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1. IIIssOEA EECEIAA.

1.1.Aeaeu eeceiaa

I?iaeaia iinooieaiey iiauo eiaanoeoeee a ?aaeueiue naeoi? yeiiiieee
noieo ai iiiaeo no?aiao i/aiue ino?i. Iieoiea iai?oaeiaaiey
i?aaei?eyoeyie cao?oaeieoaeueia eee i?inoi iaaiciiaeia. Ec-ca
ionoonoaey o ieo oeiainiauo n?aaenoa iieo/aiea e?aaeeoa oaeaea
i?iaeaiaoe/ii, oae eae o?aaoao iaee/ey noa?oiaiai eaieoaea (eae i?aaeei,
ieieioi 20 i?ioeaioia noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey i?eaeaony caieaoeoue ec
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa), aea e n?iee e?aaeeoiaaiey iaeu – ia i?aauoatho 1
– 2 eao.

Auoiae ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey – a oe?ieii i?eiaiaiee iiauo
oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey, iaeiei ec
eioi?uo yaeyaony eeceia.

Neiai «eeceia» – ?onneay o?aine?eioeey aiaeeeneiai oa?ieia , eee
, /oi a ia?aaiaea icia/aao «a?aiaea», eioi?ay oi?ioi ecaanoia o
ian a no?aia. Iaeiaei i?eiaiaiea iiaiai oa?ieia auei aucaaii aeaeaieai
auaeaeeoue iiaue aeae a?aiaeu – oeiainiaue, eioi?ue ?aiueoa o ian ia
eniieueciaaeny. Iiyoiio ia neo/aeii ana aeaenoaey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae, naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai eeceiaiauo ioiioaiee ,
eanathony oeiainiaiai eeceiaa, eiaaea iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai eiouanoaa
e aai iieueciaaoaeai aicieeaao iin?aaeiee (a oi?ioai niunea neiaa),
eioi?ue aa?aony oeiaine?iaaoue naeaeeo.

Eeceia – yoi eiiieaen yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo a nayce n
i?eia?aoaieai a nianoaaiiinoue eiouanoaa e iineaaeothuae naea/ae aai ai
a?aiaiiia aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo.
Iioaioeeaeueiue eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ia?auaaony a eeceiaiaoth eiiiaieth n
aeaeiaui i?aaeeiaeaieai i caeeth/aiee naeaeee. Niaeanii ae, ii auae?aao
i?iaeaaoea, ?aniieaaathuaai o?aaoaiui eiouanoaii, a eeceiaiaeaoaeue
i?eia?aoaao aai a nianoaaiiinoue e ia?aaeaao eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth ai
a?aiaiiia aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea ca iaiai?aiioth a aeiaiai?a ieaoo. Ii
ieii/aiee aeiaiai?a, a caaeneiinoe io oneiaee, eiouanoai aica?auaaony
eeceiaiaeaoaeth eee ia?aoiaeeo a nianoaaiiinoue eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.
Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai aeiaiai?a eeceiaa
nianoaaiieeii eiouanoaa yaeyaony eeceiaiaeaoaeue.

Eeanne/aneee eeceia i?aaeoniao?eaaao o/anoea a iai o?ao noi?ii:
eeceiaiaeaoaeue, eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue, i?iaeaaaoe (iinoaauee) eiouanoaa.
Ii aiciiaeai aa?eaio, eiaaea i?iaeaaaoe e eeceiaiaeaoaeue eee i?iaeaaaoe
e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue yaeythony iaeiei e oai aea eeoeii’. I?e
aei?iainoiyueo i?iaeoao /enei o/anoieeia naeaeee, eae i?aaeei,
oaaee/eaaaony ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey eeceiaiaeaoaeai iiauo enoi/ieeia
oeiaine?iaaiey (aaieia, no?aoiauo eiiiaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia e
ae?.)

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ana yeaiaiou eeceiaiaiai i?ioeanna oanii naycaiu
iaaeaeo niaie. Oae, ioiioaiey ii a?aiaiiiio eniieueciaaieth eiouanoaa
(aeiaiai? eeceiaa) aicieeatho oieueei iinea ?aaeecaoeee aeiaiai?a
eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Iieo/aaony, /oi eniieiaiea iaeiiai aeiaiai?a aeaao
oie/ie e aicieeiiaaieth neaaeothuae naeaeee, a o/anoieee eeceiaiaiai
i?ioeanna oanii acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie ia ?aciuo yoaiao.

A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao, iai?eia?, a ?innee niaeanii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao,
aeey i?eciaiey naeaeee eeceiaiaie iaiaoiaeeii i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee
iieoiee eiouanoaa. Iiyoiio niaiauaiea i?iaeaaoea e eeceiaiaeaoaey a
iaeiii eeoea i?eiaieoaeueii e ?innee iaaiciiaeii. Ia ia?aii yoaia
ecaioiaeoaeue iai?oaeiaaiey e aoaeouee eeceiaiaeaoaeue, caeeth/ay
aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee, aunooiatho eae i?iaeaaaoe e iieoiaoaeue. I?e
yoii iieueciaaoaeue eiouanoaa, th?eaee/anee ia o/anoaoy a aeiaiai?a
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, yaeyaony aeoeaiui o/anoieeii yoie naeaeee, auae?ay
iai?oaeiaaiea e eiie?aoiiai iinoaaueea. Ana oaoie/aneea aii?inu
?aaeecaoeee aeiaiai?a eoiee-i?iaeaaee (eiiieaeoiinoue, n?iee e ianoi
iinoaaee, aa?aioeeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa, ii?yaeie i?eaiee e o.i.) ?aoathony
iaaeaeo ecaioiaeoaeai (iinoaaueeii) e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, ia
eeceiaiaeaoaey eiaeeony iaycaiiinoue oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey naeaeee.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia iieoiaoaeue eiouanoaa naeaao aai ai a?aiaiiia
iieueciaaiea, aunooiay eae eeceiaiaeaoaeue. Iaeiaei ioiioaiey ii aoi?iio
aeiaiai?o ia caiueathony iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeai e eeceiaiaeaoaeai.
I?iaeaaaoe eiouanoaa, oioy e caeeth/ae aeiaiai? eoiee i?iaeaaee n
eeceiaiaeaoaeai, ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae iieueciaaoaeai ca
ea/anoai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie eeceiaa, i?eciaiiuie ai anai ie?a, yaeythony
oeiainiaue eeceia (finance lease) e iia?aoeaiue (iia?aoeeiiiue) eeceia
(operating lease). Iniiaiuie e?eoa?eyie aeey oaeiai ?aca?aie/aiey
neoaeao n?ie eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey e iauai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?eneia,
naycaiiuo ni neo/aeiie aeaaeueth eee ii?/ae ia?aaeaiiiai a eeceia
eiouanoaa.

Iia?aoeaiue eeceia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi n?ie aeiaiai?a eeceiaa
nouanoaaiii ei?i/a, /ai ii?iaoeaiue n?ie neoaeau eiouanoaa, e eeceiaiaua
ieaoaaee ia iie?uaatho iieiie noieiinoe eiouanoaa. Iiyoiio
eeceiaiaeaoaeue auioaeaeai aai naeaaaoue ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea
ianeieueei ?ac, e aeey iaai aic?anoao ?ene ii aiciauaieth inoaoi/iie
noieiinoe iauaeoa eeceiaa i?e ionoonoaee ni?ina ia iaai. A nayce n yoei
i?e anao i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo ?acia?u eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae i?e
iia?aoeaiii eeceiaa ai?acaei auoa, /ai a oeiainiaii eeceiaa. ?ene
neo/aeiie aeaaee eee ii?/e eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaiiiai a eeceia, ianao
eeceiaiaeaoaeue.

Aeey oeiainiaiai eeceiaa oa?aeoa?iu aeeeoaeueiue n?ie a?aiaeu e
aii?oecaoeey anae eee aieueoae /anoe noieiinoe eiouanoaa. A oa/aiea
n?iea aeiaiai?a eeceiaiaeaoaeue ca n/ao eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae aica?auaao
naaa noieiinoue eiouanoaa e iieo/aao i?eaueue io eeceiaiaie naeaeee. Eae
i?aaeei, ?ene neo/aeiie aeaaee eee ii?/e eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaiiiai a
eeceia, iinea i?eaiee eiouanoaa ia?aoiaeeo e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth.

Oeiainiaue eeceia eiaao ianeieueei aeaeia, eioi?ua iieo/eee
naiinoiyoaeueiua iacaaiey.

Aica?aoiue eeceia (sale and leaseback) yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
aeaonoi?iiiae eeceiaiaie naeaeee. Eaeay aai ninoieo a neaaeothuai.
I?aaei?eyoea, eiathuaa iai?oaeiaaiea, ii eniuouaathuaa iaaeinoaoie
n?aaenoa aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iaeaao naia eiouanoai
eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue, naeaao aai a eeceia
yoiio aea i?aaei?eyoeth. Oaeei ia?acii, o i?aaei?eyoey iiyaeythony
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua iii iiaeao iai?aaeoue, iai?eia?, ia
iiiieiaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Aeiaiai? ninoaaeyaony oae, /oi iinea
ieii/aiey n?iea aai aeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoea eiaao i?aai aueoia
iai?oaeiaaiey, ainnoaiaaeeaay ia iaai i?aai nianoaaiiinoe.

Eaaa?aaeae (e?aaeeoiue, iaaaie, ?acaeaeueiue) eeceia(leveraged laasa),
eee eeceia n aeiiieieoaeueiui i?eaea/aieai n?aaenoa iaeaieaa neiaeai,
oae eae naycai n iiiaieaiaeueiui oeiaine?iaaieai e eniieuecoaony, eae
i?aaeei, aeey ?aaeecaoeee aei?iainoiyueo i?iaeoia.

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie caeanue yaeyaony oi, /oi eeceiaiaeaoaeue, iieoiay
iai?oaeiaaiea, auiea/eaaao ec naieo n?aaenoa ia anth aai noiio, a
oieueei /anoue. Inoaeueiia ii aa?ao a nnoaeo o iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
e?aaeeoi?ia. I?e yoii eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey i?iaeieaeaao iieueciaaoueny
anaie iaeiaiauie eueaioaie, eioi?ua ?ann/eouaathony ec iieiie noieiinoe
eiouanoaa. A iaeieo no?aiao, eae, iai?eia?, NOA eee Aca?aaeaeaeai,
eeceiaiaeaoaeue iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai eniieueciaaoue aeey iieoiee
iai?oaeiaaiey /anoue nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Ii a ?innee oaeiai
aeanoeiai o?aaiaaiey iao e aeey inouanoaeaiey naeaeee iiaeii i?eaeaeaoue
100% e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa.

Iiiiuue a i?iaeaaeao (sales-aid leasing) – inouanoaeaiea nauoa n
eniieueciaaieai eeceiaa ia iniiaaiee niaoeeaeueiiai niaeaoaiey,
caeeth/aiiiai iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii (i?iaeaaoeii) eiouanoaa e eeceiaiaie
eiiiaieae. Yoe niaeaoaiey eiatho ?aciua oi?iu. A i?inoaeoai neo/aa
iacaaiea eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, aa aae?an, oaeaoii e iniiaiua oneiaey
eeceiaa oeacuaathony a ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeao iinoaaueea, e ana aii?inu ii
eeceiao eiouanoaa n iioaioeeaeueiui iieueciaaoaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii
?aoaao eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey. Aa?oeiie oaeeo naeaeie yaeyaony niaeaoaiea
iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai iai?oaeiaaiey e eeceiaiaie eiiiaieae, niaeanii
eioi?iio i?iecaiaeeoaeue io eeoea iineaaeiae i?aaeeaaaao eeeaioai
oeiaine?iaaiea iinoaaie naiae i?iaeoeoeee n iiiiuueth eeceiaa. I?e yoii
a niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e eeceiaiaie eiiiaieae, eae
i?aaeei, i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi a neo/aa iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeue iaycai aueoieoue eiouanoai o
eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee

1.2.Cia/aiea eeceiaa

Ie iaeei ec aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe ia iaeaeao oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey, anee
ii ia aoaeao i?eiineoue auaiae anai o/anoieeai aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee e a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iioaioeeaeueiiio iieueciaaoaeth. Eaeea aea
i?aeiouanoaa aeaao eeceia eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth?

Ai- ia?auo, nieaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a nianoaaiiii noa?oiaii eaieoaea.
Eeceia i?aaeiieaaaao, eae i?aaeei, 100-i?ioeaioiia oeiaine?iaaiea
eeceiaiaeaoaeai e ia o?aaoao iaiaaeeaiiiai ia/aea ieaoaaeae, /oi
iicaieyao aac ?aceiai oeiainiaiai iai?yaeaiey iaiiaeyoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu, i?eia?aoaoue aei?iainoiyuaa eiouanoai,
oaaee/eaaoue iai?ioiue eaieoae aeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ai-aoi?uo, i/aiue /anoi i?aaei?eyoeth i?iua iieo/eoue eiouanoai ii
eeceiao, /ai nnoaeo ia aai i?eia?aoaiea, oae eae eeceiaiaia eiouanoai
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa caeiaa. Ca ?oaaaeii iaeioi?ua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee
ia o?aaotho io eeceiaiiieo/aoaey ieeaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo aa?aioee.

A – o?aoueeo, n/eoaaony, /oi eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea aieaa aeaei, /ai
nnoaea, iii i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue iaaei noi?iiai au?aaioaoue
oaeiaioth noaio auieao. Ii acaeiiie aeiaiai?aiiinoe noi?ii eeceiaiaua
ieaoaaee iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoueny iinea iieo/aiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?ia, ecaioiaeaiiuo ia acyoii a eeceia iai?oaeiaaiee. Noaaee
ieaoaaeae iiaoo auoue oeene?iaaiiuie e ieaaathueie.

A – /aoaa?ouo, eeceiaiaay naeaeea iiaeao auoue caeeth/aia ia aieaa
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie, /ai e?aaeeoiue aeiaiai?. A nayce n yoei aaee/eia
ia?eiaee/aneeo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae aoaeao iaiueoa, nieaeathony ?anoiaeu
iieueciaaoaey ii oieaoa yoeo ieaoaaeae e aic?anoaao iaaeaaeiinoue
eniieiaiey eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a.

A – iyouo, aeey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey oiaiueoaaony ?ene ii?aeueiiai e
oece/aneiai eciina e onoa?aaaiey eiouanoaa, iineieueeo eiouanoai ia
i?eia?aoaaony a nianoaaiiinoue, a aa?aony ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea .

A- oanouo, eeceiaiaia eiouanoai iiaeao ia /eneeoueny o
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey ia aai aaeaina, /oi ia oaaee/eaaao aai aeoeau e
inaiaiaeaeaao io oieaou iaeiaa ia yoi eiouanoai.

A – naaeueiuo, eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee iieiinoueth ioiinyony ia ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey ( naaanoieiinoue) e, niioaaonoaaiii nieaeatho
iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth i?eaueue.

A- ainueiuo, aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee n
eiyooeoeeaioii 3.

A – aeaayouo, inaiaiaeaeaiea eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee io
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, eae iu aeaeei a eeceiaa caeioa?aniaaiu ana o/anoieee
naeaeee:: i?iecaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao iiaua eaiaeu nauoa, iieueciaaoaeue
eiaao aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe iai?oaeiaaiea aac ia?aiia/aeueiuo
oeiainiauo cao?ao, eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey noaiiaeony oeiainiaui caaiii
iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e iio?aaeoaeai, iieo/ay ca yoi i?eaueue. A
auea?uoa inoaaony e ainoaea?noai – aic?iaeaeaaony i?iecaiaenoai,
oaaee/eaathony iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey a athaeaeao, oiaiueoaaony
nioeeaeueiia iai?yaeaiea ca n/ao nicaeaiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano.

2. IE?IAUA OAIAeAIOeEE ?ACAEOEss EECEIAA

2.1. ?acaeoea ie?iaiai ?uiea.

Eeceia eiaao aeeeiioth e oniaoioth enoi?eth. Naiua ?aiiea aeieoiaiou ia
a?aiaea aeaoe?othony 2000 aiaeii aei iaoae y?u, eiaaea a oi?ia
iia?aoeaiiai eeceiaa a a?aiaeo naeaaaeenue naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
aeeaioiua e i?oaeey o?oaea.

A n?aaeiea aaea a Aaiaoeee a a?aiaeo aeaaeaeueoeai oi?aiauo noaeia
naeaaaeenue yei?y, eioi?ua ii ieii/aiee ieaaaiey aica?auaeenue eo
nianoaaiieeai e iiaee auoue niiaa naeaiu a a?aiaeo.

A na?aaeeia O1O aaea a yiioo ao?iiai ?acaeoey aeaeaciuo aei?ia a NOA e
Aaeeeia?eoaiee iaoae i?eiaiaiea eeceia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia, a a
1877 aiaeo oaeaoiiiay eiiiaiey Aa11 i?eiyea ?aoaiea ia i?iaeaaaoue naie
oaeaoiiiua aiia?aou, a onoaiaaeeaaoue eo ia oneiaeyo a?aiaeu.

Ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu i?aaeoaeuenoai NOA ia oneiaeyo a?aiaeu
iinoaaeyei a iaoo no?aio aiaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea e eiouanoai. Ia neo/aeii
yoa iia?aoeey ecaanoia a enoi?ee eae «Eaiae-eec».

Nia?aiaiiay eeceiaiaay eiaeono?ey ca?iaeeeanue a ia/aea 30-o aiaeia OO
noieaoey a NOA e iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?ani?ino?aieeanue ia ana eiioeiaiou.
Ca yoe aiaeu ie?iaie ?uiie eeceiaiauo oneoa ia?aaeee eae aiaeu ao?iiai
?acaeoey (80-a aiaeu), oae e niaaea (ia?aay iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia).

Ii iineaaeiei aeaiiui, iioaeeeiaaiiui a ie?iaii aaeaaiaeiii
noaoenoe/aneii iaic?aiee ii eeceiao , iinea
o?ao eao ?inoa iauaia eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a ie?a, a 1997 aiaeo ioia/aii
iacia/eoaeueiia oiaiueoaiea eeceiaiaie aeoeaiinoe ia 5,2 i?ioeaioa, a
iauai iia?aoeee ninoaaee 40~,8 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA i?ioea 428,1 ie?ae.
aeiee. NOA a 1996 aiaeo’.

Aiai?y ia oiaiueoaiea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a ie?a i?aaeaea anaai
iaiaoiaeeii aniiiieoue i ia/aea aeanoi/aeoaai oeiainiaiai e?ecena a
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, eioi?ue io?aceeny e ia eeceiaiaie io?anee. Iauaiu
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a Acee a 1997 aiaeo oiaee ii/oe ia 25 i?ioeaioia.
Ec oanoe eiioeiaioia oieueei ia aeaoo – a Naaa?iie e THaeiie Aia?eea –
auei ioia/aii oaaee/aiea iauaia eeceiaa niioaaonoaaiii ia 6,9 e 7,7
i?ioeaioa. Iinea iaaieueoiai ionooieaiey a 1996 aiaeo a THaeiie Aia?eea
a 1997 aiaeo aue ioia/ai ?ino, eioi?ue e oiio aea aue iaeaunoei n?aaee
anao eiioeiaioia. Eioa?anii, /oi aia?aua iauai eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee ia
aia?eeaineeo eiioeiaioao ninoaaee aieaa 50 i?ioeaioia io iauaai iauaia
eeceiaa a ie?a. Ii-i?aaeiaio iniiaiie iauai eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
nin?aaeioi/ai ia o?ao eiioeiaioao: a Naaa?iie Aia?eea, Aa?iia e Acee, ia
aeieth eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony 93,1 i?ioeaioa iauaia eeceiaiauo naeaeie a
ie?a, /oi ia 0,3 i?ioeaioa iaiueoa, /ai a 1996 aiaeo. A Ao?eea,
Aano?aeee e Iiaie Caeaiaeee i?iecioei oiaiueoaiea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
niioaaonoaaiii ia 2,4 i?ioeaioa e 5,9 i?ioeaioa .

Ii aeaiiui ie?iaie noaoenoeee, a /aou?ao no?aiao – NOA, ssiiiee,
Aa?iaiee e Aaeeeia?eoaiee – nin?aaeioi/aii aieaa 72 i?ioeaioia iauaia
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a ie?a i?ioea 69,3 i?ioeaioa a 199a aiaeo. Ia
aeieth NOA – aaaeouae ie?iaie eeceiaiaie aea?aeaau – i?eoiaeeony 44,3
i?ioeaioa iauaia ie?iaiai eeceiaiaiai ?uiea i?ioea 39,~ i?ioeaioa a 1996
aiaeo. Ia aoi?ii ianoa iaoiaeeony ssiiiey – n 14,8 i?ioeaioa ?uiea, /oi
ia 1,9 i?ioeaioa iaiueoa, /ai a 1996 aiaeo, ia o?aoueai ianoa Aa?iaiey –
7,85 i?ioeaioa i?ioea 7,7 i?ioeaioa a 1996 aiaeo, ia /aoaa?oii ianoa
Aaeeeia?eoaiey – 5,1 i?ioeaioa, /oi ia 0,4 i?ioeaioa iaiueoa, /ai a
1996 aiaeo. Aia?aua ia 5-a ianoi n 8-ai iiaeiyeanue A?aceeey, a THaeiay
Ei?ay iionoeeanue ia 8-a ianoi. A aeanyoeo aaaeoueo eeceiaiauo no?ai
aoiaeyo O?aioeey – 6-a ianoi, Eoaeey – 7-a, Eaiaaea – 9-a e Aano?aeey –
10-a. Ia aeieth yoeo aeanyoe no?ai i?eoiaeeony aieaa 85 i?ioeaioia
ie?iaiai eeceiaiaiai ?uiea.

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia aeieth eeceiaa a iiauo eiaanoeoeeyo a aaaeoueo
eeceiaiauo no?aiao i?eoiaeeony aeinoaoi/ii aieueoay aaee/eia. A NOA,
iai?eia?, – 30,9 i?ioeaioa, THaeiie Ei?aa – 28,3 i?ioeaioa, Aano?aeee –
25 i?ioeaioia, A?aceeee – 20,7 i?ioeaioa.

Aieaa iiae?iaii inoaiiaeiny ia iieiaeaiee aeae a Aa?iia. Iinea o?ao eao
?inoa eeceiaiauo oneoa a Aa?iia London Financial Group a 1997 aiaeo
iieacaea oiaiueoaiea iauaia eeceiaa a aeieea?iaii au?aaeaiee n 117,7
ie?ae. aeiee. NOA a 1996 aiaeo aei 105,2 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA, eee ia
5,7i?ioeaioa. A oi aea naiia a?aiy a aaeaaiaeiii io/aoa Aa?iiaeneiai
iauaaeeiaiey annioeeaoeee eiiiaiee (AIAE) ca 1997 aiae ioia/aaony
nouanoaaiiue ?ino eeceiaa iai?oaeiaaiey – ia 10,7 i?ioeaioa, eioi?ue
aeinoea 101,358 ie?ae. YETH i?ioea 91,591 ie?ae. YETH a 1996 aiaeo.
I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec ?acaeoey eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, aiai?eo i oii /oi 1997
aiae aue oaea/iui aeey aai ?acaeoey a Aa?iia.

A ioee/ea io Aia?eee a Aa?iia inouanoaeyaony o/ao eae eeceiaa
iai?oaeiaaiey, oae e eeceiaa iaaeaeaeeiinoe. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 90-o aiaeia
ia aeieth eeceiaa iai?oaeiaaiey i?eoiaeeeinue ieiei 85% aiiaue
i?eia?aoaiiiai eiouanoaa, a inoaeueiua – ia eeceia iaaeaeaeeiinoe. A
/anoiinoe, a 1997 aiaeo iauee iauai eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee ninoaaee 117,21
ie?ae. YETH, ec ieo ia eeceia iai?oaeiaaiey i?eoiaeeony 101,34 ie?ae.
YETH, a ia eeceia iaaeaeaeeiinoe – 15,87 ie?ae. YETH, eee,
niioaaonoaaiii, 86,3 i?ioeaioa e 13,5 i?ioeaioa io iauaai iauaia
eeceiaiauo oneoa. A 1996 aiaeo yoi niioiioaiea ninoaaeyei 85,2 i?ioeaioa
e 14,8 i?ioeaioa

Ii aeaiiui Aa?iiaeneiai iauaaeeiaiey annioeeaoeee eiiiaiee ii eeceiao
iai?oaeiaaiee, eioi?ue aue iniiaai a 1972 aiaeo ai anao aa?iiaeneeo
no?aiao, ca eneeth/aieai Oaaeoea?ee, E?eaiaeee e Aieaa?ee, ioia/ai ?ino
iauaia eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. Aiciiaeii, ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii
aiaeece?oaiue aiae aue ia oaeei oniaoiui aeey aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. Oaiiu
?inoa iauaia eeceiaiauo oneoa ianeieueei nieceeenue, oioy eiatho
iieiaeeoaeueioth oaiaeaioeeth. Anee i?iaanoe aiaeec ?inoa eeceiaiauo
oneoa a iinoniaaoneeo e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao, oi ia?yaeo n ?inneae, o
eioi?ie a 1997 aiaeo aue iaeaunoee i?ioeaio oaaee/aiey eeceiaiauo oneoa
(ia 328 i?ioeaioia), a Iieueoa aue ioia/ai ?ino ia 51,4 i?ioeaioa, a
Neiaaiee – ia 45,8 i?ioeaioa, a A?aoeee – ia 36,5 i?ioeaioa, a *aoee –
ia 32,2 i?ioeaioa.

A oaeea aaaeouea aa?iiaeneea no?aiu, eae Aa?iaiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey,
O?aioeey e Eoaeey, nio?aieee naie ianoa a aeanyoea ie?iauo eeceiaiauo
aea?aeaa. A ieo nin?aaeioi/aii ii/oe 75 i?ioeaioia iauaia eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee a Aa?iia.

N?aaee auaoeo no?ai NYA eeceia i?iaeieaeaao oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny a
*aoneie ?anioaeeea, eioi?ay n iauaiii a 2,04 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA i?ioea
1,74 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA a 1996 aiaeo iiaeiyeanue n 22-ai ianoa,
caieiaaiiai ath a 1996 aiaeo, ia 20-a ianoi a ie?iaie eeanneoeeaoeee e n
12-ai ia 11-a – a aa?iiaeneie, inoaaea iicaaee oaeea aa?iiaeneea no?aiu,
eae Ii?ooaaeey e Ii?aaaey. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aaaeioth ?ieue eeceiaa
n?aaee ?acee/iuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eino?oiaioia a yoie no?aia. 0a yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao cia/eoaeueiay aaee/eia aeiee eeceiaa a iiauo
eiaanoeoeeyo a *aoee, eioi?ay aeinoeaea a 1997 aiaeo 27,2 i?ioeaioa e
oaaee/eeanue iinea 1996 aiaea ia 7,2 i?ioeaioa. Iiyoiio nianai ia
neo/aeii *aoey iaoiaeeony a iaeeo/oai yeiiiie/aneii iieiaeaiee n?aaee
auaoeo no?ai NYA.

Eioa?anai aiaeec eeceiaiauo oneoa ii n?ieai eeceiaiauo eiio?aeoia,
aeaeai eiouanoaa, i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo aeey eeceiaa e iniiaiui eeeaioai
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee.

Ii-i?aaeiaio iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiu aeaeii eiouanoaa, eniieuecoaiii a
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeeyo, a 1997 aiaeo inoaaaeenue aaoio?ainii?oiua
n?aaenoaa, ia aeieth eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony 51,5 i?ioeaioa eeceiaiaiai
eiaainoe?iaaiey i?ioea 52 i?ioeaioia a 1996 aiaeo. Ii n?aaiaieth n 1996
aiaeii a 1997 aiaeo i?iecioei iaaieueoia oiaiueoaiea aeiee eeceiaa
eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae n 37,0 i?ioeaioa aei 36, 4 i?ioeaioa i?e
iacia/eoaeueiii oaaee/aiee aeiee eeceiaa a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeae n 15,0
i?ioeaioa aei 15,1 i?ioeaioa. Ca iineaaeiea iyoue eao aeiey eeceiaa
aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa i?aauoaao 50 i?ioeaioia.

Aoi?ia ianoi ii iauaio oeiaine?iaaiey eeceiaii caieiaao
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiia e oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea – 25,3 i?ioeaioa,
aeiey eioi?iai ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii oaaee/eeanue ia 2,3
i?ioeaioa, ia o?aoueai ianoa – a?ociaua aaoiiiaeee – 15,1 i?ioeaioa, ia
/aoaa?oii ianoa – eiiiuethoa?u e ioeniia iai?oaeiaaiea.

Ia 14,8 i?ioeaioa i?iecioei oiaiueoaiea iauaia eeceiaa aicaeooiuo,
ii?neeo, ?a/iuo noaeia e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai iiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa, /oi
i?eaaei e oiaiueoaieth aai aeiee a iauai iauaia eeceiaa n 5,9 i?ioeaioa
a 1996 aiaeo aei 4,5 i?ioeaioa a 1997 aiaeo.

A 1997 aiaeo nio?aieeenue iauea oaiaeaioeee, nouanoaiaaaoea a 1996 aiaeo
ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth eeceiaiauo eiio?aeoia ii n?ieai. Iacia/eoaeueii
oiaiueoeeanue aeiey eiio?aeoia ni n?ieii nauoa 10 eao.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui n?ieii eeceiaiaiai eiio?aeoa a 1997 aiaeo ai
anao no?aiao, ca eneeth/aieai Aieaa?ee, yaeyeenue aeiaiai?u,
caeeth/aiiua ia n?ie io 2 aei 5 eao, – 72,6 i?ioeaioa io iauaai
eiee/anoaa iiauo eiio?aeoia (i?ioea 71,8 i?ioeaioa a 1996 aiaeo).
Eioa?anii, /oi a A?aoeee ii/oe ana eiio?aeou (99 i?ioeaioia) caeeth/aiu
ia aeaiiue n?ie, a a Aieaa?ee, eae e a 1996 aiaeo, ia 100 i?ioeaioia
eiaee ianoi eiio?aeou ia n?ie aei 2 eao. Yoi aiieia caeiiiia?ii, o.e. a
Aieaa?ee a 1997 aiaeo auea eioeyoeey aieaa 500 i?ioeaioia. E?iia
Aieaa?ee, aua a Ii?aaaee, Iieueoa e *aoee aeinoaoi/ii aieueoay aeiey
aeiaiai?ia, caeeth/aiiuo ia n?ie aei 2 eao, – niioaaonoaaiii 32,5
i?ioeaioa, 27,6 i?ioeaioa e 24,7 i?ioeaioa.

A ?innee 92, i?ioeaioa iauaia iiauo eiio?aeoia caeeth/aii ia n?ie io 2
aei eao. A oeaeii ii Aa?iia ia n?ie aei 2 eao i?eoiaeeony 11,5
i?ioeaioa (a 1996 aiaeo – 11,2 i?ioeaioa) eeceiaiauo aeiaiai?ia, io 5
aei 10 eao – 9,2 i?ioeaioa (a 1996 aieo – 9,0 i?ioeaioa) e nauoa 10 eao
– 6,7 i?ioeaioa (a 1996 aiaeo – 8,0 i?ioeaioa).

A Aeaiee (35,1 i?ioeaioa) e O?aioeee (20,3 i?ioeaioa) iiaua eiio?aeou
auee caeeth/aiu ia n?ie io 5 aei 10 eao, a i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua eeceiaiaua
eiio?aeou ni n?ieii nauoa 10 eao a 1997 aiaeo ?aaeeciaaiu a 10 no?aiao
(a 1996 aiaeo – a 8). Yoi – Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aa?iaiey, O?aioeey, Aeaiey,
Eniaiey, Oaaoeey, Oaaeoea?ey, Aaeueaey, Aano?ey. I?e/ai a Aaeeeia?eoaiee
e Oaaoeee ia eo aeieth i?eoiaeeony aieaa 10 i?ioeaioia anao caeeth/aaiuo
aeiaiai?ia, a eo iauai ninoaaeyao aeinoaoi/ii aieueooth aaee/eio –
niioaaonoaaiii 4,694 iei. YETH (?ino ia 66,2 i?ioeaioa), 308 iei. YETH
(?ino ia 15,8 i?ioeaioa). A Aa?iaiee ia eiio?aeou nauoa 1!..”,.” eao
i?eoiaeeony 1,375 iei. YETH, eee 5,6 i?ioeaioa.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu i?iecioee iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a
iieueciaaoaeae eeceiaiauo oneoa, eioi?ay ia i?aoa?iaea nouanoaaiiuo
naeaeaia. Ii-i?aaeiaio iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaeyie eeceiaiauo oneoa
yaeythony i?iiuoeaiiinoue, no?ieoaeuenoai e naeoi? /anoiuo oneoa. Ia eo
aeieth, eae e ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo /aou?ao eao, i?eoiaeeony aieaa
80 i?ioeaioia eiouanoaa. Oieueei i?iaeieaeeeinue oaaee/aiea aeiee
naeoi?a /anoiuo oneoa aei 50,1 i?ioeaioa i?ioea 47,0 i?ioeaioa e
oiaiueoaiea iio?aaeoaeae eeceiaa a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e no?ieoaeuenoaa aei
31,2 i?ioeaioa i?ioea 34,2 i?ioeaioa.

A iaeioi?uo no?aiao oaeeo, eae Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Eoaeey, Aieaa?ey, A?aoeey
e Iieueoa ionoonoaoao eeceia /anoiui iieueciaaoaeyi, aeaiiia iieiaeaiea
i aucaaii iniaaiiinoyie iaoeeiiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,oii anoue e
no?aiu oaeea, eae Aaia?ey e E?eaiaeey, a eioi?uo, niioaaonoaaiii, 43,0
i?ioeaioa e 39,5 i?ioeaioa (a 1996 aiaeo niioaaonoaaiii 64,7 i?ioeaioa e
53,5 i?ioeaioa) i?eoiaeeony ia /anoiuo iieueciaaoaeae.

2.2.I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eeceiaa a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii i?aaa.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue einoeooo ii oieoeeaoeee /anoiiai i?aaa – OIEAe?OA-
iaeei ec noa?aeoeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
eioi?ue ?ac?aaioae e i?eiye Eiiaaioeeth i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oeiainiaii
eeceiaa. OIEAe?OA ca a?aiy naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeaioiaeea ianeieueei
i?iaeoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo Eiiaaioeee. A /anoiinoe, oneeeyie yoie
i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaioiaeaiu i?iaeou Eiiaaioeee i i?aaa, i?eiaieiii e
aeiaiai?iui iaycaoaeuenoaai (1980 a.), Eiiaaioeee III i aeiaiai?ao
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia (1980 a.), Eiiaaioeee i
aica?aoa oe?aaeaiiuo eee iacaeiiii yenii?oe?iaaiiuo iauaeoia eoeueoo?u
(1995 a.).

A iaeiaiiaaiee Eiiaaioeee nnueea ia OIEAe?OA ia icia/aao, /oi aeaiiua
Eiiaaioeee i?eiyou Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui einoeoooii ii oieoeeaoeee /anoiiai
i?aaa. Einoeooo caieiaaony eeoue iiaeaioiaeie i?iaeoia Eiiaaioeee. Eo
i?eiyoea inouanoaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeeieiiaoe/aneie eiioa?aioeeae,
nicuaaaiie ii yoiio iiaiaeo. Nnueea ia i?aaiecaoeeth, aioiaeaooth i?iaeo
Eiiaaioeee, yaeyaony aeaiueth oaaaeaiey e iae.

Eiiaaioeey OIEAe?OA i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oeiainiaii eeceiaa auea i?eiyoa
26 iay 1988 a. ia aeeieiiaoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, ninoiyaoaeny a Iooaaa.
Aa o/anoieeaie yaeyeenue 55 ainoaea?noa, aeeth/ay NNN?.

Aeeieiiaoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee i?aaeoanoaiaaee iiiaieaoiea o?oaeu
OIEAe?OA e iiiaeo ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee. ?aaioa ii iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa
ia/aeanue a 1974 a., eiaaea auea nicaeaia ?aai/ay a?oiia OIEAe?OA ii
yoiio aii?ino. ?aai/ay a?oiia i?iaaea ianeieueei nannee. A ?aaioa iaae
i?iaeoii n oie eee eiie noaiaiueth o/anoaiaaee i?aaiecaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeythuea ?acee/iua aeaeiaua e?oae, a oii /enea eeceiaiaua
eiiiaiee e aaiee.

Eiiaaioeey anooieea a neeo 1 iay 1995 aiaea.

a) Cia/aiea eiiaaioeee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o/anoieeaie Eiiaaioeee yaeythony ?inneeneay
Oaaea?aoeey, Aaea?onue, Aaia?ey, Eoaeey, Eaoaey, Ieaa?ey, Iaiaia e
O?aioeey.

Oniao iaaeaeoia?iaeiie Eiiaaioeee, eae i?aaeei, ioeaieaaaony eiee/anoaii
aa o/anoieeia. I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi /anoi Eiiaaioeee n
aunieei ea/anoaii oieoeoee?iaaiiuo ii?i ia yaeythony oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie. Ia?aii?e/eiie yoiai yaeyaony ?aciiia?acea, a /anoi e
i?ioeai?a/eainoue a i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee iaeieo e oao aea
i?aaiioiioaiee a ?aciuo no?aiao. Iaeiicia/iue oniao eiaao ianoi oai,
aaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue o?aaoee?iaaoue iiaua ioiioaiey ni/aoaaony n aunieei
ea/anoaii i?aaeeaaaaiuo ii?i. Oieoeeaoeey ?acaeouo i?aaiauo einoeoooia
anaaaea noaeeeaaaony ni ne?uoui eee yaiui i?ioeaiaeaenoaeai ?acee/iuo
e?oaia. Aaaeue i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea oiai eee eiiai aii?ina a
eiie?aoiie no?aia ?aaioaao, e ?aaioaao, eae i?aaeei,
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii, Aiciiaeiua e ianiiiaiiua auaiaeu io oieoeeaoeee
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeainoiyo oyaeaeie e aei?iaie ?aaioa ii
ia?aniio?o cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?aaa. I?e aeia?iniaanoiie ?aaioa eciaiaiea a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ii?i
aeieaeii aea/ue ca niaie eciaiaiea iaeiaiaiai, oaiiaeaiiiai,
i?ioeannoaeueiiai e ae?oaeo io?aneae i?aaa.

Ii?iu A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena o/anoieeia eiiaaioeee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
aace?othony ia ii?iao Eiiaaioeee. Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeea
Eiiaaioeee o/oaiu i?e iiaeaioiaea a ?aieao NIA Eiiaaioeee i
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiii eeceiaa, iiaeienaiiie a Iineaa 25 iiya?y 1998 a.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a oao neooaoeeyo, eiaaea ii?iu Eiiaaioeee e
ii?iu iaoeeiiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa no?ai onoaiaaeeaatho ?aciua
i?aaeea aeey iaeieo e oao aea ioiioaiee, oi i?eiaiythony i?aaeea
Eiiaaioeee.

?anniao?eaay iieiaeaiey ethaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie Eiiaaioeee iaiaoiaeeii
ia/eiaoue ni noa?u aa aeaenoaey. Ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i noa?a aeaenoaey
Eiiaaioeee – cia/eo ii?aaeaeeoue e?oa i?aaiioiioaiee, a eioi?uo
noauaeoeaiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ?aaeaiaioe?othony ii?iaie Eiiaaioeee.
Auaeaeeoue yoio e?oa ec anae iannu nouanoaothueo e aiciiaeiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee iicaieytho oeacaiey Eiiaaioeee ioiineoaeueii noauaeoia e
iniiaaiee aicieeiiaaiey oaeeo i?aaiioiioaiee (th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia).

Inouanoaeaiea oeacaiiie caaea/e a ioiioaiee ii?i, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
?aaoee?iaaiea a?aaeaeainei i?aaiauo ioiioaiee e niaea?aeaueony a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niaeaoaieyo, anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiioth
o?oaeiinoue. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiua niaeaoaiey,
aoiaeyuea a iaeanoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai /anoiiai i?aaa, eiatho eae au
aeaa « yoaaea». A oaeeo niaeaoaieyo iaecaaaeii ninaaenoaotho ii?iu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ioaee/iiai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai /anoiiai i?aaa.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia niaeaoaiea anaaaea ioaee/ii, oae eae yaeyaony
niaeaniaaieai aieue noauaeoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Iiyoiio i?eiyoea,
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, eciaiaiea e i?ae?auaiea ethaiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
aeiaiai?a iaoneiaeaiu i?eioeeiaie e ii?iaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. A
niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 34 Aaineie Eiiaaioeee i i?aaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia aeiaiai? ia nicaeaao iaycaoaeuenoa eee i?aa aeey o?aoueaai
ainoaea?noaa aac aai ia oi niaeaney, o.a. aeaenoaoao oieueei a ioiioaiee
ainoaea?noa-o/anoieeia.

Aianoa n oai ana aieaa caiaoiui yaeaieai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii i?aaa
noaiiayony Eiiaaioeee, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey eo
ii?i a ioiioaiee oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ainoaea?noa –
iao/anoieeia oaeeo Eiiaaioeee. Eiiaaioeey OIEAe?OA i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
oeiainiaii eeceiaa ia ioiineony e eo /eneo.

A neeo i?eioeeia noaa?aieoaoa ainoaea?noai eiaao i?aai onoaiiaeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea aeey eiino?aioeaa, iaoiaeyueony iiae aai
th?enaeeeoeeae. I?e yoii ia eiaao cia/aiey, eaeei ia?acii onoaiiaeaii
yoi i?aaeei – eeai i?eiyoeai aioo?aiiaai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa, eeai
o?ainoi?iaoeeae iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai niaeaoaiey a ii?io iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?aaa. Caeanue aaaeai ?acoeueoao. A ii a oii e ae?oaii neo/aa aoaeao
iaeei – nicaeaaony ii?ia, eniieiaiea eioi?ie iaania/aii ainoaea?noaaiiui
i?eioaeaeaieai.

Neaaeothuei iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai yaeyaony iaaeene?eieiaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?
oaeeo ii?i. I?e niaethaeaiee auoaoiiiyioouo oneiaee o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiay
ii?ia yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiie e eiaao oaeoth aea neeo, eae e ethaay
aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiay ii?ia i?aaa. Iaeiaei i?e yoii ia i?ienoiaeeo
?ac?ua anao naycae iaaeaeo o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiie ii?iie e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
niaeaoaieai. I?eia?ii oaeie nayce iiaeao auoue caaeneiinoue noa?u
aeaenoaey o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiie ii?iu eee aiciiaeiinoue aa
i?eioaeeoaeueiiai inouanoaeaiey a caaeneiinoe io o/anoey a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii niaeaoaiee oiai eee eiiai ainoaea?noaa. Oeacaiiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu auoue i?eiyou i?e ?anniio?aiee aii?inia noa?u
aeaenoaey Eiiaaioeee OIEAe?OA i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oeiainiaii eeceiaa.

a) noa?a i?eiaiaiea Eiiaaioeee

Noa?a i?eiaiaiey Eiiaaioeee i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oeiainiaii eeceiaa
iieiinoueth iinayuaia ia?aay aeaaa.

Eiiaaioeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia naeaeee oeiainiaiai eeceiaa. Aai
ii?aaeaeaiea i?eaiaeeony a ioieoa 2 noaouee 1 Eiiaaioeee. Oa?aeoa?iua
/a?ou oeiainiaiai eeceiaa iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue auae?aao iai?oaeiaaiea e iinoaaueea;

– iai?oaeiaaiea i?eia?aoaaony eeceiaiaeaoaeai;

– iai?oaeiaaiea i?eia?aoaaony a nayce n eeceiaiaui niaeaoaieai;

– eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea aeieaeii auoue caeeth/aii e iiiaioo i?eia?aoaiey
iai?oaeiaaiey, ii iiaeao auoue caeeth/aii iicaeiaa;

– i oaeii eeceiaiaii niaeaoaiee aeieaeii auoue ecaanoii iinoaaueeo;

– niaieoiiua a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee ii eeceiaiaiio niaeaoaieth aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue anae eee nouanoaaiiie /anoe aii?oecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey.

A aeiiieiaiea e auoaia?a/eneaiiiio ioieo 1 noaouee 1 Eiiaaioeee
i?eaiaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiua eaaeeoeoee?othuea i?eciaee naeaeee
oeiainiaiai eeceiaa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie a naeaeea oeiainiaiai
eeceiaa:

– eeceiaiaeaoaeue ii oeacaieth eeceiaiiieo/aoaey caeeth/aao niaeaoaiea
(aeiaiai? iinoaaee) n o?aoueae noi?iiie (iinoaaueeii), ii eioi?iio
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue i?eia?aoaao eiiieaeo iaoei, n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa
eee eiia iai?oaeiaaiea ia oneiaeyo, iaeia?aiiuo eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai.
(Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue i?aaeii?aaeaeyao oo /anoue aeiaiai?a iinoaaee,
eioi?ay aai eanaaony; nthaea iiaoo auoue ioianaiu niaoeeoeeaoeey
iai?oaeiaaiey, oneiaey e n?iee aai iinoaaee e o.i.); – eeceiaiaeaoaeue
caeeth/aao aeiaiai? (eeceiaiaue aeiaiai?) n eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, ii
eioi?iio i?aaeinoaaeyao eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i?aai eniieueciaaoue
iai?oaeiaaiea ca a?aiaeioth ieaoo.

Aeaiiua iieiaeaiey aaaeiu aeey iiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey
oeiainiaiai eeceiaa. Oeiainiaue eeceia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiaeiaoeeth
aeaoo acaeiicaaeneiuo, ii naiinoiyoaeueiuo aeiaiai?ia – aeiaiai?a
iinoaaee e aeiaiai?a eeceiaa. Niaea?aeaiea i?aaiioiioaiee, auoaeathueo
ec yoeo aeiaiai?ia, aoaeao ?anniio?aii ieaea. Caeanue iu iiae/a?eiai eo
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e acaeiioth oneiaiinoue, o.a. anooieaiea a neeo
iaeiiai aeiaiai?a caaeneo io anooieaiey a neeo ae?oaiai aeiaiai?a.
I?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea yoie iinueee icia/aao, /oi niioaaonoaothuea
aeiaiai?u, ia iiaeiaaeathuea iiae ii?aaeaeaiea oeiainiaiai eeceiaa,
aeaiiiai a Eiiaaioeee, ia aoaeoo ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoueny i?aaeeaie
Eiiaaioeee, ii i?e yoii Eiiaaioeey ia aoaeao aeeyoue ia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oaeeo aeiaiai?ia.

Ii?iu Eiiaaioeee i?eiaiythony e, a ioiioaiee noaeeceiaiauo aeiaiai?ia.
I?e yoii iinoaauee iai?oaeiaaiey n/eoaaony iinoaaueeii aeey eaaeaeiai
iineaaeothuaai noaa?aiaeaoi?a.

Aaaeiui aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noa?u aeaenoaey Eiiaaioeee yaeyaony aa
oa??eoi?eaeueiia i?eiaiaiea a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie, eiathueieny a
iae naiie.

Eiiaaioeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia naeaeee, a eioi?uo ana o/anoaothuea
noi?iiu eiatho naia ianoi aeayoaeueiinoe a no?aiao – o/anoieoeao
Eiiaaioeee, ii eeceiaiaeaoaeue e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aeieaeiu
inouanoaeyoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue a ?aciuo ainoaea?noaao. Eiiaaioeey
ia niaea?aeeo eaeeo-eeai oeacaiee ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi neaaeoao
iiieiaoue iiae ianoii aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeaiiue aii?in neaaeoao ?aoaoue a
niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie i?eiaieiiai i?aaa.

I?eiaieiia i?aai ii?aaeaeyaony eieeeceiiiuie ii?iaie i?aaa, aua?aiiiai
noi?iiaie niioaaonoaothuaai aeiaiai?a eee i?eiaiyaiiai a neeo
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo i?aaeei,
onoaiiaeaiiia noaoueae 3 Eiiaaioeee. A niioaaonoaee n iei eae aeiaiai?
iinoaaee, oae e aeiaiai? eeceiaa aeieaeiu ?aaoee?iaaoueny i?aaii no?aiu
– o/anoieoeu Eiiaaioeee. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa oaeea naeaeee ia aoaeoo
iiaeiaaeaoue iiae aeaenoaea Eiiaaioeee. Aeaiiia oneiaea ia?aie/eaaao a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aiciiaeiia iiiaiia?acea i?aaiauo nenoai,
i?aoaiaeothueo ia ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey ianoa aeayoaeueiinoe
eeceiaiaeaoaey, eeceiaiiieo/aoaey e iinoaaueea, ii ia ono?aiyao a iieiie
ia?a yeaiaio iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. Aeey ono?aiaiey aiciiaeiie i?aaiaie
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, aucaaiiie eneeth/aieai naeaeie ec iiae aeaenoaey
Eiiaaioeee, caeioa?aniaaiiui noi?iiai neaaeoao aieiaoaeueii
i?i?aaaouaaoue yoio aii?in. Ii?aaeaeaiea ianoa aeayoaeueiinoe
eiino?aiiiai eeoea ia yaeyaony eaaeie caaea/ae i?e aa aeaeeiie i?inoioa.

Ioieo 2 noaouee 3 Eiiaaioeee niaea?aeeo aeiiieieoaeueiia i?aaeei, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui i?e iaee/ee ianeieueeeo iano aeayoaeueiinoe o
iaeiie ec noi?ii aa ianoii aeayoaeueiinoe aeey oeaeae Eiiaaioeee
neaaeoao i?eciaaaoue oi ianoi, eioi?ia eiaao iaeaieaa oanioth naycue n
niioaaonoaothuei aeiaiai?ii. I?aaiaia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeaeeiinoe a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ioee/aaony io noaoona aeaeaeeiuo aauae, Ii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iiiaeo no?ai i?ee?aieaiea aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa e
caiea iiaeao eciaieoue aai noaoon. Iai?eia?, noaouey 130 AE ?O
i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi e iaaeaeaeeiui aauai ioiinyony caiaeueiua o/anoee,
o/anoee iaae? e ana, /oi i?i/ii naycaii n caieae, oi anoue iauaeou,
ia?aiauaiea eioi?uo aac ni?acia?iiai oua?aa eo iacia/aieth iaaiciiaeii,
a oii /enea caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi /anoiui neo/aai
yoiai aea i?aaeea yaeyaony noaouey 132 AE ?O, ii?aaeaeythuay, /oi
i?aaei?eyoea a oeaeii, eae eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen, i?eciaaony
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth, a a ninoaa i?aaei?eyoey, eae eiouanoaaiiiai
eiiieaena, aoiaeyo ana aeaeu eiouanoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aai
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay caiaeueiua o/anoee, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey.
I?aai ?yaea no?ai eaeao aeaeueoa e onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi ana eiouanoai,
i?ee?aieaiiia e caiea, noaiiaeony aa /anoueth. I?e yoii nianoaaiiee
i?ee?aieaiiiai eiouanoaa oa?yao oeooe ia iaai. Aianoa n oeooeii ii
oa?yao i?aai ia eno?aaiaaiea eiouanoaa, eioi?ia ia?aoiaeeo e eeoeo,
iaeaaeathuaio oeooeii ia caieth, iai?eia? e caeiaiaea?aeaoaeth.
Iieiaeaiey eeceiaiaie naeaeee i oii, /oi iai?oaeiaaiea inoaaony a
nianoaaiiinoe a?aiaeiaeaoaey e iinea aai i?ee?aieaiey e caiea, ia
naycuaaao o?aoueth noi?iio (nianoaaiieea caiee eee caeiaiaea?aeaoaey). A
oaeie neooaoeee, anee caeiaiaea?aeaoaeue anooiaao ai aeaaeaiea eee
i?eioaeeoaeueii inouanoaeyao naie i?aaa a ioiioaiee caeiaeaiiie caiee,
ii i?aaiii/ai i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia oeooe ia iai?oaeiaaiea. I?e eiioeeeoa
eioa?ania a?aiaeiaeaoaey e eeoea, eiathuaai i?aaa ia caieth, i?aaa
iineaaeiaai aoaeoo caueuaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?aae a?aiaeiaeaoaeai.

Noaouey 4 Eiiaaioeee iuoaaony niya/eoue yoo neooaoeeth, ii ioaeaao
?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina ia oniio?aiea i?aaa ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey caiee. A
?yaea no?ai oaea ia?aaioaiu iaoiaeu ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu. A /anoiinoe,
iieo/aaony ioeac io i?aa o?aaiaaiey io eeoea, eiathuaai oeooe ia caieth,
nicaeaiea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiai o?anoa ia iai?oaeiaaiea, noaaoaa /anoueth
iaaeaeaeeiinoe.

A niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 7 Eiiaaioeee eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa
eeceiaiaeaoaey a iai?oaeiaaiee caueuathony io e?aaeeoi?ia a?aiaeaoi?a, a
oii /enea a i?ioeanna i aai ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) e i?e
iaeiaeaiee a?anoa ia iai?oaeiaaiea oaeeie e?aaeeoi?aie, anee yoi ia
i?ioeai?a/eo eiui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui niaeaoaieyi. Anee aeey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oaeeo i?aa o?aaoaony ioaee/iia oaaaeiieaiea, oi iie
aeaenoaeoaeueiu i?e niaethaeaiee o?aaiaaiey i ioaee/iii oaaaeiieaiee.
Aii?in i oii, o?aaoaony ee oaeia oaaaeiieaiea, aeieaeai ?aoaoueny ii
i?aao oie no?aiu, eioi?ay a niioaaonoaee n eieeeceiiiuie i?eayceaie,
aeaiiuie a Eiiaaioeee, yaeyaony i?eiaieiui. Ii iauaio i?aaeeo oaeei
i?aaii aoaeao yaeyoueny i?aai ainoaea?noaa, aaea iaoiaeeony
iai?oaeiaaiea. A ioiioaiee aicaeooiuo, ii?neeo e eiuo noaeia i?eiaieiui
i?aaii yaeyaony i?aai ianoa eo ?aaeno?aoeee, a a ioiioaiee /anoi
ia?aiauaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey – ainoaea?noaa, aaea ?aniieiaeaii iniiaiia
i?aaei?eyoea a?aiaeaoi?a.

I?e i?aeoe/aneii eniieueciaaiee yoiai i?aaeea, iai?eia?, a ioiioaiee
ii?neeo noaeia, neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia neaaeothuaa. Anee
i?aaeiaoii naeaeee yaeyaony naii noaeii, oi neiaeiinoae ia aicieeaao,
oae eae i?aaa ia noaea iiaeeaaeao ?aaeno?aoeee, a oii /enea i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe a?aiaeiaeaoaey ia iaai. Neiaeiaa ianoieo aeaei, anee
i?aaeiaoii eeceiaa yaeyaony ia ana noaeii, a /anoue aai iai?oaeiaaiey.
I?e ionoonoaee niaoeeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia oaaaeiieaiee i
naeaeeao oeiainiaiai eeceiaa, aiciiaeia ?aaeno?aoeey i?aa a?aiaeiaeaoaey
ia iai?oaeiaaiea eae ia /anoue noaeia.

Auoaneacaiiia i caueoa i?aa a?aiaeiaeaoaey ia aeeyao ia i?aaa
e?aaeeoi?ia, /uee o?aaiaaiey iaania/aiu caeiaii iai?oaeiaaiey (eae a
neeo aeiaiai?a, oae e a neeo caeiia) e eiuie oi?iaie iaania/aiey, a
oaeaea ia i?aaa a?anoa, caaea?aeaiey e oaea?aeaiey noaeia e naiieaoia.

Noaoueae 8 Eiiaaioeee onoaiaaeeaaaony iauaa i?aaeei, eioi?ia nieiaao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue a?aiaeiaeaoaey ca iai?oaeiaaiea a ioiioaiee
a?aiaeaoi?a. Iii iiaeao auoue eciaiaii niaeaoaieai noi?ii.
Ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiaeao auoue aiceiaeaia ia a?aiaeiaeaoaey, anee ii
aiaoeaaeny a i?ioeann auai?a iai?oaeiaaiey eee eiui ia?acii iiaeeye ia
i?eiyoea ?aoaiey a?aiaeaoi?ii ioiineoaeueii auai?a iai?oaeiaaiey.

A?aiaeiaeaoaeue oaeaea ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie
ca i?e/eiaiea iai?oaeiaaieai ee/iiai a?aaea.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue a?aiaeiaeaoaey eiiai ?iaea ia eciaiyaony auoaoeacaiiuie
iieiaeaieyie.

A?aiaeiaeaoaeue iaycai i?aaeinoaaeoue iai?oaeiaaiea, naiaiaeiia io
eaeeo-eeai ia?aiaiaiee. Ia?ooaiea yoie ii?iu aea/ao aiceiaeaiea
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia a?aiaeiaeaoaey. Aeia e?aaeeoi?a yaeyaony iniiaaieai
aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey a?aiaeiaeaoaey io ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Aeaiiia i?aaeei iiaeao auoue eciaiaii niaeaoaieai noi?ii aei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea. Niaeaoaieai noi?ii ia iiaeao auoue ioiaiaii
aiceiaeaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia a?aiaeiaeaoaey i?e oaeeo oi?iao aeiu, eae
oiunae e a?oaay iainoi?iaeiinoue, a oaeaea eciaiaiu eiia?aoeaiua ii?iu
i?eiaieiiai i?aaa.

Noaouey 9 Eiiaaioeee iaeaaaao ia a?aiaeaoi?a iaycaiiinoue i?iyaeyoue
aeieaeioth caaioeeainoue ia iai?oaeiaaiee e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai a
ninoiyiee, a eioi?ii iii auei iieo/aii n o/aoii anoanoaaiiiai eciina.

Oeo/oaiea a?aiaeiaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeiioneaaony ii niaeaoaieth
noi?ii.

Ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeiaiai?a iai?oaeiaaiea aeieaeii auoue aica?auaii
a?aiaeiaeaoaeth, anee a?aiaeaoi? ia eniieueciaae naia i?aai ia aai
iieoieo.

A noaouea 10 Eiiaaioeee niaea?aeeony aaaeiia i?aaeei, io?aaeathuaa
oa?aeoa?ioth iniaaiiinoue oeiainiaiai eeceiaa. A niioaaonoaee n iei
iinoaauee iai?oaeiaaiey ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae a?aiaeiaeaoaeai,
eae anee au iineaaeiee yaeyeny noi?iiie aeiaiai?a iinoaaee, ii
a?aiaeaoi?o ia i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee.

Noaouey 12 Eiiaaioeee ?aaeaiaioe?oao neo/ae iaiinoaaee iai?oaeiaaiey,
ia?ooaiey n?ieia iinoaaee eee iinoaaee iai?oaeiaaiey, ia
niioaaonoaothuaai oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a, ii aeia a?aiaeaoi?a. I?e oaeeo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao Eiiaaioeey iaaeaeyao a?aiaeaoi?a neaaeothueie i?aaaie a
ioiioaiee a?aiaeiaeaoaey:

– ?anoi?aiooue eeceiaiaue aeiaiai?;

– ioeacaoueny i?eieiaoue iai?oaeiaaiea.

A oii neo/aa, anee iinoaaea iai?oaeiaaiey ia niioaaonoaoao oneiaeyi
aeiaiai?a, a?aiaeiaeaoaeue eiaao i?aai iinoaaeoue iai?oaeiaaiea,
niioaaonoaothuaa aeiaiai?o.

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea, /oi a?aiaeiaeaoaeue e a?aiaeaoi? naycaiu
eeceiaiaui aeiaiai?ii, a ia aeiaiai?ii iinoaaee e /oi ii?iu Eiiaaioeee,
iinayuaiiua yoiio aii?ino, iaei/eneaiiu, i?aaiioiioaiey noi?ii
?aaeaiaioe?othony niioaaonoaothuei i?aaii oae, eae anee au a?aiaeaoi?
yaeyeny iieoiaoaeai ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee.

Aeiiieieoaeueiui n?aaenoaii caueou i?aa a?aiaeaoi?a yaeyaony
i?aaeinoaaeaiea aio i?aaiii/ey i?ae?aoeoue iieaoo a?aiaeiie ieaou aei
iinoaaee a?aiaeiaeaoaeai iaaeeaaeauaai iai?oaeiaaiey eee aei i?ae?auaiey
o iaai i?aaa ia ioeac io iai?oaeiaaiey. I?e eniieueciaaiee a?aiaeaoi?ii
i?aaa ia ?anoi?aeaiea aeiaiai?a ii eiaao i?aai o?aaiaaoue aica?aoa noii,
oiea/aiiuo aaainii ca ieionii noii, i?aaenoaaeythueo ?acoiiue yeaeaaeaio
auaiae, iieo/aiiuo io eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey.

I?aaa, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua a?aiaeaoi?o noaoueae 12, yaeythony
aeiiieieoaeueiuie e i?aaai, i?aaeoniio?aiiui noaoueae 10 Eiiaaioeee, ia
eciaiytho e ia i?ae?auatho eo.

I?e ia?ooaiee aeiaiai?a a?aiaeaoi?ii a?aiaeiaeaoaeth i?aaeinoaaeyaony
i?aai acuneaoue n iineaaeiaai noiiu iaiiea/aiiie a?aiaeiie ieaou,
i?ioeaiou e oauoee.

I?e nouanoaaiiii ia?ooaiee aeiaiai?a a?aiaeaoi?ii a?aiaeiaeaoaeue
i?aaiii/ai iio?aaiaaoue onei?aiiie auieaou a?aiaeiie ieaou, anee yoi
i?aaeoniio?aii aeiaiai?ii, eee ?anoi?aiooue aeiaiai? n iai?aaeaieai
caaeaaia?aiaiiiai oaaaeiieaiey a?aiaeaoi?o. A iineaaeiai neo/aa –
eno?aaiaaoue iai?oaeiaaiea ec aeaaeaiey a?aiaeaoi?a e acuneaoue oauoee.
E?eoa?eai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a oauoeia yaeyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo
noiiie, eioi?oth iia iieo/eoue a?aiaeiaeaoaeue i?e iaaeeaaeauai
auiieiaiee a?aiaeaoi?ii aeiaiai?a, e oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiuie noiiaie.

Ii?ia Eiiaaioeee i ?acia?a oauoeia aeeniiceoeaia e iiaeao auoue eciaiaia
niaeaoaieai noi?ii. Niaeaoaiea noi?ii ii yoiio aii?ino ia aeieaeii
cia/eoaeueii iaiyoue i?aaeei, eiathuaany a iae. Iai?eia?,
iaaeaenoaeoaeueii niaeaoaiea, a neeo eioi?iai a?aiaeiaeaoaeth aoaeoo
i?e/eoaoueny noiiu, cia/eoaeueii i?aauoathuea oauoee, en/eneaiiua ii
i?aaeeai Eiiaaioeee.

A neo/aa ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a a?aiaeiaeaoaeai ii ia eiaao i?aaa
o?aaiaaoue onei?aiiie auieaou a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae, ii iie iiaoo
i?eieiaoueny ai aieiaiea i?e ?an/aoa oauoeia.

Eiiaaioeey i?eaea?aeeaaaony ecaanoiiai i?eioeeia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui a?aiaeiaeaoaeue iaycai i?aaei?eieiaoue ia?u,
iai?aaeaiiua ia i?aaeioa?auaiea oauoeia.

A?aiaeiaeaoaeue eiaao i?aai ia?aaeaaaoue naie i?aaa ia eiouanoai eee ii
eeceiaiaiio aeiaiai?o, ii oaeay ia?aaea/a i?aa ia iiaeao eciaiyoue
oa?aeoa? e i?aaiaie ?aaeei aeiaiai?a, a oaeaea inaiaiaeaeaoue
a?aiaeiaeaoaey io iaycaoaeuenoa ii iaio.

Ia?aaea/a i?aa a?aiaeaoi?a aiciiaeia oieueei i?e niaeanee ia yoi
a?aiaeiaeaoaey.

Iaee/ea oieoeoee?iaaiiuo ii?i i?aaa anaaaea niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo noauaeoaie, iiaeiaaeathueie iiae eo
aeaenoaea. Iaee/ea oaeeo ii?i nieaeaao noieiinoue iiaeaioiaee i?iaeoa e
no?aoiaaiey ?eneia, a oaeaea aeaao noi?iiai aeiaiai?a oaa?aiiinoue a
oii, /oi iie iaeeiaeiai iiieiatho niaea?aeaiea naieo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae. E niaeaeaieth, noa?a aeaenoaey Eiiaaioeee iiea aua iaea.
Yoi ia iicaieyao a iieiie ia?a eniieueciaaoue aa aiciiaeiinoe.

Eiiaaioeey iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai eeceiaa a ?aieao NIA.

A oneiaeyo ao?iiai ?uii/iiai i?ioeanna, eioi?uie oa?aeoa?ecoaony a
no?aiao NIA, ia/aei 90- aiaeia aicieeaee ana iiaua i?aaiaua iniiaaiey
aeey aaaaeaiey iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo aeoia a iaeanoe eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoue.

A oeaeyo niaeaenoaey anaia?iiai oaeoaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa a eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, ainoaea?noaaie
Niae?oaeanoaa, enoiaey ec iieiaeaiee Eiiaaioeee THIEAe?OA i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeiainiaie a?aiaea (eeceiaa) io 28 iay 1988 aiaea,
iauai?eciaiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ii?i e iniia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Noi?ii auea iiaeienaia a Iineaa 25 iiya?y 1998 aiaea
Eiiaaioeey i iaaeainoaea?noaaiiii eeceiaa.

Eiiaaioeey auea i?eiyoa, aeey oiai, /oiau iaania/eoue aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai eeceiaa
iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie Niae?oaeanoaa ia acaeiiauaiaeiie iniiaa.

O/anoieeaie eiiaaioeee yaeythony Aca?aaeaeaeai, A?iaiey, Aaea?onue,
A?ocey, Eacaonoai, Eu?aunoai, Iieaeiaa, ?inney, Oaaeaeeeenoai,
Oo?eiaiey, Ocaaeenoai, Oe?aeia.

Eiiaaioeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia naeaeee oeiainiaiai, iia?aoeaiiai,
aica?aoiiai, eiiiainaoeeiiiiai, aa?oa?iiai e ae?oaeo aeaeia eeceiaa.
Iiae ae?oaeie aeaeaie eeceiaa iiae?acoiaaathony aeaeu eeceiaa, a
oneiaeyo eioi?uo eniieuecothony ?acee/iua ni/aoaiey i?eciaeia
auoaiacaaiiuo aeaeia.

Eiiaaioeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia naeaeee a eioi?uo o/anoaotho noauaeou
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua eiatho ?aaiua
i?aaa inouanoaeyoue ethaua aa aeaeu, ia cai?auaiiua iaoeeiiaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e ianoiyuae eiiaaioeeae, iacaaeneii io oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe e ae?oaeo i?eciaeia.

Eiio?ieue ca eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeou inouanoaeytho a
niioaaonoaee ni naiei iaoeeiiaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Ii?iu Eiiaaioeee ?ani?ino?aiythony e i?eiaiythony niaeanii noaouee 5
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee inouanoaeaiea eeceiaiauo i?iaeoia aaaeoo
eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee e oicyenoaothuea noauaeou ia iaiaa aeaoo ainoaea?noa
– o/anoieeia Eiiaaioeee.

Ioieo 7.1. noaouee 7 Eiiaaioeee , eaaeeoeoee?oao i?eciaee naeaeee
eeceiaa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie a naeaeea eeceiaa:

– eeceiaiaeaoaeue caeeth/aao n eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai eeceiaiaie aeiaiai? ia
i?aai aeaaeaiey e iieueciaaiey i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa i?ioea oieaou
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae;

– eeceiaiaeaoaeue iinoaaeyao eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i?aaeiao eeceiaa ia
oneiaeyo, niaeaniaaiiuo n eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, eee ii oeacaieth
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, caeeth/aao n o?aoueae noi?iiie (iinoaaueeii)
aeiaiai? iinoaaee i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth ia niaeaniaaiiuo
n iei oneiaeyo.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oeacaiiia a iiaeioieoa a) ioieoa 7.1. noaouee
7 eeceiaiaay naeaeea oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothuei:

eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue oeacuaaao i?aaeiao eeceiaa e iinoaaueea, eae i?aaeei,
ia iieaaaynue ia eaaeeoeeaoeeth e iiaiea eeceiaiaeaoaey;

i?eia?aoaiea i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa inouanoaeyaony eeceiaiaeaoaeai a nayce n
aeiaiai?ii eeceiaa, caeeth/aiiui eee iiaeeaaeauei caeeth/aieth iaaeaeo
eeceiaiaeaoaeai e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, n eioi?ui iinoaauee iciaeiieai;

eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee, iiaeeaaeauea oieaoa ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa,
?ann/eouaathony n o/aoii aii?oecaoeee anae eee aieueoae /anoe noieiinoe
i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa.

Eiiaaioeey, oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaao, iaycaiiinoue iinoaaueea ia?aae
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai iinoaaeoue i?aaeiao eeceiaa naiaiaeiui io i?eoycaiee
eee i?aa o?aoueeo eeoe.

Eiiaaioeee oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaao iaycaiiinoe eeceiaiaeaoaey e iinoaaueea
ia?aae eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai a ioiioaiee iinoaaee i?aaeiaoa, niioaaonoaea
aai ii eiee/anoao, ea/anoao, iienaieth e ae?oaei o?aaiaaieyi aeiaiai?a.

Ia?ooaiea iaycaiiinoe eeceiaiaeaoaey e iinoaaueea iiaeao iiaea/ao ca
niaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ( noaouey 7 Eiiaaioeee).

Aianoa n oai, e?iia oiai, /oi eeceiaiaeaoaeue ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
oaeaea aa aeieaeai ianoe e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ca nio?aiiinoue i?aaeiaoa
eeceiaa. Iiyoiio i?e iieo/aiea i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
aeieaeai i?iyaeyoue caaioo ia iai?oaeiaaiee e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai a
ninoiyiee, a eioi?ii iii auei iieo/aii n o/aoii anoanoaaiiiai eciina.

Eaaeaeue i?aaeiao, iacaaeneii io ea/anoaa, oi?iu iiaeao enii?oeony eee
iiaeaiooue. I?aaeiao eeceiaa ia yaeyaony eneeth/aieai. Enoiaey ec yoiai,
Eiiaaioeey i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aaeei ia?aoiaea ?enea neo/aeiie aeaaee eee
neo/aeiie ii?/e.

A ethaie naeaeee iaycaoaeuenoai noi?ii yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo a
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Io oiai eaeea
iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaeoniio?aiu aeey o/anoieeia eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
caaeneo nai oniao caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a eeceiaa. A nayce n yoei noaouey
10 Eiiaaioeee i?aaeoniao?eaaao ii?iu ii iaycaoaeuenoao noi?ii aeey
o/anoieeia eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?aaiaay caueoa, aa?aioee io eciaiaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aa?aioee
eiouanoaaiiie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe, eiiiainaoeee e aiciauaiea oauoeia
yaeythony oaeaea iaeieie ec aeaaiuo i?aaee a eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?aiu ii?iaie a III ?acaeaea Eiiaaioeee.

Eae iu aeaeei eeceiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue, yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo
a ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. E i?eiyoay
Eiiaaioeey i iaaeaeoainoaea?noaaiiii eeceiaa, niinianoaoao aeaeueiaeoaio
?acaeoeth yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a iaeanoe eeceiaa iaaeaeo noauaeoaie,
iiaeiaaeathuea iiae eo aeaenoaea.

2.4. ?acaeoea eeceiaiauo oneoa a iinniaaoneeo ?anioaeeeao

( ia i?eia?a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee)

Naaiaeiy, iniaaiii a e?eceniuo oneiaeyo, oaoiieiaeyie e iaoiaeeeaie
i?eiaiaiey eeceiaa a ?aciuo io?aneyo yeiiiieee eioa?anothony e naie
eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, ?anoe?ythuea noa?u naiae aeoeaiinoe, e
i?iiuoeaiieee, i?iaiaeyuea ia?ainiauaiea naieo i?aaei?eyoee nia?aiaiiie
oaoieeie, e no?aoiaueee, ioe?uaoea aeey naay iiaue ?uiie, e
ioa/anoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee, caeioa?aniaaiiua a nauoa naiaai oiaa?a n
eniieueciaaieai noai eeceiaa. Neiaii, eeceia eioa?anai anai.

Eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e oneoa – aio /oi ieoaei e ieoaao
yeiiiieeo ethaie no?aiu, i?eaeaao noaaeeueiinoue ethaiio ainoaea?noao e
ii?aaeaeyao aai aoaeouaa. Niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi eeth/ e ?aoaieth
aieueoeinoaa yeiiiie/aneeo no?ai NIA – a oe?ieiianooaaiii
ia?aaii?oaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaa ia aaca iiauo oaoiieiaee. I/aaeaeii e oi,
/oi aac eiaanoeoeee a iniiaiua oiiaeu yoie caaea/e ia ?aoeoue.

Eae naeaeaoue ioa/anoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey
eiaanoi?a. Eae aeiaeoueny noaaeeueiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna,
iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue e caueuaiiinoue eiaanoe?oaiuo ia yoe aii?inu
naaiaeiy caiyou e i?aaeoaeuenoai, e ia?eaiaio, e yeiiiienou anao
?anioaeee NIA.

Aeaiiua i?iaeaiu, oaeaea yaeythony iaeieie ec aeaaiuo e a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeaiie ?anioaeeee.

?inneeneiio eeceiao a yoii aiaeo eniieiyaony iyoue eao. Ioeoeeaeueiue
aeaiue aai ?iaeaeaiey iiaeii aeaoe?iaaoue iiiaioii auoiaea Oeaca
I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 17 naioya?y 1994 aiaea ? 1929 «0
?acaeoee oeiainiaiai eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe» .

Iyoue eao – iieacaoaeueiue n?ie. Ca yoi a?aiy ethaia ia/eiaiea aeieaeii
eeai ii?aaaeaoue naia iacia/aiea, eeai i?iyaeoue naith
iaaeecianiiniaiinoue. Eeceia auaeeoue noiae. Aa?iaa, ia i?inoi auaeeoue,
/oi naii ii naaa oaea yaeyaony aeinoeaeaieai a oneiaeyo iaoaai
ianoaaeeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey, ii e anoaoue ia iiae, aeiaeoueny
cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia.

Ii i?iaaaeaiiui ioeaieai Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee ?innee, a 1997 aiaeo,
eiaanoeoeee ii eeiee eeceiaa ninoaaeyee anaai eeoue 2 i?ioeaioa io
iauaai iauaia eiaanoeoeee a no?aia, a ii i?iaiicai e 2000 aiaeo aeiey
eeceiaa aeieaeia auea ninoaaeoue 20 i?ioeaioia. Oaea naaiaeiy, ii
aeaiiui Eiiaeiineie oeiainiaie a?oiiu, ?inney ii yoiio iieacaoaeth
aoiaeeo a ia?aua 50 no?ai ie?a, e aeinoeaeaiea aeaaea naiei?ioeaioiie
ioiaoee a i?ioeii, 1998 aiaeo (/oi auei aiieia ?aaeueii) yaeeinue au
ianiiiaiiui oniaoii iaoae no?aiu, iiauneei au aa eiaanoeoeeiiiue
?aeoeia. oeeo?a i?aauneea ioiaoeo 800. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ec ieo
(90 i?ioeaioia) – ?aceaeaiou ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, /anoiua e
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia iao acaeyae, noieue aunieay aeeiaieea iaoneiaeaia o?aiy iniiaiuie
oaeoi?aie.

Ai-ia?auo, eioaineaii ?acaeaathuayny ii?iaoeaiay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca
e aunieay aeoeaiinoue a yoie iaeanoe ?inneeneie annioeeaoeee eeceiaiauo
eiiiaiee.

Ai-aoi?uo, eae neaaenoaea ia?aiai – yoi aunieay aeoeaiinoue a noa?a
eeceiaa aaieia e oeiainiauo a?oii (iiuiia ?acaeoea iieo/eea EIEII –
a?oiia eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, a 1996 aiaeo nicaeaaony eiiiaiey («
IAIAOAI-eeceia»)). I?iyaeee eioa?an e eeceiao ?inneeneea ieienoa?noaa e
io?aneaaua ei?ii?aoeee. Iai?eia?, nicaeaiiia ii oeaco I?aceaeaioa AI
«OAYE», ?aaioathuaa a eioa?anao ?inneeneie aoiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?e
?aaeecaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu ia ia?eiae 1998 – 2001 aiaeu
iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia eiaanoeoeee ii?aaeaeeei oeiainiaue eeceia.
Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue ia aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena, aaea ca n/ao
oaaea?aeueiiai e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia aua a 1994 aiaeo aue noi?ie?iaai
oiiae naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oaoieee, eioi?ay ia?aaeaaony iieueciaaoaeyi
ia eeceiaiaie iniiaa. A ia?eiae n 1995 ii 1997 aiae aicieeee e?oiiua
eiiiaiee a io?anee nayce – ?OE-eeceia, « ?onEeceiaNaycue », a
no?ieoaeuenoaa «Eeeino?ie», «Eeceino?ieiaoy, a aoiiiie yia?aaoeea –
«OAYE»), «Eoii-eeceia» e o.ae.

Oaea a ia/aea yoiai aiaea eeceia auoae ia i/a?aaeiie yoai ?acaeoey – a
ai?aea 1999 aiaea ?inneeneay annioeeaoeey eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee iiaeienaea
ianeieueei niaeaoaiee i acaeiiaeaenoaee n ainno?oeoo?aie ?innee. *oi
aaconeiaii, yaeyaony aaaeiui eae aeey annioeeaoeee, oae e aeey anaai
eeceiaa a oeaeii, e aeaiiino?e?oao oaeoe/aneia (a ia oieueei
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia) i?eciaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie eeceiaa
eae yooaeoeaiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eino?oiaioa.

A-o?aoueeo, eeceia, eae yooaeoeaiue iaoaieci i?eaea/aiey e caueou
eiaanoeoeee, i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo aeanoae. A nayce n /ai
oi?aaeai/aneea i?aaiu ia ianoao i?eieiatho iinoaiiaeaiey e
?anii?yaeaiey eanathueony eeceiaa. Eioaineaii ?acaeaaaony
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay e ii?iaoeaiay aaca eeceiaa a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa e
Eaieia?aaeneie iaeanoe. A ia/aea 1998 aiaea a Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee nicaeai
Yenia?oiue niaao ii eeceiao.

?aceia e aeey iiiaeo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iai?aaeneacoaiia iaino?aiea
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia iinea aaaonoa 1998 aiaea canoaaeei
iiiaea eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee ia?ainiuneeoue e aua ?ac ioeaieoue
ia?niaeoeau aua?aiiiai eo?na. I?iaaaeaiiua annioeeaoeeae enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi iinea aaaonoa 1998 aiaea 64 i?ioeaioa eiiiaiee auioaeaeaiu
auee ?aoaoue caaea/o ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae, ieiei 20
i?ioeaioia – niaieee aeae naeaaaaiiai a eeceia iai?oaeiaaiey, aieaa
o?aoe ii?ioaiiuo eiiiaiee aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaee naith aeayoaeueiinoue.
Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi aiaeiae/iua eciaiaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee – ii niaa?oaiii ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai – i?ienoiaeeee a
Aa?iaiee a 1997 aiaeo, aaea ?ino eeceiaiauo eiaanoeoeee i?aaunee ?ino
eiaanoeoeee ae?oaiai ?iaea. Eeceia iai?oaeiaaiey aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio
i?aaunee ana eiaanoeoeee a yoie noa?a. Aic?inea eiieo?aioeey. Eeceiaiaay
ia?aea i?iaeieaeaea oiaiueoaoueny. A yoeo oneiaeyo eiiiaiee auioaeaeaiu
auee ?anoe?youe ia?a/aiue oneoa, i?iaiaeeoue ?eneiaua iia?aoeee e
nianoaaiioth ?ai?aaiecaoeeth.

A iaoai neo/aa aeeaa?neoeeaoeey, nei?aa anaai, icia/aao nieaeaiea aeiee
aeioiaeia io ?aaeecaoeee eeceiaiauo oneoa a iauai iauaia aeioiaeia
eiiiaiee. Niaeanii iieiaeaieth 1996 aiaea «0 eeoeaice?iaaiee eeceiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe a ?O», iaeiei ec iaycaoaeueiuo oneiaee aeaenoaey
eeoeaicee yaeyaony iaee/ea i?ei?eoaoa eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ii
ioiioaieth e eiui aeaeai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iecaiaeeiui
eeceiaiaie eiiiaieae. Nieaeaiea aeiee aeioiaeia io yoie aeayoaeueiinoe
aei o?iaiy ieaea 40 i?ioeaioia a?iceo iioa?ae eee i?einoaiiaeie
aeaenoaey eeoeaicee. Aeey eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee a oneiaeyo e?ecena yoi
?aaiineeueii iieiiio e?aoo. E n/anoueth, Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «0 eeceiaa
» ia niaea?aeeo oaeeo ia?aie/aiee, e yoi – y?eee i?eia? oiai, /oi n
auoiaeii caeiia nouanoaothuay ii?iaoeaiay aaca a noa?a eeceiaa ai iiiaii
oo?aoeea naia cia/aiea e o?aaoao na?ueaciie ia?a?aaioee.

Ca iaaeieaea iyoue eao enoi?ee ?inneeneiai eeceiaa yoio aeae
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieacae naith yooaeoeaiinoue a ea/anoaa
yeiiiie/aneiai eino?oiaioa. Yoi oieaa?naeueiue iaoaieci i?eaea/aiey
eiaanoeoeee, i?eiaieiue i?aeoe/anee aeey ethaie io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
aeey iaeiai e n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aeey ethaiai ?aaeiia. N
oniaoii eeceia i?eiaiyaony e a nioeeaeueiie noa?a, a /anoiinoe a
cae?aaiio?aiaiee.

Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi a iineaaeiea aiaeu cia/eoaeueii
aic?anoaao aeiey /anoiiai naeoi?a. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi i?iyaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia ?acaeoea iaeiai e n?aaeiaai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iaee/ea oaaea?aeueiiai, ?aaeiiaeueiuo e
ioieoeeiaeueiuo oiiaeia iiaeaea?aeee yoiai naeoi?a ?uiea iicaieyao
?aoaoue iiiaea aii?inu, naycaiiua n aa?aioe?iaaieai aica?aoa eeceiaiauo
ieaoaaeae e ieieiecaoeeae i?i/eo ?eneia eeceiaiauo naeaeie. Iniaaiii
aieueoia aieiaiea yoiio oaeaeyaony a Iineaa e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, a
ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao. E?iia iiaeaea?aeee /anoiiai eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, ianoiua
aeanoe o/?aaeaeatho eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee. Iaiaoeeanue yniay oaiaeaioeey e
cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth aeiee eeceiaiauo oneoa a iauanoaaiiii
naeoi?a.

Ai anai ie?a i?eiyoi ioeaieaaoue ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea aeae a oie eee
eiie noa?a yeiiiieee ii iieacaoaeyi e?oiiaeoeo oe?i e eiiiaiee. Ii
i?iaiicai ?inneeneie annioeeaoeee eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, aieaa iieiaeiu
iauaiia eiaanoeoeee ii eeceiao i?eoiaeeony ia e?oiiua eiiiaiee
Aeinoaoi/ii iacaaoue oaeea ec ieo, eae «Eioa??ineeceia »,
«?inoaeaeii-eeceia », «?inaa?iniaa », « Eieii-eeceia », « Eeceieii », «
EIEII AAEAEECEIA». E?oiiua eiiiaiee ?aaioatho a iniiaiii a oaeeo
eeth/aauo io?aneyo yeiiiieee, eae ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
iaoaeeo?aey, aaeano?iaiea, iaooa- e aaciaeiau/a e ia?a?aaioea,
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee, naeueneia oicyenoai, a oaeaea a nioeeaeueiie noa?a.
Cia/eoaeueiia /enei eiiiaiee ?aaioatho a noa?a iaeiai e n?aaeiaai
aeciana: eeceia o?ainii?oiuo iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey aeey i?aaei?eyoee
auno?iai ieoaiey, iieea?aoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e i?. Aieaa 80
i?ioeaioia anao naeaeie i?eoiaeeony ia eeceia iai?oaeiaaiey (aiaeiae/iia
iieiaeaiea a ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a). Iaiaa ?acaeo eeceia iaaeaeaeeiinoe

Ii-i?aaeiaio iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeaeii eiouanoaa aeey eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee yaeyaony iaoeiino?ieoaeueiia e oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea,
ia aeieth eioi?iai i?eoiaeeony 66 i?ioeaioia. Aic?anoaao, ii
iacia/eoaeueii, aan oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiiai, iaaeeoeeineiai e ae?oaiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. Iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e ?inoo aeiee eeceiaa anao aeaeia
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Eioa?an e yoiio aeaeo eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe naaiaeiy i?iyaeyaony eae ni noi?iiu ioa/anoaaiiuo
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae, oae e ni noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae – ioa/anoaaiiuo e
ca?oaaaeiuo. A iaiaeie noaiaie yoiio niinianoaoao i?iaeaeaeaiea i?iaeoa
ii ?acaeoeth aaeaeeceiaa iaaeaeo no?aiaie NIA.

I?eia?ii caeanue iiaeao neoaeeo CAI «?OE-Eeceia», yaeythuaany aei/a?iae
eiiiaieae IAI «?inoaeaeii», eioi?ay i?iaeieaeeei i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee
a io?aneue «Naycue».

Aeaeueiaeoaio i?eaea/aieth eiaanoeoeee oaeaea niinianoaoao i?eiyoue a
?innee Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «I eeceiaa» (aeaeaa – Caeii) aeieaeai
?aoeoue ana i?iaeaiu naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai eeceiaa a no?aia, n oi/ee
c?aiey ?aoaiey aii?inia aai i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu

Caeii ?aaoee?oao ia oieueei /anoii-i?aaiaua, ii e ioaee/ii-i?aaiaua
aii?inu.

Iaeaieaa aaaeiie noa?aeiai a Caeiia yaeyaony aeaaa– «I?aaiaua iniiau
eeceiaiauo ioiioaiee», eioi?ay niaea?aeeo iaeaieaa aaaeiua
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua iieiaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia o?aaoee?iaaiea
acaeiiioiioaiee o/anoieeia eeceiaa.

Oaeaea aeaiiue Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?aaeei i?eiaieiiai i?aaa a
niioaaonoaee n Eiiaaioeeae OIEAe?OA i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oeiainiaii
eeceiaa.

Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
nouanoaoao e io?eoeaoaeueiua oaeoi?u, eioi?ua oi?iicyo eeceiaiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

A oeaeyo aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee a ?innee ?inneeneay
annioeeaoeey eiiiaiee, i?iaaea ii?in-enneaaeiaaiea ia oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
io?eoeaoaeueii aeeytho ia eeceiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, aaea
?oeiaiaeeoaee eiiiaiee iacuaatho: iaeiaiaoth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa – 72
i?ioeaioa, ii?iaoeaioth aaco – 28 i?ioeaioia, oaiiaeaiioth iieeoeeo – 24
i?ioeaioa, e oieueei 11 i?ioeaioia ii?ioaiiuo iieiinoueth ia ono?aeaaao
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca eeceiaa. Eiiiaiee oeacuaatho ia neiaeiinoue
aaaeaiey iaeiaiaiai o/aoa ii i?e/eia ionoonoaey /aoeeo eino?oeoeee.
Iiiaea ec ieo ioia/atho iaeiiiaoaioiinoue iaeiaiauo einiaeoi?ia e
?aaioieeia oaiiaeie a aii?inao iaeiaiaiai e oaiiaeaiiiai ?aaeeiia
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

Oae eee eia/a, ii naaiaeiy i?aaeea ea?u iai aeeeooao neiaeiaeoay
yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey, e a ?aoaiee aii?inia oeo/oaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
eeeiaoa a no?aia ia aeieaeii auoue ianoa ianneaiinoe eee aeaeaieth
inoaoueny a noi?iia. Iiuo iiiaeo no?ai ie?a iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aunieoth
yooaeoeaiinoue eeceiaa eae eino?oiaioa i?eaea/aiey eiaanoeoeee aeaaea a
ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena. Iao niiiaiee, /oi aai aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue onei?aiiiio iiaeuaio ioa/anoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. E a eiia/iii n/aoa – auoiaeo no?aiu ec e?eceniie
neooaoeee.

3. Eeceia a Eacaonoaia

3.1.I?aaiaay iniiaa eeceiaa.

Eeceia eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu),yaeyaony
iaeiei ec iaeaieaa auaiaeiuo oi?i a?aiaeu. Oae eae eeceia i?aaeiieaaaao
100 i?ioeaioiia e?aaeeoiaaiea e ia o?aaoao ia/aea ieaoaaeae. I?e eeceiaa
eiio?aeo caeeth/aaony ia iieioth noieiinoue eiouanoaa. A?aiaeiua
ieaoaaee iau/ii ia/eiathony iinea iinoaaee eiouanoaa a?aiaeaoi?o eeai
iicaea

Ai?acaei i?iua iieo/eoue eiio?aeo ii eeceiao, /ai nnoaeo. Iniaaiii yoi
ioiineony e iaeeei e n?aaeiei i?aaei?eyoeyi. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
aa?aioeeiui iaania/aieai naeaeee iiaeao neoaeeoue naii iai?oaeiaaiea.
I?e iaauiieiaiee a?aiaeaoi?ii naieo iaycaoaeuenoa eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey
n?aco aea caae?aao naia eiouanoai.

Oaeaea eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea i/aiue aeaei. I?e eeceiaa a?aiaeaoi? iiaeao
?ann/eouaaoue iinooieaiea naieo ?anoiaeia e au?aaioaoue n
a?aiaeiaeaoaeai niioaaonoaothuoth oaeiaioth noaio oeiaine?iaaiey.
Ieaoaaee iiaoo auoue aaeaiany/iuie, aaeaeaa?oaeueiuie e oa, noiiu
ieaoaaeae iiaoo ioee/aoueny ae?oa io ae?oaa. Noaaea iiaeao auoue
oeene?iaaiiie e ieaaathuae.

Oioy e nouanoaoao ?ene onoa?aaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey. Ii aianoa n oai
a?aiaeaoi? eiaao aiciiaeiinoue iinoiyiii iaiiaeyoue naie ia?e
iai?oaeiaaiey.

A neo/aa eeceiaa a?aiaeaoi? iiaeao eniieueciaaoue n?aco ai?acaei aieueoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieiuaaeae, /ai i?e iieoiea. A?aiaiii aunaiaiaeaeaiiua
aeaaiaea?y eeceiao aeaiueae ii iiaeao aeiaeeoue ia eaeea-eeai oeaee.

Oae eae eeceia aeieaia a?aiy neoaeeo n?aaenoaii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
e ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, oi ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea, eae i?aaeei,
iai?aaeaia ia iiiu?aiea e ?anoe?aiea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

Aeey oao eoi aua ia noaeeeaaeny ia i?aeoeea n eeceiaii, eee oai, eoi
oaea eiaao ia?aue iiuo, ii aeaeaao iiaee?aieoue ?acaeoue aai,
oeaeaniia?acii iaeaaeaoue i?aaiaui eino?oiaioa?eai i?iaaaeaiey
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee, eioi?ua i?aaeaea anaai io?aaeaiu a A?aaeaeaineii
eiaeaena ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai (iniaaiiay /anoue).

A oeaeyo iiaeaea?aeee ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ?anioaeeee iiaue
a?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai cae?aiee iniiau
/anoii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e ?anniio?ae ii-iiaiio aii?inu i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu), /oi yaeeinue neaaenoaeai
oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey iiuoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a?aiaeiuo
ioiioaiee.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?anoe?ee i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo e
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeaeiaiai eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu). Oae, a aeaaa
29 ia?aa?aoii 2 i?aaeoniio?aia oaeay ?aciiaeaeiinoue eiouanoaaiiiai
iaeia, eae eeceia. Aeey aeaiiie ?aciiaeaeiinoe eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia
i?aaeoniio?aia iniaaiiinoue, ii n?aaiaieth n iauei iieiaeaieyi , a
/anoiinoe, ii nouanoaaiiui oneiaeyi.

Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iauea iieiaeaiey i
eiouanoaaiiii iaeia (a?aiaeu) i?eiaiyaony e eeceiao, eae e e ae?oaei
?aciiaeaeiinoyi eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia, anee oieueei ia?aa?aoii 2 aeaau ia
onoaiiaeaiu eiua i?aaeea.

Oae iai?eia? niaeanii noaouee 540 A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena iniaaiiie
/anoe ii aeiaiai?o eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu) iaeiiaeaoaeue
iaycoaony i?aaeinoaaeoue iaieiaoaeth eiouanoai ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia
aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea, /oi ia i?ioeai?a/eo noaouee 565 AE ?E ii
aeiaiai?o eeceiaa, eioi?ay aeaneo /oi: «eeceiaiaeaoaeue iaycoaony
i?eia?anoe a nianoaaiiinoue oeacaiiia eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai eiouanoai o
i?iaeaaoea e i?aaeinoaaeoue eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth yoi eiouanoai ai
a?aiaiiia aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oeaeae ca
ieaoo.»

I?e yoii a i?ioeann caeeth/aiee ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa niaeanii noaouee
567, iiieii oneiaee i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a a noaouea 542, aeieaeiu
niaea?aeaoueny neaaeothuea oneiaey:

iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeaaoea eiouanoaa;

oneiaey e n?ie ia?aaea/e eiouanoaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth;

?acia? e ia?eiaee/iinoue ieaoaaeae;

n?ie aeiaiai?a;

oneiaey ia?aoiaea eiouanoaa a nianoaaiiinoue eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, anee
oaeie ia?aoiae i?aaeoniio?ai aeiaiai?ii.

Aeiaiai? yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei ?aaoeyoi?ii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a
eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. E iiyoiio any aeiaiai?iay ?aaioa o?aaoao
aieaa aunieiai eeanna, iineieueeo n iiieiaieai i?e?iaeu e aeaeia
aeiaiai?ia, eo niaea?aeaiey, niaethaeaiey ii?yaeea caeeth/aiey, n
aeia?iniaanoiui eniieiaieai, /aoeei i?eiaiaieai ia? ioaaonoaaiiinoe
naycaiu ii nooe aeaea iiiaea noi?iiu eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiaia a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao aaaeiua
i?eioeeiu i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey noauaeoia eeceiaiauo acaeiiioiioaiee.

Ii?iaie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa i?aaeoniio?aiu i?aaeea i?e caeeth/aiee
aeiaiai?a. Oaeea ii?iu onoaiiaeaiu a noaoueyo 565, 567, 570
A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena. Iineieueeo, niaeanii a?aaeaeaineiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao eeceia ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue
eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu), oi e aeiaiai?o eeceiaa oaeaea
i?eiaiythony ii?iu iauaai iieiaeaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ii?iu ii eniieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae iaieiaoaeai
(eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai) ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa, oae noaouey 547 ioieo 3
aeaneo: «Anee iaeiiaeaoaeue ia i?aaeinoaaee iaieiaoaeth naeaiiia aiaai
eiouanoai a oeacaiiue aeiaiai? n?ie, a anee a aeiaiai?a oaeie n?ie ia
oeacai, – a ?acoiiue n?ie, iaieiaoaeue ai?aaa eno?aaiaaoue io iaai yoi
eiouanoai a niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 355 ianoiyuaai Eiaeaena eeai
iio?aaiaaoue ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a».

Aeaiiay noaouey i?aaeinoaaeyao, i?aai eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth ia oieueei ii
eno?aaiaaieth eiouanoaa, ii e ?anoi?aeaiea aeiaiai?a, ii e aaea
iaycaiiinoue eeceiaiaeaoaey i?aaeinoaaeoue eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i?aaeiao
eeceiaa, yaeyaony aai iniiaiie iaycaiiinoueth.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi ii o?aaiaaieth iaeiie ec
noi?ii aeiaiai? iiaeao auo eciaiai eee ?anoi?aioo aein?i/ii a noaeaaiii
ii?yaeea.

Noaouey 556 onoaiaaeeaaao i?aai eeceiaiaeaoaey i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo ecuiaoue i?aaeiao eeceiaa o eeceiaiiieo/aoaey e ?anoi?aioo
aeiaiai?.

Ioieo 2 aeaiiie noaouee, /oi eeceiaiaeaoaeue a /aou?ao neo/ayo ai?aaa
aannii?ii ecuyoue eiouanoai o eeceiaiiieo/aoaey:

– anee iaieiaoaeue iieuecoaony eiouanoaii n nouanoaaiiui ia?ooaieai
oneiaee aeiaiai?a eee iacia/aiey eiouanoaa, ianiio?y ia ienueiaiiia
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea iaeiiaeaoaey i i?ae?auaiee oaeeo aeaenoaee;

– anee iaieiaoaeue oiuoeaiii eee ii iainoi?iaeiinoe nouanoaaiii
oooaeoaao eiouanoai;

– anee iaieiaoaeue aieaa aeaoo ?ac ii enoa/aiee onoaiiaeaiiiai
aeiaiai?ii n?iea ieaoaaea ia aiineo ieaoo ca iieueciaaiea eiouanoaii;

– anee iaieiaoaeue ia i?iecaiaeeo eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa eiouanoaa a
onoaiiaeaiiua aeiaiai?ii iaeia n?iee, a i?e ionoonoaee eo a aeiaiai?a –
a ?acoiiua n?iee a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie eee aeiaiai?ii iaycaiiinoue eaieoaeueiiai
?aiiioa eaaeeo ia iaieiaoaea.

Eniieiaiea eeceiaiiieo/aoaey iaycaoaeuenoa a aannii?iii ii?yaeea ia
iaoaao aai i?aaa aein?i/iiai ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a, a oeaeyo
oaeiaeaoai?aiey aai caeiiiuo eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania, eioi?ua oaeaea
io?aaeaiu ioieoa 3 noaouee 556 A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai (iniaaiiay /anoue):

– iaeiiaeaoaeue ia i?aaeinoaaeyao eiouanoai a iieueciaaiea iaieiaoaeth
eeai nicaeaao i?aiyonoaey iieueciaaieth eiouanoaii a niioaaonoaee n
oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a eee iacia/aieai eiouanoaa;

– iaeiiaeaoaeue ia i?iecaiaeeo a onoaiiaeaiiua aeiaiai?ii n?iee, a i?e
ionoonoaee eo a aeiaiai?a – a ?acoiiua n?iee aiceiaeaiiie ia iaai
iaycaiiinoe eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa eiouanoaa;

– ia?aaeaiiia iaieiaoaeth eiouanoai eiaao iaaeinoaoee, i?aiyonoaothuea
aai eniieueciaaieth, eioi?ua ia auee iaiai?aiu iaeiiaeaoaeai i?e
caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a, ia auee ca?aiaa ecaanoiu iaieiaoaeth e ia iiaee
auoue iaia?oaeaiu ei ai a?aiy iniio?a eiouanoaa eee i?iaa?ee aai
eni?aaiinoe i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a;

– anee eiouanoai a neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, ca eioi?ua iaieiaoaeue ia
ioaa/aao, ieaaeaony a ninoiyiee, ia i?eaiaeiii aeey iieueciaaiey.

Ec neacaiiiai aeaeii, /oi a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai caueuaao eae
eeceiaiaeaoaey, oae e eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i yaii
?aaiii ioiioaiee e o/anoieeai eeceiaa, aeenaaeaina a caueoa eo
eioa?ania.

Naeueneii oicyenoaa.

Auiieiyy i. 2 iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29 ethiy 1995 aiaea 3e
633 “I ?acaeoee eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe” (n
aeiiieiaieyie io 23 ai?aey 1996 aiaea) Ieiyeiiiieee ?innee ?ac?aaioaei
I?eia?iue aeiaiai? i oeiainiaii eeceiaa aeaeaeeiii eiouanoaa n iieiie
aii?oecaoeeae, eioi?ue ii niaeaniaaieth n Ieioeiii ?O aue ooaa?aeaeai 29
aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea.

Noieo ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iacaaiea aeieoiaioa. Ec iaai neaaeoao, /oi
aeaiiue aeiaiai? iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey
acaeiiioiioaiee noi?ii oieueei ii iaeiie ec oi?i eeceiaa e
eneeth/eoaeueii a ia?aie/aiiie noa?ie i?eiaiaiey.

Oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a ioaaouaathuay eeoue iia?aoeee ii oeiainiaiio eeceiao
e ia cao?aaeaathuay ioiioaiey ii iia?aoeaiiio eeceiao. Aeaei a oii, /oi
a neeo aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee eiouanoai ia?aaeaaony a?aiaeaoi?o ia
ia?eiae, eioi?ue nouanoaaiii ei?i/a ii?iaoeaiiai n?iea neoaeau
eiouanoaa. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue a?aiaeiaeaoaeth naeaaaoue aai a
a?aiaeo iaiaeiie?aoii a oa/aiea ii?iaoeaiiai n?iea aai neoaeau. Iaeiaei
yoio oae iacuaaaiue “iia?aoeaiue eeceia” (a?aiaea, i?ieao) ia
?aaeaiaioe?oaony

A?aiaiiui iieiaeaieai i eeceiaa, ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O “I ?acaeoee eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”.
Ioiioaiey ii iia?aoeaiiio eeceiao ?aaoee?othony naaiaeiy a iniiaiii
A?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenu ?O (aeaaa 34).

Niaeanii i. 2 A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey i eeceiaa a ea/anoaa aai iauaeoa
iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny ethaia aeaeaeeiia e iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai,
ioiinyuaany ii aeaenoaothuae eeanneoeeaoeee e iniiaiui n?aaenoaai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoio ii?iaoeaiue aeo ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia eeceiaiaua
iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n iaaeaeaeeiui eiouanoaii – caeaieyie,
nii?oaeaieyie.

Aeaenoaea yoiai aeieoiaioa naycaii n iia?aoeeyie ii aioo?aiiaio
oeiainiaiio eeceiao e ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ioiioaiey ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio eeceiao. Iiieiay, /oi oaeiai ?iaea ia?aie/aiea i/aiue
nouanoaaiii, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey ii ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, i?ioiaeeaoay a Iineaa 14 – 15 iay 1996 aiaea,
?aeiiaiaeiaaea I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O iiaeaioiaeoue aeieoiaiou,
?aaeaiaioe?othuea i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio eeceiao.

A niioaaonoaee n A?aiaiiui iieiaeaieai i eeceiaa iiae iei iiieiaaony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia eiaanoe?iaaiea
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo eee i?eaea/aiiuo oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, eiaaea ii
aeiaiai?o oeiainiaie a?aiaeu (eeceiaa) a?aiaeiaeaoaeue (eeceiaiaeaoaeue)
iaycoaony i?eia?anoe a nianoaaiiinoue iaoneiaeaiiia aeiaiai?ii eiouanoai
o ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?iaeaaoea e i?aaeinoaaeoue yoi eiouanoai a?aiaeaoi?o
(eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth) ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oeaeae. Iiyoiio a I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi a niioaaonoaee n cayaeaieai eeceiaiiieo/aoaey
aai ia?oia? – eeceiaiaeaoaeue iaycoaony iieaoeoue e i?eia?anoe aeey
iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/e a eeceia eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth aua?aiiia ei
eiouanoai.

I?e yoii eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aeieaeai oeacaoue: iaeiaiiaaiea eiouanoaa;
aai oei, iiaeaeue, ia?eo; n?ie neoaeau; eiee/anoai aaeeieoe eiouanoaa;
iaeiaiiaaiea iinoaaueea (i?iaeaaoea), iiia? e aeaoo aeiaiai?a n iei;
n?ie iinoaaee; noieiinoue eiouanoaa.

N?ie neoaeau eiouanoaa, naeaaaaiiai a eeceia, onoaiaaeeaaaony enoiaey ec
aeaenoaothueo ii?i aii?oecaoeee eee niaeaoaieai noi?ii ii aeiioneaaiui
ii?iai onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee.

A ioiioaiee ii?i aii?oecaoeee noi?iiai ii aeiaiai?o iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi a niioaaonoaee n Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 199a aiaea #
a85 “Ia iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
e ia?ao ii oe?aieaieth iaeiaiaie e ieaoaaeiie aeenoeeieeiu” n 1 yiaa?y
1997 aiaea aeieaeai eciaieoueny ninoaa aii?oece?oaiiai eiouanoaa.
Ai-ia?auo, e iaio aoaeao ioiineoueny eiouanoai noieiinoueth aieaa 100
ieie- iaeueiuo ca?ieao ni n?ieii neoaeau nauoa iaeiiai aiaea. Ai-aoi?uo,
ana aii?oece?oaiia eiouanoai iiae?acaeaeyaony ia /aou?a eaoaai?ee.
Aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, eae i?aaeiao I?eia?iiai aeiaiai?a, aoiaeeo ai
aoi?oth e o?aoueth eaoaai?ee. Ei aoi?ie eaoaai?ee ioiinyony eaaeiaie e
eaaeee a?ociaie aaoio?ainii?o, eiioi?neia iai?oaeiaaiea e iaaaeue,
eiiiuethoa?iay oaoieea, eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu e nenoaiu ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo (ii?ia aii?oecaoeee 25 i?ioeaioia – 4 aiaea). A o?aoueth
eaoaai?eth aoiaeyo: oaoiieiae/aneia, yia?aaoe/aneia, o?ainii?oiia e eiia
iai?oaeiaaiea e iaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, ia aeeth/aiiua ai aoi?oth a?oiio
(15 i?ioeaioia – a eao e 8 ianyoeaa). Aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ii?iu aii?oecaoeee aeey aoi?ie
eaoaai?ee – 30 i?ioeaioia, ii o?aoueae eaoaai?ee – 18 i?ioeaioia.

I?e ?anniio?aiee aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoaiecia onei?aiiie
aii?oecaoeee neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi a niioaaonoaee n
iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 27 ethiy 1996 aiaea I 752 “I
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea ?acaeoey eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” i?aaeoniao?eaaaony: “ei anai aeaeai aeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa, ninoaaeythuaai iauaeo oeiainiaiai eeceiaa e ioiineiiai e
aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia, iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny a niioaaonoaee n
oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a eeceiaa iaoaieci onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee n
eiyooeoeeaioii ia auoa 3”

I?eia?iue aeiaiai? onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi aai i?aaeiaoii iiaeao auoue
eiouanoai ianeieueeeo iaeiaiiaaiee, eiathuaa iaeeiaeiaue n?ie neoaeau.
I?e yoii a aeiaiai?a, eae ?aeiiaiaeiaaii, aeieaeii oeacuaaoueny, /oi
anaai ii eeceiao i?eia?aoaaony eiouanoaa ia ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio,
aeeth/ay o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu e iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue iaeii aaaeiia aeey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey
ianoiyoaeuenoai. Eae i?aaeei, e yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ca?oaaaeiie e
ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeeie eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee, a noieiinoue eeceiaa
aeeth/athony:

– ?anoiaeu, iiianaiiua iinoaaueeii ii o?ainii?oe?iaea

eiouanoaa e ianoo aai yenieoaoaoeee;

– ?anoiaeu ii iiioaaeiui e ioneiiaeaaei/iui ?aaioai;

– ?anoiaeu ia iao/aiea niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aaioa n eiouanoaii, naeaaaaiui
a eeceia.

A /anoiinoe, oa eeceiaiaua naeaeee, eioi?ua i?iaeoe?iaaeenue eiiiaieae
“Aa?aioeiaano”, i?aaeoniao?eaaee aeaaii?eyoioth aeey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey
aiciiaeiinoue caeiaeeoue a noieiinoue eeceiaoaiiai eiouanoaa aieaa
oe?ieee ia?a/aiue ?anoiaeia ii n?aaiaieth n oai, eioi?ue oeacai a
I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a.

Ii?ia, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie eiouanoai iiaeeaaeeo iinoaaea e aoaeao
eniieueciaaii eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio aae?ano, i/aiue
aaaeia ii neaaeothuei aeaoi i?e/eiai.

Ai-ia?auo, eeceiaiaoaeue aeieaeai eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iee?iaaoue
ninoiyiea eiouanoaa e oneiaey aai yenieoaoaoeee eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, oae
eae eeceiaiaeaoaeue yaeyaony nianoaaiieeii coiai eiouanoaa ia aanue
ia?eiae aeaenoaey eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a. Iicoiio aac ienueiaiiiai
?ac?aoaiey eeceiaiaeaoaey eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ia eiaao i?aaa ea?aiauaoue
ni noaoeeiia?iiai ?aniieiaeaiey naeaaaaiia a eeceia eiouanoai. Yoi
niaoeeaeueii iaiaa?eaaaony noi?iiaie a eeceiaiaii aeiaiai?.

Ai-aoi?uo, naeaaaaiia a eeceia eiouanoai, eae i?aaeei, iiaeeaaeeo
no?aoiaaieth io ?acee/iuo ?eneia. No?aoiaay eiiiaiey oaeaea ianoaeaaao
ia iinoiyiiie aeeneieaoeee cano?aoiaaiiiai eiouanoaa. A i?ioeaiii
neo/aa, anee eiouanoai ia?aiauaaony n ianoa ia ianoi aac aaaeiia
no?aoiaie eiiiaiee, iineaaeiyy iiaeao i?ieaii?e?iaaoue iaycaoaeuenoai ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?e ianooieaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay. Anee aea no?aoiaay
eiiiaiey e no?aoiaaoaeue ca?aiaa aeiaiaa?eaathony i aiciiaeiuo
ia?aiauaieyo naeaaaaiiai a eeceia eiouanoaa, aaeaeo yoiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa noieiinoue no?aoiaee iiaeao ?acei aic?anoe, oae eae
oaaee/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue ?enea. Iai?eia?, ia i?aeoeea a oiaea
i?iaeoe?iaaiey iaeiie eeceiaiaie naeaeee i?eoeinue noieeiooueny n oai,
/oi oa?eo, ii eioi?iio iiaei auoue cano?aoiaaii io eiouanoaaiiuo ?eneia
eiii?oiia iaooaaaci?acaaaeuaaoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea a noaoeeiia?iii
ninoiyiee, ninoaaeye 0,8-1,0 i?ioeaio io noieiinoe eiouanoaa. Anee aea
yoi iai?oaeiaaiea iiaei ™ei/aaaoue” e yenieoaoe1thaaoueny a ?acee/iuo
ianoao ai a?aiy iieoaiaee/iiai iieaaiai naciia, oa?eo aic?anoae aei
3,5-5,0 i?ioeaioia,

A niioaaonoaee n I?eia?iui aeiaiai?ii eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aeieaeai
niaeaniaaoue n iinoaaueeii ana oaoieei-yoiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee
naeaaaaiiai a eeceia eiouanoaa, aeeth/ay niaoeeoeeaoeee aa?aioee
i?iaeaaoea ii ea/anoao eiouanoaa, n?ieaae e ianoo iinoaaee. N o/aoii
yoeo niaeaniaaiee eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue caeeth/aao n iinoaaueeii
eiiia?/aneee eiio?aeo, eioi?ue aianoa ni niaoeeoeeaoeeyie yaeyaony
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a.

Yoio aeie aii?inia aaaeai ia oieueei aeey iinoaaueea e
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, ii e aeey eeceiaiaeaoaey. Aeaei a oii, /oi
eeceiaiaeaoaeue ii oneiaeyi eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a ia iiao iaoa?eaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee naeaaaaiiai a
eeceia eiouanoaa.

I?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai oneiaey oeaeaniia?acii oaycaoue aai ni
noieiinoueth eeceiaa. Iiynith ia i?eia?a iiaeaioiaee eeceiaiaiai
aeiaiai?a ii eoaeueyineiio iai?oaeiaaieth aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
ea?aie/aneie ieeoee. Eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey, caeoiathuay ii ii?o/aieth
eeeaioa iai?oaeiaaiea, eiaao aiciiaeiinoue auieaoeoue i?iaeaaoeo n?aco
ia iieioth noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey, a oieueei aa /anoue. Nia/aea
auiea/eaaaony aaain, caoai 50 i?ioeaioia iinea iiioaaea iai?oaeiaaiey e
ioneiiaeaaei/iuo ?aaio e inoaaoeany 30 i?ioeaioia nionoy aiae iinea
auoiaea iai?oaeiaaiey ia i?iaeoiua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e ea/anoai.
Iineieueeo eeceiaiaay eiiiiie aoaeao iieo/aoue e?aaeeo a aaiea ia ia
anth noieiinoue ei~/oeanoaa, a ii /anoyi, aaee/eia eeceiaiaiai
i?ioeaioa, a n iei e eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee ianeieueei oiaiueoathony. Eae
aeaeii, aoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeyaa ia noiio eeceiaiaie
naeaeee.

N?ie eeceiaa aeieaeai ia/eiaoueny n aeaou i?eaiee eiouanoaa
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai. I?e coii i?eaiea eiouanoaa, iinoaaeyaiiai ii
aeiaiai?o, i~ecaiaeeony eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai a ianoa aeinoaaee a
i?enoonoaee i?aaenoaaeoaey eeceiaiaeaoaey.

Eiiaaea n?ie ia/aea eeceeaa onoaiaaeeaaaony n aeaou iinoaaee
iai?oaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi iiioaaeiua e
ioneiiaeaaei/iua ?aaioi iiaoo caoyiooueny ia ianeieueei ianyoeaa e aaiae
a, yenieoaoathth iai?oaeiaaeey aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny iicoaiii. A coii
neo/aa nai?oaeiaaiea iiaeao aua ia ?aaioaoue, a n?ie eeceiaiaie naeaeee
oaea ia/ae naie ion/ao.

I?eaiea eiouanoaa ioi?ieyaony aeoii i?eaiee, eioi?ue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
eiiieaeoiinoue iinoaaee eiouanoaa e aai niioaaonoaea
oaoieei-ceiiitheaneei iieacaoaeyi, i?aaeoniio?aieui eiiia?/aneei
eiio?aeoii. Aeo i?eaiee iiaeienuaaaony iieiiii/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
o?ao noi?ii: eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, eeceiaiaeaoaey, iinoaaueea.

Iaia?oaeaiiua i?e i?eaiea eiouanoaue aeaoaeou io?aaeathony a aeoa
i?eaiee. I?e yoii eeceeaiaeaoaeue ii?o/aao iinoaaueeo (iineieuno
iieoiaoaeai yaeyaony eeceiaiaeaoaeue) ono?aieoue iaia?oaeaieua
eaaeinoaoee n oeacaieai n?ieia eniieiaiey. E?e iaaiciiaeeinoe oaeaeeoue
aeaoaeou iinoaaoee iaycai caiaieoue iaiaaeeaaeauaa ~/oeanoai ca naie
n/ao. E?iia oiai, i?e iaia?oaeaiee aeaoaeoia eee ia?ooaiee eaeeo-eeai
iaycaoaeuenoa ni noi?iiu ianoaaueea neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue ?acea?
iaianaiiuo Eeceiaiiie~~aoaeth oauieia (iai?eia?, ec-ca n?uaa
caieaie?iaaiiuo n?ieia auiieiaiey eiio?aeoa ii auioneo i?iaeoeoeee ia
naeaaaaiii a eeceia iai?oaeiaaiee) e iio?aaiaaoue eo aiciauaiey.

A oii neo/aa, anee eeceiaiiie~/aoaeue ioeacuauaony i?eiyoue eiooanoai
ec-ca aiceeeoeo aeaoaeoia, eneeth/athoeo ii?iaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
eiouanoaa, ii aeieaeai a ienueiaiiie oi?ia ianoaa’aaue ia yoii a
ecaanoiinoue eeceiaiaeaoaey (n iaycaoaeueiui oeacaieai e
aeieacaoaeuenoaii iaia?oaeaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia e aeaoaeoia). Oaeay
?aeeaiaoeey i?aaeinoaaeyao eeceiaiaeaoaeth i?aai ?anoi?aiooue aeiaiai?
eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth iaiaoiaeeii no?iai eieo?iee?iaaoue n?iee iinoaaee
eiouanoaa, oae eae aai i?eaiea aeieaeia ioi?ieyoueny aeoii i?eaiee a
oa/aiea 30 nooie n aeaou iinoaaee. Anee a oeacaiiue n?ie
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ia iiaeieoao aeo i?eaiee e ia cayaeo ia ioeaca io
iinoaaeaiiiai eiouanoaa ec-ca iaia?oaeaiiuo aeaoaeoia, aai i?eaiea
n/eoaaony ninoiyaoaeny.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a oa/aiea n?iea eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a nianoaaiieeii
eiouanoaa yaeyaony eeceiaiaeaoaeue, iinea i?eaiee eiouanoaa
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue i?eieiaao ia naay ana i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
eeceiaiaeaoaey a ioiioaieyo n iinoaaueeii e inaiaiaeaeaao eeceiaiaeaoaey
io aiciiaeiuo oauoeia e noaeaaiuo eneia. N aeaou i?eaiee eiouanoaa
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ioeacuaaaony io ethauo i?yiuo e einaaiiuo i?aoaicee e
eeceiaiaeaoaeth ii iiaiaeo aai ea/anoaa. I?e yoii n/eoaaony, /oi
eiouanoai ia?aaeaii eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth a oii ninoiyiee, a eioi?ii iii
iaoiaeeeinue a iiiaio iiaeienaiey aeoa i?eaiee. Yoi oneiaea aiieia
ni?aaaaeeeai, oae eae ieeoi eo/oa iio?aaeoaey (eeceiaiiieo/aoaey) ia
ciaao oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea aiciiaeiinoe
iai?oaeiaaiey.

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai, ia?aaeaaaaiia a eeceia, i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eeceiaiaeaoaeth. Iii ia?aoiaeeo e iaio n iiiaioa iieaou i?iaeaaoeo
noieiinoe ei~/oeanoaa iinea iieo/aiey eeceiaiaeaoaeai aeoa i?eaiee,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaai, /oi iinoaaueoii niaethaeaiu ana oneiaey
eiiia?/aneiai eiio?aaaa, caeeth/aiiiai n eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue n aeaou iiaeienaiey aeoa i?eaiee aa?ao ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nio?aiiinoue ei~uanoaa e iaycaiiinoue caueuaoue ca
naie n/ao i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai eeceiaiaeaoaey, i?eieiay
iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u ii i?aaeioa?auaieth oo?aou eiouanoaa a ?acoeueoaoa
oeuaiey, iiaea?a, ii?/e e o.i.

Aianoa n oai aua ni a?aiai A?enoioaee n/eoaeinue, /oi aiaaonoai ninoieo
a iieueciaaiee, a ia a i?aaa nianoaai~~inoe. Yoio aeiaiae ia oo?aoee
naiae aeooaeueiinoe e naaiaeiy.

Aio ii/aio a I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a aiai?eony, /oi eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai
iieueciaaiey eiouanoaii, ia?aaeaiiui a eeceia, i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth. I?e coii i?iaeoeoeey e aeioiaeu, iieo/aaiua a
?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey oeacaiiiai ei~/oeanoaa, yaeythony
eneeth/eoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth eeceiaiiieo/aoaey. Aieaa oiai,
eeceiaiaeaoaeue aa?aioe?oao, /oi i?aai eeceiaiiieo/aoaey iieueciaaoueny
eiouanoaii ia aoaeao e~/ ia?ooaoueny, aaee oieueei iniiaaiey aeey yoiai
ia aicieei~/ ii o?aaiaaieth o?aoueeo eeoe a nayce n iaiaaeeaaeaueie
aeaenoa»eie (aacaeaenoaeai) eee oiouaieyie eeyeiaiiieo/aoaey.

Niaoeeaeueiue ?acaeae I?eia?iiai aeiaiai?a iinayuai no?aoiaaieth
eiouanoaa, naeaaaaiiai a eeceia. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi
iaeia ea noi~i (eaeay – noi?iiu aeieaeiu aeiaiai?eoueny iaaeaeo niaie)
ianao ana ?enee aeaaee, oo?aou, ii?/e, oeuaiey eiouanoaa i?e aai
o?ainii?oe?iaea e ianoo aeinocaee. Yoa noi?iia (eeceiaiaeaoaeue eee
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue) iaycaia caao?aoiaaoue ca naie a/ao eiouanoai io anao
?eneia.

Aii?in ?enea aeaaee, oo?aou, ii?/e, oeuaiey, i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiiai eciina,
iia?aaeaeaiey eiouanoaa n iiiaioa aeinoaaee a I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a ?aoai
aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii e iaeiicia/ii: coio ?ene i?eieiaao ia naay
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue. Ii iaecai ca naie n/ao cano?aoiaaoue eiouanoai
io,.thnao ?eneia a iieueco eeceiaiaeaoaey a oa/aiea 15.aethe a aeaou
iinoaaee eiouanoaa e a oa/aiea 30 aeiae i?aaenoaaeoue eeaeiaiaeaoaeth
n/?eoaaie iieen eee aai iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiioth eiieth.

Iaeiaei a ea?a/ia ?eneia, a caaeneaeeoe io ianooieaiey eioi?uo iiaeao
i?iecieoe no?aoiaia niauoea, iao eiiia?/aneeo eee oeiainiauo ?eneia, oi
anoue ?eneia iaaica?aoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. No?aoiaaiea iiaeiaiiai
?iaea ?eneia yaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneei aeey iaoeo ?inneeneeo no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee.

Iaeioi?ua ?inneeneea no?aoiaua eiiiaiee ?ac?aaioaee niaoeeaeueiua
oneiaey «/?aoiaiiu ieaoaaeae ei eeceiaiaui iia?aoeeyi. Oae,
“?iaainno?ao” i?aaeoniao?eaaao auiea/eaaoue no?aoiaaoaeth aei 90
i?ioeaioia noiiu iaiiaaoaiiuo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. I?e yoii
ioaaonoaaiiinoue no?aoiaueea aicieeaao a neo/aa, anee no?aoiaaoaeue ia
iieo/ee e?aaeoniio?aiioth a?aoeeii eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae noiio a oa/aiea
30 aeiae einea ianooieaiey n?iea ieaoaaea.

No?aoiaia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai “?inney” caeioa?aniaaii a no?aoiaaiee
iioa?ue io iaeniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?ai eeceiaa, an.ee
iieo/aao i?aai ia no?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa io oece/aneiai iia?aaeaeaiey e
oie/oiaeaiey. Oaeie aea iiceoeee i?eaea?aeeaaaony ?inneenei-aia?eeaineay
no?aoiaay eiiiaiey “AEeaa”. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iieo/ea aiciiaeiinoue
no?aoiaaoue oeaeue “iaeao” ?eneia, no?aoiaueee niaeaa aicueioony ca
no?aoiaaiea aica?aoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. Aeaaiia – aua?aoue
acaeiii?eaieaiue o?iaaiue oa?eoia, /oiau ia ioioaiooue
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae e nio?aieoue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue no?aoiaueeia.

A neo/aa iaiiaaoaiey eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ninoaaeyaony aeo, ia iniiaa
eioi?iai iinea ia?a/eneaiey no?aoiaaoaeth noii aiciauaiey e no?aoiaueeo
ia?aoiaeeo i?aai o?aaiaaoue aiciauaiey i?e/eiaiiuo eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai
oauoeia. I?e yoii no?aoiaueee iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue aeey naay i?aai
aaaiaeiia, oi anoue ia?aoiaea e iei i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia eeceiaoaiia
iai?oaeiaaiea a oie aeiea, eioi?oth ninoaaeei auiea/aiiia no?aoiaaoaeth
aiciauaiea io aueoiiie noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey.

A niioaaonoaee n I?eia?iui aeiaiai?ii i?e ianooieaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony i?aaei?eiyoue neaaeothuaa: ca naie n/ao e
ii naiaio oniio?aieth io?aiiioe?iaaoue iia?aaeaeaiiia eiouanoai; anee
eiouanoai ia iiaeao auoue io?aiiioe?iaaii, caiaieoue aai ae?oaei,
i?eaieaiui- aeey eeceiaiaeaoaey eiouanoaii n ia?aaea/ae aio i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai; iiaaneoue eeceiaiaeaoaeth anth caaeieaeaiiinoue
ii oieaoa eeceeaiauo ieaiaae, auieaoeoue iaoaoi/ioth noieiinoue
eiouanoaa – iauaeoa eeceiaa e iaonoieeo, oi anoue noiio cae?uoey
naeaeee.

Caeanue aicieeaao ?yae nouanoaaiiuo aeey eeceiaieieo/aoaey aii?inia,
eioi?ua neaaeoao i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea i?e i?aeoe/aneii eniieueciaaiee
I?eia?iiai aeiaiai?a.

Ai-ia?auo, no?aoiaie neo/ae, iae?eia? a aeaea oaoiieiae/aneie iieiiee
iai?oaeiaaiey, iiaeao aicieeiooue aei enoa/aiey aa?aioeeeiai n?iea, ei
eioi?iio ?aiiio aeieaeai inouaaoaeyoue iinoaauee iai?oaeiaaiey. Yoa
neooaoeey ia iaoea io?aaeaiey a niaea?aeaiee I?eia?iiai aeiaiai?a.

Ai-aoi?uo, eaeei aeieaeai auoue e?e ianooieaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay
iaoaieci iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe? ss n/eoath, /oi iiaaoaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe ii oieaoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae i?e ianooieaiee
no?aoiaiai neo/ay aeieaeii i?iecaiaeeoueny ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia. Iaeei ec
ieo – no?aoiaia aiciauaiea. A oaeii neo/aa eeceianaeaoaeth ia?a/eneyao
/anoue n?aaenoa no?aoiaay eiieaiey a niioaaonoaee ni no?aoiaui iieenii.
Ae?oaay /anoue ?aaiyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo iauae noiiie iaoiea/aiiuo
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae e ?acia?ii aiciauaiey, inouanoaeaiiiai no?aoiaie
eiiiaieae. Yoo /anoue iiea/eaaao eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue.

A eeceiaiaii aeiaiai?a ?acaeae, iinayuaiiie eniieueciaaieth eiouanoaa,
?aaeaiaioe?oao iaycaoaeuenoaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaey. A /anoiinoe,
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony:

– eniieueciaaoue eiouanoai no?iai ii i?yiiio iacia/aieth, niaea?aeaoue
aai a ene?aaiinoe, niaethaeaoue niioaaonoaothuea noaiaea?ou, oaoie/aneea
oneiaey, i?aaeea oaoie/aneie yeaieoaoaoeee e Eino?ouoeee
i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey;

– ca naie n/ao inouanoaeyoue oaoie/aneia e ?aiiioiia ianeo-

aeeaaiea eiouanoaa;

– ia i?iecaiaeeoue ieiaeeo eiino?oeoeaiuo eciaiaiee (iiaeeoeeaoeee)
eiouanoaa, oooaeoathueo aai ea/anoaaiiua e yeneeoaoaoeeiiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Eiiao?oeoeaiua eciaiaiey (iiaeeoeeaoeee) eiouanoaa iiaoo
inouanoaeyoueny eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ca aai n/ao oieueei n ienueiaiiiai
niaeaney eeceiaiaeaoaey;

– ia i?ee?aieyoue aac ienueiaiiiai niaeaney eeceiaiaeaoaey eaeei-eeai
niiniaii eiouanoai e eiino?oeoeeyi iiiauaiey, aaea iii niaea?aeeony e
eniieuecoaony, eee e ethaie ae?oaie iaaeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe, ca
eneeth/aieai oaoiieiae/anee iaiaoiaeeiiai e?aeeaiey, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai
o?aaiaaieyie oaoieee aaciianiinoe e i?aaee yenieoaoaoeee eiouanoaa;

– ia ia?aaeaaaoue eiouanoai a noaeeceia aac ienueiaiiiai niaeaaey
eeceianaeaoaey. A neo/aa -naaeanee eeceiaiaeaoaey ia i?iaaaeaiea
noaeeceiaiaie iia?aoeee ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nio?aiiinoue eiouanoaa, a
oaeaea ca naiaa?aiaiioth oieaoo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae nio?aiyaony ca
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai.

E?iia oiai, eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony ii i?inueaa eeceiaiaeaoaey
naiaa?aiaiii eioi?ie?iaaoue aai i ninoiyiee eiouanoaa. Eeceiaiaeaoaeue
oaeaea eiaao i?aai a ethaia a?aiy i?iaa?youe ninoiyiea e oneiaey
eniieueciaaiee eiouanoaa. Eae aeaeii, a I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a aeiaieueii
iiae?iaii eceiaeaiu iaycaiiinoe eeceiaiiie?~aoaey e ianeieueei ouaieaiu
i?aaa eeceiaiaeaoaey a iaeanoe ia? aicaeaenoaey i?e eo iaeniieiaiee.
Iiyoiio n/eoath oeaeaniia?aciui a oeaeyo i?aaeioa?auaiey iaaaoeaiuo
iineaaenoaee, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue a neo/aa iaeniieiaiey eeai
iaiaaeeaaeauaai eniieiaiey eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai i?eiyouo iaycaoaeuenoa,
cae?aieyoue a aeiaiai?a eeceiaa oneiaea, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui
eeceiaiaeaoaeue i?e eo iaauiieiaiee eiaao i?aai ?anoi?aiooue aeiaiai? e
ecuyoue i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aio eiouanoai.

Naaiaeiy aieueoia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao naiaa?aiaiiinoue oieaou
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. A I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ca i?aaeinoaaeaiiia i?aai eniieueciaaiey eiouanoaa,
ia?aaeaiiiai aio a eeceia ii aeiaiai?o, iaycoaony ~/oeaoeoue
eeceiaiaeaoaeth eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee a ii?aaeaeaiiie noiia, a oii /enea n
?acaeaeie ii aiaeai.

Oieaoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae iiaeao i?iecanaeeoueny aaeaiany/ii,
aaeaeaa?oaeueii, ?ac a iieaiaea ?aaiuie aeieyie io aiaeiaie noiiu
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ieaoaaeiu:-o o?aaiaai~eie-ii?~/aieyie n ?an/aoiiai
n/aoa eeceiaiiieo/aoaey a niioaaonoaee n i?eeaaaaiui a?aoeeii,
iacaaeneii io oaeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey eiouanoaa.

I?e iiaeaioiaea eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a neaaeoao o/anoue aeaa iiiaioa.

Ia?aue eanaaony ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae n o/aoii
ninoaaeythueo oaeoi?ia. A niioaaonoaee n i. 19 A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey i
eeceiaa iauay noiia eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae aeeth/aao:

– noiio, aiciauathuoth iieioth (eee aeeceoth e iae) noi-

eiinoue eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa;

– noiio, auiea/eaaaioth eeceiaiaeaoaeth ca e?aaeeoiua ?ano?nu,
eniieueciaaiiua ei aeey i?eia?aoaiey eiouanoaa ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa;

– eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea eeceiaiaeaoaeth;

– noiio, auiea/eaaaioth ca no?aoiaaiea eeceiaiaiai eio-

uanoaa, anee iii auei cano?aoiaaii eeceiaiaeaoaeai;

– eiua cao?aou eeceiaiaeaoaey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii eeceiaa.
?acia? eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ai iiiaii caaeneo io niaeaniaaiiie noi?iiaie
aii?oecaoeeiiiie iieeoeee, oi anae io eca?aiey eicooeoeeaioa onei?aiiie
aii?i~caoeee (ii iiaeao eiaoue cia/aiea aei o?ao).

N/eoath oeaeaniia?aciui ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeiaiaa?eaathueiny noi?iiai
eiaeaioiaeoue e aeaoue a ea/anoaa i?eeiaeaiey e aeiaiai?o i eeceiaa
i?ioieie niaeaniaaiey ?acia?a eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. Yoio aeieoiaio
iiaeao eiaoue i/aiue aaaeiia cia/aeea aeey eeceiaiaeaoaey a aai
acaeiiioiioaioeao n iaeiaiaie einiaeoeeae. A coii ioiioaiee o
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey iaiueoa i?iaeai. Aaaeue eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee
aeeth/athony a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), i?iecaaaeaiiie
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai.

?an/ao eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny ii ?acee/iui
iaoiaeeeai a caaeneiinoe io: aeaea eeceiaa; oi?iu ?an/aoia iaaeaeo
eeceiaiaeaoaeai e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai (aeaiaaeiua, eiiiainaoeeiiiua,
niaoaiiua); ninoaaa o/eouaaaiuo yeaiaioia; i?eiaiyaiiai iaoiaea
ia/eneaiey n oeene?iaaiiie iauae noiiie, n aaainii (aeaiiceoii), n
o/aoii aueoia eiouanoaa ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe; ia?eiaee/iinoe aianaiey
(aaeaaiaeiua, iieoaiaee/iua, aaeaeaa?oaeueiua, aaeaiany/iua); n?i/iinoe
aianaiey (a ia/aea, na?aaeeia eee a eiioea ia?eiaea ieaoaaea); niiniaa
oieaou.

Aeey ?an/aoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
ooaa?aeaeaiiua 1a ai?aey 1996 aiaea Ieiceiiiieee ?O “Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?an/aoo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae”.

Aoi?ie iiiaio naycai n auyniaieai oiai, ianeieueei iaycaoaeueii
naycuaaoue eaaeaeue eeceiaiaue ieaoaae n aiaeiaie noiiie eeceiaiauo
ieaoaaeae. Ai-ia?auo, yoi o?oaeii inouanoaeoue ii /enoi oaoie/aneei
i?e/eiai, oae eae aeaeaei ia anaaaea aeaenoaea eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ieaoaaee ii iaio ia/eiathony 1-ai yiaa?y e
caeai/eaathony /a?ac ianeieueei eao 31 aeaeaa?y. Ai-aoi?uo, /oi
nouanoaaiii aaaeiaa, eae iieacuaaao ca?oaaaeiay e ioa/anoaaiiay i?aeoeea
?aaiou iia?aoi?ia eeceiaiaiai ?uiea, a eeceiaiauo ioiioaieyo aiciiaeii
eniieueciaaiea “?aaiiai a?aoeea” eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. Eiaaony a aeaeo,
/oi ii niaeaniaaieth noi?ii iie iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny: ?aaiiia?iuie
?aaiuie aeieyie; n oaaee/eaathueieny e oiaiueoathueieny ?acia?aie.
Iineaaeiaa i?ienoiaeeo a caaeneiinoe no oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey e oneiaee aeiaiai?a.

Caeanue aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea ia ?aciuo yoaiao naeaeee ?acee/iuo
eiyooeoeeaioia onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee. E i?eia?o, oaeie iiaeoiae
cae?aieai a no. 15 Caeiia “I oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oiiao”, niaeanii
eioi?ie oeacaiiay eueaioa yaeyaony ia?ie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, onoaiaaeeaaaiie ii ?aoaieth
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

N/eoath aiciiaeiui i?aaeoniio?aoue a eeceiaiaii aeiaiai?a neaaeothuaa.
Nia/aea i?e eniieueciaaiee naeaaaaiiai a eeceia iai?oaeiaaiey
i?iaiaeeoue aii?oecaoeeiiiua ia/eneaiey n eiyooeoeeaioii 0,5, caoai n
eiyooeoeeaioii 1, a eiaaea eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aeaaiaea?y
aunieiyooaeoeaiiio iai?oaeiaaieth nie?aoeo naie ?anoiaeu ia aaeeieoeo
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee e noaiao a nayce. n yoei iieo/aoue
cia/eoaeueioth i?eaueue, iiaeii i?eiaiyoue iaoaieci onei?aiiie
aii?oecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey n eiyooeoeeaioaie 2 eee 3.

A neo/aa iaiinooieaiey ia n/ao eeceiaiaeaoaey n?aaenoa a iiaaoaiea
i?e/eoathueony n eeceiaiiieo/aoaey ieaoaaeae aei onoaiiaeaiiiai /enea
neaaeothuaai ianyoea (eaa?oaea) i?e/eoathueany n eeceiaiiieo/aoaey
ieaoaaee n/eoathony ianaiaa?aiaiii oiea/aiiuie. Eeceiaiaeaoaeue a oaeii
neo/aa iieo/aao i?aai acuneaoue n eeceiaiiieo/aoaey oo?ao a ?acia?a
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeaioa io iaiiaaoaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii ieaoaaeai ca
eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee.

A eiio?aeoao ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio oeiainiaiio eeceiao, eae i?aaeei, a
neo/aa caaea?aeee ieaoaaeae n eeceiaiiieo/aoaey aceiathony i?ioeaiou ca
caaea?aeeo auieaou, en/eneyaiua a noiia aaeaaeiaaiie noaaee EEAI? io
iaauiea/aiiiai ieaoaaea iethn o?e i?ioeaioa aiaeiauo. A ?inneeneeo
oneiaeyo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa aacu aeey ?an/aoa noaaeo
?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O.

A I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a ?aeiiaiaeoaony: ia?aue ieaoaae a n/ao iauae noiiu
ieaoaaeae eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue oiea/eaaao a aeaea aaaina. Yoio ii?yaeie
oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a i?aeoeea ?aaiou aa?iaineeo eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee.

I?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii iauay noiia eeceiaiauo
ieaoaaeae e ia?eiaee/aneea auieaou a ia?eiae aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a oe i?e
aai i?iaeeaiee iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu i?e iiyaeaiee iiauo ianoiyoaeuenoa,
iiaoueo aucaaoue eiiia?/aneea iioa?e noi?ii, eciaiaiea o?iaiy eioeyoeee
oeai, oa?eoia, o?iaiy nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa e ae?oaeo nouanoaaiiuo aeey
noi?ii iieacaoaeae. Oaeay caienue naycaia n iniaaiiinoyie ?inneeneiai
eeceiaiaiai aeciana. Aunieea oaiiu eioeyoeee a 1991-1995 aiaeao ia?aaeei
noaaeee a i/aiue oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea ?inneeneeo eeceiaiaeaoaeae.
Iai?eia?, eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey “Aaeoeeneee eeceia” ia/aea ?aaioo a ethia
1990 aiaea, i?aaeinoaaea iaeiiio ec naieo o/?aaeeoaeae – Aaeoeeneiio
ii?neiio ia?ioiaenoao a eeceia ia naiue eao /aou?a iino?iaiiuo ia aa?oyo
Aa?iaiee noaeia-nooia?oca iauei aeaaeaaeoii 60 oun. o noieiinoueth ia
oio ia?eiae 20 iei. ?oa. A 1996 aiaeo yoio nooia?oc noiee 15 iei. aeiee.
NOA. Oaeei ia?acii, naeaaaaiia a eeceia eiouanoai i?e . eioeyoeee
iiaei?iaeaei ia ia i?ioeaiou, eae yoi auaaao ia Caiaaea, a ia ii?yaeee
?ac. Anoanoaaiii, ia ei??aeoe?oy oneiaey eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a a /anoe
ia?aniio?a oeai, eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey iiiaioaeueii ?aci?eony. A oi aea
a?aiy eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth auaiaeii ieaaee?iaaoue eioeyoeeiiiua yaeaiey
/a?ac iaoaieci eeceiaa.

Ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi ia o/eouaaaiay a oiaea ?aaeecaoeee eeceiaiaiai
aeiaiai?a eioeyoeey aeecea e oi?n-iaaei?iui ianoiyoaeuenoaai (oioy ciae
?aaainoaa iaaeaeo ieie noaaeoue iaeuecy).

A I?eia?iii aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi noi?iiu inaiaiaeaeathony
io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaauiieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?o, anee yoi
iaauiieiaiea aucaaii oi?n-iaaei?iuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, eioi?ua
i?eciathony oaeiauie aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. A yoii neo/aa
onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee ii auiieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoa, oeacaiiuo a aeiaiai?a,
ia?aiinyony ia n?ie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai aeaenoaiaaee oi?n-iaaei?iua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa.

Noi?iia, o eioi?ie nicaeaeanue iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa
ii aeiaiai?o, iaycaia ecaanoeoue a ienueiaiiie oi?ia ae?oaoth noi?iio i
ianooieaiee e i?ae?auaiee oeacaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa ia iicaeiaa aeanyoe
aeiae n iiiaioa eo ianooieaiey.

I?e aicieeiiaaiee oi?n-iaaei?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa ?inneeneay
Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa aoaeao i?ecaaia iiaeoaa?aeeoue iaee/ea yoeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa e eo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue. A oii neo/aa, anee iie aoaeoo
aeeeoueny aieaa /aou?ao ianyoeaa, noi?iiu aeieaeiu ano?aoeoueny, /oiau
ianoaeeoue, eaeea ia?u neaaeoao i?eiyoue. Iaeiaei anee a oa/aiea
iineaaeothueo aeaoo ianyoeaa eiio?aaaiou ia niiaoo aeiaiai?eoueny,
oiaaea eaaeaeay ec noi?ii ai?aaa aiioee?iaaoue aeiaiai?, i?e oneiaee,
/oi noi?iiu aa?ioo ae?oa ae?oao ana iaoa?eaeueiua e aeaiaaeiua aeoeau,
iieo/aiiua eie a nayce n aeaenoaeai aeiaiai?a.

Anee noi?iiu ia niiaoo i?eeoe e niaeaoaieth, ana nii?u e ?aciiaeaney,
aicieeathuea a ?acoeueoaoa iaeniieiaiey aeiaiai?a eee a nayce n iei,
iiaeeaaeao ?ac?aoaieth a a?aeo?aaeiii noaea a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Anooiay ai acaeiiioiioaiey n ia?oia?ii, noi?iiu niaeaoathony, /oi ana
eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey e eeceiaiaiio aeiaiai?o n/eoathony
aeaenoaeoaeueiuie, anee iie ioi?ieaiu a ienueiaiiii aeaea e iiaeienaiu
eie. I?e yoii ethaay aeiaiai?aiiinoue iaaeaeo noi?iiaie, aeaeouay ca
niaie iiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua ia auoaeatho ec aeiaiai?a, aeieaeia
auoue ienueiaiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaia eiio?aaaioaie a oi?ia aeieieiaiey e
aeiaiai?o. Iinea iiaeienaiey aeiaiai?a ana i?aaeuaeouea ienueiaiiua e
onoiua niaeaoaiey, ia?aaiai?u e ia?aienea iaaeaeo noi?iiaie oa?ytho
neeo, anee ia ie’ ionoonoaoao nnueea a aeiaiai?a. I?e/ai ie iaeia ec
noi?ii ia ai?aaa ia?aaeaaaoue naie i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii aeiaiai?o
o?aoueei eeoeai aac ienueiaiiiai niaeaney ae?oaie noi?iiu.

?anniio?ei, a eaeeo eiie?aoii neo/ayo i?ienoiaeeo i?ae?auaiea aeiaiai?a.

Naiie aeaaii?eyoiie aeey noi?ii yaeyaony neooaoeey, eiaaea aeaenoaea
aeiaiai?a i?ae?auaaony n enoa/aieai aai n?iea. N ieii/aieai n?iea
aeiaiai?a i?e oneiaee oieaou eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai eeceiaiaeaoaeth anao
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeiaiai?ii ieaoaaeae naeaeea n/eoaaony caaa?oaiiie.

Iaeiaei aiciiaeii e aein?i/iia ?anoi?aeaiea aeiaiai?a ii niaeaoaieth
noi?ii eee ?aoaieth noaea, anee o?aaiaaiea i ?anoi?aeaiee cayaeyao’
iaeia ec noi?ii. Oae, eeceiaiaeaoaeue ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue ?anoi?aeaiey
aeiaiai?a a neo/ayo, eiaaea:

1. Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa ia anooiee a neeo eee aue
aiioee?iaai ii ethaie i?e/eia aei iinoaaee eiouanoaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth.

2. I?iaeaaaoe ii ethaie i?e/eia ieacaeny ia a ninoiyiee iinoaaeoue
eiouanoai eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth.

A ia?aii e ai aoi?ii neo/ayo eeceiaiaeaoaeue e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
inaiaiaeaeathony io acaeiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa ae?oa e ae?oao ii aeiaiai?o.

3. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue a oa/aiea n?iea, i?aauoathuaai 30 aeiae, ia
auiieiyao naieo iaycaoaeuenoa ii eaeiio-eeai aeaeo ieaoaaeae,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeiaiai?ii.

4. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue, iieo/ea o?aaiaaiea ia oieaoa, ia iiaaoaao
caaeieaeaiiinoue (aeeth/ay iaie ca i?in?i/eo} a oa/aiea o?ao iaaeaeue
iinea aai iieo/aiey.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aeiioneaao eniieueciaaiea eiouanoaa n ia?ooaieai
oneiaee aeiaiai?a.

6. Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa – i?aaeiao eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a
aiioee?oaony iinea iinoaaee aai ii i?e/eiai, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eioi?ua
ianao eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue.

7. A ia?eiae aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a i?aaiecaoeey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey
eeeaeaee?oaony.

I?e ?anoi?aeaiee aeiaiai?a ii i?e/eiai, oeacaiiui a o?aoueai-naaeueiii
neo/ayo, eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai oieaoeoue eeceiaiaeaoaeth noiio
cae?ueoey naeaeee, eioi?ay aeeth/aao:

a) inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue eiouanoaa ia iiiaio ieii/aiey n?iea aeiaiai?a,
anee a iai i?aaeoniao?eaaeny aueoi eiouanoaa ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe;

a} iieioth caaeieaeaiiinoue eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, a oaeaea anth

auiea/aiioth eeceiaiaeaoaeth noiio eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ii aei-

aiai?o;

a) iaonoieeo.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a a neo/aa
iaia?oaeaiey i?e i?eaiea eiouanoaa iaaeinoaoeia, eioi?ua eneeth/atho aai
ii?iaeueiia eniieueciaaiea e ono?aieoue eioi?ua iaaiciiaeii.

I?e/ai i o?aaiaaiee ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai
ecaanoeoue eeceiaiaeaoaey a ienueiaiiie oi?ia ia iicaeiaa 30 aeiae n
iiiaioa caaa?oaiey iinoaaee eiouanoaa.

Aua iaeii i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiia ?aoaiea noi?iiu i?eieiatho, i?aaeaea
/ai caaa?oao eeceiaiaoth naeaeeo. Iie aeieaeiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aua?aoue
iaeei ec o?ao aa?eaioia naieo aeaenoaee iinea caaa?oaiey naeaeee.

Ia?aue aa?eaio i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi eiouanoai aacaiciacaeii ia?aaeaaony
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth. Neiai “aacaiciacaeii” aeieaeii auoue iiiyoi eae aac
eaeie-eeai ieaou naa?o anao i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ii aeiaiai?o ieaoaaeae –
eoieoue iai?oaeiaaiea, caieaoea oeene?iaaiioth noiio “oeaiu aiciiaeiinoe
iieoiee”, oi anoue ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe. Oeaia aiciiaeiinoe iieoiee
oiea/eaaaony a aeaiue aianaiey iineaaeiaai a?aiaeiiai ieaoaaea. I?e aai
oieaoa aianoa n ae?oaeie i?e/eoathueieny i?aaiaie, a oaeaea n oeaiie
aiciiaeiinoe iieoiee eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea i?ae?auathony, a i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia iai?oaeiaaiea ia?aoiaeeo io a?aiaeiaeaoaey e
a?aiaeaoi?o. Ethaua ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ia?aoiaeii i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe~ e a?aiaeaoi?o, iiianaiiua a no?aia, aaea iai?oaeiaaiea
eniieuecoaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, aiciauathony ca n/ao a?aiaeaoi?a.

Aoi?ie aa?eaio – eiouanoai aica?auaaony eeceiaiaeaoaeth e naycaiiua n
yoei ?anoiaeu inouanoaeythony ca n/ao eeceiaiaeaoaey eeai ca n/ao
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

O?aoee aa?eaio – eiouanoai ?aaeecoaony o?aoueaio eeoeo e naycaiiua n
yoei aeioiaeu eee ?anoiaeu ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo noi?iiaie a
ii?aaeaeaiiii niioiioaiee.

A oeaeyo iiaeaea?aeee iinoi?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie io?anee ?anioaeeee a 1996 a. Eacaonoaio aue
I?aaeinoaaeai I?ia?aiiiue caei Aceaoneiai Aaiea ?acaeoey (AA?) a ?acia?a
100 iei aeieea?ia NOA. Aeey nicaeaiey iaiaoiaeeeuo oneiaee e
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey yoeo n?aaenoa I?aaeoaeuenoai ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai ooaa?aeeei ieai ia?ii?eyoee ii auiieiaieth Iieeoe/aneie
iao?eoeu I?ia?aieiiai caeia AA? aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai naeoi?a A
niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiui ieaiii ia?ii?eoeoee auei oaaa?aeaeaii, /oi
eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa caeia AA? aeey caeoia ia?a?aaaouaathuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey eiia/iuie caaiaueeaie aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa
eeceiaa. Ia AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” (aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? Iu?caoiaoia A E )
eae niaoeeaeece?iaaiioth eeceiaiaoth eiiiaieth aiceiaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie i?ia?aiiu. ? aaeecaoeey caeia AA?
inouanoaeyaony a aeaa o?aioa. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue n?aaenoaa ia?aiai
o?aioa – 50 iei aeieea?ia NOA – iieiinoueth inaiaiu. I?ioeiaine?iaaii 89
i?iaeoia iaeuo e n?aaeieo naeueoici?aaei?eyoee ii ia?a?aaioea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. E?aaeeou auaeaiu n?ieii ia 4 aiaea e
n i?ioeaioiie noaaeie io 9,5 aei 11,0 i?ioeaioia, a caaeneiinoe io
noieiinoe i?iaeoa. A niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiui Ii?yaeeii ?aaeecaoeee
caeia AA? AI “Aa?i-Eeceia’* auiieiyao caaea/e ii iiaeaioiaea
niaoeeoeeaoeee e caeeth/aieth eiio?aeoia ia iinoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey n
oe?iaie-iinoaaueeaie, ioia?aiiuie oaiaea?iie eiienneae, caeeth/aao
aeiaiai?u eeceiaa n eiia/iuie caaiueeaie (eeceiaiiieo/aoaeyie) iinea eo
ieii/aoaeueiiai iaeia?aiey aaieaie. Auai? oe?iu-iinoaaueea, ioia?aiiie
oaiaea?iie eiienneae, i?iecaiaeeony iaiin?aaenoaaiii naiei eiia/iui
caaiueeii iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iiuo ?aaiou ii ia?aiio o?aioo iiaeoaa?aeee i?aaeeueiinoue auai?a noaiu
inaiaiey n?aaenoa caeia AA?. AI “Aa?i-Eeceia”, eiay a naiae
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a naiaa?aiaiii nicaeaiiia niaoeeaeueiia
Oi?aaeaiea eiio?iey, iinoaaie e na?aeniiai ianeoaeeaaiey i?aaeiaoa
eeceiaa, aaea ?aaioatho eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua oaoie/aneea niaoeeaeenou,
ieacuaae e ieacuaaao iiiai/eneaiiua aanieaoiua eiinoeueoaoeee eiia/iui
caaiueeai. O/eouaay eo iainaaaeiieaiiinoue, oaoie/aneea niaoeeaeenou
eiinoeueoe?otho eiia/iuo caaiueeia ii aii?inai auai?a iai?oaeiaaiey e
oe?iu-iinoaaueea, ii?aaeaeaiey oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia
cai?aoeaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ei??aeoe?iaee e ninoaaeaiey niaoeeoeeaoeee
iai?oaeiaaiey i?e iiaeienaiee eiio?aeoa, niioaaonoaothuaai oneiaeyi e
aiciiaeiinoyi caaiueea, iiaeaioiaee aecian-ieaiia, eioi?ua
niioaaonoaiaaee au o?aaiaaieyi oiieiiii/aiiuo aaieia aoi?iai o?iaiy, e
o.ae. N oeaeueth iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiecaoeee aeaiiiai caeia AI
“Aa?i-Eeceia” a naia a?aiy a ii?yaeea iiiiue eiia/iui caaiueeai
niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaei iaeao iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia aeey ioi?ieaiey
eo cayaie e ?acee/iuo iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ninoaaeaieth
aecianieaiia: “Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e caaiueeo”, “Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu
yenia?oecu aecian-i?iaeoia”, “No?oeoo?a e o?aaiaaiey e caeiao”,
“?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ninoaaeaieth aecianieaia a caaeneiinoe io iauaia
i?iaeoa”, “Iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae”, “Oeiiaua oi?iu
?an/aoa oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai iainiiaaiey i?iaeoia”. Yoe aeieoiaiou
?ac?aaaouaaeenue n o/aoii iauai?eiyouo (aaieianeeo) noaiaea?oia e
?aaeueiuo oneiaee, neiaeeaoeony a naeueneii oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee.

A AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” ooieoeeiie?oao niaoeeaeueiue ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa, aaea
noi?ie?iaaia ii?aaeaeaiiay aaca aeaiiuo i i?iecaiaeeoaeyo
ia?a?aaaouaathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey e naeueoicoaoieee, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a
?aaioa ia eacaonoaineii ?uiea, aeeth/athuay a naay i?aaeeiaeaiey io
aieaa /ai 80 oe?i ec 67 no?ai-/eaiia AA?. Iaee/ea oaeie eioi?iaoeee
iicaieyao aanoe oi/iue ?an/ao ieoiaaiinoe i?iaeoa, oae eae ca?aiaa
aoaeoo ecaanoiu oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u ieaie?oaiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. E?iia oiai, AI “Aa?iEeceia” eiaao aeinooi ei anai
?acee/iui eioi?iaoeeiiiui enoi/ieeai ?anioaeeee, eiathuei ioiioaiea
eaeaiiiio aii?ino, a oii /enea e e ie?iaie aaca aeaiiuo /a?ac
eiiiuethoa?ioth naoue “Eioa?iao”. ?aaoey?ii iinooiaao ioaeaiueiay
eioi?iaoeey i ninoiyiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie io?anee ?anioaeeee ec
Aineiinoaoa e Ieienoa?noaa naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?E, /oi oiaea
iaiaeiaaaeii i?e aiaeeca aecian-i?iaeoia ii ia?eaoeiao nu?uey e ?uiea
nauoa ieaie?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” auiieiyao aieuaoth oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue.
Niaeanii aeiaiai?aiiinoe n oiieiiii/aiiuie aaieaie (AI
“Eacaa?ii?iiaaie”, IAI “Eaceiiia?oeaaie”, “Yeneiaaie Eacaonoai” – ia?aue
o?aio) ia AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” aiceiaeaiu ooieoeee eo eeceiaiaiai aaaioa ii
auiieiaieth oaiiaeaiiie i/enoee, yenia?oecu aioiaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aacu iiae iiioaae iai?oaeiaaiey, oao-iiioaaea e ioneiiaeaaei/iuo ?aaio,
nenoaiaoe/aneiai eiio?iey yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey a oa/aiea n?iea
eeceiaa, ono?aiaieth ?acee/iuo aeaoaeoia oaoiieiaee, i?aaiecaoeee
?aiiioii-na?aeniuo oneoa, iao/aieth ia?niiaea, acaeiiaeaenoaeth n
iinoaaueeii iai?oaeiaaiey a /anoe ?aoaiey oaoie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
caaea/, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe – i?aaiecaoeee eaai?aoi?ii-yenia?oiuo
aiaeecia ii aii?inai ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, oaoiieiaee e
o.ae.

I ?iaiaeeony iinoiyiiay ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey ii?iaeueiie
eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii, e niaeaeaieth, ioeoeeaeueii i?eiyoia
“Iieiaeaiea i eeceiaa a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena” e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia
iinoaiiaeaiea “Ia i?aaiecaoeee iaania/aiey aa?ii?ie~uoeaiiiai eiiieaena
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeeae ia iniiaa eeceiaa” io 23 aeaeaa?y 1995
a.ei 1851 ia a iieiie ia?a ioaaouaatho eeceiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, a
cia/eo, ia nieiatho nouanoaothuea neiaeiinoe, ?aciiaeaney a aii?inao
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey ieceiaa, aai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e i?aaeiaoa
aii?oecaoeee. A nayce n yoei e a eioa?anao ?aaeecaoeee auoaoeacaiiiai
caeia AI “Aa?iEeceia” i?eiye o/anoea a iiaeaioiaea caeiiii?iaeoa “0
eeceiaa” e i?aaenoaaee naie i?aaeeiaeaiey e caia/aiey.

Oae, iai?eia?, niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia
naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee ia eeceiaiaii (a?aiaeoaiii)
iai?oaeiaaiee iiaeii ioiineoue oieueei noiio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee, a noiio eeceiaiaiai ieaoaaea neaaeoao ii?aaeaeyoue a n/ao
nianoaaiiie i?eauee eeceiaiiieo/aoaey. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoaiey aeaiiiai
aii?ina i/aaeaeia, iineieueeo ieaoa ca iieueciaaiea aaieianeei e?aaeeoii
a iau/iuo neo/ayo ioiineony ia naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Iiiyoii, /oi oaeie ii?yaeie o/aoa aeayoaeueiinoe eiia/iuo caaiueeia
n?aaenoa aeaiiiai caeia i?eaaaeao e caauoaieth iaeiaiaie i?eauee ii
oaeouei ieaoaaeai. A a iaoai neo/aa – oai aieaa, oae eae ?a/ue eaeao i
iiaeaea?aeea ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oeo/oaiea e?eceniie neooaoeee a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii naeoi?a ?anioaeeee, a oii /enea e ca n/ao n?aaenoa
ioia/aaiiai caeia.

Iaeiaei i?iaeaia ia oieueei a yoii. Anee au caeii naaiaeiy e aue i?eiyo,
eeceia ia noae au ?acaeaaoueny iaiaaeeaiii. Yoiio i?aiyonoaoao ia nianai
aeaaii?eyoiay iae?iyeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a yeiiiieea Eacaonoaia.
AEeciue oaaaeaeaao, /oi aeey eacaonoaineeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aaaeii
?aoeoue i?iaeaiu i?aeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, oi anoue iino?ieoue eeceiaiaue
aecian, iaeoe naith ieoo a ie?iaii eeceiaiaii aeciana, onoaiiaeoue
acaeiiaeaenoaea n eiino?aiiuie eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie e eniieueciaaoue
eo iiuo e o.i. Ii- yoiio AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” oaeaeyao aieueoia aieiaiea
niaa?oainoaiaaieth e oi?iuaieth i?aaee i?iaaaeaiey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.
I?eieiay ai aieiaiea aaaeiinoue aii?ina iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eeceiaa, AI
“Aa?i-Eeceia” iaiaeiie?aoii iiaeieiaei aai ia canaaeaieyo IAN
(Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai Niaaoa ii eii?aeeiaoeee I?ia?aiiiiai caeia Aceaoneiai
Aaiea ?acaeoey aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai naeoi?a). Auea i?iaaaeaia
ii?aaeaeaiiay ?aaioa e n Iaeiaiaui eiieoaoii Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ?E, a
/anoiinoe, ii iaeiao ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue aeinoeaiooi
ii?aaeaeaiiia ?aoaiea.

A uea i?iaaaeaia cia/eoaeueiay ?aaioa e n Ainoaea?noaaiiui oaiiaeaiiui
eiieoaoii ?E. Aaaeue ecaanoii, /oi a niioaaonoaee n oaiiaeaiiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?e caeoiea iai?oaeiaaiey iiae ainoaea?noaaiioth
aa?aioeth i?aaeoniio?aiu ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou (inaiaiaeaeaiea io IAeN).
Iaeiaei niaeanii nouanoaothuaio ii?yaeeo e oaiiaeaiiui i?ioeaaeo?au i?e
ioi?ieaiee iinooieaoaai a?oca ioaeii auei iaycaoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue aai
ia oae iacuaaaiue “neeaae a?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey”, /oi aeaeei iaiaeua
aeaiaaeiua ?anoiaeu. E oiio aea aceiaee aua e 0,4 i?ioeaioa io noieiinoe
eiio?aeoa. Ii AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” aeiaeeinue oiai, /oi aai inaiaiaeeee io
coeo nai?ia a ?aieao ?aaeecaoeee caeia AA?.

*oi aea eanaaony ieoiaaiinoe eeceiaiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oi oaea
onoaiiaeaii, /oi aai yooaeoeaiinoue aoaeao ai iiiaii caaenaoue io
oneiaee iinoaa?aioeeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey. ?a/ue caeanue eaeao i
oe?ieiianooaaiie aeoeee a naeueneii oicyenoaa – ii?aaeaeaiee e?eoa?eaa
i?e ioai?a oe?i-iinoaaueeia iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, aai oaoie/aneeo
e oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia. AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” i?aaeeiaeeei oaiaea?iie
eiiennee i?aaieciaaoue na?aeniua oeaio?u aeey ?aoaiey aii?inia
oaoie/aneiai ieaia e iao/aiey ia?niiaea.

N eaaeoy ooaa?aeeaoaeny i?aeoeea eniieiaiey eiio?aeoia, a oii /enea e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, i?iaa?ea iinoaaeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeony, eae
i?aaeei, a i?ioeanna iiioaaea e aaiaea aai a yenieoaoaoeeth. Iaeiaei a
oiaea ?aaeecaoeee n?aaenoa ia?aiai o?aioa caeia AA? auei onoaiiaeaii,
/oi ciaiee aeey iaeneiaeueii yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey caeoiaaiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo eeiee, iieo/aaiuo oaeei ia?acii, caaiueeai eeceiaiaiai
iai?oaeiaaiey yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii. O/eouaay yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai, AI
“Aa?i-Eeceia” eieoeee?iaaei i?aaiecaoeeth eo?nia iao/aiey e iiaeaioiaee
iaiaoiaeeiuo niaoeeaeenoia aeey ?aaiou ia eeceiaiaii iai?oaeiaaiee,
caeoiaaiii ia n?aaenoaa aeaiiiai caeia. ?ac?aaioaiiay i?ia?aiia
niaeaniaaia n ioeoeeaeueiuie oe?iaieiinoaaueeaie iai?oaeiaaiey.
?aaeecaoeey coie i?ia?aiiu aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny, a iniiaiii, neeaie
“aa?ieeceiaiaoeaa”. Enoaoe, a AI “Aa?i-Eeceia” ooieoeeiie?oao
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiia Oi?aaeaiea iinoaaee, eiio?iey e ianeoaeeaaiey
i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa, eioi?ia eiaao ianeieueei ioaeaeia ii aeaeai
iai?oaeiaaiey, aaea ?aaioatho aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou. Ii
a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe aoaeoo i?eaeaoaiu oa eee eiua nio?oaeieee
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee: “Eacieuai?ii”, “I?iica?iii?iaeo”,
“AEaien” e o.ae. Oaea iai?oaeoaony o/aaiue eeann, aeiy iniauaiey
eioi?iai i?ae aeaeaioaoieeie, iaaaeueth, iaaeyaeiuie iiniaeyie,
niaoeeaeueiie oaoie/aneie eeoa?aoo?ie, eaioeaey?neeie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie
auaeaeaia iaiaoiaeeiay noiia. Ana ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n iao/aieai ia
aeaiiuo eo?nao, ca eneeth/aieai i?iacaea, i?iaeeaaiey e ieoaiey
caaiueeia, aoaeoo iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao eiienneiiiuo aiciaa?aaeaeaiee AI
“Aa?i-Eeceia”.

I?ia?aiia eo?nia iao/aiey e iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia a ?aieao caeia AA?
ooaa?aeaeaia 1 ethey n.a. i?ioieieii Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiiai Niaaoa ii
eii?aeeiaoeee I?ia?aiiiiai caeia AA? aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
naeoi?a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ninoaaeyaony a?aoee iao/aiey neooaoaeae
eo?nia.

A oeaeyo oaeaoaaeaiey anaai eiiieaena ieacuaaaiuo oneoa i?i?aaaouaaaony
aii?in i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeaoaeae aeey
iai?oaeiaaiey ia aaca eacaonoaineeo i?aaei?eyoee. O AI “Aa?i-Eeceia”
oaea eiaaony ii yoiio iiaiaeo aeiaiai?aiiinoue n eiiaa?neiiiuie
caaiaeaie e i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyue ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Ia i?aaiecaoeee iaania/aiey aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeeae ia iniiaa eeceiaa

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 23
aeaeaa?y 1995 a. N 1851

A oeaeyo oeo/oaiey iniauaiey aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena
i?iaeoeoeeae iaoeiino?iaiey, noaaeeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa I?aaeoaeuenoai ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai iinoaiiaeyao:

1. Ooaa?aeeoue i?eeaaaaiia Iieiaeaiea i eeceiaa a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii
eiiieaena.

2. Ieienoa?noao naeueneiai oicyenoaa niaianoii n Ieienoa?noaii
oeiainia ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai e ae?oaeie caeioa?aniaaiiuie
ieienoa?noaaie e aaaeiinoaaie ooaa?aeeoue ii?yaeie iaania/aiey
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena i?iaeoeoeeae iaoeiino?iaiey ia eeceiaiaie
iniiaa, i?i?aaioaoue e aianoe i?aaeeiaeaiey i nicaeaiee eeceiaiaiai
oiiaea.

3. Ieienoa?noao oeiainia e Ieienoa?noao yeiiiieee ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai a oeaeyo onei?aiiiai ?acaeoey e ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iniiaa inouanoaeaiey iia?aoeee
oeiainiaiai eeceiaa i?aaeoniio?aoue a athaeaeaoa 1996 aiaea n?aaenoaa a
noiia 600 (oanouenio) iei. oaiaa ia aica?aoiuo oneiaeyo Ieienoa?noao
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai aeey nicaeaiey eeceiaiaiai
oiiaea ii oaoie/aneiio ia?aaii?oaeaieth naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. I?e oi?ie?iaaiee i?iaeoa athaeaeaoa ia
iineaaeothuea aiaeu ?anniao?eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue iai?aaeaiey n?aaenoa ia
iiiieiaiea oeacaiiiai oiiaea.

4. Oaiiaeaiiiio eiieoaoo ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai iaania/eoue
ioi?ieaiea oiaa?ia, yaeythueony iauaeoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oeiainiaiai
eeceiaa, a ?aaeeia a?aiaiiiai aaica n oieaoie oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae a
niioaaonoaee n oaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

5. Ieienoa?noao oeiainia, Ieienoa?noao naeueneiai oicyenoaa
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai niaianoii n aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii “Eai aeaea”
i?i?aaioaoue iaoaieci ?aaeueiiai aica?aoa noieiinoe eiouanoaa a
iineaaeothuea n?iee (oaoieee e iai?oaeiaaiey) eeceiaiaeaoaeth.

6. ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeeiai iaeanoae, Ieienoa?noao yeiiiieee,
Ieienoa?noao oeiainia, Ieienoa?noao i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee,
Ieienoa?noao naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai nicaeaoue
iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey aeoeaiiai ?acaeoey eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a Eacaonoaia ia iniiaa oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey iia?aoeee
oeiainiaiai eeceiaa, aeeth/ay iaaeaeoia?iaeiue.

Ia?aue caianoeoaeue

I?aiuea?-Ieieno?a

?anioaeeee Eacaonoai

OOAA?AEAeAII

iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa

?anioaeeee Eacaonoai

io 23 aeaeaa?y 1995 a. N 1851

IIEIAEAIEA I EECEIAA

A AA?II?IIUOEAIIII EIIIEAENA

I. Iauea iieiaeaiey

1. Eeceia a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena (aa?ieeceia) – yoi
aeieain?i/iay a?aiaea iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e
nii?oaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, iai?aaeaiiay ia iiauoaiea
o?iaiy oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ca
n/ao eiaanoe?iaaiey a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo eee i?eaea/aiiuo oeiainiauo
n?aaenoa.

2. Iauaeoii aa?ieeceiaa iiaeao auoue ethaia aeaeaeeiia e
iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, ioiinyuaany ii aeaenoaothuae eeanneoeeaoeee e
iniiaiui n?aaenoaai naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, e?iia eiouanoaa,
cai?auaiiiai e naiaiaeiiio ia?auaieth ia ?uiea, a oaeaea ia
iiaeeaaeauaai a?aiaiiiio aaico (auaico) a niioaaonoaee n oaiiaeaiiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

3. Noauaeoaie aa?ieeceiaa yaeythony:

eeceiaiaeaoaeue – th?eaee/aneia eeoei, inouanoaeythuaa eeceiaiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, oi anoue ia?aaea/o a eeceia ii aeiaiai?o niaoeeaeueii
i?eia?aoaiiiai aeey yoiai eiouanoaa;

eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue – th?eaee/aneia eeoei, inouanoaeythuaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, eee a?aaeaeaiei, caieiathueeny
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth aac ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai
eeoea e ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue a ea/anoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, iieo/athuea eiouanoai a iieueciaaiea ii aeiaiai?o
eeceiaa.

4. Eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee (oe?iu) – yoi i?aaiecaoeee, nicaeaaaaiua a
oi?ia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa eee ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo
oi?iao, auiieiythuea a niioaaonoaee n o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie e
eeoeaiceyie ooieoeee eeceiaiaeaoaeae.

5. Oeiaine?iaaiea i?eia?aoaiey eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa inouanoaeyaony
eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo eee caaiiuo n?aaenoa.

6. Aeiaiai? eeceiaa aeieaeai ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

i?aai auai?a iauaeoa aa?ieeceiaa e i?iaeaaoea eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa
i?eiaaeeaaeeo eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
aeiaiai?ii;

eeceiaiaia eiouanoai eniieuecoaony eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai oieueei a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaeyo;

eeceiaiaia eiouanoai i?eia?aoaaony eeceiaiaeaoaeai o i?iaeaaoea
eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa oieueei i?e oneiaee ia?aaea/e aai a eeceia
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth;

noiia eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ca aanue ia?eiae eeceiaa aeieaeia auoue
ia ieaea noieiinoe eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa a oeaiao ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey
naeaeee.

7. Eiouanoai, ia?aaeaiiia a eeceia, a oa/aiea anaai n?iea aeaenoaey
aeiaiai?a eeceiaa yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth eeceiaiaeaoaey.

A aeiaiai?a eeceiaa iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio?aii i?aai aueoia
eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ii enoa/aiee eee aei enoa/aiey
n?iea aeiaiai?a.

II. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe

o/anoieeia aeiaiai?a aa?ieeceiaa

8. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe o/anoieeia aeiaiai?a aa?ieeceiaa
?aaoee?othony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai e oneiaeyie
aeiaiai?a.

9. Nii?u iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie aeiaiai?a aa?ieeceiaa ?ac?aoathony a
ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

10. I?aai iieueciaaiey eeceiaiaui eiouanoaii i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth oieueei ia oneiaeyo, ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeiaiai?ii
eeceiaa.

11. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai naiaa?aiaiii auiea/eaaoue
eeceiaiaeaoaeth i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii eeceiaa ieaoaaee. A
aeiaiai?a aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu naieoeee ca iaoieaoo eee
ianaiaa?aiaiioth oieaoo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae.

12. A neo/aa ia?ooaiey o/anoieeaie oneiaee aeiaiai?a eeceiaa iie
ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea.

13. ?ene neo/aeiie aeaaee, oo?aou, ii?/e eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa aei
ia?aaea/e aai eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth ianao eeceiaiaeaoaeue, n iiiaioa
ia?aaea/e eiouanoaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth – eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue.

14. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue n iiiaioa iinoaaee aio eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa
i?aaeuyaeyao i?aoaicee eeceiaiaeaoaeth a ioiioaiee ea/anoaa,
eiiieaeoiinoe, n?ieia iinoaaee eiouanoaa e ae?oaeo neo/ayo
iaiaaeeaaeauaai auiieiaiey aeiaiai?ia eoiee-i?iaeaaee iaaeaeo
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai e eeceiaiaeaoaeai. Eeceiaiaeaoaeue ii yoei aea
neo/ayi i?aaeuyaeyao i?aoaicee i?iaeaaoeo eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa.

15. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ianao ana ?anoiaeu ii nio?aiiinoe e
niaea?aeaieth eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa, aeeth/ay no?aoiaaiea naiae
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae eeceiaiaeaoaeai, a oaeaea ana ?anoiaeu,
aicieeathuea a nayce n yenieoaoaoeeae, oaoie/aneei ianeoaeeaaieai e
?aiiioii yoiai eiouanoaa, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii aeiaiai?ii
eeceiaa.

III. Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee

16. Iieaoa iieueciaaiey eeceiaiaui eiouanoaii inouanoaeyaony
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai a aeaea eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae, oiea/eaaaiuo
eeceiaiaeaoaeth. ?acia?u, niinia, oi?ia e ia?eiaee/iinoue auieao
onoaiaaeeaathony a aeiaiai?a eeceiaa ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii.

Iauay noiia eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae aeeth/aao:

noiio, aiciauathuoth iieioth noieiinoue eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa;

noiio, auiea/eaaaioth eeceiaiaeaoaeth ca e?aaeeoiua ?ano?nu,
eniieueciaaiiua ei aeey i?eia?aoaiey eiouanoaa, naeaaaaiiai ii aeiaiai?o
eeceiaa;

eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea eeceiaiaeaoaeth. I?aaeaeueiue ?acia?
eiienneiiiuo aiciaa?aaeaeaiee aeey eeceiaiaeaoaey i?e oi?ie?iaaiee
eeceiaiaiai oiiaea ca n/ao anneaiiaaiee ec athaeaeaoa ii?aaeaeythony
Ieienoa?noaii naeueneiai oicyenoaa ii niaeaniaaieth n Ieienoa?noaii
oeiainia, Ieienoa?noaii yeiiiieee ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai;

noiio, auiea/eaaaioth ca no?aoiaaiea eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa, anee
iii auei cano?aoiaaii eeceiaiaeaoaeai;

eiua cao?aou eeceiaiaeaoaey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii
aa?ieeceiaa.

IV. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e io/aoiinoue

17. Io?aaeaiey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee i?e aaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa e io/aoiinoe inouanoaeyaony a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea.

Eae iu ec neacaiiiai, ?uiie eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a Eacaonoaia

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