiey
aicieeatho eeoue n iiiaioa anooieaiey yoiai ?aoaiey a caeiiioth neeo.
Iaeiaei e aac aieaecuyaeaiey onuiiaeoaey onuiiaeaiea ia iiaeao
aicieeiooue. Onuiiaeaiea iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa niaeaoaiey
iaaeaeo onuiiaeoaeai e ?aaaieii, iiyoiio, iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey
onuiiaeaiey neaaeoao n/eoaoue neiaeiue ninoaa th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia:
aieaecuyaeaiea onuiiaeoaey e ?aoaiea noaea ia onuiiaeaiee. Niaeanea ia
onuiiaeaiea eiuo eeoe — ?aaaiea e aai ?iaeeoaeae — ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa
th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia, aeaeoueo aicieeiiaaiea onuiiaeaiey. A ?yaea
neo/aaa onuiiaeaiea aiciiaeii e aac oaeiai niaeaney.

Onuiiaeaiea eiaao iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaionoaiaaeeaathuaa e
i?aaii?ae?auathuaa cia/aiea. N anooieaieai ?aoaiey noaea ia onuiiaeaiee
a caeiiioth neeo iaaeaeo onuiiaeoaeai e onuiiaeaiiui aicieeatho
i?aaiioiioaiey, aiaeiae/iua ?iaeeoaeueneei. A yoii ninoieo aai
i?aaionoaiaaeeaathuaa cia/aiea. Iaeiia?aiaiii onuiiaeaiea aea/ao
i?ae?auaiea anao i?aaiioiioaiee iaaeaeo onuiiaeyaiui e aai ?iaeeoaeyie e
?iaenoaaiieeaie. Onuiiaeaiiua aeaoe e eo ?iaeeoaee e ?iaenoaaiieee
acaeiii inaiaiaeaeathony io anao eiouanoaaiiuo e ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo
i?aa e iaycaiiinoae.

Ec yoiai i?aaeea iiaoo auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu eneeth/aiey. Anee ?aaaiie
onuiiaeyaony oieueei iaeiei eeoeii, aiciiaeii nio?aiaiea i?aaiaie nayce
iaaeaeo iei e ?iaeeoaeai i?ioeaiiieiaeiiiai onuiiaeoaeth iiea. Oae,
aiciiaeii nio?aiaiea i?aaiauo ioiioaiee n iaoa?ueth, anee onuiiaeoaeue
ioae/eia, eee n iooeii, anee onuiiaeoaeue — aeaiueia. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiue neo/ae — yoi onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea iiaui noi?oaii aai
iooea eee iaoa?e. Aeey nio?aiaiey i?aaiaie nayce iaiaoiaeeii niaeanea
oiai ec ?iaeeoaeae ?aaaiea, eioi?ue aeaeaao aa nio?aiaiey. Ioiineoaeueii
oiai, aeieaeai ee onuiiaeoaeue oaeaea au?aceoue niaeanea ia nio?aiaiea
ioiioaiee ?aaaiea n iaeiei ec ?iaeeoaeae, oeacaiey a caeiia iao.
I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi nio?aiaiea i?aaiaie nayce iaaeaeo ?aaaieii e aai
?iaeeoaeai iiaeao auoue oneiaeai niaeaney yoiai ?iaeeoaey ia onuiiaeaiea
?aaaiea. A yoii neo/aa onuiiaeoaeue aic?aaeaoue ia iiaeao. Anee aea
niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea aeaii aac anyeeo oneiaee, aii?in i nio?aiaiee
i?aaiioiioaiee n iaeiei ec ?iaeeoaeae aeieaeai ?aoaoueny noaeii enoiaey
ec eioa?ania ?aaaiea, n o/aoii iiaiey onuiiaeoaey e naiiai ?aaaiea. Anee
iaeei ec ?iaeeoaeae ?aaaiea oia?, oi ii i?inueaa ?iaeeoaeae oia?oaai
(aaaooee e aeaaeooee ?aaaiea) aiciiaeii nio?aiaiea i?aaiaie nayce
iaaeaeo ?aaaieii e ?iaenoaaiieeaie oia?oaai ?iaeeoaey. ?aoaiea yoiai
aii?ina ioianaii ia oniio?aiea noaea e iinoaaeaii a caaeneiinoue io
oiai, /oi a iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioaa/aao eioa?anai ?aaaiea.

Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii, ia eioi?ii no?ieony aanue einoeooo onuiiaeaiey,
yaeyaony iaeeo/oaa iaania/aiea i?e onuiiaeaiee caueou eioa?ania ?aaaiea.
Eioa?anu ?aaaiea aeieaeiu auoue ii?aaeaeythuei e?eoa?eai i?e ioeaiea
eeoe, aeaeathueo noaoue onuiiaeoaeyie, i?e auianaiee ?aoaiey ia
onuiiaeaiee, i?e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey e i?e ?aoaiee anao eiuo, aieaa
/anoiuo aii?inia. Oae, iai?eia?, ia aeiioneaaony onuiiaeaiea ?aciuie
eeoeaie a?aoueaa e nanoa?, anee aei yoiai iie ainieouaaeenue aianoa, ca
eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea yoi niioaaonoaoao eioa?anai yoeo aeaoae.

Noauaeoaie ioiioaiee ii onuiiaeaieth yaeythony onuiiaeyaiua aeaoe e
onuiiaeoaee. A niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 1 noaouee 124 onuiiaeaiea
aeiioneaaony oieueei a ioiioaiee ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae. Yoi naycaii
n oai, /oi oeaeueth onuiiaeaiey yaeyaony iaania/aiea aeaoyi naiaeiiai
ainieoaiey e iaaeaeaiea onuiiaeaiiuo e onuiiaeoaeae ?iaeeoaeueneeie
i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie. N aeinoeaeaieai niaa?oaiiieaoey aeaoe aieaa ia
ioaeaeathony a naiaeiii ainieoaiee, a ?iaeeoaeueneea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
a ioiioaiee niaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae oaeaea i?ae?auathony. Oaeoe/aneiio
onuiiaeaieth i?aaiaiai cia/aiey ia i?eaeaaony, iiyoiio, anee oaeoe/aneia
onuiiaeaiea ia auei ioi?ieaii aei niaa?oaiiieaoey ?aaaiea, aiineaaenoaee
aiciiaeiinoue oaeiai ioi?ieaiey oo?a/eaaaony.

E eeoeai, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue onuiiaeoaeyie, i?aaeuyaeythony
iiiai/eneaiiua o?aaiaaiey. I?aaeaea anaai yoe eeoea aeieaeiu auoue
niaa?oaiiieaoieie e iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiuie.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony e e aic?anoo onuiiaeoaey. Ii
aeieaeai auoue noa?oa ?aaaiea ia iaiaa /ai ia 16 eao. Oai ia iaiaa noaeo
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai nie?aoeoue yoo ?acieoeo, anee yoiai o?aaotho
eioa?anu ?aaaiea. Anee onuiiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeony io/eiii eee ia/aoie
?aaaiea, iaee/ea oeacaiiie ?acieoeu a aic?anoa ia o?aaoaony.

Noaouey 127 NE niaea?aeeo oeaeue ia?a/aiue eeoe, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue
onuiiaeoaeyie. I?aaeaea anaai ec /enea iioaioeeaeueiuo onuiiaeoaeae
eneeth/athony eeoea, a i?ioeii aeiionoeaoea na?ueaciua ia?ooaiey naieo
iaycaiiinoae ii ainieoaieth aeaoae; eeoea, eeoaiiua ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa;
eeoea, ?iaeeoaeueneea i?aaa eioi?uo auee ia?aie/aiu a noaeaaiii
ii?yaeea; eeoea, iono?aiaiiua io auiieiaiey iaycaiiinoae iiaeoiia eee
iiia/eoaeae ca iaiaaeeaaeauaa auiieiaiea naieo iaycaiiinoae; auaoea
onuiiaeoaee, a ioiioaiee eioi?uo onuiiaeaiea auei ioiaiaii ec-ca oiai,
/oi iie auiieiyee naie iaycaiiinoe iaiaaeeaaeauei ia?acii. Iaaiciiaeii
onuiiaeaiea aeaoae e eeoeaie, eioi?ua, oioy e ia aeiionoeee ieeaeeo
i?aaiia?ooaiee, ii ii ninoiyieth caei?iauey ia iiaoo inouanoaeyoue naie
?iaeeoaeueneea iaycaiiinoe. Ia?a/aiue caaieaaaiee, yaeythueony
aaconeiaiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey onuiiaeaiey, onoaiiaeai I?aaeoaeuenoaii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.(ni.I?eeiaeaiea?1). Yoi i?aaeaea anaai
caaieaaaiey ooaa?eoeacii, iieieiae/aneea caaieaaaiey, ineoe/aneea
caaieaaaiey, iiaeaeoea eeoaiea aeaaniiniaiinoe, caaieaaaiey e o?aaiu,
i?eaaaeoea e eiaaeeaeiinoe 1 e 2 a?oiiu, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aieacie.

Ia iiaoo auoue onuiiaeoaeyie noi?oae, iaeei ec eioi?uo i?eciai noaeii
iaaeaaniiniaiui eee ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiui. Oi, /oi iaa iie ia iiaoo
auoue onuiiaeoaeyie, i/aaeaeii, iioiio onuiiaeoaeyie iiaoo auoue oieueei
aeaaniiniaiua eeoea. Iaeiaei /anoue 3 ioieoa 1 noaouee 127 NE
noi?ioee?iaaia oaeei ia?acii, /oi iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi
e iaeei oieueei aeaaniiniaiue noi?oa ia iiaeao auoue a yoii neo/aa
onuiiaeoaeai. Oaeie aaconeiaiue cai?ao aucuaaao niiiaiey. Ii iiaio
iiaieth, ?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina eo/oa ioianoe ia oniio?aiea noaea. Anee
iaaeaaniiniaiue eee ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiue noi?oa onuiiaeoaey iinea
onuiiaeaiey oaeaea ieaaeaony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii eiioaeoa n ?aaaieii,
/oi iiaeao e?aeia iaaeaaii?eyoii io?aceoueny ia aai ainieoaiee, noae
aeieaeai cai?aoeoue onuiiaeaiea. Anee aea iaaeaaniiniaiue noi?oa,
iai?eia?, iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony a iaaeeoeeineii o/?aaeaeaiee aeey eeoe,
no?aaeathueo o?iie/aneeie caaieaaaieyie, e aai iauaiea n ?aaaieii
eneeth/aii, onuiiaeaiea neaaeoao ?ac?aoeoue.

Iaeaieaa nii?iui i?aaenoaaeyaony cai?ao onuiiaeaiey aeaoae aeaoiy
eeoeaie, ia ninoiyueie iaaeaeo niaie a a?aea. Aaaaeaiea oaeiai
ia?aie/aiey auei naycaii n oai, /oi ainieoaiea a iieiie naiuea a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioaa/aao eioa?anai ?aaaiea. Aaconeiaii, a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoi oae. Ii, ai-ia?auo, oaeoe/aneea noi?oae oaeaea
ninoaaeytho iieioth naiueth a nioeeieiae/aneii niunea e iiaoo
iaania/eoue ?aaaieo oaeia aea ainieoaiea, eae e eeoea, ninoiyuea a
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii a?aea. Iai?eciaiea th?eaee/aneie neeu ca oaeoe/aneei
a?aeii eiaao iiae niaie ii?aaeaeaiiua iniiaaiey, ii aeene?eieiaoeey eeoe
i?e onuiiaeaiee ii oiio i?eciaeo, /oi eo a?ae ia ca?aaeno?e?iaai, ia
ii?aaaeaia. Eiiaaea aeaeaiea onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea au?aaeaaony ianeieueeeie
aai ?iaenoaaiieeaie eee eiuie eeoeaie, eioi?ua ia ninoiyo ie a
oaeoe/aneii, ie a ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiii a?aea. ?aoaoue, ianeieueei oaeia
onuiiaeaiea ioaa/aao eioa?anai ?aaaiea, neaaeiaaei au i?aaeinoaaeoue
noaeo n o/aoii anao ianoiyoaeuenoa eiie?aoiiai aeaea. *anoi a i?aeoeea
aicieeaao aii?in i oii, iiaeao ee (e oeaeaniia?acia ee) ia?aaea/a
?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea iaeeiieie aeaiueia eee ioae/eia. Caeii ia
niaea?aeeo cai?aoa ia onuiiaeaiea aeaoae iaeeiieeie a?aaeaeaiaie,
iaeiaei a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa eaiaeeaeaoo?a oaeiai onuiiaeoaey
aeieaeia auoue ouaoaeueii ?anniio?aia e i?aaeaea anaai eniieueciaaiu ana
aiciiaeiinoe iiiauaiey ?aaaiea ia ainieoaiea a iieioth naiueth, anee aea
yoi iaaiciiaeii, oi, aaconeiaii, i?aaeii/oaiea aeieaeii auoue ioaeaii
ainieoaieth ?aaaiea iaeeiieei a?aaeaeaieiii, ioaa/athuei o?aaiaaieyi,
i?aaeuyaeyaiui e eaiaeeaeaoo a onuiiaeoaee, iaaeaee ia?aaea/a aai ia
ainieoaiea a aeaoneia eioa?iaoiia o/?aaeaeaiea.

4. Oneiaey onuiiaeaiey.

Iineieueeo onuiiaeaiea cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu naiiai oe?ieiai e?oaa eeoe,
Naiaeiue eiaeaen,/oiau ia aeiionoeoue iaii?aaaeaiiiai ia?ooaiey eo i?aa,
iaycuaaao e niaethaeaieth ?yaea oneiaee onuiiaeaiey. Oneiaeai
onuiiaeaiey yaeyaony iieo/aiea niaeaney anao i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii
eeoe: naiiai ?aaaiea, aai ?iaeeoaeae eee caiaiythueo eo eeoe, noi?oaa
onuiiaeoaey, anee ii ia yaeyaony onuiiaeoaeai ?aaaiea.

Onuiiaeaiea ianoieueei na?ueacii aeeyao ia noaeueao ?aaaiea. /oi aai
niaeanea aieoe a naiueth onuiiaeoaey i?eia?aoaao ia?ainoaiaiioth
aaaeiinoue. Niaeanea ?aaaiea, aeinoeaoaai aic?anoa aeanyoe eao, yaeyaony
aaconeiaii iaiaoiaeeiui, aac iaai onuiiaeaiea ia iiaeao auoue
i?iecaaaeaii. Iiaiea ?aaaiea, ia aeinoeaoaai 10-eaoiaai aic?anoa, oaeaea
aeieaeii auoue auyaeaii n oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea ?aaaiie a ninoiyiee aai
noi?ioee?iaaoue e au?aceoue. Ionoonoaea niaeaney ia onuiiaeaiea aeieaeii
?anniao?eaaoueny noaeii eae na?ueaciia i?aiyonoaea e onuiiaeaieth.
Auianaiea ?aoaiey ia onuiiaeaiee aii?aee aeaeaieth ?aaaiea, ia
aeinoeaoaai 10 eao, aiciiaeii oieueei a neo/aa, anee noae i?eaeao e
oaa?aeiio iiaieth, /oi aic?aaeaiey ?aaaiea ia eiatho na?ueaciiai
iainiiaaiey, naycaiu eneeth/eoaeueii n aai iaeieaonoaii e ia noaioo
i?aiyonoaeai e nicaeaieth ii?iaeueiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iei e
onuiiaeoaeyie.

N oeaeueth nio?aiaiey oaeiu onuiiaeaiey i?aaeoniio?aii eneeth/aiea a
ioiioaiee iieo/aiey niaeaney aeaoae, eioi?ua aei ioi?ieaiey onuiiaeaiey
i?iaeeaaee a naiuea onuiiaeoaeae e n/eoaee eo naieie ?iaeeoaeyie.

Aeey ia?aaea/e ?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii iieo/aiea niaeaney aai
?iaeeoaeae. Ii?yaeie aea/e ?iaeeoaeyie niaeaney ?aaoee?oaony noaoueae
129 NE. Anee ?iaeeoaee ?aaaiea ia iiiaio aea/e niaeaney ia aeinoeaee 16
eao, iiieii eo niaeaney iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea iieo/aiea niaeaney eo
?iaeeoaeae, iiaeoiia eee iiia/eoaeae, a i?e ionoonoaee yoeo eeoe —
niaeanea i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa. Aeaiiia o?aaiaaiea
i?iaeeeoiaaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aeiiieieoaeueiie caueou eioa?ania
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ua a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iiaoo
niaa?oeoue aeo, i iineaaenoaeyo eioi?iai iie aoaeoo niaeaeaoue anth
aeeciue.

?iaeeoaee ai?aaa aeaoue niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiui
eeoeii eee aac oeacaiey eiie?aoiiai eeoea. .

Niaeanea ?iaeeoaeae ia onuiiaeaiea aeaaony a ienueiaiiie oi?ia e
iiaeeaaeeo iioa?eaeueiiio oaeinoiaa?aieth. Iioa?eaeueiia oaeinoiaa?aiea
iiaeao auoue caiaiaii caaa?aieai ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aeaoneiai o/?aaeaeaiey,
a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony ?aaaiie, eee i?aaiii iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa.
Aiciiaeii oaeaea au?aaeaiea niaeaney ia onuiiaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
noaea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa onuiiaeaiey. I?e yoii iii caiineony a i?ioieie
noaeaaiiai canaaeaiey.

?iaeeoaee ai?aaa ioicaaoue naia niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea aei
iiiaioa auianaiey noaeii ?aoaiey ia onuiiaeaiee.

I?e ioeaca ?iaeeoaeae aeaoue niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea iaaiciiaeii. Aea/a
niaeaney ia onuiiaeaiea — iaeii ec aaaeiuo ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa
?iaeeoaeae, e aai ia?ooaiea i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio ia?ooaieth eo
i?aa, iineieueeo onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio i?ae?auaieth
i?aaiaie nayce iaaeaeo iei e ?iaeeoaeyie.

Anee ?anniao?eaaoue naiaeiia i?aai eae /anoue a?aaeaeaineiai, niaeanea
ia onuiiaeaiea neaaeoao i?eciaoue iaeiinoi?iiiae naeaeeie. Yoi icia/aao
oi, /oi iii iiaeao auoue inii?aii ii anai iniiaaieyi, i?aaeoniio?aiiui
aeey inia?iaaiey naeaeie. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiui iniiaaieai aeey inia?eaaiey
niaeaney ia onuiiaeaiea yaeyaony auioaeaeaiea aea/e niaeaney n iiiiuueth
ianeeey eee oa?ic. Niaeanea iiaeao auoue inii?aii oaeaea, anee iii auei
aeaii a ?acoeueoaoa noa/aiey oyaeaeuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Iaeiaei ioiaia
oaea i?iecaaaeaiiiai onuiiaeaiey, anee niaeanea ?iaeeoaeae auei
inii?aii, aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny, oieueei anee yoi ioaa/aao eioa?anai
?aaaiea.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo onuiiaeaiea iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii aac niaeaney
?iaeeoaeae. Eae i?aaeei, yoi i?ienoiaeeo, eiaaea ?iaeeoaee a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oo?a/eaatho naycue n ?aaaieii.

A niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 130 NE, niaeanea ?iaeeoaeae ia onuiiaeaiea ia
o?aaoaony, anee ?iaeeoaee iaecaanoiu eee i?eciaiu aacaanoii
ionoonoaothueie, iaaeaaniiniaiu eee eeoaiu ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa.
Onuiiaeaiea aac niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae aiciiaeii e a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
?iaeeoaee a oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa aac oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei ia
i?iaeeaatho n ?aaaieii e oeeiiythony io aai ainieoaiey e niaea?aeaiey. A
yoii neo/aa aii?in ia onuiiaeaiee aac niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae
?anniao?eaaaony noaeii, eioi?ue ioeaieaaao ianoiyoaeuenoaa, a nayce n
eioi?uie ?iaeeoaee ia auiieiyee naie ?iaeeoaeueneea iaycaiiinoe.

A ioiioaiee aeaoae, eeoaiiuo ?iaeeoaeueneiai iiia/aiey, niaeanea ia
onuiiaeaiea aeaaony eo iiaeoiaie eee iiia/eoaeyie, i?eaiiuie ?iaeeoaeyie
eee ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie aeaoneeo o/?aaeaeaiee, a eioi?uo iaoiaeeony ?aaaiie.
Iieo/aiea niaeaney yoeo eeoe iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoaeueii a oeaeyo caueou
eioa?ania ?aaaiea, iiyoiio a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eo ioeac a aea/a
niaeaney i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiainiiaaiiui, caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea ai?aaa
ia?aoeoueny a noae n eneii i auianaiee ?aoaiey ia onuiiaeaiee aac eo
niaeaney.

Anee ?aaaiie onuiiaeyaony eeoeii, ninoiyuei a a?aea, iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea
niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea aai noi?oaa, eioi?ue ia yaeyaony onuiiaeoaeai,
iineieueeo yoio noi?oa oaeaea aoaeao i?eieiaoue o/anoea a ainieoaiee
?aaaiea a ea/anoaa aai io/eia eee ia/aoe. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iieo/aiee
niaeaney noi?oaa onuiiaeoaey ioiaaeaao, anee noi?oae i?ae?aoeee
noi?oaeaneea ioiioaiey, ia i?iaeeaatho niaianoii aieaa aiaea e ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa ae?oaiai noi?oaa iaecaanoii.

Aeey iaania/aiey onuiiaeoaeyi e onuiiaeyaiui ?aaiuo oneiaee e iaeaa/aiey
eiio?iey ca onuiiaeaieai aeaoe, iiaeeaaeauea onuiiaeaieth, e eeoea,
aeaeathuea onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea, ?aaeno?e?othony ioaeaeueii. A
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aaaaeaia nenoaia oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
o/aoa aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae. Auyaeaieth e o/aoo
iiaeeaaeao aeaoe, ?iaeeoaee eioi?uo oia?ee, iaecaanoiu (“iiaeeeaeuoe”),
eeoaiu ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa, i?eciaiu aacaanoii ionoonoaothueie,
iaaeaaniiniaiuie, oeeiiythony io ainieoaiey e niaea?aeaiey naieo aeaoae
e o.i. I?e yoii aeieaeii auoue onoaiiaeaii ionoonoaea ?iaeeoaeueneiai
iiia/aiey a ioiioaiee iaieo ?iaeeoaeae. Naaaeaiey i oaeeo aeaoyo
noaayony ia oeaio?aeeciaaiiue o/ao a neo/aa, anee yoe aeaoe aua ia
ono?iaiu ia ainieoaiea a naiuee eee iaoiaeyony a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo aeey aeaoae-ne?io e aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey
?iaeeoaeae.

Eaaeaeue ?aaaiie, inoaaoeeny aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae, ?aaeno?e?oaony a
aeo?iaea ia?ae/iiai o/aoa (“ioieoeeiaeueiue o?iaaiue”)(ni.I?eeiaeaiea ?
2) , e a oa/aiea ianyoea ni aeiy ?aaeno?aoeee i?aai iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eieiaao iiiuoee e ono?ienoao oaeiai ?aaaiea ia
ainieoaiea a naiueth (ia onuiiaeaiea, iiae iiaeo, a i?eaiioth naiueth).

A neo/aa iaaiciiaeiinoe ono?ienoaa oaeiai ?aaaiea a naiueth, i?aai iiaee
e iiia/eoaeuenoaa ia?aaeaao naaaeaiey i iai a ?aaeiiaeueiue aaie aeaiiuo
i aeaoyo, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae. Oaeie aaie aeaiiuo
oi?ie?oaony a eaaeaeii ec 89 ?aaeiiia ?innee. Eae i?aaeei, aai aaaeao
niioaaonoaothuee ioaeae i?aaia oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaieai noauaeoa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee Oeaio? ii onuiiaeaieth, iiaea e
iiia/eoaeuenoao.

Naaaeaiey i ?aaaiea, inoaaoainy aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae, ia?aaeaiiua a
?aaeiiaeueiue aaie aeaiiuo, iacaiaaeeeoaeueii ia?aaeathony a
oaaea?aeueiue aaie aeaiiuo i aeaoyo, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey
?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony a Ieienoa?noaa iauaai e
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A oa/aiea ia iaiaa o?ao ianyoeaa n iiiaioa iinooieaiey aeaiiuo a
oaaea?aeueiue aaie ?aaeiiaeueiua neoaeau e Ioaeae nioeeaeueiie caueou
aeaoae e io?aiu i?aa aeaoae Ieienoa?noaa, inouanoaeytho iiiuoee e
ono?ienoao aeaoae, naaaeaiey i eioi?uo iaoiaeyony a aaiea aeaiiuo, ia
ainieoaiea a naiuee.

Ii caeaco Ieienoa?noaa ?ac?aaioaia eiiiuethoa?iay i?ia?aiia
“Iaaeaaeaea”, eioi?ay naycuaaao oaaea?aeueiue e ?aaeiiaeueiua aaiee
aeaiiuo i aeaoyo e iicaieyao i?e iiiiue iiaeaiiie nayce e yeaeo?iiiie
ii/ou iia?aoeaii iieo/aoue e eniieueciaaoue naaaeaiey i aeaoyo. Oi
anoue, eaiaeeaeaoo a onuiiaeoaee iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe aoaoue a Iineao aeey
iieo/aiey naaaeaiee i oii, aaea iiaeii onuiiaeoue “iaeue/eea aeaoo-o?ao
eao n aieoauie aeacaie e oaiiuie aieinaie “; aio aeinoaoi/ii ia?aoeoueny
a naie ?aaeiiaeueiue aaie aeaiiuo e, anee oaeiai ?aaaiea iao a ?aaeiia,
?aaeiiaeueiay neoaeaa naycuaaaony n oaaea?aeueiui aaieii aeaiiuo, e a
oa/aiea iyoe ieioo auyaeyaony ?aaeii, a eioi?ii oaeie ?aaaiie anoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?acaayi “ieo” i oii , /oi onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea i/aiue
o?oaeii e ?acee/iua ath?ie?aoe/aneea no?oeoo?u /eiyo a yoii i?aiyonoaey
a?aaeaeaiai. Nae/an a aaiea aeaiiuo 40 oun. aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac
iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae e, anee eoi-oi ia niia iaeoe ?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea
a naiai ?aeiia, ai?iaea, ii iiaeaoa ia?aoeoueny a ?aaeiiaeueioth
neoaeao, a oaaea?aeueiue aaie aeaiiuo aeey iiaeai?a ?aaaiea.

A oaaea?aeueiii aaiea aeaiiuo ionoonoaoao “i/a?aaeue”ia onuiiaeaiea. I?e
yoii neeaaeuaaaony ia?aaeienaeueiay neooaoeey — ethaee, aeaeathuea
onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea, aioiau noiyoue ia o/aoa a naiai ?aaeiia ia iaeei
aiae e ia oioyo auaoaoue aeey onuiiaeaiey a ae?oaoth iaeanoue, e?ae, a
oi a?aiy, eae eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia i?eeaoatho a ?inneth n oeaeueth
onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea n ae?oaiai eiioea naaoa — ec NOA, Eaiaaeu, aeaaea ec
Iiaie Caeaiaeee.

Ia iie acaeyae, i?aaeaea anaai yoi naycaii ni neiaeeaoaeny o?oaeiie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeeae a no?aia, eiaaea iaaieueoia /enei
a?aaeaeai iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa oaeoth “?ineioue”, eae onuiiaeaiea
?aaaiea . Aoi?ie i?e/eiie yaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/iay eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue
a?aaeaeai i nouanoaiaaiee oaaea?aeueiie e ?aaeiiaeueiuo neoaea ii
ieacaieth niaeaenoaey a ono?ienoaa aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey
?iaeeoaeae, ia ainieoaiea a naiuee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oieueei iaeia aacaoa niaeaneeanue ?aaoey?ii aeaaaoue
naaaeaiey i aeaoyo-ne?ioao, ninoiyueo ia o/aoa a oaaea?aeueiii aaiea
aeaiiuo — “Naiaeiue niaao” (i?eeiaeaiea e aaeaiaaeaeueieeo ”A?aoiaiou e
oaeou”). E ?acoeueoao ia caiaaeeee neacaoueny — aeaoe, naaaeaiey i
eioi?uo auee iioaeeeiaaiu a aacaoa, iaoee naaa naiuee a ?aciuo oaieeao
?innee. Nae/an ia?aae iaie noieo i?iaeaia iienea iooae aieaa oe?ieiai
eioi?ie?iaaiey a?aaeaeai i aeaoyo, ioaeaeathueony a ono?ienoaa ia
ainieoaiea a naiuee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?yaeie o/aoa iioaioeeaeueiuo onuiiaeoaeae
?aaoee?oaony Iieiaeaieai «I ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e aeaoae, yaeythueony
a?aaeaeaiaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ia onuiiaeaiea a?aaeaeaiai
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai». Eeoea, aeaeathuea
onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea, iiaeatho cayaeaiey n i?eeiaeaieai iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieoiaioia a ioieoeeiaeueiue i?aai oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaieai ii ianoo
naiaai aeeoaeuenoaa. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo aeieoiaioia a niioaaonoaee n
ioieoii 17 iacaaiiiai Iieiaeaiey oeacaiiue i?aai aioiaeo caeeth/aiea i
oii, iiaeao ee aeaiiia eeoei auoue onuiiaeoaeai. Anee caeeth/aiea
yaeyaony iieiaeeoaeueiui, eeoei, aeaeathuaa noaoue onuiiaeoaeai,
noaaeony ia o/ao a ea/anoaa eaiaeeaeaoa ia onuiiaeaiea. Eeoeai,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui a ea/anoaa eaiaeeaeaoia ia onuiiaeaiea, iiaeae?athony
aeaoe, iiaeeaaeauea onuiiaeaieth, e i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i ieo e iiciaeiieoueny n naieie aeaoueie. Anee
eaiaeeaeaoo ia onuiiaeaiea ia oaeaaony iiaeia?aoue ?aaaiea ii ianoo aai
aeeoaeuenoaa, ii iiaeao ia?aoeoueny a i?aai oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaieai
noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee a Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?O.
Eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa, iaia?aiiua onuiiaeoue
?aaaiea, iiaeeaaeao oeaio?aeeciaaiiiio o/aoo ia o?iaia noauaeoa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee Oaaea?aoeee a oeaeii. Iie ia?auathony n
cayaeaieai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?aai oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaieai noauaeoa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, oi?ie?othony aaiee aeaiiuo, ia
iniiaaiee eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeony iiaeai? eeoe, aeaeathueo noaoue
onuiiaeoaeyie, e aeaoae. Anee onuiiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeony ?iaenoaaiieeaie
?aaaiea eee noi?oaii aai ?iaeeoaey, iii i?ienoiaeeo iiieii oeacaiiie
nenoaiu o/aoa. Iinea oiai eae eiie?aoiui onuiiaeoaeyi iiaeia?ai
eiie?aoiue ?aaaiie, i?aaiu iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa ?aoatho aii?in i oii,
niioaaonoaoao ee onuiiaeaiea eioa?anai ?aaaiea. Eo auaiae iniiauaaaony
ia caeeth/aiee i aiciiaeiinoe eeoea, aeaeathuaai onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea,
auoue onuiiaeoaeai. I?eieiaaony ai aieiaiea oaeaea ioiioaiea ?aaaiea e
aoaeouaio onuiiaeoaeth e ae?oaay eioi?iaoeey. Yoe aeaiiua eeaaeoony a
iniiao caeeth/aiey, eioi?ia i?aaiu iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa
i?aaeinoaaeytho noaeo.

5. Ii?yaeie onuiiaeaiey.

Iiaia naiaeiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii eciaieei ii?yaeie
onuiiaeaiey. Eeoea, aeaeathuea onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea aeieaeiu ia?aoeoueny a
i?aai iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa (ioaeae ia?aciaaiey eee eioth neoaeao, ia
eioi?oth aiceiaeaiu ooieoeee ii io?aia i?aa aeaoae) ii ianoo naiaai
aeeoaeuenoaa, /oiau iieo/eoue caeeth/aiea i oii, /oi iie yaeythony
iaaeeaaeaueie eaiaeeaeaoaie a onuiiaeoaee. Aeey iieo/aiey oaeiai
caeeth/aiey iaiaoiaeeiu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ianii?o, a oaeaea: ni?aaea
n ianoa ?aaiou i caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe e ca?aaioiie ieaoa,eeai eiiey
aeaeea?aoeee i aeioiaeao; eiiey oeiainiaiai eeoeaaiai n/aoa n ianoa
aeeoaeuenoaa; eiiey naeaeaoaeuenoaa i a?aea; iaaeeoeeineia caeeth/aiea i
ninoiyiee caei?iauey.

Niaoeeaeeno ii io?aia aeaonoaa a ee/iie aanaaea n eaiaeeaeaoaie a
onuiiaeoaee (aei iieo/aiey io ieo iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia) auyaeyao
iioeau onuiiaeaiey, iaee/ea aiciiaeiinoe iaania/aiey eie aeieaeiiai
niaea?aeaiey e ainieoaiey ?aaaiea, ionoonoaea i?ioeaiiieacaiee aeey
onuiiaeaiey. Auyniythony oaeaea aeaiiua, eioi?ua o/eouaathony i?e
iiaeaioiaea caeeth/aiey, oaeea, eae aic?ano onuiiaeoaeae (iniaaiii a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea ?aiiaai aic?anoa ecuyaeytho aeaeaiea
eeoea i?aaeiaineiiiiai eee iaineiiiiai aic?anoa), iaee/ea /eaiia naiuee,
no?aaeathueo caaieaaaieyie, eioi?ua iiaoo io?eoeaoaeueii neacaoueny ia
caei?iauea e ainieoaiee ?aaaiea. Niaoeeaeeno ii io?aia aeaonoaa
iaycaoaeueii iinauaao naiueth eaiaeeaeaoia a onuiiaeoaee, ninoaaeyao aeo
ianeaaeiaaiey oneiaee eo aeecie e aeaao caeeth/aiea i aiciiaeiinoe
onuiiaeaiey eie ?aaaiea.

Eeoea, iieo/eaoea caeeth/aiea i oii, /oi iie yaeythony iaaeeaaeaueie
eaiaeeaeaoaie a onuiiaeoaee, ai?aaa ia/aoue iiaeai? ?aaaiea ia
onuiiaeaiea. I?aai iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa auaeaao ei iai?aaeaiea ia
iiaeai? ?aaaiea ec niioaaonoaothuaai aeaoneiai o/?aaeaeaiey e, eae oaea
aiai?eeinue auoa, anee eaiaeeaeaou a onuiiaeoaee ia niiaee iiaeia?aoue
?aaaiea a ?aeiia (ai?iaea) ii ianoo naiaai aeeoaeuenoaa, iie ai?aaa
ia?aoeoueny a ethaie ?aaeiiaeueiue aaie aeaiiuo eee a oaaea?aeueiue aaie
aeaiiuo.

I?e iiaeai?a ?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea,eaiaeeaeao a onuiiaeoaee aeieaeai :

1.Iciaeiieoueny n ee/iui aeaeii ?aaaiea, /oiau iieo/eoue iaeneioi
eioi?iaoeee i iai. I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, /oi eaaeaeue
?aaaiie, ia?aaeaaaaiue ia onuiiaeaiea, iaycaoaeueii i?ioiaeeo
iaaeeoeeineoth eiienneth, eioi?ay aeaao caeeth/aiea i ninoiyiee aai
caei?iauey. Onuiiaeoaeue iaycai iciaeiieoueny n caeeth/aieai e
?anienaoueny a iai.(ni.I?eeiaeaiea ? 3).E niaeaeaieth, a i?aeoeea
ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea onuiiaeoaee a?aee ia onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea, ia
aieeay a oiieinoe aai iaaeeoeeineiai aeeaaiica; iineaaenoaeai yoiai
noaiiaeeanue ioiaia onuiiaeaiey, o?aaaaeey onuiiaeoaeae e onuiiaeaiiiai
?aaaiea. A niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiui ii?yaeeii eaiaeeaeaou a
onuiiaeoaee ai?aaa i?iaanoe aeey ?aaaiea iacaaeneioth iaaeeoeeineoth
yenia?oeco (a aeiiieiaiea e iaycaoaeueiie iaaeeoeeineie eiiennee) aeey
ooi/iaiey aeeaaiica ?aaaiea. A yoii neo/aa ana aeaenoaey, naycaiiua n
yenia?oecie, i?iecaiaeyony ca n/ao n?aaenoa eaiaeeaeaoia a onuiiaeoaee.

2.Eaiaeeaeaou a onuiiaeoaee aeieaeiu iieo/eoue anth eiathuothny
eioi?iaoeeth i ?iaeeoaeyo ?aaaiea. A /anoiinoe, aeieoiaiou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea noaoon ?aaaiea-ne?iou eee inoaaoaainy aac iiia/aiey
?iaeeoaeae (naeaeaoaeuenoai i nia?oe ?iaeeoaey (?iaeeoaeae), eiiey
?aoaiey noaea i eeoaiee ?iaeeoaeae ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa, i?eciaiee
?iaeeoaey iaaeaaniiniaiui, aeo i iiaeeeaeuaaiee ?aaaiea e o.ae.).
Iai?eia?, anee iaoue ?aaaiea eeoaia ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa, a ioaoe
iaoiaeeony a ianoao eeoaiey naiaiaeu, oi oaeiai ?aaaiea ia?aaeaoue ia
onuiiaeaiea aei auoiaea iooea ec caeeth/aiey iaaiciiaeii (anee, eiia/ii,
ioaoe ia aeano ienueiaiiia niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea).

E?iia iieo/aiey niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae ?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea,
iaycaoaeueiui aeieoiaioii yaeyaony oaeaea niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea
?aaaiea aai iiaeoia, iiia/eoaey, i?eaiiiai ?iaeeoaey, ?oeiaiaeeoaey
aeaoneiai o/?aaeaeaiey, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony ?aaaiie. I?e yoii iiaiea
auoaoeacaiiuo eeoe o/eouaaaony, iaeiaei ia yaeyaony ?aoathuei. Noae
ai?aaa a eioa?anao ?aaaiea auianoe ?aoaiea ia onuiiaeaiee aac niaeaney
yoeo eeoe. Anee o ?aaaiea, eeoeaoaainy ?iaeeoaeueneiai iiia/aiey e
iaoiaeyuaainy a aeaoneii eioa?iaoiii o/?aaeaeaiee, anoue ae?oaea aeeceea
?iaenoaaiieee (aeaaeooea, aaaooea, oaoy, aeyaey), eo iiaiea ii aii?ino
onuiiaeaiey ?aaaiea o/eouaaaony, ii ia yaeyaony ?aoathuei. Iaeiaei
niaeanea naiiai ?aaaiea, aeinoeaoaai 10-eaoiaai aic?anoa, i?e
onoaiiaeaiee onuiiaeaiey iaycaoaeueii.

Anee o ?aaaiea anoue a?aouey, nano?u, oi eo ?aciauaiea aiciiaeii oieueei
a oii neo/aa, eiaaea onuiiaeaiea ioaa/aao eioa?anai ?aaaiea e ia
i?a?uaaao nayce iaaeaeo aeaoueie. Iiiyoii, eae iaaeaeaoaeueii ?aciauaiea
a?aoueaa e nanoa?, iaoiaeyueony a ?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo e
ainieouaathueony a iaeiii aeaoneii o/?aaeaeaiee, i?iaeeaaaoeo niaianoii
aei eo ono?ienoaa ia ainieoaiea a aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea, inaaaeiieaiiuo
ae?oa i ae?oaa e naiai ?iaenoaa. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho aeaoe, eiathuea
oieueei iauoth iaoue (iooea), eioi?ua ia ainieouaaeenue niaianoii a
iaeiie naiuea, iaoiaeyony a ?aciuo aeaoneeo o/?aaeaeaieyo e aeaaea
/eneyony iiae ?aciuie oaieeeyie. Yoi iiaeao oaeaea aeiioneaoueny a eo
eioa?anao, eiaaea onuiiaeoaee ia ianoaeaatho ia nio?aiaiee oaeiu
onuiiaeaiey e ia aic?aaeatho i?ioea iauaiey onuiiaeaiiuo aeaoae n
a?aoueyie e nano?aie. Aiciiaeii ?acuaaeeiaiea a?aoueaa e nanoa? i?e
onuiiaeaiee, anee eoi-eeai ec ieo iiaeeaaeeo niaea?aeaieth a
niaoeeaeueiii ea/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiii o/?aaeaeaiee.

E, oioy eo niaeaney ia onuiiaeaiea ia o?aaoaony, a eioa?anao ?aaaiea
ooi/ieoue ana ianoiyoaeuenoaa e iieo/eoue iieioth eioi?iaoeeth i
?iaenoaaiieeao ?aaaiea.

Eoae, eaiaeeaeaou a onuiiaeoaee iiaeia?aee ?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea
(iiciaeiieeenue e onoaiiaeee n iei eiioaeo, iciaeiieeenue n aai
aeieoiaioaie). Neaaeothuee oaa — iiaea/a cayaeaiey a noae n i?inueaie ia
onuiiaeaiee. A cayaeaiee iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu auoue oeacaiu naaaeaiey i
naieo onuiiaeoaeyo, i aeaoyo, eioi?uo iie aeaeatho onuiiaeoue, eo
?iaeeoaeyo, i?inueaa i aiciiaeiuo eciaiaieyo oaieeee, eiaie, io/anoaa,
aeaou e ianoa ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea a aeoiaie caiene i ?iaeaeaiee
onuiiaeyaiuo aeaoae. E cayaeaieth oaeaea i?eeaaathony: eiiey
naeaeaoaeuenoaa i ?iaeaeaiee onuiiaeoaey — i?e onuiiaeaiee ?aaaiea
eeoeii, ia ninoiyuei a a?aea; eiiey naeaeaoaeuenoaa i a?aea onuiiaeoaeae
(onuiiaeoaey) — i?e onuiiaeaiee ?aaaiea eeoeaie (eeoeii), ninoiyueie a
a?aea; i?e onuiiaeaiee ?aaaiea iaeiei ec noi?oaia — niaeanea ae?oaiai
noi?oaa eee aeieoiaio, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee, /oi noi?oae i?ae?aoeee
naiaeiua ioiioaiey, ia i?iaeeaatho niaianoii aieaa aiaea e ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa ae?oaiai noi?oaa iaecaanoii; iaaeeoeeineia caeeth/aiea i
ninoiyiee caei?iauey onuiiaeoaeae (onuiiaeoaey); ni?aaea n ianoa ?aaiou
i caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe e ca?aaioiie ieaoa eeai eiiey aeaeea?aoeee i
aeioiaeao eee eiie aeieoiaio i aeioiaeao; aeieoiaio, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee
i?aai iieueciaaiey aeeeui iiiauaieai eee i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeia
iiiauaiea.

E?iia yoiai, i?aaiii iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa i?aaenoaaeyaony a noae ?yae
aeieoiaioia ia ?aaaiea, caeeth/aiea i oeaeaniia?aciinoe onuiiaeaiey aeey
oiai, /oiau noae iia ?anniio?aoue aeaei ia onoaiiaeaiee onuiiaeaiey.

Noaeaaiay i?ioeaaeo?a onuiiaeaiey aeaoae aaaaeaia a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
ieiei aiaea iacaae. I?aaeiee ii?yaeie onuiiaeaiey aue aaeieieno?aoeaiui.
Noaeaaiue ii?yaeie, aaconeiaii, yaeyaony a aeaiiii neo/aa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui. ?aoaiea ia onuiiaeaiee ianoieueei nouanoaaiii aeey
?aaaiea, onuiiaeoaeae e ?iaeeoaeae, /oi iii aeieaeii i?eieiaoueny n
niaethaeaieai anao i?ioeannoaeueiuo aa?aioee, eioi?ua iiaeao iaania/eoue
oieueei noaeaaiue i?ioeann. Noaeaaiue ii?yaeie oaeaea aeieaeai
iicaieeoue i?aiaeieaoue iiiai/eneaiiua ceioiio?aaeaiey, eioi?ua eiaee
ianoi ?aiaa i?e i?iecaiaenoaa onuiiaeaiey.

A oeaeyo iaania/aiey io?aiyaiie caeiiii oaeiu onuiiaeaiey noae a
niioaaonoaee n /. C no. 263-4 AIE ?NON? ?anniao?eaaao aeaea aeaiiie
eaoaai?ee a cae?uoii noaeaaiii canaaeaiee. A yoeo aea oeaeyo
o/anoaothuea a aeaea eeoea i?aaeoi?aaeaeathony i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nio?aiaiey a oaeia naaaeaiee ia onuiiaeaiee e i aiciiaeiinoe i?eaea/aiey
e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acaeaoaiea oaeiu onuiiaeaiey aii?aee
aiea onuiiaeoaey, niaa?oaiiia ec ei?unoiuo eee eiuo ieciaiiuo
iiaoaeaeaiee, eeai ca ?acaeaoaiea oaeiu onuiiaeaiey aii?aee aiea
onuiiaeoaey eeoeaie, iaycaiiuie o?aieoue oaeo onuiiaeaiey eae
neoaeaaioth eee i?ioanneiiaeueioth oaeio .

A oeaeyo iaania/aiey oaeiu onuiiaeaiey aiciiaeii eciaiaiea ii i?inueaa
onuiiaeoaeae eiaie, io/anoaa e oaieeee onuiiaeyaiiai ?aaaiea.
Onuiiaeoaee, ii eo i?inueaa, iiaoo auoue caienaiu a eieaa caienae i
?iaeaeaiee ?aaaiea a ea/anoaa ?iaeeoaeae onuiiaeaiiiai. I?e ?anniio?aiee
aeaea ia onoaiiaeaiee onuiiaeaiey noae enoiaey ec eioa?ania ?aaaiea
iiaeao auianoe ?aoaiea i nio?aiaiee onuiiaeyaiiio oaieeee ?iaeeoaeae,
io/anoaa ii eiaie iooea, a oaeaea aeaiiuo i ?iaeeoaeyo (iai?eia?, anee
i?ioea eciaiaiey aic?aaeaao nai onuiiaeyaiue, aeinoeaoee 10 eao,
aeaeathuee nio?aieoue iaiyoue i ?iaeeoaeyo eee eiaaea i caiene a
ea/anoaa ?iaeeoaey onuiiaeyaiiai i?ineo onuiiaeoaeue, ninoiyuee a
e?iaiii ?iaenoaa n aai iooeii eee iaoa?ueth).

Aiciiaeii oaeaea eciaiaiea aeaou ?iaeaeaiey onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea, ii ia
aieaa /ai ia o?e ianyoea (o.a. onuiiaeaiiue a i?aaeaeao 3 ianyoeaa
iiaeao auoue caienai ?aiaa eee, iaiai?io, iicaeiaa aai oaeoe/aneiai
?iaeaeaiey, iai?eia?, a neo/aa eieoaoeee onuiiaeoaeueieoeae
aa?aiaiiinoe; i?e iaee/ee a naiuea ae?oaiai ?aaaiea; i?e aeaeaiee
nio?aieoue aeaoo ?iaeaeaiey oia?oaai e?iaiiai ?aaaiea e ae?.). Ana a oao
aea oeaeyo nio?aiaiey oaeiu onuiiaeaiey aiciiaeii oaeaea eciaiaiea ianoa
?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea.

?acee/ea a ioi?ieaiee aeieoiaioia ia aeeyao ia i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea
onuiiaeyaiiai.

Iiaeii ii-?aciiio ioiineoueny e oaeia onuiiaeaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, a
?yaea caiaaeiuo no?ai, oaeeo eae Aaeeeia?eoaiey, NOA, Eaiaaea, aeoeaii
eniieuecoaony oae iacuaaaiia “ioe?uoia” onuiiaeaiea, eiaaea onuiiaeaiiua
aeaoe ecia/aeueii ciatho naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, eioi?ie?iaaiu i oii, eoi
eo aeieiae/aneea ?iaeeoaee, a ia?aaeei aeieiae/aneea ?iaeeoaee
i?eieiatho iineeueiia o/anoea a aeecie naieo, oaia?ue oaea onuiiaeaiiuo
aeaoae.

Ii naaaeaieyi aiaeeeneeo eieeaa, i?iaiaeeaoaany eie enneaaeiaaiea
iieacaei, /oi aeey ?aaaiea, aai ineoeee, cia/eoaeueii eo/oa, eiaaea ii
ecia/aeueii ciaao, /oi ii onuiiaeai, iaaeaee eiaaea ii ociaao ia yoii io
iinoi?iiieo eeoe nionoy ianeieueei eao iinea onuiiaeaiey, /oi ia?aaeei
iaiineo iaiii?aaeioth aeooaaioth o?aaio, a eiiaaea aeaeaao i?inoi
iaaiciiaeiui aeaeueiaeoaa ainieoaiea ?aaaiea a naiuea onuiiaeoaeae.

Iiyoiio, ?aoay aii?in i oii, nio?aiyoue eee ia nio?aiyoue oaeio
onuiiaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii acaaneoue ana “ca” e “i?ioea”, eiay
a aeaeo, /oi oaeia ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai ethaiai
onuiiaeaiey e aa nio?aiaiea caaeneo oieueei io aieaecuyaeaiey
onuiiaeoaeae.

I?e oaeiaeaoai?aiee noaeii i?inueau ia onuiiaeaiee acaeiiua i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe onuiiaeoaeae e onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea onoaiaaeeaathony ni
aeiy anooieaiey a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey noaea ia onoaiiaeaiee
onuiiaeaiey ?aaaiea.

Onuiiaeaiea iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiie ?aaeno?aoeee a i?aaiao CAANa ii
ianoo auianaiey ?aoaiey ia onoaiiaeaiee onuiiaeaiey. ?aaeno?aoeey
onuiiaeaiey eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey io?aiu i?aa e eioa?ania
onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea. I?iecaiaeeony ioi?ieaiea iiaiai naeaeaoaeuenoaa i
?iaeaeaiee ?aaaiea, aaea aeaiiua ia onuiiaeaiiii e aai ?iaeeoaeyo
(onuiiaeoaeyo) oeacuaathony a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieai noaea.Ii
?aaeno?aoeey onuiiaeaiey ia eiaao i?aaiia?acothuaai cia/aiey e ia
aoiaeeo a ninoaa th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aai
aicieeiiaaiey. I?aaiaua iineaaenoaey onuiiaeaiey aicieeatho n iiiaioa
anooieaiey ?aoaiey noaea a caeiiioth neeo. Noae a oa/aiea o?ao aeiae n
iiiaioa anooieaiey ?aoaiey a caeiiioth neeo aeieaeai iai?aaeoue auieneo
ec ?aoaiey a i?aai CAANa ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey noaea.

Ioeoeeaeueiay noaoenoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aieueoeinoai
i?iecaiaeeiuo a ?innee onuiiaeaiee aeaoae (eae i?aaeei, ec aeaoneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee aeey aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae), oniaoiu.
Aeaoe ia?aoatho naiueth, a ac?ineua — niune aeecie e iuouaiea naiae
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Ec 34000 aeaoae, onuiiaeaiiuo a 1995 a., iaoaea/iuo
onuiiaeaiee auei 253. A 1996 a. ec 30000 onuiiaeaiiuo aeaoae —
iaoaea/iuo onuiiaeaiee 418.

6. Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey.

*oi aea oaeia iaoaea/iia onuiiaeaiea? Yoi onuiiaeaiea,eioi?ia
aiineaaenoaee auei ioiaiaii a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea Iiaue Naiaeiue eiaeaen
i?aaeoniao?eaaao oieueei iaeii iniiaaiea aeey i?ae?auaiey onuiiaeaiey —
aai ioiaio. Einoeooo i?eciaiey onuiiaeaiey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui aue
oi?acaeiai. Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaii?ae?auathuei
e i?aaiainnoaiaaeeaathuei th?eaee/anee oaeoii.

I?e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo i?ae?auaiea anao i?aaiauo
iineaaenoaee onuiiaeaiey ia aoaeouaa a?aiy. I?ae?auathony ana
i?aaiioiioaiey iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui ?aaaieii e onuiiaeoaeyie e eo
?iaenoaaiieeaie. Iaeiia?aiaiii, anee yoi niioaaonoaoao eioa?anai
?aaaiea, ainnoaiaaeeaathony aai i?aaiaua nayce n ?iaeeoaeyie e ae?oaeie
e?iaiuie ?iaenoaaiieeaie.

Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey i?iecaiaeeony oieueei a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea.
Iniiaaieyie e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey yaeythony i?aaeaea anaai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e iaee/ee eioi?uo ?iaeeoaee iiaoo auoue eeoaiu
?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa: oeeiiaiea io auiieiaiey ?iaeeoaeueneeo
iaycaiiinoae, ceioiio?aaeaiea ?iaeeoaeueneeie i?aaaie, aeanoieia
ia?auaiea n ?aaaieii, o?iie/aneee aeeiaieeci eee ia?eiiaiey ?iaeeoaeae.
Iaeiaei, anee ia?a/aiue iniiaaiee aeey eeoaiey ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa
noi?ioee?iaai eae en/a?iuaathuee, ia?a/aiue iniiaaiee e ioiaia
onuiiaeaiey yaeyaony ioe?uoui. Onuiiaeaiea iiaeao auoue ioiaiaii e i?e
iaee/ee eiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, a /anoiinoe i?e iaiieo/aiee niaeaney
oeacaiiuo a caeiia eeoe. Naii ii naaa iaiieo/aiea niaeaney ia yaeyaony
aaconeiaiui iiaiaeii e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey. E?eoa?eai, eioi?ui
?oeiaiaenoaoaony noae i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey,
yaeyaony ioaao ia aii?in, niioaaonoaoao ee oaeay ioiaia eioa?anai
?aaaiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee, iai?eia?, onuiiaeaiea auei i?iecaaaeaii
aac niaeaney ?aaaiea eee noi?oaa onuiiaeoaey, ioiaia onuiiaeaiey
aiciiaeia, anee a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaaieii e naiueae
onuiiaeoaey ieacaeenue noieue iaaeaaii?eyoiuie aeey ?aaaiea, /oi a
oeaeyo io?aiu aai eioa?ania iaiaoiaeeii ioiaieoue onuiiaeaiea.

Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey ii iauaio i?aaeeo aiciiaeia oieueei aei
niaa?oaiiieaoey ?aaaiea. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iinea aeinoeaeaiey
niaa?oaiiieaoey ?iaeeoaeueneea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe i?ae?auathony, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ioiaia onuiiaeaiey.
Iaeiaei, iineieueeo eiiaaea aeaaea oi?iaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea
?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui e onuiiaeoaeai a ?yaea
neo/aaa noaiiaeony iaaeaeaoaeueiui aeey noi?ii, a eneeth/eoaeueiuo
neo/ayo ioiaia onuiiaeaiey iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaia e iinea
aeinoeaeaiey aeaoueie niaa?oaiiieaoey. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oaeie ioiaia
iiaeao aicieeiooue, iai?eia?, aeey anooieaiey auaoaai onuiiaeaiiiai e
onuiiaeoaey a a?ae eee aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey i?aaiaie nayce iaaeaeo
onuiiaeaiiui e aai ?iaeeoaeyie. Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey aiciiaeia eeoue i?e
iaee/ee niaeaney onuiiaeaiiiai, onuiiaeoaeae e ?iaeeoaeae onuiiaeaiiiai.
Niaeanea onuiiaeoaeae iaiaoiaeeii iioiio, /oi a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iiaeao
i?iecieoe nouanoaaiiia ia?ooaiea eo eioa?ania. Yoe eeoea, ainieoaaoea
?aaaiea, ieaaeoony ia a ninoiyiee iieo/eoue io iaai niaea?aeaiea a
neo/aa ioaeaeaaiinoe e iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe. Niaeanea ?iaeeoaeae
o?aaoaony iioiio, /oi i?e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey iiaeao auoue ainnoaiiaeaia
i?aaiaay naycue iaaeaeo ieie e ?aaaieii. Ioiaia onuiiaeaiey
i?iecaiaeeony aac niaeaney ?iaeeoaeae onuiiaeyaiiai, anee iie eeoaiu
?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa eee i?eciaiu iaaeaaniiniaiuie.

I?aaii ia i?aaeuyaeaiea enea ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey caeii iaaeaeyao
?iaeeoaeae onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea, onuiiaeoaeae ?aaaiea, naiiai
onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea, aeinoeaoaai 14 eao, i?aaiu iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa e i?ieo?i?a.

?iaeeoaee ?aaaiea ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue ioiaiu onuiiaeaiey oieueei a neo/aa,
anee onuiiaeaiea auei i?iecaaaeaii aac eo niaeaney eee niaeanea auei
auioaeaeaiiui. Iie ia iiaoo i?aaeuyaeoue ene ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey, anee
n/eoatho, /oi ainieoaiea ?aaaiea a naiuea onuiiaeoaey ia ioaa/aao aai
eioa?anai. Anee iie eiatho naaaeaiey i oaeoao ceioiio?aaeaiey
onuiiaeoaeyie naieie i?aaaie eee eiuo i?ioeaii?aaiuo aeaenoaeyo a
ioiioaiee ?aaaiea, iie iiaoo oieueei niiaueoue ia yoii i?aaiai iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa eee i?ieo?i?o. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iinea onuiiaeaiey
?aaaiea ?iaeeoaee oo?a/eaatho ana i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii ioiioaieth e
iaio e ieacuaathony a ioiioaiee iaai a oaeii aea iieiaeaiee, eae e ana
iinoi?iiiea eeoea. Iiyoiio iie ia eiatho i?aaa eiio?iee?iaaoue oneiaey
aeecie onuiiaeaiiiai a naiuea onuiiaeoaey. I?e ia?ooaiee i?aaa
?iaeeoaeae ia aea/o niaeaney ia onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea noae ia iaycai
auianoe ?aoaiea ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey. Onuiiaeaiea ioiaiyaony oieueei a
oii neo/aa, anee yoi niioaaonoaoao eioa?anai ?aaaiea. Iaycaoaeueii
o/eouaaaony e iiaiea ?aaaiea. A oeaeyo iaania/aiey oaeiu onuiiaeaiey,
anee ?iaeeoaeyi ia ecaanoii, eoi onuiiaee ?aaaiea, iie i?aaeuyaeytho ene
ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey e i?aaiai iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa. Onuiiaeoaee
?aaaiea oaaaeiieythony i i?aaeuyaeaiee enea e iiaoo i?eiyoue o/anoea a
aeaea. Iiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai cia/eoaeueii nieceei aic?ano, n eioi?iai
?aaaiie ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii i?aaeuyaeoue ene ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey.
Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ia?ooaiea i?aa ?aaaiea a naiuea onuiiaeoaey
ianoieueei nouanoaaiii cao?aaeaaao anth aai aeeciue, /oi ?aaaiie
aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue i?aaii naiinoiyoaeueii caueoeoue naie eioa?anu iooai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ia?auaiey a noae. ?aaaiie, ia aeinoeaoee 14-eaoiaai
aic?anoa, ai?aaa ia?aoeoueny a i?aaiu iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa e i?ineoue
eo i?aaeuyaeoue ene a aai eioa?anao. Iniiaaieai e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey a
yoeo neo/ayo iiaoo auoue ia oieueei i?ioeaii?aaiua aeaenoaey ni noi?iiu
onuiiaeoaey, ii e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi naiaeiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iei
e ?aaaieii ia neiaeeeenue. Onuiiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eneonnoaaiioth iiiuoeo nicaeaiey naiaeiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iinoi?iiieie
ae?oa ae?oao ethaeueie, e anee iia ia oaeaaony ianoieueei, /oi aeeciue
?aaaiea a naiuea onuiiaeoaey noaiiaeony iaauiineiie, onuiiaeaiea
i?eoiaeeony ioiaiyoue, aeaaea i?e ionoonoaee aeiu n iaaeo noi?ii.

I?aai onuiiaeoaey o?aaiaaoue ioiaiu onuiiaeaiey ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia auei i?aaeoniio?aii. Yoi naycuaaeinue n oai, /oi
i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe onuiiaeoaeae i?e?aaieaathony e ?iaeeoaeueneei, a
?iaeeoaeyi ia i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aaa ioeacuaaoueny io naieo aeaoae.
Iaeiaei ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui e onuiiaeoaeai,
ana-oaee nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io ?iaeeoaeueneeo, e, anee onoaiiaeoue
eiioaeo iaaeaeo ?aaaieii e onuiiaeoaeai ia oaeaaony, onuiiaeoaeue
aeieaeai eiaoue i?aai i?aaeuyaeoue ene ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey. Ae?oaia
aeaei, /oi oaeie ene aeaeaei ia anaaaea aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?ai.
Onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea anaaaea naycaii n ii?aaeaeaiiui ?eneii. Ii ia?a oiai
eae ?aaaiie ac?ineaao, onuiiaeoaeue iiaeao auoue na?ueacii ?aci/a?iaai a
iai. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, e ian/anoueth, oaeiaa, /oi /aua anaai ia
onuiiaeaiea ia?aaeathony aeaoe ec iaaeaaiiieo/iuo naiae. A nayce n yoei
?ene i?iyaeaiey ianeaaenoaaiiuo caaieaaaiee, oinoaaiiie ionoaeinoe,
iineaaenoaee aeeiaieecia ?iaeeoaeae eee ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, iiaeeyaoeo ia
?acaeoea ?aaaiea a ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe iaoa?e eee a ?aiiai aeaonoaa,
aanueia aunie. Ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea onuiiaeoaee /a?ac ianeieueei eao
iaia?oaeeaatho o ?aaaiea iaeii ec oaeeo caaieaaaiee. Eiiaaea caaieaaaiea
ianoieueei na?ueacii, /oi ia inoaaeyao ieeaeie iaaeaaeiu ia ii?iaeueiia
?acaeoea ?aaaiea. I?e yoii aicieeaao oyaeaeay ii?aeueiay aeeeaiia.
Ianiiiaiii, aaci?aanoaaiii ioeacaoueny io aieueiiai ?aaaiea e o?aaiaaoue
ioiaiu onuiiaeaiey. *anoi onuiiaeoaee i?eaycuaathony e oaeei aeaoyi,
ainieouaatho eo eae ianoiyuea ?iaeeoaee e aeaeatho ana aeey niya/aiey
iineaaenoaee caaieaaaiey. Iaeiaei iaeuecy caauaaoue i oii, /oi
aeieiae/aneay naycue e iniiaaiiue ia iae ?iaeeoaeueneee einoeieo,
ninoaaeythuee iniiao ?iaeeoaeueneeo ioiioaiee, i?e onuiiaeaiee
ionoonoaoao eee ii e?aeiae ia?a i?iyaeyaony a iaiueoae noaiaie. A ?yaea
neo/aaa onuiiaeoaee ia a ninoiyiee i?iaeieaeaoue ioiioaiey n aieueiui
?aaaieii. Aanueia neiaeai aii?in, a eaeie ia?a noae aeieaeai i?eieiaoue
eo /oanoaa ai aieiaiea. Aeaei a oii, /oi nio?aiaiea onuiiaeaiey e
inoaaeaiea oaeiai ?aaaiea a naiuea onuiiaeoaey ii/oe anaaaea ioaa/aao
eioa?anai ?aaaiea. Iaeiaei iaeuecy niaa?oaiii ia n/eoaoueny e n
eioa?anaie naiiai onuiiaeoaey. Iieiia i?aiaa?aaeaiea aai eioa?anaie
i?eaaaeao e oiio, /oi, aeey oiai, /oiau aeiaeoueny ioiaiu onuiiaeaiey,
ii iiaeao auoue auioaeaeai ia?ooeoue eioa?anu ?aaaiea. Ia iie acaeyae,
anee onuiiaeoaeue i?aaenoaaeyao oaaaeeoaeueiua aeiaiaeu,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea, /oi i?iaeieaeaiea aeecie n onuiiaeaiiui aeey iaai
iaauiineii, onuiiaeaiea aeieaeii auoue ioiaiaii.

I?e i?aaeuyaeaiee naiei onuiiaeoaeai enea ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey
aicieeaao e ii?aaeaeaiiia i?ioeannoaeueiia cao?oaeiaiea. Iau/ii
ioaao/eeii ii aeaeo ia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey aunooiaao onuiiaeoaeue, anee
aea ene i?aaeuyaeyaony ei naiei, ia ynii, eoi aeieaeai ioaa/aoue ii
oaeiio eneo. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iaeeo/oei ?aoaieai yoie i?iaeaiu
yaeyaony i?eciaiea ioaao/eeii i?aaia iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, iineieueeo
yoio i?aai o/anoaoao a noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa n oeaeueth caueou
eioa?ania ?aaaiea e aoaeao cayaeyoue aic?aaeaiey i?ioea o?aaiaaiee
enooea, enoiaey ec eioa?ania ?aaaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, iineieueeo a
aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao ianoi eneiaia i?iecaiaenoai, iiaeii aiai?eoue i
nii?a i i?aaa onuiiaeoaey ia ioiaio onuiiaeaiey, a eioi?ii n iaeiie
noi?iiu o/anoaoao onuiiaeoaeue, a n ae?oaie — i?aai iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa, caueuathuee i?aai ?aaaiea ia nio?aiaiea onuiiaeaiey.

Niaeanii noaouea 143 NE, i?aaiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaaieii e aai
?iaeeoaeyie e e?iaiuie ?iaenoaaiieeaie a neo/aa ioiaiu onuiiaeaiey
ainnoaiaaeeaathony ia aaoiiaoe/anee, eae yoi auei ii ?aiaa
aeaenoaiaaaoaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, a oieueei a neo/aa, anee yoi
ioaa/aao eioa?anai ?aaaiea. I?e yoii o/eouaaaony oaeaea iiaiea ?aaaiea.
Ainnoaiiaeaiea ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aaiioiioaiee eiaao naiae iniiaiie
caaea/ae ia ia?aaea/o ?aaaiea ia ainieoaiea ?iaeeoaeyi, a
i?aaeinoaaeaiea aio aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey io ieo aeeiaioia. I?e ioiaia
onuiiaeaiey ?aaaiie a i?eioeeia iiaeao auoue ia?aaeai naiei ?iaeeoaeyi.
Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea yoi, eae i?aaeei, ia niioaaonoaoao aai eioa?anai.
Anee ?iaeeoaee au?aceee niaeanea ia onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea e i?ae?auaiea
anyeie nayce n iei, ainnoaiiaeaiea ?iaeeoaeueneeo ioiioaiee iiieii eo
aiee ia iiaeao naeaeaoue eo iaaeeaaeaueie ainieoaoaeyie ?aaaiea. Iiyoiio
/aua anaai i?e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey ?aaaiie a?aiaiii ia?aaeaaony i?aaiai
iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho aai ono?ienoai a
ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiii aeey ono?ienoaa aeaoae, eeoaiiuo
?iaeeoaeueneiai iiia/aiey.

A neo/aa ioiaiu onuiiaeaiey noae ai?aaa acuneaoue n auaoaai onuiiaeoaey
aeeiaiou a iieueco ?aaaiea. A ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai e?eoa?ey, eioi?ue
aeieaeai eniieueciaaoue noae i?e ?aoaiee yoiai aii?ina, caeii iacuaaao
eioa?anu ?aaaiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeeiaiou acuneeaathony, anee ?aaaiie
ioaeaeaaony a iieo/aiee niaea?aeaiey io onuiiaeoaey. I?enoaeaeaiea
aeeiaioia ia i?iecaiaeeony, iai?eia?, anee ?aaaiie aica?auaaony e
?iaeeoaeyi, eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue aai naie, eee anee ii ?aaioaao
eee caieiaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth e iaania/eaaao
naay nai. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey i acuneaiee aeeiaioia a i?eioeeia ia caaeneo
io i?e/ei, ii eioi?ui auea i?iecaaaeaia ioiaia onuiiaeaiey, e io aeiu
onuiiaeoaeae a aai ioiaia. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi aeeiaiou ii naiae
i?aaiaie i?e?iaea ia yaeythony ia?aie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aaeeinoaaiiay
oeaeue eo iacia/aiey — niaea?aeaiea ?aaaiea. Iineieueeo i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe onuiiaeoaeae eaeaioe/iu ?iaeeoaeueneei, aeeiaiou
acuneeaathony n auaoeo onuiiaeoaeae ii i?aaeeai i acuneaiee n ?iaeeoaeae
aeeiaioia ia niaea?aeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae.

I?e ioiaia onuiiaeaiey aicieeaao aii?in i nio?aiaiee ca ?aaaieii
i?enaiaiiuo aio i?e onuiiaeaiee iiauo eiaie, oaieeee e io/anoaa,
eciaiaiiuo aeaou e ianoa ?iaeaeaiey. Noae ai?aaa nio?aieoue ca ?aaaieii
eiy, oaieeeth e io/anoai, anee yoi niioaaonoaoao aai eioa?anai. Oi aea
naiia eanaaony e aeaou e ianoa ?iaeaeaiey. Iiaiea onuiiaeoaey ii iiaiaeo
nio?aiaiey ca ?aaaieii aai oaieeee e io/anoaa cia/aiey ia eiaao.
Eciaiaiea eiaie, oaieeee e io/anoaa ?aaaiea, aeinoeaoaai 10-eaoiaai
aic?anoa, aac aai niaeaney iaaiciiaeii. Oioy a caeiia e iaa i?yiiai
oeacaiey ia yoi, i?aaeei ia iaycaoaeueiii iieo/aiee niaeaney ?aaaiea
neaaeoao ?ani?ino?aieoue e ia eciaiaiea aeaou e ianoa aai ?iaeaeaiey.

7.Onuiiaeaiea aeaoae eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie.

Aii?in onuiiaeaiey aeaoae eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie caieiaao iniaia
ianoi a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Anee a?aaeaeaiei ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oi/ao onuiiaeoue
?aaaiea-a?aaeaeaieia ae?oaie no?aiu (a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia?aaeei
i?ienoiaeeo onuiiaeaiea aeaoae ec no?ai “aeeaeiaai ca?oaaaeuey”, a
oaeaea ae?oaeo aeaoae — eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai, i?iaeeaathueo ii oai eee
eiui i?e/eiai a ?innee), aio iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue niaeanea caeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey ?aaaiea (aai ?iaeeoaeae, iiaeoiia, iiia/eoaeae) e
?ac?aoaiea eiiiaoaioiiai i?aaia no?aiu, a?aaeaeaieiii eioi?ie yaeyaony
?aaaiie, a oaeaea, anee yoi o?aaoaony a niioaaonoaee n iaoeeiiaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaa, niaeanea ?aaaiea ia onuiiaeaiea.

Anee aea ?aaaiea, a?aaeaeaieia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, iinoiyiii
i?iaeeaathuaai a ae?oaii ainoaea?noaa, ecuyaeyao aeaeaiea onuiiaeoue
eiino?aiiue a?aaeaeaiei (eae i?aaeei, io/ei, ia/aoa ?aaaiea), aeey
i?iaaaeaiey onuiiaeaiey o?aaoaony iieo/aiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
?ac?aoaiey ia onuiiaeaiea niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaia eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe noauaeoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai ?aaaiie
eee aai ?iaeeoaee (iaeei ec ieo ) i?iaeeaaee aei auacaea ca i?aaeaeu
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

I?aeiouanoai i?e onuiiaeaiee ioaeaaony a?aaeaeaiai ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. A niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 3 noaouee 124 NE onuiiaeaiea
?aaaiea eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie eee eeoeaie aac a?aaeaeainoaa
aeiioneaaony oieueei a neo/ayo, eiaaea ieacuaaaony iaaiciiaeiui
ia?aaeaoue aeaoae ia ainieoaiea a naiuee ?inneeneeo a?aaeaeai, iinoiyiii
i?iaeeaathueo a ?innee. Eneeth/aiea aeaeaaony oieueei aeey
?iaenoaaiieeia ?aaaiea, eioi?ua eiatho i?aeiouanoaa i?e aai onuiiaeaiee
iacaaeneii io oiai, aaea iie i?iaeeaatho e a?aaeaeaiaie eaeie no?aiu
yaeythony. Onuiiaeaiea aeaoae a?aaeaeaiaie ae?oaiai ainoaea?noaa
iieo/eei ?ani?ino?aiaiea iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Oaaee/eeinue oae
iacuaaaiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia onuiiaeaiea iinea ieii/aiey aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee a Naaa?iie Ei?aa, eiaaea iiiaeo ec ine?ioaaoeo ei?aeneeo
aeaoae-ne?io onuiiaeyee iieeaeaaoea yoo no?aio aia?eeaineea
aiaiiineoaeauea. Eae neaaeothuee yoai a ?acaeoee onuiiaeaiey aeaoae
eiino?aioeaie ?anniao?eaathony 60-a aiaeu, eiaaea iiyaeeanue oaiaeaioeey
e onuiiaeaieth aeaoae ec no?ai, inaiaiaeeaoeony io eieiieaeueiie
caaeneiinoe. E eiioeo 80-o e ia/aeo 90-o aiaeia ana /aua noaee a?aoue ia
onuiiaeaiea aeaoae ec iaeioi?uo aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, iniaaiii ec
?oiuiee, aaea iiaeii auei ioi?ieoue onuiiaeaiea o iioa?eona eae i?inooth
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaoth naeaeeo. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu iaeioi?ua
aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa i?iyaeee i?eno?anoea e onuiiaeaieth aeaoae ec
ii?aaeaeaiiuo no?ai. Iai?eia?, a?aaeaeaia Aeaiee onuiiaeytho aeaaiui
ia?acii aeaai/ae eo THaeiie Ei?ae. A Ethenaiao?aa onuiiaeyaony iiiai
aeaoae — auoiaeoeaa ec no?ai THaeiie Aia?eee, Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu.

Oaaee/aiea ianooaaia onuiiaeaiey, auaic onuiiaeaiiuo ec no?aiu iinoaaeee
ia iiaanoeo aeiy ?aoaiea i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n aieaa ouaoaeueiie i?aaiaie
?aaeaiaioaoeeae onuiiaeaiey aeaoae eiino?aioeaie. Oaeay caaea/a aicieeea
e a ?innee, eoaea ia?aoeee naie acaeyae a?aaeaeaia NOA, Eoaeee,
Neaiaeeiaaneeo e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa. A i?e/ei aeey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii:
?ino /enea aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae, n?aaee eioi?uo
iaiaei eiaaeeaeia; nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iio?ynaiey, ia iicaieythuea
aeieaeiui ia?acii iaania/eoue ii?iaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea yoeo aeaoae. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, ana aieueoa noaiiaeony eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua
ii/aio-eeai ia iiaoo onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea a naiae no?aia. Iaeia ec i?e/ei
a aieaa aeanoeea, /ai a ?innee, oneiaey onuiiaeaiey a nianoaaiiie
no?aia. Iai?eia?, a Ieaea?eaiaeao onuiiaeaiea ?ac?aoaaony oieueei
aeaiaoui ia?ai n a?a/iui noaaeai ia iaiaa iyoe eao. A Eniaiee eeoei,
onuiiaeythuaa ?aaaiea, aeieaeii auoue ia iieiaea 25 eao. A O?A iinea
anooieaiey a neeo a 1991 a. Caeiia «I aeaaiiieo/ee aeaoae» oaeanoi/ai
ii?yaeie onuiiaeaiey i?aaeoniao?eaaaony oaieiaiia iaeacaiea ca oi?aiaeth
aeaoueie, eioi?ay i?aeoeeoaony a ioiioaiee aeaoae, i?eaiceiuo ec
?acaeaathueony no?ai. Onuiiaeaiea caeanue oiaea ?ac?aoaaony oieueei
noi?oaeaneei ia?ai.

Ia ia iineaaeiai ianoa n?aaee niia?aaeaiee, ii eioi?ui eiino?aiiua
a?aaeaeaia au?aaeatho aeaeaiea onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea ec ?innee, —
iiaoaeaeaiea noaoai i?aanoaaiiiai naienoaa, eiaaea ieeina?aeea e
ine?ioaaoaio, iiiaaoaio a aaaenoaaiiia iieiaeaiea ?aaaieo ia ioaeaeaaony
a iauyniaiee. E oiio aea iiiaea eiino?aioeu, aeaeathuea onuiiaeoue
?inneeneiai ?aaaiea, ?onneea ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth. E iaeiiaoe, /oi ia
iaiaa aaaeii, aei?iao e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio onuiiaeaieth iaeaa/eea no. 21
Eiiaaioeee i i?aaao ?aaaiea, ?anniao?eaathuay onuiiaeaiea eae iaeeo/oee
niinia oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioa?ania ?aaaiea.

Ii /ai ana-oaee iiaeii iauynieoue iiauoaiiue eioa?an eiino?aiiuo
a?aaeaeai eiaiii e ?inneeneei aeaoyi-ne?ioai?

Anee eiaoue a aeaeo,/oi eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia-onuiiaeoaee i?aneaaeotho
a ?innee eaeoth-oi auaiaeo, /aai iao a eo no?aiao, oi oau yoi ioeaea. Ia
onuiiaeaiea eiino?aioeai ia?aaeathony oieueei oa
aeaoe-ne?iou,onuiiaeaiea eioi?uo ?inneeneeie a?aaeaeaiaie iaaiciiaeii.
*oi yoi ca aeaoe? Eae i?aaeei, eiaaeeaeu. Ecaanoai neo/ae, eiaaea
noi?oaeaneay ia?a ec Ooaoia, o eioi?ie oaea auee aeaia onuiiaeaiiuo
aeaoae, ecuyaeea aeaeaiea oaei/a?eoue iaeaiueeoth aeaai/eo. Naiuey auea
aanueia iaania/aiiay, ioae-a?a/, oe?o?a. Eiae aunieee, noaaeeueiue
aeioiae. Ii, o yoie aeaai/ee iaeiiai ooea ia auei nianai, ae?oaia,
iaaei?acaeoia, iaoiaeeeinue ia oaa.Ieeoi a ?innee oaei/a?eoue aa ia
iiaeaeae. Iia?aoeey ae i?aaenoiyea neiaeiaeoay, e ia iaeia. Noieo yoi
aaniineiaiuo aeaiaa. E, anoanoaaiii, onuiiaeoaeue, a?a/, yoi iiieiae. E,
oai ia iaiaa, ?aaaiea iie caa?aee.

Ana yoi aianoa acyoia iauyniyao oi, /oi onuiiaeaiea ?aaaiea —
?inneeneiai a?aaeaeaieia e ?aaeeei niauoeyi ia ioiineony, i /ai aiai?yo
aeaiiua noaoenoeee. Iai?eia?, a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ninoiyeinue oae
iacuaaaiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo onuiiaeaiee: a 1993 a. — 1485, a 1994 a. —
2196, a 1995 a. — 1497, a 1996 a. — 3251.

Onuiiaeaiea ?inneeneeo aeaoae a?aaeaeaiaie ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa
iiae/eiyaony ?yaeo o?aaiaaiee, eneeth/athueo naiaiaeiia ?anii?yaeaiea
noaeueaie ?aaaiea. Nouanoaiaaiea yoeo i?aaee iauyniyaony, a /anoiinoe,
no?aieaieai i?aaeioa?aoeoue i?aa?auaiea aeaoae a oiaa?, a i?aaeiao
iaaeeau oaie, eoi aioia niaa?oeoue oaeia i?anooieaiea.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iinoaiaiii i?ienoiaeeo ana aieueoaa naeeaeaiea naiuee, iniiaaiiie ia
?iaenoaa, e naiuee, iniiaaiiie ia onuiiaeaiee. ?aiaa yoi naeeaeaiea a
iniiaiii i?ienoiaeeei ca n/ao i?eaeeaeaiey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiuie e onuiiaeoaeyie e i?aaiaiio
?aaoee?iaaieth ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie e aeaoueie, a naii
onuiiaeaiea eiino?oe?iaaeinue ii iiaeaee e?iaii-?iaenoaaiiie naiuee. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaiaua iniiaaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie e
aeaoueie ana aieaa i?eaeeaeathony e i?aaiaui iniiaaieyi onuiiaeaiey.
Anee ?aiaa e?iaii-?iaenoaaiiay naiuey anaaaea iniiauaaeanue ia
aeieiae/aneii i?ienoiaeaeaiee, oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, a neo/ayo, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii, ?iaeeoaeyie ?aaaiea
n/eoathony eeoea, ia eiathuea n iei aaiaoe/aneie nayce. Iai?eia?, i?e
i?eiaiaiee oaoiieiaee eneonnoaaiiiai iieiaeioai?aiey, no??iaaoiiai
iaoa?einoaa, i?e i?eciaiee iooeianoaa eeoeii, ciathuei, /oi a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii ia yaeyaony iooeii ?aaaiea. Oaeei ia?acii,
nioeeaeueiia iooeianoai e iaoa?einoai iieo/aao oaeia aea i?aai ia
nouanoaiaaiea, eae aeieiae/aneia. N oi/ee c?aiey nioeeieiaee onuiiaeaiea
oaeaea yaeyaony iaeiie eo ?aciiaeaeiinoae nioeeaeueiiai iooeianoaa eee
iaoa?einoaa. Iaeiaei, anee i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe onuiiaeoaeae i?aeoe/anee
eaeaioe/iu ?iaeeoaeueneei, oi oaeoe/aneea ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a
i?ioeanna onuiiaeaiey, ia anaaaea iaiiieiatho ?iaeeoaeueneea. A oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea ?aaaiie n/eoaao onuiiaeoaeae naieie ?iaeeoaeyie, eo
ioiioaiey ie/ai ia ioee/athony io ?iaenoaaiiuo. Anee aea ?aaaiie ciaao i
oii, /oi onuiiaeoaee ia aai ?iaeeoaee, oaeoe/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ieie iiaoo auoue ianeieueei eiuie. Aaconeiaii, ciaiea ia ionoonoaee
aeieiae/aneie nayce i?eia?aoaao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana iaiueoaa cia/aiea.
Anee onuiiaeoaee ainieouaaee ?aaaiea a oa/aiea anae aai aeecie, naii ii
naaa iaia?oaeaiea oaeoa ionoonoaey e?iaiiai ?iaenoaa, eae i?aaeei,
ie/aai ia eciaiyao a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieie e ?aaaieii. Iaeiaei, anee
?aaaiie onuiiaeai oaea a iiae?inoeiaii aic?anoa, anoanoaaiii, /oi ii ia
iiaeao n/eoaoue oaeeo onuiiaeoaeae naieie ?iaeeoaeyie. Iiyoiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeieaeii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iooai nio?aiaiey oaeiu
onuiiaeaiey iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue oai, aaea yoi aiciiaeii, nicaeaiey
aeaeeiinoe e?iaii-?iaenoaaiiie naiuee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oai, aaea
ionoonoaea ?iaenoaaiiie nayce i/aaeaeii, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aeieaeii
eneonnoaaiii iiaeaee?iaaoue ioiioaiey onuiiaeaiey ii ia?aco e iiaeiaeth
e?iaiie naiuee.

A nayce n auoaneacaiiui ia ana eciaiaiey, aianaiiua iiaui Naiaeiui
eiaeaenii a einoeooo onuiiaeaiey, iaeeiaeiai oaea/iu. Caneoaeeaaao
iiaeaea?aeee nio?aiaiea i?aaiauo aa?aioee, iaania/eaathueo oaeio
onuiiaeaiey. Neiaeiinoe n oaeiie onuiiaeaiey aicieeee iioiio, /oi a
niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 7 Eiiaaioeee i i?aaao ?aaaiea, ?aaaiie eiaao
i?aai, «ianeieueei yoi aiciiaeii, ciaoue naieo ?iaeeoaeae». Yoi
iieiaeaiea Eiiaaioeee noi?ioee?iaaii aeinoaoi/ii iyaei,iii ia iaeaaaao
ia ainoaea?noaa-o/anoieee aaconeiaiie iaycaiiinoe i?aaeinoaaeoue ?aaaieo
i?aai iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i naieo aeieiae/aneeo ?iaeeoaeyo. Oai ia
iaiaa Eiiaaioeey oi?ioee?oao oaeia i?aai e i?ecuaaao ainoaea?noaa
iaania/eaaoue aai inouanoaeaiea. A ?acoeueoaoa nio?aiaiea oaeiu
onuiiaeaiey ieacaeinue i?iaeaiaoe/iui. Iaeiaei aeiaiaeu ca aa nio?aiaiea
ii-i?aaeiaio ia?aaaoeaatho a?aoiaiou a iieueco aa ioiaiu. Nio?aiaiea
oaeiu onuiiaeaiey a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ioaa/aao
eioa?anai e onuiiaeoaeae, e ?aaaiea. Onuiiaeyy ?aaaiea, onuiiaeoaee
ia?aaeei caeioa?aniaaiu a oii, /oiau o ?aaaiea e o anao ie?oaeathueo ia
aicieeaei niiiaiee a oii, /oi iie aai ?iaeeoaee. ?ane?uoea yoeo
naaaeaiee iiieii eo aiee iiaeao i?e/eieoue iaiii?aaeiue a?aae eo
ioiioaieyi n ?aaaieii e i?e/eieoue ei e ?aaaieo oyaeaeoth o?aaio.

Iaiaa oaea/iui i?aaenoaaeyaony aaaaeaiea a naiaeiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
?yaea iieiaeaiee, i?ecaaiiuo naeaeaoue naiueth, iniiaaiioth ia
onuiiaeaiee, iaeneiaeueii iioiaeae ia naiueth, iniiaaiioth ia ?iaenoaa.
A iiaii Eiaeaena i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, iai?eia?, /oi iaaeaeo onuiiaeoaeai
e onuiiaeaiiui aeieaeia auoue ?acieoea a aic?anoa ia iaiaa 16 eao. Oaeay
?acieoea a aic?anoa iau/ii nouanoaoao i?e aeieiae/aneii i?ienoiaeaeaiee
?aaaiea io ?iaeeoaeae, ii i?e onuiiaeaiee, anee ?aaaiie e eiua eeoea
inaaaeiieaiu i oii, /oi onuiiaeoaee ia yaeythony aai ?iaeeoaeyie, aa
nouanoaiaaiea ia eiaao ieeaeiai niunea e eeoue i?eaiaeeo e
iaii?aaaeaiiiio noaeaieth e?oaa eeoe, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue onuiiaeoaeyie.

Oaeaea, a ea/anoaa caeeth/aiey, y oioaea au ?anniio?aoue i?aaiaua
iineaaenoaey onuiiaeaiey ?aaaiea.

I?aaiaay i?e?iaea onuiiaeaiey ninoieo a iieiii i?e?aaieaaiee
onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea a ee/iuo e eiouanoaaiiuo i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo e
?iaeiui aeaoyi onuiiaeoaey ia iniiaaiee i?iecaaaeaiiiai a niioaaonoaee n
o?aaiaaieyie caeiia onuiiaeaiey. TH?eaee/aneee aeo onuiiaeaiey
onoaiaaeeaaao eae aeey onuiiaeoaey (e aai ?iaenoaaiieeia), oae e aeey
onuiiaeaiiiai (e aai iioiinoaa) i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, i?aaeoniio?aiiua
caeiiii a ioiioaiee ?iaeeoaeae e aeaoae, naycaiiuo e?iaiui ?iaenoaii.

Enoiaey ec niunea caeiia, onuiiaeoaee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iaaeaeythony
?iaeeoaeueneeie i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie, eioi?ua oo?a/eaatho e?iaiua
?iaeeoaee ?aaaiea. O?aaiaaiea caeiia, iaycuaathuaa ?iaeeoaeae
ainieouaaoue naieo aeaoae, caaioeoueny ia eo caei?iauea, oece/aneii,
ineoe/aneii, aeooiaiii e i?aanoaaiiii ?acaeoee, a iieiie ia?a ioiineony
e e onuiiaeoaeyi, aeia?iaieueii aa?ouei ia naay iaycaiiinoe ii
ainieoaieth onuiiaeaiiiai eie ?aaaiea.

Onuiiaeoaee, oae aea eae ?iaeeoaee, iaycaiu iaoa?eaeueii niaea?aeaoue
naieo onuiiaeaiiuo aeaoae. I?e ceinoiii oeeiiaiee io oieaou aeeiaioia
onuiiaeoaee iiaoo auoue i?eaea/aiu e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia
iniiaaiee no. 157 OE. Onuiiaeaiiua aeaoe, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaycaiu
caaioeoueny i naieo i?eaiiuo ?iaeeoaeyo (onuiiaeoaeyo) e ieacuaaoue ei
iiiiuue. Niaea?aeaiea iao?oaeiniiniaiuo, ioaeaeathueony a iiiiue
onuiiaeoaeae yaeyaony iaycaiiinoueth eo niaa?oaiiieaoieo o?oaeiniiniaiuo
onuiiaeaiiuo aeaoae. I?e yoii ia eiaao i?aaiaiai cia/aiey oio oaeo, /oi
onuiiaeaiea ia yaeyaony oaeiie aeey onuiiaeaiiiai eee onuiiaeoaee ia
caienaiu a ea/anoaa ?iaeeoaeae.

Onuiiaeaiiue, a oaeaea onuiiaeoaeue (e aai ?iaenoaaiieee) i?eia?aoatho a
?acoeueoaoa onuiiaeaiey ia oieueei i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, auoaeathuea ec
naiaeiuo ioiioaiee, ii e ana oa i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniio?aiu ii?iaie ae?oaeo io?aneae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iaeiei ec
iniiaaiee aeey aicieeiiaaiey eioi?uo yaeyaony oaeo ?iaenoaa. Oae, a
niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie ianeaaenoaaiiiai i?aaa i?e ianeaaeiaaiee ii
caeiio onuiiaeaiiua ii ioiioaieth e onuiiaeoaeyi, a onuiiaeoaee ii
ioiioaieth e onuiiaeaiiui yaeythony ianeaaeieeaie ia?aie i/a?aaee.
Onuiiaeoaee, yaeyynue caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo
onuiiaeaiiuo aeaoae, niaa?oatho a?aaeaeaineea naeaeee io eiaie aeaoae,
ia aeinoeaoeo 14 eao (iaeieaoieo), eee aeatho niaeanea ia niaa?oaiea
naeaeie aeaoueie a aic?anoa io 14 aei 18 eao. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
onuiiaeoaeae ii ?anii?yaeaieth eiouanoaii aeaoae ii?aaeaeythony niaeanii
AE (no. 37) e NE. Onuiiaeoaee ioaa/atho ca a?aae, i?e/eiaiiue
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei ?aaaieii, ia aeinoeaoei 14 eao, anee ia aeieaaeoo,
/oi a?aae aiciee ia ii eo aeia, a oaeaea ianoo noaneaeea?ioth
(aeiiieieoaeueioth) ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca a?aae, i?e/eiaiiue aeaoueie a
aic?anoa io 14 aei 18 eao, i?e ionoonoaee o aeaoae aeioiaeia eee eiiai
eiouanoaa, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey aiciauaiey a?aaea.

Onuiiaeaiiue iiaeao auoue anaeai a aeeeia iiiauaiea onuiiaeoaey
iacaaeneii io ?acia?a caieiaaiie ei aeeeie ieiuaaee e aac niaeaney
ae?oaeo iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathueo n onuiiaeoaeai /eaiia naiuee.

Iniiauaaynue ia i?eioeeia iieiiai i?e?aaieaaiey onuiiaeaiiuo e ?iaeiui
aeaoyi onuiiaeoaey, a oaeaea ?oeiaiaenoaoynue i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneeie
niia?aaeaieyie, caeii cai?auaao a?aee iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui e
onuiiaeoaeai. Ae?oaea ?iaenoaaiiua nayce, nicaeaaaaiua a ?acoeueoaoa
onuiiaeaiey, ia yaeythony i?aiyonoaeai e caeeth/aieth a?aea. Oae, iiaeao
auoue caeeth/ai a?ae iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui e ?iaeiie aei/a?ueth
onuiiaeoaey.

A oi aea a?aiy, ianiio?y ia iieiia i?ae?auaiea i?aaiauo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui e aai e?iaiuie ?iaenoaaiieeaie, nai oaeo ?iaenoaa,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e i?aiyonoaey aeieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a aeey caeeth/aiey
a?aea nio?aiythony. Iiyoiio, ianiio?y ia onuiiaeaiea, oaeo e?iaiiai
?iaenoaa inoaaony i?aiyonoaeai aeey caeeth/aiey a?aea iaaeaeo aeeceeie
?iaenoaaiieeaie, oeacaiiuie a no. 14 NE.

Ii iauaio i?aaeeo i?aaiaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui ?aaaieii e
?iaeeoaeyie i?ae?auathony n iiiaioa onuiiaeaiey aacioiineoaeueii e oiio,
onuiiaeaiee ?aaaiie noi?oaaie niaianoii eee iaeiei ec ieo.. Iaeiaei i?e
onuiiaeaiee ?aaaiea iaeiei eeoeii caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiua
eneeth/aiey ec iauaai i?aaeea. Oae, iiaoo auoue nio?aiaiu i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe iaoa?e (ii aa aeaeaieth), anee onuiiaeoaeai yaeyaony
ioae/eia, eee iooea, anee onuiiaeoaeai yaeyaony aeaiueia, eae a
ioiioaiee naiiai ?aaaiea, oae e a ioiioaiee aai ?iaenoaaiieeia. Oaeia
iieiaeaiea, eae i?aaeei, eiaao ianoi, eiaaea ?aaaiea onuiiaeyao io/ei
eee ia/aoa. A yoeo neo/ayo ca iaoa?ueth eee iooeii iieiinoueth
nio?aiythony ana i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ?iaeeoaey. Nio?aiaiea i?aa ca
?iaeeoaeai ae?oaiai, /ai onuiiaeoaeue, iiea aeiioneaaony ia oieueei a
neo/ayo, eiaaea onuiiaeoaeue anooiaao a a?ae n iaoa?ueth (iooeii)
?aaaiea, ii e a ae?oaeo neo/ayo, eiaaea yoi ia i?ioeai?a/eo eioa?anai
?aaaiea. Iai?eia?, ?aaaiea onuiiaeyao aeyaey – a?ao oia?oaai iooea,
onuiiaeyao iaeeiieay aeaiueia e onuiiaeoaeue ia aic?aaeaao i?ioea
nio?aiaiey i?aaiaie nayce n iooeii (iaoa?ueth) ?aaaiea e o. i.

NE, eae e ?aiaa EiAN, aeiioneaao aiciiaeiinoue nio?aiaiey i?aaiauo
ioiioaiee onuiiaeaiiiai ?aaaiea e n ae?oaeie aeeceeie ?iaenoaaiieeaie.
Ii i?inueaa ?iaeeoaeae oia?oaai iooea (iaoa?e) ?aaaiea, oi anoue
aeaaeooee (aaaooee) ?aaaiea, iiaoo auoue nio?aiaiu i?aaiaua ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ieie e eo aioeii (aio/eie). Yoi iieiaeaiea io?aaeaao aoiaiiinoue
naiaeiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, uaaeyuaai /oanoaa ethaeae, iioa?yaoeo nuia
(aei/ue) e aeaeathueo nio?aieoue oioy au aioeia. Oaeia ?aoaiea aiciiaeii
e i?e ionoonoaee niaeaney onuiiaeoaey (i?ioeaiiieiaeiia ?aoaiea
i?aaeoniao?eaae EiAN). Ii?aaeaeythuei iiiaioii yaeyaony iaania/aiea
eioa?ania onuiiaeyaiiai ?aaaiea. Iai?eia?, noae iiaeao i?eiyoue ?aoaiea
i nio?aiaiee i?aaiaie nayce ?aaaiea n aeaaeooeie (aaaooeie) a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea ?aaaiie ciaao eo e i?eaycai e iei, a i?ae?auaiea
eiioaeoia n ieie iiaeao iaianoe aio oyaeaeoth ineoieiae/aneoth o?aaio.

Ec iauaai i?aaeea i iieiie oo?aoa onuiiaeaiiui ?aaaieii anao
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, iniiaaiiuo ia oaeoa ?iaenoaa (ni. no. 137 NE),
eiaaony iaeii nouanoaaiiia eneeth/aiea, i?aaeoniio?aiiia eiiiaioe?oaiie
noaoueae. Anee e iiiaioo onuiiaeaiey ?aaaiie eiae i?aai ia iaineth eee
iiniaea, iieaaathuaany ii neo/ath iioa?e ei?ieeueoea, ii nio?aiyao yoi
i?aai oaeaea e i?e aai onuiiaeaiee. Aiaeiae/iia i?aaeei i?aaeoniio?aii
iaineiiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
?iaeeoaee (eee iaeei ec ieo) oie?atho aei i?iecaiaenoaa onuiiaeaiey,
iainey eee iiniaea ii neo/ath iioa?e ei?ieeueoea iiaoo auoue iacia/aiu e
iinea onuiiaeaiey. Anee nia?oue ?iaeeoaeae ianooieea iinea i?iecaiaenoaa
onuiiaeaiey, iainey (iiniaea) iacia/aiu auoue ia iiaoo.

I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe a oeaeyo iaania/aiey oaeiu onuiiaeaiey i?e/eoathueany
?aaaieo noiiu iiaoo ia?aaiaeeoueny a aaie ia n/ao, ioe?uoue ia eiy
?aaaiea.

Ca i?aaeaeaie eneeth/aiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo noaoueyie 137 e 138 NE,
iinea onuiiaeaiey ieeaeeo acaeiiuo ee/iuo e eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo onuiiaeaiiui e aai ?iaenoaaiieeaie ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth ia nouanoaoao. A iieueco onuiiaeaiiuo iaeuecy acuneaoue
aeeiaiou n eo e?iaiuo ?iaeeoaeae, a ?iaeeoaee, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia
ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue auieaou n?aaenoa ia naia niaea?aeaiea io naieo
niaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae, onuiiaeaiiuo ae?oaeie eeoeaie. Onuiiaeaiiua
aeaoe e eo e?iaiua ?iaeeoaee ia yaeythony ii caeiio e ianeaaeieeaie
ae?oa ae?oaa.

Ii ianiio?y ie ia /oi, onuiiaeaiea yaeyaony iaeeo/oei aeaeii naiaeiiai
ainieoaiey aeaoae, iineieueeo oiaaea aeaoe ieacuaathony a oneiaeyo,
iaeaieaa aeeceeo e oai, eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony a naiuea, iniiaaiiie ia
?iaenoaa.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?NON? (1964 a.)

2.Eiiiaioa?ee e Naiaeiiio eiaeaeno ?O/ Ioa.?aae.
E.I.Eociaoeiaa.I.,1996 a.

3.Eiiiaioa?ee e A?aaeaeaineiio eiaeaeno ?O/ Ioa.?aae.
I.I.Naaeeeia.I.,1997 a.

4.Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?O.I.,1997 a.

Caeii ?O io 21.08.1996 a. ? 124-OC «I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a
A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen ?NON?»

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 15.09.1995a. ?917 « Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee
iieiaeaiey i ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e aeaoae, yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ia onuiiaeaiea a?aaeaeaiai ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee e eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai»

7.Iinoaiiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 01.05.1996 a. ?542 «Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee Ia?a/iy caaieaaaiee,i?e iaee/ee eioi?uo eeoei ia iiaeao
onuiiaeoue ?aaaiea,i?eiyoue aai iiae iiaeo(iiia/eoaeuenoai),acyoue a
i?eaiioth naiueth»

8. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 3.08.1996a. ? 919 «I ii?yaeea
i?aaiecaoeee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai o/aoa aeaoae, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey
?iaeeoaeae»

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa Iineau io 11.06.1996a. ?492 «I ii?yaeea
ia?aaea/e aeaoae ia onuiiaeaiea a a.Iineaa»

Aioieieueneay I.A. Naiaeiia i?aai.I.,1997 a.

11.Eaauoaa I.A.Onuiiaeaiea.Iiaea e iiia/eoaeuenoai iaae
aeaoueie.I.,1998a.

Ia/aaaa A.I. Naiaeiia i?aai.I.,1998 a.

Aecoaaaaa A.C. Onuiiaeaiea aeaoae a ?O// TH?eaee/aneee ie?.1997.?8

14.Aethaeaaa I.A. I?iaeaiu caeiiaaeaoaeuenoaa i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
onuiiaeaiee// Ainoaea?noai e i?aai.1995.?6

I?eeiaeaiea ?1

Ooaa?aeaeai

Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

io 1 iay 1996 ?542

IA?A*AIUe

CAAIEAAAIEE, I?E IAEE*EE EIOI?UO EEOeI IA IIAEAO ONUIIAEOUe ?AAAIEA,
I?EIssOUe AAI IIAe IIAEO (IIIA*EOAEUeNOAI), ACssOUe A I?EAIIOTH NAIUeTH

Ooaa?eoeac (aeoeaiue e o?iie/aneee) anao oi?i eieaeecaoeee o aieueiuo 1,
2,5 a?oii aeeniaina?iiai o/aoa

Caaieaaaiey aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, ia?aiie nenoaiu, iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai
aiia?aoa a noaaeee aeaeiiiainaoeee

Ceiea/anoaaiiua iieieiae/aneea caaieaaaiey anao eieaeecaoeee

Ia?eiiaiey, oieneeiiaiey, aeeiaieeci

Eioaeoeeiiiua caaieaaaiey aei niyoey n aeeniaina?iiai o/aoa

Ineoe/aneea caaieaaaiey, i?e eioi?uo aieueiua i?eciaiu a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea iaaeaaniiniaiuie eee ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiuie

Ana caaieaaaiey e o?aaiu, i?eaaaeoea e eiaaeeaeiinoe 1 e 2 a?oiiu,
eneeth/athuea o?oaeiniiniaiinoue.

I?EEIAEAIEA ?2

e Ii?yaeeo i?aaiecaoeee

oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai o/aoa aeaoae,

inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae

AEO?IAE

ia?ae/iiai o/aoa ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, inoaaoeony aac iiia/aiey
?iaeeoaeae

________________________________________________________________________
_______

(i?aai iiaee e iiia/eoaeuenoaa)

________________________________________________________________________
_______

(?anioaeeee, e?ay, iaeanoe)

Ia/ao___________________________________________________________________
_______

Ieii/ai_________________________________________________________________
_______

? Aeaoa Io eiai Oaie- *enei Caiy- Naaaeaiey i Aae?an Eoi Aeae Aeaoa I?e-

i/i i?eiy- iinoo- eey, ianyoe oea ?iaeeoaeyo (ianoi ino- ono?ie- ono-
ia/a-

oey ieee eiy. e aiae ?aaai oaie ianoi aee- uano- noaa e ?ie- iea

?aaaiea naaaeaiey io/a- ?iae- ea eey. eo oaeue- aeyao aai aae?an noaa

noai aeaiey

eiy. ia- noaa) i?e- iinea

?aaai- ?aaai-

io/a- oiae- ?aaai niio? ono?ie-

.

ea ea

noai aeaiey ea ca noaa

iaoa-

?aaai ?aaaiea

?e e

eii

iooea

I?eeiaeaiea ?3.

Eiae oi?iu ii IEOAe_______

Eiae o/?aaeaeaiey ii IEII______

Ieienoa?noai cae?aaiio?aiaiey
Iaaeeoeeineay aeieoiaioaoeey

e iaaeeoeeineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
Oi?ia ?162/o ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

___________________________

(Iaeiaiiaaiea o/?aaeaeaiey )

IAAeEOeEINEIA CAEETH*AIEA

IA ?AAAIEA, IA?AAeAAAAIIAI IA AINIEOAIEA A NAIUeTH, II ?ACOEUeOAOAI
IACAAENEIIAI IAAeEOeEINEIAI INAEAeAOAEUeNOAIAAIEss

O.E.I. ?aaaiea _______________________________________________________

Aeaoa ?iaeaeaiey _______________________________________________________
Iaeiaiiaaiea e aae?an aeaoneiai o/?aaeaeaiey, aaea iaoiaeeeny
?aaaiie______

______________________________________________________________________

CAEETH*AIEA

Iniiaiie aeeaaiic_____________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Niioonoaothuea caaieaaaiey____________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aeaeueiaeoaio iaaethaeaieth ca
?aaaieii___________________

_______________________________________________________________________

Inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea i?iaaaeaii a?a/aaiie eiienneae a ninoaaa
I?aaenaaeaoaeue (?oeiaiaeeoaeue o/?aaeaeaiey) ________________________

/eaiu eiiennee _____________________________________________________

io «__» _____________________199___aiae

Ianoi ia/aoe

Oaieeeth,eiy,io/anoai,niaoeeaeueiinoue,iiaeienue(?acai?/eai).

_______________________________________________________________________

Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e aeaoae,yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie ?O,ia
onuiiaeaiea a?aaeaeaiai ?O e eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai a a.
Iineaa.I?eeiaeaiea e iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa io 11.06.1996a. ?
492.

Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e aeaoae,yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie ?O,ia
onuiiaeaiea a?aaeaeaiai ?O e eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai a a.
Iineaa.I?eeiaeaiea e iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa io 11.06.1996a. ?
492.

Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e aeaoae,yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie ?O,ia
onuiiaeaiea a?aaeaeaiai ?O e eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai a a.
Iineaa.I?eeiaeaiea e iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa io 11.06.1996a. ?
492.

Ni. i. 2 no. 139 NE ?O, no.155 OE ?O .

Ni. No.136 NE ?O.

Ni. No.134 NE ?O.

Ni. No.135 NE ?O.

Ni. No.140 NE ?O.

Ni. No.141 NE ?O.

Oai aea

Ni. No.144 NE ?O.

Ni. No.142 NE ?O.

Ni. no.532 AE 1964 aiaea

Ni.no. 26, 27 AE ?O

Ni.no. 1073, 1074 AE ?O

Ni.no. 679 AE ?O

PAGE

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