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Iineianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aeaia o?oaeiaiai e?aniiai ciaiaie
aeaaeaiey ia/aoe

?aoa?ao ii yeiiiieea ia oaio:

?uiie: nianoaaiiinoue e i?eaaoecaoeey

nooaeaioee 2 eo?na a/i

Ei/a?aeiie I.A.

Iineaa 1995 a.

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” 1. Oai?ey nianoaaiiinoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc344472440
PAGEREF _Toc344472440 2

2. Nianoaaiiinoue e ?uiie GOTOBUTTON _Toc344472441 PAGEREF
_Toc344472441 4

3. I?e/eiu i?eaaoecaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna GOTOBUTTON _Toc344472442
PAGEREF _Toc344472442 7

4. I?eaaoecaoeey e noauaeo oicyenoaiaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc344472443
PAGEREF _Toc344472443 12

1. Oai?ey nianoaaiiinoe

N oai?aoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, iao nouanoaaiiie ?acieoeu e oai aieaa
iai?aiaeieeiie i?iianoe iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiie e /anoiie oi?iaie
nianoaaiiinoe. Nianoaaiiinoue ia eiouanoai (n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa) –
iiaa?oiinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aieaa aeoaieeo neiaa iauanoaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – e ia?enenoneay, e
nia?aiaiiay aia?eeaineay iaieeanne/aneay – ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe (oi anoue i?aai i?enaiaiey i?iaeoeoia i?e?iaeu e
i?iaeoeoia eo o?ainoi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa) ?ani?aaeaeaii ii
anai iauanoaaiiui ioiioaieyi, a ia nin?aaeioi/aii oieueei e
eneeth/eoaeueii a eiouanoaaiiii i?aaa.

TH?eaee/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe niaea?aeeo oeacaiea ia
eneeth/eoaeueiinoue e aaniethoiinoue i?aa nianoaaiieea a ioiioaiee
naiaai eiouanoaa. Ec yoiai ioithaeue ia neaaeoao, /oi, eiaaea ?a/ue
eaeao i nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaa /anoiiai (eee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai) nianoaaiieea a naiii aeaea iaia?aie/aiiu. I?e anae
aaniethoiinoe naieo i?aa nianoaaiiee ia iiaeao eie iieueciaaoueny ca
i?aaeaeaie, eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu caeiiaie e aeaaea aaeieieno?aoeaiuie
?anii?yaeaieyie iiiyoea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe iii aeeth/aao a naay ana
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, a ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua.

O Ia?ena oe?ieia ii?aaeaeaiea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe eae niaieoiiinoe anao
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ano?a/aaony ai aaaaeaiee e yeiiiie/aneei
?oeiienyi 1857-1858. “Anyeia i?iecaiaenoai, – ieoao ii, – anoue
i?enaiaiea eiaeeaeaeooiii i?aaeiaoia i?e?iaeu a i?aaeaeao ii?aaeaeaiiie
iauanoaaiiie oi?iu e iin?aaenoaii iaa. A yoii niunea aoaeao oaaoieiaeae
neacaoue, /oi nianoaaiiinoue (i?enaiaiea) anoue oneiaea i?iecaiaenoaa”.
E aeiaaaeyao: “Niaoii, iaeiaei, aeaeaoue ionthaea i?uaeie e
ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, iai?eia?, e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe”.

Aoaeo/e i?ino eiui iaicia/aieai iauanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, nianoaaiiinoue eae iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea
aunooiaao a ?acee/iuo oi?iao. Yoi ia iaoaao eaaeaeie ec ieo, aeeth/ay
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth, inoaaaoueny iauanoaaiiie oi?iie a neeo ?acaeaeaiey
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, acaeiinaycaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae a ?aieao aaeeiiai eiiieaena ioiioaiee
/aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, eaeea au iiiuoee ie i?aaei?eieiaee
eaeaieiae ?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia auaeaoue aa ca aaeeinoaaiiue aeae
enoeiii-iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, anaaaea auea e inoaiaony oaeie aea
niaoeeoe/aneie aa oi?iie, eae ethaay ae?oaay – eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay,
a?oiiiaay, aeoeeiia?iay, eiiia?aoeaiay e ae?. Aiai?eoue i aeinoieinoaao
eee iaaeinoaoeao iaeiie ec oi?i nianoaaiiinoe iiaeii oieueei eiie?aoii
enoi?e/anee, a i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee eee n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeie oi?iaie. E anee a ioaeaeueiua enoi?e/aneea
ia?eiaeu ia ia?aaeiee ieai auoiaeeo iaeia oi?ia, a ae?oaea ionooiatho
iacaae, oi i?ienoiaeeo yoi ia iioiio, /oi iia ii i?e?iaea naiae aeeaea e
noanoaioeee nianoaaiiinoe aiiaua, a iioiio oieueei, /oi a aeaiiue iiiaio
iia eo/oa io?aaeaao iio?aaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena, eo/oa iaania/eaaao yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ioaeaeueiuo aai /anoae, oi anoue eo/oa niinianoaoao ieieiecaoeee cao?ao
ia aaeeieoeo i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

2. Nianoaaiiinoue e ?uiie

A iniiaa ?uiea eaaeao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo oicyenoaaiii-iainiaeaiiuie
noauaeoaie, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo i?aneaaeoao naith auaiaeo, o/anoaoy a
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ia ?uieao oiaa?ia, aeaiaa, oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaeaia niioiioaiey aeaoo eaoaai?ee – nianoaaiiinoe e ?uiea – a
nouiinoe naiaeeony e aii?ino i oii, caaeneo ee iainiaeaiiinoue e
niioaaonoaaiii naiinoiyoaeueiinoue oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa io oi?iu aai
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa. A eaeie ia?a oa eee eiay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe
nicaeaao (eee ia nicaeaao) aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey i?eiyoey
yooaeoeaiuo oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee ?uii/iuie aaaioaie – aio /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue.

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue oae, /oi ii?iaoeaiay ?aaeaiaioaoeey ?aaeei
auaaao iaeo?aeueiie ii ioiioaieth e ?aciui oi?iai eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa.
*anou neo/ae aaaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo eueaioiuo iaeiaiauo eee e?aaeeoiuo
?aaeeiia aeey oa?ia?ia, iaeeeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eiiia?aoeaia, a?oii
acaeiiiiiiue e ae?. Iaeaa/athony eee oaeanoi/athony a caaeneiinoe io
ianoiyoaeuenoa i?aaeea ia?aciaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eiiiaiee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo eiino?aioeai eee niaoaiiiio eaieoaeo. E oioy a
iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae i?ineaaeeaaaony iauay oaiaeaioeey e
oieaa?naeecaoeee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e eiuo iiaeoiaeia e ?aciui
th?eaee/aneei oi?iai nianoaaiiinoe, aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, oai ia iaiaa,
nio?aiyaony, e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoai e aaeieieno?aoeey, ia
eieaaeynue, i?eaaaatho e aaaaeaieth iniauo ?aaeeiia aeey oie eee eiie
a?oiiu nianoaaiieeia.

A ia?aaainoaa ainoaea?noaaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ioiioaiey e ioaeaeueiui
oi?iai nianoaaiiinoe e caeiaeaia iniiaiay i?e/eia ?acee/ee a
oicyenoaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa eae oaeiauo.
Aaeeinoaaiiui i?aeiouanoaii, iiaeaeoe, iaeaaeatho a?oiiiaua e
eieeaeoeaiua oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe. Iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aieaa
ianooaaiie e auno?ie iiaeeecaoeee aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia e iioiio eo/oa
i?eniiniaeaiu e ?aoaieth caaea/ iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiiyoii, iaeiaei, /oi yoi ea/anoai naycaii ia n
/anoiie i?e?iaeie i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, a n ?acaeoeai eiiia?aoeee
nianoaaiieeia.

A i?eioeeia ie/oi ia iaoaao caeiiiaeaoaeueiui e eniieieoaeueiui aeanoyi
nicaeaoue ?aaiua oneiaey i?eiyoey oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee aeey
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo y/aae ?acee/iiai nianoaaiie/aneiai
noaoona, iai?eia?, aeey iaiaaeaea?ia /anoiuo aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee e
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Eae a?aeo? iineaaeiae
einoaioeee eiaiii ainoaea?noai ii?aaeaeyao e?oa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae
nia?aiaiiiai nianoaaiieea, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ia?o naiaiaeu aai
oicyenoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey. Ethaie oicyenoaaiiee (iaiaaeaea?)
iiae/eiyaony ia oieueei “iaaeaeeiie ?oea” ?uii/iie eiieo?aioeee, ii e
iinoiyiii inycaaiie aeanoiie ?oea ainoaea?noaa a eeoea ia?eaiaioa,
i?iecaiaenoaa e aaeieieno?aoeee. A yeiiiieea ia?aie/aiiuo ?aaeeeo aeaa
eiaiii i?aaiaua ii?iu nicaeatho einoeoooeeiiaeueioth ?aoaoeo, eioi?ay
ii?aaeaeyao ea/anoai eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau eae aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeu
?aaeeia ?uii/iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

?acaeoia ?uii/iia oicyenoai iaioaeaeeii io ?acaeoiai i?aaiaiai iauanoaa.
I?aaiaua ii?iu ?aaeaiaioe?otho ana noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie.
Eiouanoaaiiia i?aai eae iaeia ec /anoae iauaai i?aaiii?yaeea ea?aao
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aio ?ieue, ia aieaa. *oiau iiiyoue iniaaiiinoe
oicyenoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey noauaeoia, iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aanue
eiiieaen iauanoaaiiuo naycae, a ia ia?aie/eaaoueny oieueei iaeiei
yeaiaioii.

Noi?ioee?iaaiiue oaeei ia?acii oacen icia/ao, /oi ia nouanoaoao
i?eioeeieaeueiiai cai?aoa ia ?uiie aac /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, aeaaea ia
?uiie n i?aiaeaaeaieai – aieioue aei aaniethoiiai – ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Enoi?e/anee eiaiii iieeoe/aneay aeanoue i?eciaia
eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie /anoiui eeoeai (ia?niiaeo e iaiaaeaea?o
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey), i?aaeinoaaeoue ?uieo aiciiaeiinoue
canoaaeoue yoeo eeoe aua?aoue iioeiaeueiue oei oicyenoaaiiiai
iiaaaeaiey. Aaaeue eiaiii oae iinooiatho aeoeeiia?u /anoiie ei?ii?aoeee,
iacia/ay aa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Aieueoa oiai, caiaoiay /anoue nia?aiaiiuo
e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee i?aaieciaaia ia i?eioeeiao aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey,
eioi?ua aiiaua eneeth/atho aeeyiea aeaaeaeueoeaa aeoeee ia iaiaaeaea?ia.
?acaeoua aoi?e/iua oeiainiaua ?uiee n ae?aeaaie oi?aiaeae aeoeeyie –
aiieia aeinoaoi/iue eino?oiaio i?eioaeaeaiey naiuo iacaaeneiuo
aaeieieno?aoi?ia e yooaeoeaiiio oicyenoaaiiiio iiaaaeaieth.

I?eaaoecaoeey – Aeeeoaeueiue e io/eoaeueiue i?ioeann. Enoi?e/aneee iiuo
aeaao e oaeou, eioi?ua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i neeueiie ?anoyiooinoe
i?eaaoecaoeee ai a?aiaie, e a?aoiaioaoeeth a caueoo iinoaiaiiinoe.
Aeaaiue ec yoeo a?aoiaioia ninoieo a oii, /oi nei?inoue ni?aaaaeeeaie
i?eaaoecaoeee iaycaia niioiineoueny n aiciiaeiinoyie iaeiieaiey
aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia, a /anoiinoe, naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey. A iie oaeiau,
/oi auaeaeaiea ia yoi ia?ii?eyoea aieaa 1-2% iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a
aiae ia?ooaao noaaeeueiinoue yeiiiieee. O/eouaay, /oi iauay noieiinoue
iaeiieaiiuo caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee e iai?oaeiaaiey a ii?iaeueiie caiaaeiie
no?aia iau/ii cia/eoaeueii aieueoa aiaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea,
i?iaeaaea anao iniiaiuo oiiaeia eaaei iiaeao ?anoyiooueny ia iiiaea
aeanyoeeaoey.

I/aaeaeii, /oi iieeoeee, eioi?ua ?aoeee iieii/eoue n iieiui
iainoaea?noaeaieai yeiiiieee e eioi?ua iieaaatho, /oi oieueei
anaioaaouaathuay i?eaaoecaoeey iiiiaeao nicaeaoue yooaeoeaioth nenoaio
oicyenoaiaaiey, ieacuaathony ia?aae o?oaeiui auai?ii: eee ?anoyiooue
ia?aoiae io iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaeeia e ae?oaiio ia aeia?ua
iieaaea, eee ?acaeaoue n?aaenoaa /anoiui eeoeai aanieaoii, eee aea,
iaeiiaoe, nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey i?eioaeeoaeueiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
aeioiaea ec oiiaea iio?aaeaiey a oiiae iaeiieaiey.

3. I?e/eiu i?eaaoecaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna

?anniio?ei i?e/eiu i?eaaoecaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna ia i?eia?a oaeoi?ia,
eioi?ua eieoeee?iaaee i?ioeann caiaaeiie i?eaaoecaoeee a 80-o aiaeao.
Iia ia/aeanue a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao a eiioea 70-o ia/aea 80-o
aiaeia e noaea aiciiaeiie e iaiaoiaeeiie a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey a
yeiiiieea ianeieueeeo aeieain?i/iuo i?ioeannia. Ai-ia?auo, ca ni?ie
aiaiiuo e iineaaiaiiuo eao aue aeinoeaioo aunieee o?iaaiue
oeaio?aeecaoeee /anoiuo eaieoaeia. ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiuiuo a oeiainiaii
ioiioaiee o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee, eioi?ua a naia a?aiy eaaeaee
a iniiaa iaoeeiiaeecaoeee eaieoaeiaieeo aeaeia i?iecaiaenoaa. *anoiui
oeiainiaui a?oiiai nae/an ii iea/o iiaeeeciaaoue e?oiiua aeaiaaeiua
eaieoaeu, aeinoaoi/iua aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai inouanoaeaiey aieueoeinoaa
iiauo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?iaeoia e iiaea?iecaoeee noa?uo io?aneae. Anaai
eeoue ianeieueeeie aeanyoeeaoeyie ?aiaa, a 40-a-50-a aiaeu, iiiaea
aaciaua e iiaua io?anee (aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue e aicaeooiue o?ainii?o,
iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e aeiauaathuay naycue) iiaeii auei nicaeaoue eee
?ai?aaieciaaoue oieueei aeaaiaea?y ianne?iaaiiie athaeaeaoiie
iiaeaea?aeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

N oao ii? eciaieeenue oaeaea oneiaey eiieo?aioeee e i?aaiecaoeey
iaaeoe?iaiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae. A naia a?aiy aaaeiui a?aoiaioii a
iieueco iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e i?yiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey auei
iaaeiaiea “o?anoia” – e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee – a ?aaoey?iie
iiiiiieenoe/aneie i?aeoeea ia ?uieao nauoa e nu?uey, a oi?iiaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, a iieiii eaii?e?iaaiee eioa?ania iaaiiiai
o?oaea.

A 50-70-a aiaeu i?iecioee ?aoathuea ia?aiaiu, naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai
iiaiai oeia ?acaeoey ia iniiaa iai?a?uaiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoieee e
oaoiieiaee, ?anoe?aiey e aeeaa?neoeeaoeee ?uieia a aaeeiii ie?iaii
yeiiiie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa. Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey i?aeoe/anee eeeaeaee?iaaea iianiinoue “caaieaaiey”
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie. Ianiio?y ia iaaeaeaiiua ?aiaa oaiiu eiioeaio?aoeee
e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaea, a aieueoeinoaa io?aneae auee nicaeaiu
onoie/eaua ?aaeeiu yooaeoeaiie eiieo?aioeee. Aeaaea e?oiiua aaieianeea,
oi?aiaua, i?iiuoeaiii-oeiainiaua a?oiiu nae/an ianiiniaiu onoaiiaeoue
eiio?ieue iaae ie?iauie io?aneaauie ?uieaie. Ioiaea ino?ay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?ioeainoiyoue aaeieieno?aoeaiuie ia?aie oaiaeaioeee e
ea?oaeecaoeee ?uieia, eioi?ay a 30-a aiaeu auea ianoiyuei ae/ii
naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e iuooeiie i?aa?aaeie ia iooe
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

O?aouey a?oiia i?e/ei, iiaa?ioaoeo aniyoue oaiaeaioeeth e
iainoaea?noaeaieth yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiiie
Eaeinii, ia?enenoaie e einoeoooeeiiaeenoaie. Iia iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaia n iineaaenoaeyie e?ecena 1974-1975 aa. E?ecen i?aiiaeae
iaiaeeaeaiiue o?ie oai?aoeeai e i?aeoeeai “ainoaea?noaa aeaaininoiyiey”,
iie?aaoeiny ia oai?aoe/aneoth noaio eaeneainoaa. Eaeneaineay noaia
i?aaeiieaaaao aicaeaenoaea ia iiaaaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iooai
eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, a /anoiinoe, /a?ac
athaeaeaoioth iieeoeeo, oi anoue /a?ac iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth noa?o.

Auynieeinue, /oi a ia?eiaeu ?aceeo eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u io?aneaauo
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina (eiaiii yoi
neo/eeinue iinea nea/eiia?aciiai iiauoaiey iaooyiuo oeai a 1973 a.)
yooaeoeaiui niiniaii i?aiaeieaiey yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena iiaeao auoue
oieueei no?aoaaey anaioaaouaathuaai aiaae?aiey a i?iecaiaenoai
?acoeueoaoia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. I?iaiaeeoue oaeoth
no?aoaaeth aeieaeiu, i?aaeaea anaai, i?aaei?eyoey – oieueei ei ecaanoiu
aeonu e iaia?aiey iio?aaeoaeae e ?aaeueiia iaiieiaiea eo eioaeueea.
Yooaeoeaii noeioee?iaaoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann ia ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ainoaea?noai ianiiniaii. Iiaeeecaoeey e?oiiuo oeiainiauo
?ano?nia iooai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, eioi?ay oniaoii eniieueciaaeanue a naia
a?aiy i?e nicaeaiee aoiiiiai i?oaeey e aaeeenoe/aneeo ?aeao, iieoiaoaeai
eioi?iai auei naii ainoaea?noai, caeanue yaii ia ii?aaaeuaaao
iaeeaeaiee.

Ii anee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea ia iiauoaaony
aneaaenoaea oi?ne?iaaiiiai ainoaea?noaii eiaanoe?iaaiey, ?ooeony any
oeaii/ea ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo caaeneiinoae, io?aaeaiiuo a eaeineaineie
iiaeaee (a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie i?e?ino athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia e
aeaoaauo e?aaeeoia ?anoe?yao iio?aaeoaeueneee e eiaanoeoeeiiiue
ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, noeioee?oao
i?iecaiaenoai). Iaaeaeo oai any oeeinioey “ainoaea?noaa aeaaininoiyiey”
i?eaycaia e eaeaa oaaee/aiey ni?ina ?aaee ?anoe?aiey aunieiyooaeoeaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

A 30-o aiaeao oaeay caaeneiinoue aeaenoaiaaea. Eacaeinue, /oi iia
i?eiineea naie ieiaeu e a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae. “Iaooyiie e?ecen”
eciaiee iai?aaeaiea i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae.

Iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?enoonoaey
a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a a ea/anoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaey, ino?i iuouaaoayny
a 40-a aiaeu, e ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia ioiaea a ninoaa i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiaeaea?aeaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe,
?acainoaea?noaeaiea e i?eaaoecaoeeth. I?iecioei yoi ia n?aco iinea
“iaooyiiai e?ecena”, a nionoy 5-7 eao, ia i?ioyaeaiee eioi?uo oaeouay
yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea inoaaaeanue eaeineaineie. A ?aieao yoie iieeoeee
i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, aii?aee eo
no?aoaae/aneei eioa?anai, aeoeaii eniieueciaaeenue naiei aeaaeaeueoeai
eae eino?oiaio iiaeaea?aeaiey aeiaaeueiiai ni?ina. I?aaeoaeuenoaa
iaeiaeeee ia ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ?yae iaycaoaeuenoa, io
eioi?uo /anoiue naeoi? aue inaiaiaeaeai: oi?ie?iaaiea eiaanoeoeee ca
n/ao oaaee/aiey caaeieaeaiiinoe, nio?aiaiea o?iaiy caiyoinoe ?aaee
iaeaa/aiey neooaoeee ia iaoeeiiaeueiii ?uiea o?oaea e aii?aee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe, naea?aeeaaiea ?inoa oeai ia
i?iaeoeoeeth, /oiau eiaeaenu iaoeeiiaeueiie eioeyoeee ia iiaeieiaeenue
neeoeii auno?i e o.ae. Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai auei
iinoaaeaii a caaaaeiii ia?aaiua oneiaey e ianei oauoee, eioi?ua ia
aeieaeii auei au ianoe, aoaeue iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaeeiaeiaie ii
ioiioaieth ei anai yeiiiie/aneei noauaeoai ia iee?i o?iaia.

?aaioay e ?aiueoa a ?aaeeia, eae i?aaeei, ioeaaie i?eaueueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiue i?iecaiaenoaaiiue naeoi? auoae ec eaeneaineiai yoaia
aioee?eceniie e aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee n aeoaiei ?anno?iaiiuie
oeiainaie. E eiina?aaoeaiay e?eoeea iiniaoeea iaaeieoue ai anai
“aacioaaonoaaiiuo” ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaiaaeaea?ia, eioi?ua yeiau ii
i?e?iaea naiae iainiio?eoaeueiu, oae eae iaae ieie ia aeneo aeaiieeia
ia/ aaie?ionoaa. Ethaie iaiaaeaea? eae eeoei iaaiiiai o?oaea ia iaycai
aeaaeaoue nianoaaiiinoueth oi?aaeyaiie ei eiiiaiee, aoaeue iia /anoiie
eee ainoaea?noaaiiie. Iioeau aai yooaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey eae
oi?aaeythuaai ii?aaeaeyaony ?uieii iaiaaeaea?ia. A ia yoii ?uiea ana
?aaiu, oae eae ioeaiea caaeneo io oniaoiinoe i?aaeuaeouaai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iiuoa.

E?ecen, ?acaeaathueeny a oneiaeyo oe?ieie eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e
i?iieoeaaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo a?aieoe, ino?i iinoaaee
i?iaeaio eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oicyenoaothueo aaaioia. Ia/aeny ia?aniio?
i?eioeeiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eeann iio?aaiaae e aeiaeeny io ainoaea?noaa, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, ioeaca io aieueoeinoaa ecae?aoaeueiuo iaoiaeia
aicaeaenoaey, eiaaea iauaeoii ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
noaiiaeeanue ioaeaeueiay eiiiaiey eee io?aneue, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
?aceiai nie?auaiey iaueo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia a aeaea
?acaaoaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, aunieeo iioieeia aeey ieieiaeueiuo
ca?aaioiuo ieao, aieueaioiuo auieao ii i?e/eia aac?aaioeoeu, a?aiaiiie
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe e o.ae. A?aiy “ainoaea?noaa aeaaininoiyiey”
caeii/eeinue. Aianoa n iei caeii/eeanue e ienney ainoaea?noaaiiiai
naeoi?a, caieiaaoaai a no?oeoo?a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo
no?oeoo? ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi.

A eiioea 70-o aiaeia caiaaeiue eaieoaeeci anooiee a ia?eiae oe?ieie
i?eaaoecaoeee. Iaeuecy caauaaoue e i oii oaeoa, /oi i?eaaoecaoeey
ieacaeanue /?acau/aeii auaiaeiie a iieeoe/aneii ieaia. Ia?aaiaey ia
o?iaaiue i?aaei?eyoee ?aoaiea iaiiioey?iuo, ii iaioeiaeiuo e iaecaaaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai (nie?auaiea caiyoinoe a neeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, oiaiueoaiea athaeaeaoiuo aeioaoeee iooai iiauoaiey oeai
ia i?iaeoeoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, naeaea anae niaieoiiinoe
ioiioaiee “o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea – i?aaeoaeuenoai” a noa?o ioiioaiee
“o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea – /anoiue nianoaaiiee”), eiina?aaoi?u nieiaee n
naay eae i?aaenoaaeoaeae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea a no?aia. Oai naiui iie iieeoe/anee
ia?aea?aee nioeeaeenoia e ?aaeeeaeia, i?ecuaaaoeo aieiniaaoue ca naay
eiaiii iioiio, /oi iie yeiau ciaee, eae ni?aaeoueny n e?ecenii.

Iieeoe/aneee eioa?an oaea/ii niaiae n eaeaieiae/aneei. Nai oaeo
ia?auaiey e i?eaaoecaoeee iinea aeieaeo aeanyoeeaoee ainiiaenoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaieoaeecia ?aaaeeeoe?iaae eaieoaeenoe/aneoth nenoaio
oicyenoaiaaiey.

4. I?eaaoecaoeey e noauaeo oicyenoaiaaiey

Aeaeaaoaeue ethaie ?aoi?iu – ia oieueei iauea niia?aaeaiey i aeaaa
ia?iaea, iaoeee eee no?aiu. Eiie?aoiue aa?eaio auai?a o?aaeoi?ee e
aeinoeaeaieth noi?ioee?iaaiiie a iaueo oa?ieiao oeaee ii?aaeaeyaony
niioiioaieai niaoeeoe/aneeo eioa?ania nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e
i?aaenoaaeythueo eo iieeoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee.

Eiie?aoiua i?ia?aiiu i?eaaoecaoeee iau/ii i?aneaaeotho ianeieueei
oeaeae. Ai-ia?auo, iooai i?iaeaaee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe
iaeaa/eoue a?aiy ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, eeeaeaee?iaaa aeioaoeee
i?aaei?eyoeyi e oaaee/ea iinooieaiey a aeioiaeioth /anoue athaeaeaoa.
Ai-aoi?uo, nicaeaoue eiieo?aioiua oneiaey a oao io?aneyo, aaea ana
i?aaei?eyoey, aoaeo/e ainoaea?noaaiiuie, oi?aaeyeenue ec aaeeiiai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oeaio?a. A-o?aoueeo, ainiieueciaaoueny eciaiaieai
oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe e i?iaanoe i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth ?aoeeiiaeecaoeeth
no?oeoo?u e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ei?ii?aoeee aei eo i?aa?auaiey a
/anoiua. A-/aoaa?ouo, inouanoaeoue i?eaaoecaoeeth e aeoeeiie?iaaiea oae,
/oiau eiio?ieue iaae e?oiiuie ei?ii?aoeeyie iiiae a ?oee oao /anoiuo
eeoe eee einoeoooia, eioi?ua caeioa?aniaaiu a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaa, a
ia a niaeoeyoeaiie ia?ai?iaeaaea nianoaaiiinoe. A-iyouo,
ainiieueciaaoueny i?eaaoecaoeeae aeey iaeneiaeueiiai “?aniueaiey” aeoeee
n?aaee ?aai/eo e iaeeeo neoaeaueo. Yoa ia?a ?anniao?eaaaony eae
ninoaaiie yeaiaio iauae nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, noeioee?othuae o/anoea
o?oaeyueony a eaieoaea eee oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey.

Niaea?aeaiea caiaaeiiai i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee noaiiaeony aieaa
iiiyoiui ec aeeneonnee, eioi?ua aaeenue e aaaeoony aie?oa aa ioaeaeueiuo
aniaeoia.

Aeoeaii ianoaeaeaeny aii?in i i?e?iaea n?aaenoa, iiaeeecoaiuo aeey
iieoiee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, e a yoie nayce – i
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiii iacia/aiee iieo/aiiie i?aaeoaeuenoaii au?o/ea.
Eoiey-i?iaeaaea eiouanoaa ioiineony e iia?aoeeyi n eaieoaeii e iiyoiio
oeiaine?oaony ec naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey e i?aaei?eyoee. Ii oiaaea e
au?o/eo io i?iaeaaee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, ooaa?aeaeatho
?eai?enou, neaaeoao iai?aaeyoue ia eiaanoeoeee, a ia ia iiaaoaiea
athaeaeaoiuo aeaoeoeeoia. Iineaaeiea, eae i?aaeei, ia?acothony a
?acoeueoaoa a?oauo ia?ooaiee oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaeieieno?aoeeae, e iooue e aac aeaoeoeeoiinoe iaaei eneaoue a
iaaaaeaiee ii?yaeea a naiii athaeaeaoiii oicyenoaa. Ethaia i?aa?auaiea
eaieoaea (naa?aaeaiee) a ia iaeaieeaaaiue oaeouee aeioiae
?anniao?eaaaony eae i?iaaeaiea eaieoaea, eae i?eianaiea a aea?oao
eioa?ania aoaeouaai iaoeee. Caueuaynue io oaeeo iaaeiaiee, caiaaeiua
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eae i?aaeei, nicaeaaaee niaoeeaeueiua oiiaeu, a n/aoao
eioi?uo io?aaeaeinue iacia/aiea oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo io
i?eaaoecaoeee.

Aua iaeia aeeneonney aaeanue ii iiaiaeo ?acoe?oiiaiey io?aneaauo
ei?ii?aoeee, ainoaea?noaaiiue noaoon eioi?uo a naia a?aiy iauyniyeny
anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieeae. Naycue, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue o?ainii?o, yeaeo?i-
e aaci?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua naoe – ana yoe io?anee eee n?aco nicaeaaaeenue
eae ainoaea?noaaiiua eee iaoeeiiaeece?iaaeenue ii i?e/eia eo
oaoiieiae/anee iaoneiaeaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Iainoaea?noaeaiea
oaeeo io?aneae anaaaea n/eoaeinue ii?aaaeaiiui, oae eae i?e i?i/eo
?aaiuo oneiaeyo iaaethaeaaony i?yiay iieiaeeoaeueiay caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo oeaeueiinoueth eo oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, oi?aaeaieai
io?aneueth ec aaeeiiai oeaio?a e o?iaiai aa yooaeoeaiinoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe. ?acoe?oiiaiea iiaeiaiuo anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee,
ia?aaea/a ioaeaeueiuo /anoae ?aciui ei?ii?aoeeyi /?aaaoa oooaeoaieai
yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aaeeiiai eiiieaena. A yoi
i?ioeai?a/eo cae?aaiio niuneo aeciana, caeioa?aniaaiiiai a ieieiecaoeee
ecaea?aeae. Anoanoaaiiay iiiiiieey inoaaony iiiiiieeae iacaaeneii io
oiai, inouanoaeyaony ee iia ainoaea?noaaiiui eee /anoiui nianoaaiieeii.
*oi aea eanaaony ceioiio?aaeaiey iiiiiieueiui iieiaeaieai, oi aai iiaeii
iaeeaeaoue nei?aa io /anoiie ei?ii?aoeee, /ai ainoaea?noaaiiie.

Auoiae aue iaeaeai a i/aiue i?eaeiaeueiie noaia i?eaaoecaoeee: i?aaa ia
iieo/aiea aeioiaea i?iaeaaaeenue a aeaea aeoeee /anoiui eeoeai e
einoeoooai, a eiio?ieue iaae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth /anoiie
ei?ii?aoeee nio?aiyeny a ?oeao ainoaea?noaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee. N yoie
oeaeueth ae a?o/aeanue “cieioay aeoeey” eee i?eieiaeny caeii i
nioeeaeueiii noaoona oaeiai ?iaea aeaeueoeia.

Eaeay nicaeaiey “oaa?aeiai yae?a” ec /anoe aeoeeiia?ia iiauo /anoiuo
eiiiaiee oaeaea noaea i?aaeiaoii ino?uo iieeoe/aneeo e oai?aoe/aneeo
nii?ia. Niune yoie eaeae a oii, /oiau nin?aaeioi/eoue eiio?ieueiue iaeao
aeoeee a ?oeao iaaieueoiai /enea “ae?oaeanoaaiiuo” aaieia e i?iiuoeaiiuo
eiiiaiee, eioi?ua iiaee au niaianoii ?ac?aaioaoue e i?iaanoe a aeeciue
aeieain?i/ioth no?aoaaeth ?acaeoey auaoae ainoaea?noaaiiie ei?ii?aoeee.
Oaeei ia?acii oaeaaony iaania/eoue aaeeinoai oi?aaeaiey e
i?aaeioa?aoeoue ?ani?iaeaaeo aaeeiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai eee yooaeoeaiiai
oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena ii /anoyi, enoiaey oieueei ec niaeoeyoeaiuo
niia?aaeaiee aai aeaaeaeueoeaa.

I?iaeaia i?eaaoecaoeee e aa noauaeoa, iiaeaeoe, eeth/aaay aeey anaai
yoiai i?ioeanna, niune eioi?iai – iieo/eoue, a eiia/iii n/aoa,
eiiiaoaioiiai “oicyeia”, niiniaiiai acyoue ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
iiaeaea?aeaiea e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeia oieueei
niaia nianoaaiieeia, caiaia ainoaea?noaa /anoiui eeoeii eee a?oiiie
/anoiuo eeoe ia aa?aioe?oao oniaoa. Aaaeue eiia/iay iioeaaoeey ethaiai
nianoaaiieea ia i?iecaiaenoai, a i?eaueueiinoue, ?aioaaaeueiinoue.
Iaania/eoue iineaaeithth iiaeii ?aciuie niiniaaie, n?aaee eioi?uo
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee, i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey aeaeaei ia
anaaaea naiue eaaeee e iaaeaaeiue. A ia?eiae iauaai ia?ooaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee, ?ac?uaa e ia?aeeth/aiey oaoiieiae/aneeo naycae
iau/iay niaeoeyoeey /anoi ieacuaaaony aieaa auaiaeiui e niieieiui
aeaeii.

I?e auai?a iaoiaeia iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee nianoaaiiee-i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
?oeiaiaenoaoaony naiei i?aaeuaeouei iiuoii, i?ioanneiiaeueiuie e iaueie
ciaieyie. Eaeaaeueiiai neo/ay /enoie eiieo?aioeee, i?e eioi?ie oeaiu
caaeaiu, a i?eaueue caaeneo eneeth/eoaeueii io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
oaaoee, a nia?aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiie yeiiiieea ii/oe ia ano?a/aaony.
O/anoea a yooaeoeaiie eiieo?aioeee i?aaeiieaaaao iaoe?iua niaoeeaeueiua
ciaiey. A iaoai neo/aa ia?aiia/aeueiue eaieoae eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?
ia?aciaai ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii iooai niaeoeyoeaii-oi?aiauo iia?aoeee
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aeaaeaeaoe oaeiai eaieoaea –
aoaeouee nianoaaiiee i?iiuoeaiiuo e ae?oaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee – ineoieiae/anee ia aioia aeeth/eony a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue caiaaeiiai oeia, oae eae aa oniao
iieieony ia iai?a?uaiii iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea eee
ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ia iinoiyiiuo ia?aai?ioao a
oaoiieiae/aneii aacena.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Eociaoeia A. ?uiie e i?eaaoecaoeey. I.,IYeII. 1992. ? 7.

I?eaaoecaoeey: /aio o/eo ie?iaie iiuo. iiae ?aae. Aieioeia. I.,1993.

Iniiau ?acainoaea?noaeaiey e i?eaaoecaoeee. I.,1991.

Eociaoeia A. ?uiie e i?eaaoecaoeey. IYeII, I.1992, N 7.

I?eaaoecaoeey: /aio o/eo ie?iaie iiuo. iiae ?aae. Aieioeia. I.1993.

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