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Кондомиимум – как форма собственности

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Oaia: Eiiaeiieieoi – eae oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe.

N I Ae A ? AE A I E A

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa I. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeeeeuiuo ioiioaiee a ?E.

& 1.AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

& 2. AEeeeuiua i?aaiioiioaiey a ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Aeaaa II. Eiiaeiieieoi iniaay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua.

& 1.Iiiyoea eiiaeiieieoia.

& 2.Iauaeo eiiaeiieieoia e aai ninoaa.

& 3.Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoia eiiaeiieieoia.

Aeaaa III. Oi?aaeaiea iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia.

Caeeth/aiea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

A A A Ae A I E A

Iiai?io a aeeeeuiie iieeoeea, iaoneiaeaiiue iiauie ?uii/iuie
ioiioaieyie, ninoieo a ia?aoiaea a iniiaiii io i?aaeiae i?aeoeee
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeeuey, iino?iaiiiai ca n/ao athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee,
e ca?aaaouaaieth aai naieie a?aaeaeaiaie, a iiyoaiiii ia?aaiaea
aeeeeuiie noa?a a ?aaeei aacaeioaoeeiiiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Ii a iaieo
neo/ayo ainoaea?noai aeieaeii iaania/eoue nioeeaeueioth caueoo
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai, iniaaiii iaeieioueo neiaa ianaeaiey.

I?e aeoeaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai
iiaei au noaoue ia/aeueiie oi/eie icaei?iaeaiey e ?inoa yeiiiieee,
oaeaeay ca niaie oe?ieee niaeo? ae?oaeo io?aneae. Yoi niinianoaiaaei au
oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee, nicaeaaay o ianaeaiey noeioeu e iaeiieaieth,
naea?aeeaaieth ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu ca n/ao i?aaiecaoeee a no?ieoaeuenoaa
iiauo ?aai/eo iano.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?aaoaony i?iaaaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie aeeeeuiie
iieeoeee e i?aa?auaiea aa a iaeei ec i?ei?eoaoia iauanoaa. Iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaoue ?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue no?ieoaeuenoaa eee i?eia?aoaiea
aeeeuey naiueyi ni n?aaeieie e /anoe/ii ieceeie aeioiaeaie. Aac
nouanoaaiiiai iiauoaiey aeiee /anoiiai aeeeeuiiai naeoi?a ia
noi?ie?iaaoue aaaeiaeoea ninoaaeythuea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee – ?uiie
aeeeuey e ?uiie o?oaea.

Ana yoe oaeoi?u iaoneiaeee auai? oaiu aeeieiiiie ?aaiou e iineoaeeee
iniiaaieai aeey aa iaienaiey.

A iniiao ?aaiou auee iieiaeaiu Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io
6 naioya?y 1993 aiaea “I iiaie aeeeeuiie iieeoeea”, Ainoaea?noaaiiay
i?ia?aiia iiaie aeeeeuiie iieeoeee e iaoaieciu aa ?aaeecaoeee,
?ac?aaioaiiay ai eniieiaiea iinoaiiaeaiey I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai io 15 ethey 1992 aiaea “I ia?ao ii ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey Eacaonoaia eae noaa?aiiiai ainoaea?noaa”, a
oaeaea Caeii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “I aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” i?eiyoue 16
ai?aey 1997 aiaea.

A oiaea iaienaiey ?aaiou auee eco/aiu e ae?oaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua e
ii?iaoeaiua aeou eiathuea i?yiia e einaaiiia ioiioaiea e oaia
enneaaeiaaiey, a oaeaea o/aaiay e niaoeeaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a ( iiiia?aoee,
a?ioth?u, noaouee).

?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaeaiey, o?ao aeaa e caeeth/aiey.

A I aeaaa – «I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeeeeuiuo ioiioaiee a ?E”,
enneaaeothony iiiyoea, i?aaeiao e noauaeou aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee, ia
iniiaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Ai II aeaaa “Eiiaeiieieoi iniaay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua ”
aeaaony iiiyoea , /oi aea oaeia eiiaeiieieoia?, ?anniao?eaathony iauaeou
e ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoia eiiaeiieieoia.

Ai III aeaaa ?anniao?eaathony oi?aaeaiea iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia.

A caeeth/aiea niaea?aeaony auaiaeu, naeaeaiiua a oiaea enneaaeiaaiey
oaiu, i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ia?niaeoeau ?aoaiey aeeeeuiie i?iaeaiu a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

Aeaaa I. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeeeeuiuo ioiioaiee a ?E.

& 1.AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Aia?aua eiaeeoeeaoeey aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a auaoai NNN? auea
i?iaaaeaia a ia?aie iieiaeia ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia, a oi/iaa 24 ethiy
1981 aiaea Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? i?eiye Iniiau aeeeeuiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee.1 A /ooue iicaea 30
ethiy 1983 aiaea Aa?oiaiue Niaao Eacaoneie NN? i?eiye ia aaca Iniia
ia?aue AEeeeuiue eiaeaen Eacaoneie NN?2 , eioi?ue anooiee a neeo n 1
yiaa?y 1984 aiaea. Caoai a 1992 aiaeo 1 ethey aue i?eiyo iiaue
aeeeeuiue eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.3

N oao ii? i?iecioee ei?aiiua eciaiaiey, iaoneiaeaiiua aeaaiui ia?acii
?aniaaeii NNN? e ia?aciaaieai iacaaeneiuo noaa?aiiuo ainoaea?noa e
ia?aaiaeii yeiiiieee ia ?aeuenu ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa anaai
yoiai e Iniiau aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo
?anioaeee e AEeeeuiue eiaeaen Eacaoneie NN? oo?aoeee ?ieue aaciauo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia a iaeanoe aeeeeuiiai i?aaa e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ia i?eiaiythony, o.e. auee ?ann/eoaiu ia i?eioeeieaeueii eiie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee, iieeoe/aneee e aeooiaiue no?ie iauanoaa. E
oiio aea yoe caeiiu i?eoee a i?ioeai?a/ey n caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie
i?eiyouie iicaeiaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiuie eee aaciauie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie a
iaeanoe aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yaeythony Eiinoeoooeey ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai i?eiyoay 30 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea ( no.25,26) e Caeii ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai “I aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” i?eiyoue 16 ai?aey 1997aiaea,4 a
oaeaea ii?iu A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, i?eiyoiai 27
aeaeaa?y 1994 aiaea ( iauay /anoue) e eiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
ecaeaaaaiia a niioaaonoaee n ieie.

A iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey aeeeeuiuo ioiioaiee aeaeiay ?ieue ioaiaeeony
oeaco I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “I iiaie aeeeeuiie iieeoeea” io 6
naioya?y 1993 aiaea ? 1344, iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai io 4 ieoya?y 1995 aiaea ? 1299 “I ia?ao ii ?acaeoeth
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee”, iinoaiiaeaieth
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 27 iay 1996 aiaea ? 647 “I ia?ao
ii ?acaeoeth iio?aaeoaeueneeo eiiia?aoeaia nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe? e
iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee a aeeeuo aeiiao” e iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “I ia?aoiaea ia iiaua i?eioeeiu iieaou niaea?aeaiey
aeeeuey e aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa” io 12 ai?aey 1996 aiaea ? 437.

Ia?yaeo n caeiiaie, oeacaie I?aceaeaioa e iinoaiiaeaieyie I?aaeoaeuenoaa
e enoi/ieeai aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ioiinyony aeou
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiieoaoia, ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, a oii /enea e oao,
eioi?ua iuia naia nouanoaiaaiey i?ae?aoeee. Oae, i?iaeieaeaao
aeaenoaiaaoue Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea iaiaia aeeeuie iiiauaieyie
ooaa?aeaeaiiay Iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia Eacaoneie NN? a 1985
aiaeo,1 a oaeaea Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea nio?aiaiey ca a?aaeaeaiaie,
a?aiaiii ionoonoaothueie ii oneiaeyi e oa?aeoa?o ?aaiou, aeeeiai
iiiauaiey a ianoa iinoiyiiiai aeeoaeuenoaa ( Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea
a?iie?iaaiey aeeeiai iiiauaiey), ooaa?aeaeaiiay Niaaoii Ieieno?ia
Eacaoneie NN? io 17 yiaa?y 1985 aiaea.2 Ii, ?acoiaaony ana iie
aeaenoaotho eeoue a /anoe, ia i?ioeai?a/auae iicaeiaa i?eiyoui caeiiai e
eiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoai.

Iaeioi?ua ii?iaoeaiua aeou, ?aaoee?othuea aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey,
i?eieiathony ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia – ianoiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie

e eniieieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie. Oae 30 ai?aey 1996 aiaea i?eiyoi ?aoaiea
Aeeia a.Aeiaou “I nicaeaiee eiiia?aoeaia nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe?” a
Aeiaou.1

Iaeiiaoe, e aniiiiaaoaeueiui enoi/ieeai aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
iaaeeaaeeo ioianoe ?oeiaiaeyuea ?acuyniaiey Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai ii aeeeeuiui aeaeai, iai?eia? iinoaiiaeaiea “I
i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey noaeaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e ?anniio?aiee aeae ii
nii?ai iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie e aeeeeuii-no?ieoaeueiuie eiiia?aoeaaie” io
11 ieoya?y 1991 aiaea.

Eae aeaeii ec auoaia?a/eneaiiiai, aeeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
ioee/aaony iiiaineieiinoueth naieo enoi/ieeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiae aeeeeuiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii neaaeoao iiieiaoue
niaieoiiinoue eee nenoaio i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo aeeeeuiua
ioiioaiea, o.a. ioiioaiea, iaania/eaathuea oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe
a?aaeaeai a aeeeuea. Niaeanii, no. 1 Caeiia ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “I
aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” io 16 ai?aey 1997 aiaea “AEeeeuiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?E ?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey n o/anoeai a?aaeaeai,
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, naycaiiua n iniiaaieyie
aicieeiiaaiea e i?ae?auaiea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua e i?aaa
iieueciaaiey eie; iaania/aieai nio?aiiinoe e ?aiiioa aeeeuo iiiauaiee;
eiio?ieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia ca niaethaeaieai i?aa a?aaeaeai a
aeeeeuiie noa?a e eniieueciaaieai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea”.

Aeaenoaea aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oaeea
ioiioaiey ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth iio?aaiinoe a?aaeaeai a aeeeuea,
i?aaeiaoii eioi?uo yaeyaony aeeeia iiiauaiea, i?eaiaeiia aeey
iinoiyiiiai a iai i?iaeeaaiey, oioy au iii e auei ?ann/eoaii ia oi,
/oiau iaania/eoue a?aaeaeai aeeeueai eeoue ia a?aiy, i?e iaee/ee oeaeiai
?yaea oneiaee. AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey ii
i?aaeinoaaeaieth e eniieueciaaieth aeeeuey a iauaaeeoeyo, neoaeaaiuo
aeeeuo iiiauaieyo. Iii ?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey ii eniieueciaaieth aeeeuey
iiaeiaieiaoaeyie e a?aiaiiuie aeeeueoeaie. A oi aea a?aiy iii ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ioiioaiey ii eniieueciaaieth aea/iuo aeeeuo
iiiauaiee, o.e. oeacaiiua iiiauaiey a ninoaa aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ia
aoiaeyo.

AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia ?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey ii eniieueciaaieth
i?eniiniaeaiiuo iiae aeeeuea iiiauaiee a aaaii/eeao, nai?ii-?acai?iuo
nii?oaeaieyo e eiuo no?iaieyo, ia ?ann/eoaiiuo ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iinoiyiiie iio?aaiinoe a aeeeuea. Iie oaeaea ia aoiaeyo a ninoaa
aeeeeuiiai oiiaea.

AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ioiineony e /eneo eiiieaeniuo i?aaiauo
ia?aciaaiee, aeeth/athueo a naie ninoaa ii?iu ?acee/iie io?aneaaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Yoi ii?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaa, cae?aieythuea i?aai
a?aaeaeai ia aeeeeua, iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aai inouanoaeaiey e io?aiu,
neoaeauea ioi?aaiuie i?e eeanneoeeaoeee aeeeeuiuo oiiaeia, ii?iu
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaa, iaania/eaathuea oi?aaeaiea aeeeeuiui oiiaeii,
o/ao a?aaeaeai, ioaeaeathueony a aeeeuea, ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeeeuo
iiiauaiee, eiio?ieue ca eo iaaeeaaeauei niaea?aeaieai e yenieoaoaoeeae;
ii?iu a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, ?aaoee?othuea ioiioaiey ii aeaaeaieth,
iieueciaaieth e ?anii?yaeaieth aeeeuie iiiauaieyie; ii?iu oeiainiaiai
i?aaa, iaania/eaathuea iai?aaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia eaieoaeueiue
?aiiio aeeeiai oiiaea, eiua ioaeaeu aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa e
o.ae.

AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ioiioaiey ii
no?ieoaeuenoao e ?aeiino?oeoeee aeeeuo aeiiia iacaaeneii io oiai, eoi
aunooiaao a ieo a ea/anoaa iiae?yae/eea e caeac/eea.

Oaeei ia?acii, ioiioaiey , ?aaoee?oaiua aeeeeuiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii,
oanii nii?eeanathony n ioiioaieyie, ninoaaeythueie i?aaeiao ae?oaeo
io?aneae i?aaa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n ii?iaie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa.
Iiiaea caeiiu e eiua ii?iaoeaiua aeou n ?aaiui iniiaaieai iiaoo
n/eoaoueny aeoaie eae aeeeeuiiai, oae e a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Yoi ioiineony e e Caeiio ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “I
aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo a ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai”, e e Caeiio “Ia oneeaiee
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca naiiaieueiue caoaao aeiiia, eaa?oe?, naaeiauo
(aea/iuo) aeiieeia e eiuo iiiauaiee, a oaeaea ca naiiaieueiue caoaao
caiee e naiiaieueiia no?ieoaeuenoai” e ei iiiaei ae?oaei caeiiai e
iiaecaeiiiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoai, ?ann/eoaiiui eae ia nianoaaiii
a?aaeaeaineea, oae e ia aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey. Aeecinoue aeeeeuiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa n a?aaeaeaineei iaoea io?aaeaiea e a oii, /oi iaai
aeeeiai iiiauaiey niaoeeaeueii o?aaoee?iaai a iniaaiiie /anoe
A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena (ni. aeaaa 30 I?iaeo AE (iniaaiiay /anoue).

Eae oeacuaaao i?ioanni? Oienoie TH.E. “*aoeoth ?aca?aie/eoaeueioth
eeieth iaaeaeo ieie aaeaa ee iiaeii i?iaanoe. Oae, Caeii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee “I i?eaaoecaoeee aeeeeuiiai oiiaea” aea/ao i?aia?aciaaiea
ioiioaiee e n yoie oi/ee c?aiey aeieaeai auoue ioianai e aeoai
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A oi aea a?aiy ii ii?iaeaeaao eee
iiaeao ii?iaeeoue aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey ( iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeia e /eaiaie
aai naiuee, ia iiaeaeaaoeie noaoue o/anoieeaie i?eaaoecaoeee; iaaeaeo
nianoaaiieeii e eiuie eeoeaie, i?iaeeaathueie a i?eaaoece?iaaiiii
iiiauaiea e o.ae.), a iioiio ioiineony e e aeoai aeeeeuiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa”.1

Ia iao acaeyae, aeeeeuiia i?aai ia yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiie io?aneueth
i?aaa, iii yaeyaony iiaeio?aneueth oaeie e?oiiie io?anee i?aaa eae
a?aaeaeaineia i?aai.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii e aeeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie
/anoueth a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Yoie oi/ee c?aiey
i?eaea?aeeaathony iiiaea e?oiiua o/aiua-oeeaeeenou, oaeea eae i?ioanni?
Aanei TH.A., i?io. Oienoie TH.E., i?io. Noeaeiaiia I.E., i?io. sseiaeaa
A.O. e ae?.1

Eioa?anai oio oaeo, /oi Eiinoeoooeey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ioiineo
a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e aaaeaieth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a
aeeeeuiia – e niaianoiiio aaaeaieth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e aa
noauaeoia.

Ei?iaaa N.I., E?aoaieiieeia I.A. e ae?oaea o/aiua n/eoatho “iineieueeo
aeeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ioiineony e niaianoiiio aaaeaieth
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e aa noauaeoia, eieeecee iaaeaeo ii?iaoeaiuie
aeoaie a yoie iaeanoe i?eiyouie ia oaaea?aeueiii e ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia,
aeieaeiu ?aoaoueny a iieueco oaaea?aeueiuo aeoia.”2

?anniao?eaay aii?in i aeeeeuiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeuecy ia ia?aoeoue
aieiaiea ia aeaenoaea yoiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ai a?aiaie, a
i?ino?ainoaa e ii e?oao eeoe. Iauei i?eioeeiii aeaenoaey caeiia ai
a?aiaie yaeyaony iaiaaeeaiiia aeaenoaea iiaiai caeiia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi
iiaue caeii i?eiaiyaony e oai i?aaiioiioaieyi, eioi?ua aicieeatho n
iiiaioa aai aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaey. Anee aea i?aaiioiioaiea iineo
aeeyueeny oa?aeoa?, oi iiaue caeii i?eiaiyaony e oai i?aaai e
iaycaiiinoyi, eioi?ua aicieeatho iinea aaaaeaiey aai a aeaenoaea.
Eciaiaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia aea/ao aaoiiaoe/aneiai eciaiaiey
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaiioiioaiee, e iie nio?aiythony oaeeie, eaeeie auee a
iiiaio caeiiiiai aicieeiiaaiey. Yoe iieiaeaiey neoaeao niaea?aeaieai
i?eioeeia “Caeii ia?aoiie neeu ia eiaao” e ioiinyony oaeaea e aeeeeuiiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao. Ii ec iacaaiiiai i?eioeeia aiciiaeiu eneeth/aiey,
eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaathony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ( ii ia niaeaoaieai noi?ii)
( no. 6 AE ?E). Iai?eia?, iiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii onoaiaaeeaathony
i?aaeea, a neeo eioi?iai ioiioaiey, aicieeoea aei i?eiyoey iiaiai
caeiia, nio?aiyaony ( ?acia? eaa?oe?iie ieaou, eiiioiaeueiuo ieaoaaeae e
o.i.). E anee caeii cai?auaao niaa?oaiea eaeeo-eeai aeaenoaee, ?aiaa ia
cai?auaiiuo, oi oaeea aeaenoaey aeieaeiu auoue i?ae?auaiu.

?anniao?eaay aeaenoaey caeiia a i?ino?ainoaa, neaaeoao iaiiiieoue, /oi
ii iauaio i?aaeeo, ii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia anth oa??eoi?eth ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea i?ino?ainoaaiiua i?aaeaeu
aeaenoaey caeiia ia?aie/aiu ( iai?eia?, ii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ?aeiiu,
iiaeaa?aoeany noeoeeiiio aaaenoaeth).

Iaeiiaoe, aeaenoaea caeiia iiaeao auoue ia?aie/aii e ii e?oao eeoe.
Iniaaiii yoi ioiineony e caeiiai e eiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoai,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuei ?acee/iiai ?iaea eueaiou i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee
aeeeuey, iieaoa aeeeuo iiiauaiee e eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa.

E /eneo eeoe, eiathueo i?aai ia eueaiou, ioiinyony eiaaeeaeu e o/anoieee
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu e i?e?aaiaiiua e iei eeoea; o/anoieee
aoaaineie aieiu – aieiu-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenou; aiaiiineoaeauea, oaieaiiua a
caian eee ionoaaeo; eiaaeeaeu 1 e 2 a?oii ( ca eneeth/aieai eeoe,
noaaoeo eiaaeeaeaie a ?acoeueoaoa niaa?oaiiiai eie i?anooieaiey); iiiaea
ae?oaea eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai e eeoe, eioi?ua ioaeaeathony a iniaie
nioeeaeueiie caueoa ni noi?iiu i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiuo
eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue aeaenoaey aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aic?inea, o.e. iiaue Caeii “I aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” ono?aiee
iiiai/eneaiiua i?ioeai?a/ey aicieeoea ?aiaa a ?aaoee?iaaiee aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaiee.

A oeaeii i?e i?eiaiaiee ii?i aeeeeuiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa neaaeoao ia
iao acaeyae i?eaea?aeeaaoueny neaaeothueo i?aaee:

ai-ia?auo, – ii?iu A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena iiaeeaaeao i?ei?eoaoiiio
i?eiaiaieth ii n?aaiaieth n ii?iaie, eioi?ua niaea?aeaony a ae?oaeo
caeiiao e oai aieaa iiaecaeiiiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao;

ai-aoi?uo, iineaaeothuee caeii ioiaiyao aeaenoaea caeiia i?aaeu-

aeouaai a oie /anoe, a eaeie i?aaeuaeouee caeii i?ioeai?a/eo
iineaaeothuaio;

a-o?aoueeo, i?e noieeiiaaiee caeiia n iiaecaeiiiui ii?iaoeaiui

aeoii i?eiaiaieth iiaeeaaeeo caeii;

& 2. AEeeeuiua i?aaiioiioaiey a ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

I?aaiaua ioiioaiey, niaea?aeaieai eioi?uo yaeyaony aicieeiiaaiea,
inouanoaeaiea, eciaiaiea eee i?ae?auaiea i?aaa ia aeeeeua, iiaeii
iacaaoue aeeeeuiuie i?aaiioiioaieyie. Aaaeiaeoei ioee/eoaeueiui
i?eciaeii aeaiiuo i?aaiioiioaiee yaeyaony eo i?aaeiao eee niaoeeoe/aneee
iauaeo – aeeeeua, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, naienoaa, iacia/aiea e oa?aeoa?
eioi?iai nouanoaaiiui ia?acii aeeytho ia ana yeaiaiou i?aaiioiioaiey.

Iiiyoea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey yaeyaony niae?aoaeueiui, ioaaouaathuei
i?aaiioiioaiey ?acee/iie io?aneaaie e aeaeiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Yoi
ioiioaiey ii oi?aaeaieth e yenieoaoaoeee aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, iaania/aieth
aai nio?aiiinoe, o/aoo ioaeaeathueony a aeeeuea a?aaeaeai e
i?aaeinoaaeaieth aeeeuo iiiauaiee, a oaeaea ioiioaiey ii eniieueciaaieth
i?eaiaeiuo aeey iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey aeeeuo iiiauaiee.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi iiiyoeai aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey ioaaouaathony ia
oieueei ioiioaiey ii eniieueciaaieth aeeeuo iiiauaiee iaieiaoaeyie,
/eaiaie eiiia?aoeaia e ae?. a?aaeaeaiaie, ii oaeaea naycaiiua n ieie
ioiioaiey ii oi?aaeaieth yenieoaoaoeee aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, iaania/aieth
aai nio?aiiinoe, o/aoo ioaeaeathueony a aeeeuea a?aaeaeai.

Oi/aony iiae/a?eiooue, /oi iiiyoea “aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey” yaeyaony
niae?aoaeueiui, iineieueeo a iauaeaiiii niciaiee aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey
annioeee?othony n ioiioaieyie ii eniieueciaaieth oaea iieo/aiiiai eee
i?eia?aoaiiiai aeeeuey.

AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?aaoee?oao ai-ia?auo, ioiioaiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony ia ia/aeao aeanoe e
iiae/eiaiey; ai-aoi?uo – ioiioaiey, eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony ia ia/aeao
?aaainoaa eo o/anoieeia e, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiae?acaeaeythony ia
eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua ioiioaiey, ?aaoee?oaiua aeeeeuiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, eae i?aaeei, ( eae iaai aeeeuo iiiauaiee); ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey iau/ii ia?ac?uaii naycaiiua n eiouanoaaiiuie (
eae ioiioaiey ninaaenoaa a eiiioiaeueiie eaa?oe?a).

Oa?aeoa? i?iaeeaaiey a aeeeeua iiaeao auoue ?acee/iui: iinoiyiiia,
a?aiaiiia, a nayce n ?aaioie eee eiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie e o.ae. Ii ana
yoe ?aciiaeaeiinoe aoiaeyo a aaeeiia iiiyoea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey.
?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia th?eaee/aneoth i?e?iaeo oeacaiiuo ioiioaiee eiaao
i?aaiaay naycue iieueciaaoaey aeeeiai iiiauaiey n aai nianoaaiieeii eee
oiieiiii/aiiui ei i?aaiii, eioi?ay iineo ia aaniethoiue, a
ioiineoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Nthaea iiaeii ioianoe e ioiioaiey iaieiaoaey n
iaeiiaeaoaeai; ioiioaiey /eaia eiiia?aoeaa ia aueoieaoaai eaa?oe?o n
eiiia?aoeaii; ioiioaiey nianoaaiieea aeeeiai iiiauaiey n /eaiaie aai
naiuee; e ae?oaea ioiioaiey, aaea iieueciaaoaeth aeeeiai iiiauaiey
i?ioeainoieo eiie?aoiia eeoei – nianoaaiiee aeeeiai iiiauaiey.

Ia aii?in aea, oyaioaao ee aeeeeuiia i?aaiioiioaiea e aauiui eee
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiui, iaeiicia/ii ioaaoeoue o?oaeii. Oioy a th?eaee/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iiaiey ii yoiio aii?ino. Oae ae.th.i.,
i?io. TH.E. Oienoie n/eoaao, /oi “ioaao ia yoio aii?in caaeneo io oiai,
anoue ee aeinoaoi/iua iniiaaiey i?eciaoue i?aai iieueciaaoaey aeeeiai
iiiauaiey aauiui eee iao.”1

I?io. TH.A. Aanei n/eoaao, /oi “iniiaiui noa?aeiai aeeeeuiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee neoaeeo noauaeoeaiia i?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia aeeeeua. A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaeia i?aai iineo aauiue oa?aeoa?.”1

I?io. I.E. Noeaeiaiia ioia/aao, /oi ” iaiaoiaeeiie /a?oie anyeiai

aauiiai i?aaa, e?iia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, yaeyaony aai eiiieaeniue
oa?aeoa?, caeeth/athueeny a ni/aoaiee aaniethoiuo e ioiineoaeueiuo
(iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo) yeaiaioia. Eo niioiioaiea neoaeeo iniiaaieai
i?eciaoue aeaiiia ?anniao?eaaaiia noauaeoeaiia i?aai aauiui eee
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiui. E a?aieoea iaaeaeo ieie iineo aanueia oneiaiue
oa?aeoa?”.2

E aauiui iiaoo auoue ioianaiu:

-i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua;

-i?aai /eaia eiiia?aoeaa ia eiiia?aoeaioth eaa?oe?o aei aa aueoia;

-i?aai /eaiia naiuee ia aeeeia iiiauaiea, i?eiaaeeaaeauaa a?aaeaeaieio
ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe;

-i?aai ia aeeeia iiiauaiea a neeo caaauaoaeueiiai ioeaca;

-i?aai iieueciaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeeeeuai;

-i?aai o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia;

-i?aai iieueciaaiey aeeeeuai, i?aaeinoaaeaiiui iaeieiouei nioeeaeueii
caueuaaiui a?aaeaeaiai.

Anai yoei i?aaai naienoaaiiu oaeea i?enouea aauiiio i?aao i?eciaee, eae
i?aai neaaeiaaiey e aaniethoiue oa?aeoa? caueou. Aaniethoiua e
ioiineoaeueiua, aauiua e iaycaoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiioiioaiey ia?aaeei
ninouanoaotho e ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa. Yoi a iieiie ia?a
?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia aeeeeuiua ioiioaiey. Oae, aei i?eaaoecaoeee
eaa?oe?u iaieiaoaeue e /eaiu aai naiuee iaoiaeeeenue n nianoaaiieeii
eaa?oe?u eee oiieiiii/aiiui ei i?aaiai a aeeeeuiii i?aaiioiioaiee
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai oeia. Iinea i?eaaoecaoeee eaa?oe?u aicieeei
i?aaiioiioaiea nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ia iineo aaniethoiue e aauiue
oa?aeoa?.

Anee o/anoieeaie i?eaaoecaoeee yaeythony ana /eaiu naiuee e, e?iia ieo,
a eaa?oe?a ieeoi ia i?iaeeaaao, oi ana iie a yoii i?aaiioiioaiee
aunooiatho a ea/anoaa oi?aaiii/aiiuo eeoe e aeaenoaea aeeeeuiiai
i?aaiioiioaiey i?ae?auaaony.

Anee aea ia ana /eaiu naiuee, aeaaoea niaeanea ia i?eaaoecaoeeth
yaeythony aa o/anoieeaie, oi ia?yaeo n i?aaiioiioaieyie nianoaaiiinoe
aicieeaao aeeeeuiia i?aaiioiioaiea nianoaaiieea n /eaiaie aai naiuee,
eioi?ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ioiineoaeueiui e a oiaea a?aiy e aauiui.

Anee aea a eaa?oe?a i?iaeeaatho ae?oaea eeoea, oi i?aaiioiioaiea n ieie
nianoaaiieea eaa?oe?u aoaeo/e aeeeeuiuie, yaeyaony e ioiineoaeueiui e
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiui.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaaei i?eciaoue /oi a?aiue, ?acaeaeythuay aauiua e
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiua aeeeeuiua i?aaa i/aiue oneiaia e iiaeaeaeia.

I?aaeaea anaai aauiui i?aaii ia aeeeeua yaeyaony i?aai nianoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ia eae ecaanoii, icia/aao aeey nianoaaiieea aiciiaeiinoue a iieiii
iauaia ii naiaio oniio?aieth aeaaeaoue, iieueciaaoueny e ?anii?yaeaoueny
i?eiaaeeaaeauei aio eiouanoaii.

I?aaeiaoii aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee yaeyaony aeeeia iiiauaiea, eioi?ia
aeieaeii auoue i?eaiaeiui aeey iinoiyiiiai a iai i?iaeeaaiey, oioy iii e
auei i?aaeinoaaeaii aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eeoue a?aiaiiie iio?aaiinoe a
aeeeuea. I?eaiaeiinoue aeeeiai iiiauaiey aeey iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey
ii?aaeaeyaony n o/aoii aeinoeaiooiai a aeaiiii ai?iaea eee eiii
iinaeaiiii ioieoa o?iaiy aeaaiono?ienoaa.

O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e aeeeui iiiauaieyi, i?aaeiacia/aiiui aeey
i?iaeeaaiey a?aaeaeai, ?acee/athony a caaeneiinoe io iniiaaiee
i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeacaiiuo iiiauaiee e eo ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey. A
niioaaonoaee n i.1 no. 76 Caeiia “I aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” aeeeeua,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiia a?aaeaeaiai aeey i?iaeeaaiey aeieaeii auoue
aeaaiono?iaiiui, o.a. aeieaeii ioaa/aoue onoaiiaeaiiui naieoa?iui e
oaoie/aneei o?aaiaaieyi, i?eiaieoaeueii e oneiaeyi aeaiiiai ianaeaiiiai
ioieoa.

A aeiiao ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a iaeia
iiaeao auoue eeoue eciee?iaaiiia aeeeia iiiauaiea – eaa?oe?a, aeeeie
aeii, /anoue eaa?oe?u eee aeeeiai aeiia (No. 75 Caeiia “I aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”).

A oeacaiiuo aeiiao ia iiaoo auoue naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a
iaeia /anoue eiiiaou eee eiiiaoa, naycaiiay n ae?oaie eiiiaoie iauei
aoiaeii ( niaaeiua eiiiaou), a oaeaea iiaeniaiua iiiauaiey.

A aeiiao eee eaa?oe?ao, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo a?aaeaeaiai ia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe, aiaai iiaoo naeaaaoueny e iaeciee?iaaiiua aeeeua
iiiauaiey. Iai?eia?, a?aaeaeaiei i?eaaoece?iaae eaa?oe?o – “?aniaoiieo”,
aeaaea anee a iae ie iaeia eiiiaoa ia eciee?iaaia, nianoaaiiee eiaao
i?aai naeaoue /anoue yoie eaa?oe?u aiaai. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeinoaoi/ii
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiaao naea/a a iaai eiiiaou eee aeaaea /anoe
eiiiaou ( iniaaiii aeey nooaeaioia).

Ii eae au oi ie auei, i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a ia iiaeao auoue iiiauaiea,
eioi?ia ia yaeyaony aeeeeuai, iai?eia? iiaeniaiia iiiauaiea, na?ae e
o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeiaoii aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee iiaeao auoue oieueei
aeeeeua. Iiae aeeeeuai iiieiaaony ioaeaeueiay aeeeay aaeeieoea (
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue aeeeie aeii, eaa?oe?a) i?aaeiacia/aiiay eee
eniieuecoaiay aeey iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey (No.2 Caeiia “I aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”). Ia iao acaeyae neaaeoao e yoiio aeiaaaeoue, ioaa/athuay
no?ieoaeueiui, naieoa?iui, i?ioeaiiiaea?iui e eiui iaycaoaeueiui
o?aaiaaieyi.

A aeeeeuiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea eao cae?aieai
i?eioeei iinaiaeiiai canaeaiey eaa?oe?, eioi?ue, iaeiaei,
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaiai?eie “eae i?aaeei” (Ni. no. 27 AEeeeuiiai eiaeaena
Eac.NN?, 1983a. Ni. no.28 AEeeeuiiai eiaeaena 1992a.)

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a niioaaonoaee n iiaui “Caeiiii “I aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo” io 16 ai?aey 1997 aiaea ( aeaeaa CiAEI), AEeeeua ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea i?aaeinoaaeyaony a ?acia?a ia iaiaa
15 ea. i. e ia aieaa 18 ea. i. iieaciie ieiuaaee ia /aeiaaea, ii ia
iaiaa iaeiieiiiaoiie eaa?oe?u.

Iaeieiouei nioeeaeueii caueuaaiui a?aaeaeaiai, ia iaoiaeyueiny ia
ainoaea?noaaiiie eee aiaiiie neoaeaa, a oaeaea ia ?aaioathuei a
athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo (o/?aaeaeaieyo), aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeeeeuiiai oiiaea iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii a ?acia?a, ii?aaeaeyaiii
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?E, ii ia iaiaa naieoa?iie ii?iu aeeeie ieiuaaee ia
/aeiaaea, aeaenoaothuae a ?anioaeeea, e ia iaiaa iaeiie aeeeie eiiiaou.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy naieoa?iay ii?ia a ?anioaeeea inoaaony ia o?iaia 6
ea. i. aeeeie ieiuaaee ia /aeiaaea.

Ia?a/aiue iaeieioueo nioeeaeueii caueuaaiuo a?aaeaeai ii?aaeaeai a no.68
CiAEI. Oaeie aea i?eia?ii ia?a/aiue aeaenoaiaae e i?aaeaea, ii iiae
ae?oaei iaeiaiiaaieai. Yoio ia?a/aiue aeeth/aao eeoe, eioi?ua a neeo
aic?anoa, ninoiyiey caei?iauey, naiaeiiai iieiaeaiey e eiuo
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii nioeeaeueiuo iniiaaiee ia iiaoo nianoaaiiuie
neeaie iino?ieoue aeey naay aeii eee i?eia?anoe aeeeeua. Nthaea
ioiinyony eiaaeeaeu e o/anoieee Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, eiaaeeaeu
I e II a?oiiu, iiiaiaeaoiua naiuee, iaineiia?u ii aic?anoo e ae?oaea
iiaeiaiua a?aaeaeaia.

Caeii o?aaoao iaeiaei, /oiau eeoea, aoiaeyuea a yoio ia?a/aiue auee ia
oieueei nioeeaeueii caueuaaiuie, ii e iaeiia?aiaiii iaeieioueie. Ii ie
a iaeiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiii aeoa iao iiyniaiey eee ii?aaeaeaiey, eoi aea
o ian yaeyaony iaeieiouei. Ia iao acaeyae, e iaeieiouei ioiinyony oa
naiuee, aaea ia eaaeaeiai /eaia naiuee a ianyoe, i?eoiaeeony noiia ia
i?aauoathuay ieieiaeueiie ?an/aoiie iieacaoaeue.

Ii aeeeeuiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, aeeeia
iiiauaiea i?aaeinoaaeyaony a?aaeaeaiai a i?aaeaeao ii?iu aeeeie ieiuaaee
– 12 ea.i. ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea, ii ia iaiaa ?acia?a , onoaiaaeeaaaiiai a
ii?yaeea ii?aaeaeyaiii I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoio ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeai iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa
Ieieno?ia ?NON? io 9 naioya?y 1983 aiaea ? 4271 ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai
eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu noauaeoia ?E iaaeaeaiu i?aaii onoaiaaeeaaoue
ieieiaeueiue ?acia? i?aaeinoaaeyaiie a?aaeaeaiai aeeeie ieiuaaee ia
iaeiiai /aeiaaea ia iaiaa n?aaeiae iaania/aiiinoe aeeeie ieiuaaeueth a
niioaaonoaothuai noauaeoa ?O. Oae, “A Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa aeeeay ieiuaaeue
eeoeai, ninoiyuei ia o/aoa aeey iieo/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee
ioieoeeiaeueiiai aeeeuey, i?aaeinoaaeyaony ec ?an/aoa io 9 aei 12 ea.i.
ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea. A oi aea a?aiy i?aaeinoaaeyaiay ieiuaaeue ii naiei
?acia?ai iiaeao e i?aauoaoue yoio aa?oiee i?aaeae. A /anoiinoe, yoi
eiaao ianoi, eiaaea aeeeay ieiuaaeue a aeaea ioaeaeueiie eaa?oe?u
i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaeeiieei a?aaeaeaiai.2

AEeeeua aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue oai naieoa?ii – oaoie/aneei ii?iai
aeaaiono?ienoaa, eioi?ua i?eiaieiu e oneiaeyi aeaiiiai ianaeaiiiai
ioieoa, a oaeaea aeieaeii iaoiaeeoueny a /a?oa oiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa,
aaea ninoiye ia o/aoa ioaeaeathueeny.

Anee aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ia ioaa/atho
auoaoeacaiiui o?aaiaaieyi, oi iii iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii oieueei n
ienueiaiiiai niaeaney ioaeaeathuaainy e anao niaa?oaiiieaoieo /eaiia aai
naiuee. Aieaa oiai, i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeiai aeeeeua aea/ao niyoea n o/aoa
ioaeaeathueony.

E niaeaeaieth aei neo ii? o ian a ?anioaeeea i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua
ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ia o/eouaathony aic?ano,
ninoiyiea caei?iauey, iaee/ea aeaoae, aeecinoue ianoa ?aaiou, ea/aaiuo e
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee e o.ae. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho eiaaeeaeu,
i?anoa?aeua, aieueiua na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouie e ae?oaeie oyaeaeuie
caaieaaaieyie, eioi?ui aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
aeieaeii i?aaeinoaaeyoueny ia iniiaaiee i.3 no. 76 CiAEI n o/aoii eo
aeaeaiey ia ieaeieo yoaaeao eee a aeeeuo aeiiao, eiathueo eeoou.

A eiaaeeaeai, a niioaaonoaee n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie i?ia?aiiie
?aaaeeeoaoeee i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai auai?a aeeeiai iiiauaiey n o/aoii
oeia caeaiey, noaiaie aeaaiono?ienoaa e ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee
aeey i?iaeeaaiey ( i. 3 no. 76 CiAEI). Ii e niaeaeaieth, i?e oie ino?ie
iaoaaoea aeeeuey, eioi?ay nouanoaoao iai?eia? , a a. Aeiaou, yoi
caeiiiia i?aai auai?a eiia/ii aea inoaaony oieueei ia aoiaaa.

I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
oaeaea aeieaeii o/eouaaoueny iaeii ianoiyoaeuenoai, i?aaeoniio?aiiia i.
2 no. 76 CiAEI. Oae ia aeiioneaaony canaeaiea iaeiie eiiiaou eeoeaie
?aciiai iiea noa?oa naie eao ( e?iia noi?oaia) aac eo niaeaney. Ia iao
acaeyae aeiaaaeaiea “aac eo niaeaney” yaeyaony yaii eeoiei a yoie
noaouea Caeiia. Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi a AEeeeuiii eiaeaena ?E 1992a., yoi
auei iaeiei ec o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e aeeeui iiiauaieyi
i?aaeinoaaeyaiui a?aaeaeaiai aeey i?iaeeaaiey.

A /anoiinoe i.3 no.40 aeanee “i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeuo iiiauaiee ia
aeiioneaaony canaeaiea iaeiie eiiiaou eeoeaie ?aciiai iiea noa?oa 7 eao,
e?iia noi?oaia.”1

I?e/ai ia i?aeoeea yoa ii?ia Caeiia eiaea i/aiue oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea i?e
i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua a aeiiao aaaeiinoaaiiiai, eiiioiaeueiiai e
eieeaeoeaiiai aeeeeuiuo oiiaeia, a oaeaea a aeiiao aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
i?aaei?eyoee. Aeaaiaea?y eiaiii yoie noaouea AEeeeuiiai eiaeaena ?E
iiiaea a?aaeaeaia ?E iieo/eee a naia a?aiy aeeeeua iieaciay ieiuaaeue
eioi?uo iicaieyea aeeoue a aieaa – iaiaa ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo ( a
eaa?oe?a ec 3-o eiiiao) naiuea ninoiyuae ec ioaea, aeaiu e aeaoo
?aciiiieuo aeaoae.

Eioa?anai oio oaeo, /oi aiaeiae/iay ii?ia AEeeeuiiai eiaeaena ?O ( /.1
no.41 AEE ?O) “ia aeiioneaao canaeaiea iaeiie eiiiaou eeoeaie ?aciiai
iiea noa?oa aeaayoe eao, e?iia no?i?oaia”.1 Aaeieieno?aoeaiay e
noaeaaiay i?aeoeea enoieeiaaea yoi i?aaeei a oii niunea, /oi noa?oa
aeaayoe eao aeieaeiu auoue ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaia ?aciiiieuo. Anee,
iai?eia?, naiuey ninoieo ec ioaea, aeaiu e aeaoo ?aciiiieuo aeaoae a
aic?anoa 10 e 7 eao, oi aeaoe iiaoo auoue iinaeaiu a iaeio eiiiaoo.
Eiia/ii aea, yoi iaaa?ii.TH.E. Oienoie eiaao eiia iiaiea ia nae n/ao e
ieoao ” i?e anao ianoiyoaeuenoaao iaeuecy ?aaee “iaeiiiieinoe”
?acuaaeeiyoue noi?oaia o.a., iinaeyoue iooea n nuiii, a iaoue n
aei/a?ueth”.2

Ia iao acaeyae ianooieei a?aiy eceiaeeoue aeaiioth ii?io Caeiia a
neaaeothuae ?aaeaeoeee ” I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ia aeiioneaaony canaeaiea iaeiie
eiiiaou aeaoiy e aieaa eeoeaie (e?iia noi?oaia)” Ii/aio ” iaeiiiieua”
aeaoe eee ac?ineua aeieaeiu aeeoue a iaeiie eiiiaoa? Eae i?aaeei o ian a
?E a?aaeaeaia iieo/atho aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
iaeei ?ac, ia aieaa. E aeeaoo a yoie eaa?oe?a eee eiiiaoa aei oao ii?,
iiea ia iiyaeony aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe naia nianoaaiiia aeeeeua.

I?eioeeieaeueii iiaui a aeeeeuiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?E yaeyaony
iiaeoiae e i?eia?aoaieth i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua. Oae,
i.2 no. 11 CiAEI aeaneo “Eiee/anoai e ?acia?u aeeeeu, iaoiaeyueony a
nianoaaiiinoe iaeiiai a?aaeaeaieia eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, ia
ia?aie/eaathony”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii e iiiyoea “eceeoeia” aeeeie ieiuaaee
neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue n o/aoii oiai, a eaeii aeeeeuiii oiiaea iaoiaeeony
aeeeia iiiauaiea. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iii eiaao cia/aiea aeey aeeeuo
iiiauaiee a aeiiao ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea. Eceeoiae aeeeie
ieiuaaeueth n/eoaaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneei ?acia?ii aeeeie
ieiuaaee a iiiauaiee, caieiaaiii iaieiaoaeai, e ?acia?ii aeeeie
ieiuaaee, iieaaathuaeny ii ii?ia – ia aieaa 18 ea. i. ( i.1 no.75 CiAEI)
naiiio iaieiaoaeth e /eaiai aai naiuee.

Eceeoee aeeeie ieiuaaee, a /ai au iie ie au?aaeaeenue – a aeaea
aioo?eeiiiaoiuo eceeoeia eee eceeoeia a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo eiiiao,
ecuyoeth o iaieiaoaey ia iiaeeaaeao, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aei oao ii?, iiea
ia enoae n?ie aeiaiai?a aeeeeuiiai iaeia ( anee aeiaiai? caeeth/ai ia
n?ie).

Anee aea aeiaiai? caeeth/ai aac oeacaiey n?iea e iaieiaoaeue eni?aaii
auiieiyao naie iaycaiiinoe, a iaeiiaeaoaeue ia eiaao iniiaaiee
o?aaiaaoue inaiaiaeaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai iaieiaoaeth
iiiauaiey,(iai?eia?, iioiio, /oi iiiauaiea iaiaoiaeeii aeey i?iaeeaaiey
naiiai iaeiiaeaoaey e /eaiia aai naiuee), iaee/ea eceeoeia naii ii naaa
oaeaea ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iniiaaieai ie aeey i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey
aeiaiai?a, ie aeey aai eciaiaiey (iai?eia?, iooai naea/e aiaai iaiueoae
ieiuaaee).

Aii?in i iaee/ee eceeoeia iiaeao anieuoue, anee ?a/ue eaeao i aunaeaiee
iaieiaoaey i?e iaee/ee caeiiiuo e oiio iniiaaiee n i?aaeinoaaeaieai
ae?oaiai aeaaiono?iaiiiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey eee i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina,
eaeia iiiauaiea aeieaeii auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii iaieiaoaeth a nayce n
eaieoaeueiui ?aiiioii – i?aaeiaa eee ae?oaia.

A oi aea a?aiy nae/an oo?aoeei neeo i?aaeei aeaenoaiaaaoaa ?aiaa ia
iieaoa eceeoeia aeeeie ieiuaaee a o?ieiii ?acia?a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
iniiao iieaou aeeeuey e eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa iieiaeaiu eiua e?eoa?ee e
eiyooeoeeaiou (oei aeeeiai aeiia, o?iaaiue aeaaiono?ienoaa a iai,
niaieoiiue aeioiae /eaiia naiuee, iaee/ea eueaio e o.ae.).

Ia n/eoaaony eceeoiae aeiiieieoaeueiay ieiuaaeue, eioi?ay
i?aaeinoaaeyaony a aeaea ioaeaeueiie eiiiaou a?aaeaeaiai, no?aaeathuei
oyaeaeuie oi?iaie iaeioi?uo o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee, ia?a/eneaiiuo a
nienea caaieaaaiee, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ii?yaeea.

A oeaeii a iaoai aeeeeuiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee
aeanyoeeaoee nouanoaoao iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aeeeeuiuo ii?i, n eaaeaeie ec
eioi?uo naycaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey. Yoi e ii?ia
n?aaeiae iaania/aiiinoe aeeeueai a aeaiiii ianaeaiiii ioieoa; e ii?ia,
a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathuea a aeaiiii ianaeaiiii ioieoa
a?aaeaeaia i?eieiathony ia o/ao ioaeaeathueony a aeeeuea; e ii?ia, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?uo a?aaeaeaia eiatho i?aai ia eiiiainaoeee i?e iieaoa
aeeeuey e eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa.

Ieaoa ca eiiioiaeueiua oneoae a aeeeeuao anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe
aceiaaony ii oa?eoai, ooaa?aeaeaiiui a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?E. Oae, 29 iay 1997 aiaea auei i?eiyoi Iinoaiiaeaiea
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?E “Ia oii?yaei/aiee i?eiaiaiey ii?i iio?aaeaiey oaiea,
ai?y/ae e oieiaeiie aiaeu”.1

A yoii iinoaiiaeaiee auei ioia/aii, /oi aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie
ianaeaieth ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai onoaiaaeeaaaony ieaoa ca eiiioiaeueiua

oneoae ii ii?iai, eioi?ua aaaaeaiu a aeaenoaea aua a 1984-1988 aa.
oiaaea eae oaeoe/aneia iio?aaeaiea eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa a aeiiao n
onoaiiaeaiiuie i?eai?aie o/aoa cia/eoaeueii ieaea. A oeaeyo caueou i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae I?aaeoaeuenoai ?E i?eiyei ?aoaiea n 1 yiaa?y 1998 aiaea
aceiaiea ieaou ca eiiioiaeueiua oneoae, eae i?aaeei, i?iecaiaeeoue ii
iieacaieyi i?eai?ia o/aoa. Iaeiia?aiaiii n aaaaeaieai eiyooeoeeaioia
iaania/eoue i?iaaaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo ia?a?an/aoia ii ieaoaaeai ca
eiiioiaeueiua oneoae.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi aceiaiea ieaou ca eiiioiaeueiua oneoae
i?iecaiaeeony ii iieacaieyi i?eai?ia o/aoa ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao. I?e/ai yoa oaeay acaeiiauaiaeiay e oaeiaiay
oi?ia acaeii?an/aoia e yeiiiieee i?e eioi?ie ie no?aaeaao ie
i?aaiecaoeey, iinoaaeythuay oaieiaoth yia?aeth, aac, oieiaeioth e
ai?y/oth aiaeo, ie iio?aaeoaeue, eioi?ue ia aoaeao ieaoeoue eeoiea
aeaiueae ca oi, /ai ii ia iieueciaaeny. A yeiiiieea ?ano?nia aoaeao
eieinnaeueiay.

Aieueoeinoai aeiaoeioeaa, iai?eia? “ca” onoaiiaeaiea i?eai?ia o/aoa
eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa.1

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yoiai oaeaea neoaeao ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioa,
i?iaaaeaiiiai a a.Aeiaou, a iee?i?aeiia “Naiae-2” a aeiia ? 70, eioi?ua
iieacaee, /oi oaeoe/aneia iio?aaeaiea eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa aeeeueoeaie
yoiai aeiia ai?acaei ieaea oao ii?i iio?aaeaiey oaiea, ai?y/ae e
oieiaeiie aiaeu, onoaiiaeaiiuo a 1988a. a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ?anioaeeee.

Oioaeinue au aa?eoue, /oi Iinoaiiaeaiey i?eiyoua iaoei I?aaeoaeuenoaii a
yoii ieaia aoaeoo auiieiaiu e a 1998 aiaeo ai anao aeiiao a.Aeiaou
aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu i?eai?u o/aoa eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa e neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ieaoa ca yoe oneoae e a oeaeii ca aeeeeua aoaeao aeinooiia eaaeaeiio
a?aaeaeaieio ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

& 2. Aicieeiiaaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee.

Anee aeeeeua, aoaeue oi aeii eee eaa?oe?a, i?eiaaeeaaeeo a?aaeaeaieio ia
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e ieeoi, e?iia naiiai nianoaaiieea, a yoii iiiauaiee
ia i?iaeeaaao, oi ii iiaiaeo oeacaiiiai iiiauaiey aeeeeuiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee aiiaua ia aicieeaao. ?aaeecaoeey i?aaa ia aeeeeua eae
noauaeoeaiiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa a aeaiiii neo/aa ia auoiaeeo ca
i?aaeaeu i?aaiioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe. Ii oae auaaao aeaeaei ia anaaaea.

Eae i?aaeei, e?iia nianoaaiieea a aeeeeua i?iaeeaatho e ae?oaea eeoea. E
iei ioiinyony e /eaiu naiuee nianoaaiieea, e iaieiaoaeue, e a?aiaiiua
aeeeueoeu e ae?. eeoea. Ni anaie yoeie eeoeaie nianoaaiiee iiaeao
iaoiaeeoueny a aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaieyo.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee n
nianoaaiieeii aeeeiai iiiauaiey iiaoo neoaeeoue naiaeiua ioiioaiey n
nianoaaiieeii, naea/a iiiauaiey aiaai, eniieiaiea caaauaoaeueiiai ioeaca
e iinaeaiea a iiiauaiea a?aiaiiuo aeeeueoeia.

Ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n i?eia?aoaieai eee inouanoaeaieai i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua, ?aaoee?oaony oaeaea Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai i nianoaaiiinoe ( no.11 CiAEI).

Oaeei ia?acii, aeeeeuiua i?aaiioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo aeeeuo iiiauaiee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo a?aaeaeaiai ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu
e a nayce n i?eaaoecaoeeae aeeeeuiiai oiiaea eiatho onoie/eaoth
oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo.

Niaeanii no. 67 CiAEI “aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
i?aaeinoaaeythony a iieueciaaiea ioaeaeathueony a aeeeuea a?aaeaeaiai
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathuei a aeaiiii ianaeaiiii
ioieoa e ioiinyueiny e iaeieiouei nioeeaeueii caueuaaiui neiyi
ianaeaiey.”

Eae aeaeii ec oaenoa noaouee i?aaii iieo/eoue aeeeeua ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oiiaea iiaoo iieueciaaoueny oieueei oa, eoi
ioaeaeaaony a oeo/oaiee naieo aeeeeuiuo oneiaee. Ia?a/aiue
ioaeaeathueony onoaiiaeai noaoueae 69 CiAEI. Yoi oa, eoi ia eiaao
nianoaaiiiai aeeeeua ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, ia eiaao a
aeaiiii ianaeaiiii ioieoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeua eeai aeeeeua,
i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe iaainoaea?noaaiiiio
th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo eee aeeeeuiiio eiiia?aoeao, e ae?oaea eeoea,
aeeeeua eioi?uo ia ioaa/aao naieoa?iui e oaoie/aneei ii?iai, eeai
i?iaeeaathuea aeaoiy e aieaa naiueyie a niaaeiuo, iaeciee?iaaiiuo
iiiauaieyo, a oaeaea eiathuea a ninoaaa naiuee aieueiuo, no?aaeathueo
oyaeaeuie oi?iaie o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee ( ec niaoeeaeueiiai nienea
caaieaaaiee, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ii?yaeea).

AEeeeua i?aaeinoaaeythony ioaeaeathueiny a ii?yaeea i/a?aaeiinoe

( no.74 CiAEI ?E). Oaeay i/a?aaeiinoue onoaiaaeeaaaony nieneaie n
iiiaioa iiaea/e cayaeaiey ni anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie aeieoiaioaie. A
eaaeaeii aeeiaoa aaaeoony ii aeaa oaeeo nienea ioaeaeathueony a
i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea. Ia?aue –
nienie iaeieioueo nioeeaeueii caueuaaiuo a?aaeaeai e aoi?ie – nienie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo, ?aaioieeia eiuo athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee e
aiaiiineoaeaueo. I?aaa a?aaeaeai, aeeth/aiiuo a oeacaiiua nienee,
i?eciathony ?aaiuie. Ieeoi ia eiaao i?aeiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa ia iieo/aiea
aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ia?aae ae?oaeie.

?ani?aaeaeaiea aeeeeu ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ii
?acaeaeueiui nieneai i?iecaiaeeony aeeiaoaie i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
/eneaiiinoe ?acaeaeueiuo nieneia.

Ia?a/aiue e oi?ia aeieoiaioia iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey o/aoa, ooaa?aeaeathony
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai. Caeii cai?auaao ianoiui
eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiai o?aaiaaoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey a?aaeaeaiaie
eaeeo-eeai aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, e?iia oao /oi niaea?aeaony a
auoaoeacaiiii ia?a/ia. ( No.71 CiAEI i.2).

Cayaeaiey a?aaeaeai i iinoaiiaea ia o/ao ioaeaeathueony a aeeeeua
?anniao?eaathony a oa/aiea ianyoea ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa ianoiui
eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii.

Ii ia i?aeoeea ia?aaeee neo/ae, ioeaca a iinoaiiaea ia o/ao
ioaeaeathueony. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ii iniiaaieyi i?aaeoniio?aiiui caeiiii.
A /anoiinoe, no. 72 CiAEI i?yii aeaneo, anee a?aaeaeaiei noae
ioaeaeathueiny a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaeiaia?aiiiai oooaeoaiey naieo aeeeeuiuo
oneiaee a oa/aiea 5 eao iooai iaiaia aeeeeua, aai io/oaeaeaiey eeai
?ac?ooaiey eee ii?/e ii aai aeia, a oaeaea a neo/aa auacaea ec aeeeeua,
aaea ii ia aue ioaeaeathueiny e anaeaiey a aeeeeua ae?oaeo eeoe, (e?iia
noi?oaa, aeaoae e iao?oaeiniiniaiuo ?iaeeoaeae).

Ai anao inoaeueiuo neo/ayo ioeac a iinoaiiaea ia o/ao ioaeaeathueony a
aeeeeua iiaeeaaeeo iaaeaeiaaieth a noaea.

Ianoiua eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu, a /anoiinoe aeeiaou, iinoiyiii aaaeoo
o/ao ioaeaeathueony iooai naa?ee aeieoiaioia n ?aaeueiui i?iaeeaaieai
ioaeaeathueony. E anee iaia?oaeeaatho neo/ae, eiaaea iniiaaiey aeey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, oi
i?ienoiaeeo niyoea oaeeo a?aaeaeai n o/aoa ioaeaeathueony. Yoeie
iniiaaieyie iiaoo neoaeeoue e auacae a?aaeaeaiaie ia iinoiyiiia
aeeoaeuenoai a ae?oaie ianaeaiiue ioieo eeai iieo/aiey caiaeueiiai
o/anoea e caaa?oaiea no?ieoaeuenoaa nianoaaiiiai aeiia; eeai
i?eia?aoaiea aeeeeua, a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaaa?iuo naaaeaiee i
ioaeaeaaiinoe a aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea.

Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo aeeiaou i?eieiatho ?aoaiey n oeacaieai iniiaaiee
niyoey n o/aoa. Iinea i?eiyoey oaeiai ?aoaiey i niyoee n o/aoa,
caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea ecaauathony a ienueiaiiii aeaea a 10 aeiaaiie
n?ie.

A neo/aa auacaea a?aaeaeaieia, ninoiyuaai ia o/aoa, ia ae?oaia
iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa eeai aai nia?oe, i/a?aaeiinoue nio?aiyaony
ca /eaiaie aai naiuee, inoaaoeieny a aeaiiii ianaeaiiii ioieoa e aianoa
n iei ninoiyueie ia o/aoa.

Niaeanii i.2 no.67 CiAEI ” aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai oiiaea
i?aaeinoaaeythony oaeaea ioaeaeathueiny a aeeeuea ainoaea?noaaiiui
neoaeauei, ?aaioieeai athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, aiaiiineoaeauei e
eeoeai, caieiathuei ainoaea?noaaiiua auai?iua aeieaeiinoe”.

I?aaeinoaaeyaiua ei aeeeeua i?e?aaieaathony e neoaeaaiui. *oi iiieiaoue
iiae neoaeaaiui aeeeeuai? Noaouey 2 CiAEI aeaao aio ?acuyniaiea «yoi
aeeeeua n iniaui i?aaiaui ?aaeeiii, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey canaeaiey
a?aaeaeaiaie ia ia?eiae auiieiaiea eie iaycaiiinoae, naycaiiuo n
oa?aeoa?ii eo o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee». Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia iiiyoea neoaeaaiuo aeeeuo iiiauaiee, eiathueo iniaue
i?aaiaie ?aaeei, au?aaioaii oieueei aeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai
oiiaea. Ia?a/aiue eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua a nayce n oa?aeoa?ii eo
o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee aeieaeiu i?iaeeaaoue ii ianoo ?aaioo e eioi?ui iiaoo
auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu neoaeaaiua aeeeeua onoaiaaeeaaaony
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai. Oaeia i?iaeeaaiea ia noieueei
i?aai ?aaioieea, neieueei aai aeieaeiinoiay neoaeaaiay iaycaiiinoue.
Iaaeyaeii yoi aeaeii ia i?eia?a ia?aacaea iiiaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
neoaeaueo ec auaoae noieeoeu ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai a iiaoth noieeoeo a.
Aeiieo n i?aaeinoaaeaieai neoaeaaiuo aeeeuo iiiauaiee. Iniaaiiinoue
i?aaiaiai noaoona iaieiaoaey neoaeaaiiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey yoi naycue
i?aaa ia aeeeia iiiauaiea ia oieueei n ?aaioie a ii?aaeaeaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee, ii e naycaiiay n ii?aaeaeaiiui e?oaii iaycaiiinoae.
Noaouey 111 CiAEI onoaiaaeeaaao aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey e ?aaioieeai,
i?ae?aoeaoei o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey ia iniiaaiee, eioi?uo ei e
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue neoaeaaiia aeeeeua. Oaeea ?aaioieee iiaeeaaeao
aunaeaieth ni anaie i?iaeeaathueie n ieie eeoeaie aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey
ae?oaiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey. Ia?aaiae a?aaeaeaieia, i?iaeieaeathuaai
?aaioaoue a i?aaiecaoeee ia ae?oaoth aeieaeiinoue, ia o?aaothuoth
i?iaeeaaiea ii ianoo ?aaiou, neoaeeo iniiaaieai aeey aunaeaiey ec
neoaeaaiie eaa?oe?u, eioi?oth caeiao ?aaioiee, iacia/aiiue ia
inaiaiaeaeaiioth aeieaeiinoue.

O?aaiaaiea i aunaeaiee iaieiaoaey neoaeaaiiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey iiaeao
auoue i?aaeuyaeaii a oa/aiea 3-o eao ni aeiy i?ae?auaiey o?oaeiauo
ioiioaiee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iinea ieii/aiey n?iea naycue iaaeaeo
aeeeeuiuie e o?oaeiauie ioiioaieyie caaa?oaaony, o.e. i?ae?auathony
o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey e inoathony oieueei aeeeeuiua.

AEeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea iiaeao auoue
i?eaaoece?iaaii iaieiaoaeai n niaeaney nianoaaiieea aeeeeua, a oaeaea
iaiaiaii ia ae?oaia aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea. I?e
yoii iaiai ia aeieaeai i?eaiaeeoue e iaia?aiiiio oooaeoaieth aeeeeuiuo
oneiaee a?aaeaeaieia. A ainoaea?noaaiiue neoaeauee eee ?aaioiee
athaeaeaoiie i?aaiecaoeee eeai eeoei, caieiathuaa ainoaea?noaaiioth
auai?ioth aeieaeiinoue aeieaeii i?i?aaioaoue ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa
eee a athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo ia iaiaa 10 eao. Ii anee
auoaia?a/eneaiiua eeoea i?ae?aoeee o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey aei iiiaioa
i?eaaoecaoeee caieiaaiiai aeeeeua, iie iiaeeaaeao aunaeaieth ni anaie
i?iaeeaathueie n ieie eeoeaie aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey ae?oaiai aeeeiai
iiiauaiey. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho neo/ae oaieueiaiey ii neaaeothuei
i?e/eiai:

1)a neo/aa eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey, nie?auaiey /eneaiiinoe eee ooaoa
?aaioieeia;

2)a nayce n aieaciueth, i?aiyonoaothuae aeaeueiaeoae ?aaioa;

3)a nayce n auoiaeii ia iaineth.

Ia iiaeeaaeao aunaeaieth naiuee ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua iiaeaee i?e
eniieiaiee neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae.

Aiaiiineoaeauea, eioi?ui aeeeeua, i?e?aaiaiiia e neoaeaaiiio auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii ia ia?eiae i?ioiaeaeaiey neoaeau a aeaiiii ianaeaiiii
ioieoa, ai?aaa i?eaaoece?iaaoue aai iinea 10-eaoiaai noaaea aiaiiie
neoaeau, a i?e oaieueiaiee ii auneoaa eao, aieacie eee ii nie?auaieth
ooaoia – iacaaeneii io n?iea neoaeau.

AEeeeua, i?aaeinoaaeaiiia a iieueciaaiea a?aaeaeaieio iiaeao auoue, ii
aeaeaieth aai e niaa?oaiiieaoieo /eaiia aai naiuee i?e?aaiaii e
neoaeaaiui, anee ii iinooieo aiineaaenoaee ia ainoaea?noaaiioth eee
aiaiioth neoaeao, ?aaioo a athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo eee caeiao
ainoaea?noaaiioth auai?ioth aeieaeiinoue.

Caeii i aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo niaoeeaeueii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao
iniaaiiinoae i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeeeeua ec aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Niaoeeaeueii yoiio iinayuaia noaouey 100
Caeiia, eioi?ay a iniiaiii iineo ionuei/iue oa?aeoa?, oeacuaay /oi
ii?yaeie i?aaeinoaaeaiea oeacaiiuo aeeeeu e iieueciaaiea eie
onoaiaaeeaaaony I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai. Iaeiaei, iinea
aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Caeiia e ii nae aeaiue, I?aaeoaeuenoai ia
i?eieiaei eaeeo-eeai iaueo iinoaiiaeaiee ii?aaeaeythueo i?aaiaie ?aaeei
aeeeeu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ii, iineieueeo oaeea aeeeeua ana
aea nouanoaotho e eo eiee/anoai ?anoao, neaaeoao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
Caeiiii e oaie i?aaiauie ii?iaie, eioi?ua aeaenoaiaaee ?aiaa e ia
i?ioeai?a/ao iiaiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

?acaeae V Caeiia i aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo ?aaoee?oao aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeeeeua a ii?yaeea eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a. Aicieeathuea a
oaeii ii?yaeea aeeeeuiua i?aaiioiioaiey ii-naiaio niaea?aeaieth ia
ioee/athony eaeeie eeai niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie. Caeii
i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e aeeeeua ii aeiaiai?o a
nianoaaiiinoue eee a iieueciaaiea.

I?aaa iaieiaoaey aicieeatho ia iniiaaiee aeaoo iineaaeiaaoaeueii
caeeth/aaiuo aeiaiai?ia. Ai-ia?auo, – i i?aaenoaaeaiee aeeeeua a
aoaeouai. Ii yoiio aeiaiai?o a?aaeaeaiei – aoaeouee iaieiaoaeue ai?aaa
o?aaiaaoue io ae?oaie noi?iiu ia?aaeaoue aio a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie
ii?aaeaeaiiia aeiaiai?ii aeeeia iiiauaiea. Iinea eniieiaiey yoiai
aeiaiai?a aai aeaenoaea i?ae?auaaony, e n eeoeii, iieo/eaoei eaa?oe?o,
caeeth/aaony aeiaiai? i iieueciaaiee aeeeui iiiauaieai ( aeiaiai? iaeia
aeeeiai iiiauaiey).

Aeiaiai? i i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua iiaeao auoue caeeth/ai eeai n
a?aaeaeaieiii, eioi?ue nai ia?aaeaao eiathuaany o iaai aeeeeua, e
i?aaeinoaaeaiea ae?oaiai aeeeeua yaeyaony naiaai ?iaea aauanoaaiiie
eiiiainaoeeae ( 1-4 no.115 CiAEI), eeai n a?aaeaeaieiii, eioi?iio aeeeia
iiiauaiea ii aeiaiai?iiio iaycaoaeuenoao aeieaeii i?aaeinoaaeyoueny a
nayce n eiuie iniiaaieyie ( i.5-6 no.115).

A ia?aii neo/aa aeiaiai? i i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeeeeua aaaeao e i?ae?auaieth
i?aaa a?aaeaeaieia ia iaeii aeeeeua e aicieeiiaaieth o iaai i?aaa
o?aaiaaoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey acaiai ae?oaiai aeeeeua.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa a?aaeaeaiei ia ia?aaeaao i?aaeinoaaeythuae i?aaiecaoeee
ieeaeiai aeeeuey, ii aa?ao aianoi yoiai ia naay iaycaiiinoue i?eieiaoue
o?oaeiaia eee oeiainiaia o/anoea a no?ieoaeuenoaa eee i?eia?aoaiee
aeeeiai aeiia eeai iaaeeaaeauaa eniieiyoue iaycaiiinoe, aicieeathuea ec
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a, iieo/ay ca yoi i?aai o?aaiaaoue ia?aaea/e aio
aeeeeua.

Iaa aa?eaioa aaaeoo e iaeiiio eiia/iiio ?acoeueoaoo – i?eia?aoaiea
iaieiaoaeai iieo/eaoei aeeeeua a iieueciaaiea ii aeiaiai?iiio iniiaaieth
i?aaa ia caaeneiiai io ianoa ?aaiou eee caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe
iieo/aoaey aeeeeua. I?aaiaie noaoon oaeiai iaieiaoaey iinea iieo/aiey
aeeeeua aiaeiae/ai noaoono iaieiaoaey aeeeiai iiiauaiey ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea.

& 2. Eciaiaiea e i?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee.

Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ii naiui
?acee/iui iniiaaieyi e cao?aaeaaoue ana yeaiaiou i?aaiioiioaiey
(noauaeou, niaea?aeaiea, i?aaeiao). A oi aea a?aiy e eciaiaieth
i?aaiioiioaiey iaeuecy ioiineoue neo/ae, eiaaea o i?aaiioiioaiey
iieiinoueth iaiyaony iauaeo, caeanue i?ienoiaeeo ia eciaiaiea, a
i?ae?auaiea i?aaiioiioaiey. Eiaiii iiyoiio iaiai aeeeuie iiiauaieyie a
iaeieo neo/ayo aea/ao i?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey n
aicieeiiaaieai ae?oaiai i?aaiioiioaiey, a a ae?oaeo – aai eciaiaiea e
i?ae?auaiea, /oi i?ienoiaeeo i?e ?iaenoaaiiii iaiaia.

Aii?inu eciaiaiey aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee niaoeeaeueii enneaaeiaaiu a
?aaioao A.N. Eaneia, A.I. Aii/aei, N.I. Nieieiaa e ae?.1 Ii iaaei
ioiaoeoue, /oi yoe ?aaiou iaienaiu ia iniiaaiee ?inneeneiai aeeeeuiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A aeaiiie ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua neo/ae
eciaiaiey aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeeeeuiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

a) Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey i?e anaeaiee a

iiiauaiea /eaiia naiuee e ae?oaeo eeoe.

A aeaiiii neo/aa eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo i?aaeaea anaai a noauaeoiii
ninoaaa aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey. Iiaeoiae caeiiiaeaoaey e
ii?aaeaeaieth oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo oaeia anaeaiea aeiioneaaony,
iiaeaa?any a iineaaeiea aiaeu nouanoaaiiiio ia?aniio?o, aucaaiiiio
aeaaiui ia?acii aeaoiy ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. Ai-ia?auo, i?iaicaeaoaieai
ioeaca io i?iienee e ia?aoiaea e o/aoo ianaeaiey ii ianoo i?aauaaiey e
aeeoaeuenoaa; ai-aoi?uo, ?aca?aie/aieai nioeeaeueiiai e eiiia?/aneiai
iaeia.

Iaieiaoaeue aeeeiai iiiauaiey, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai a?aaeaeaieio ia

i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, iiaeao anaeeoue a yoi iiiauaiea ae?oaeo eeoe
oieueei n niaeaney nianoaaiieea.

Iacaaeneii io niaeaney nianoaaiieea iaieiaoaeue iiaeao anaeeoue a
iaiyoia ei iiiauaiea oieueei ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae, a anee, a anee
oeacaiiia iiiauaiea yaeyaony eciee?iaaiiui – oaeaea noi?oaa e
iao?oaeiniiniaiuo ?iaeeoaeae.

Eeoei, anaeaiiia iaieiaoaeai a iaiyoia ei iiiauaiea, i?eia?aoaao ?aaiia
n iaieiaoaeai e i?iaeeaathueie niaianoii n iei /eaiaie aai naiuee i?aai
iieueciaaiey aeeeui iiiauaieai, ai-ia?auo, anee iii i?eciaaony /eaiii
naiuee e, ai-aoi?uo, anee i?e anaeaiee ia auei i?aaeoniio?aii eiia.

Eciaiaiea ninoaaa naiuee iiaeao eiaoue ianoi a neo/aa nia?oe /eaia
naiuee, ia?aacaea aai ia ae?oaia iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa e
ianooieaiea eiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Auauoea /eaia naiuee ia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony caeanue anaeaieai a aeeeia iiiauaiea ae?oaiai /eaia
naiuee. Auauoea /eaia naiuee aea/ao eciaiaiey aeeeeuiuo ioiioaiee eeoue
a no?iai i/a?/aiiuo caeiiii i?aaeaeao. A /anoiinoe, iii iiaeao iiaea/ue
eciaiaiea a iieaoa aeeeuey e eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa. A oi aea a?aiy ie i?e
eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iii ia iiaeao naii ii naaa iiaea/ue eciaiaiey a
i?aaeiaoa aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey. Oae, iaeiiaeaoaeue ia iiaeao
o?aaiaaoue io iaieiaoaey ia?aacaea ia iaiueooth ieiuaaeue ii oai
iniiaaieyi, /oi ninoaa naiuee oiaiueoeeny e caieiaaiay iaieiaoaeai
aeeeay ieiuaaeue aeey iaai, eae iieaaaao iaeiiaeaoaeue, neeoeii aaeeea.

a) Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey i?e ?acaeaea

aeeeiai iiiauaiey.

A aeaiiii neo/aa eciaiaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey cao?aaeaaao eae aai
i?aaeiao, oae e noauaeoiue ninoaa.

?acaeae aeeeie ieiuaaee i?e nioeeaeueiii iaeia ?aaeaiaioe?iaai a no. 92
CiAEI. Oioy a iae neacaii, /oi o?aaiaaoue caeeth/aiea ioaeaeueiiai
aeiaiai?a iaeia iiaeao eeoue niaa?oaiiieaoiee /eai naiuee iaieiaoaey,
i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao oaeia i?aai iiaeao auoue i?eciaii e
ca ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo.

A neo/ayo i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii , a eioa?anao ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo
iiaoo aunooiaoue aai caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee.

AEeeia iiiauaiea aeieaeii oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e
i?aaeiaoo aeiaiai?a aeeeeuiiai iaeia, a oii /enea auoue eciee?iaaiiui.
Ii naiaio ?acia?o iiiauaiea aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue aeiea
auaeaeythuaainy a aeeeie ieiuaaee. Auaeae i?iecaiaeeony oaeaea n o/aoii
neiaeeaoaainy ii?yaeea iieueciaaiey.

Neiaeiaa ianoieo aeaei i?e eiiia?/aneii iaeia. Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi
caeeth/aiea ioaeaeueiiai aeiaiai?a iaeia aiciiaeii caeanue eeoue i?e
niaeanee iaeiiaeaoaey. O?aaoaony niaeanea e /eaiia naiuee, a oaeaea
ae?oaeo eeoe, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathueo a aeeeii iiiauaiee. Aicieeathuea
i?e yoii nii?u iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, iaeiaei i?e
ioeaca iaeiiaeaoaey aeaoue niaeanea ia caeeth/aiea ioaeaeueiiai
aeiaiai?a oaeie aeiaiai? caeeth/aieth ia iiaeeaaeeo. Ioeac a?aaeaeaieia,
eioi?iio naeaaaaiia aiaai iiiauaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe, aeaoue niaeanea ia caeeth/aiea oaeiai aeiaiai?a iaeia n
iaeiei ec niaianoii i?iaeeaathueo n iaieiaoaeai ae?oaeo eeoe, a oii
/enea n iaeiei ec /eaiia aai naiuee, neoaeeo aaconeiaiui i?aiyonoaeai
aeey caeeth/aiey oaeiai aeiaiai?a e inia?eaaieth ia iiaeeaaeeo.

*oi eanaaony ?acaeaea aeeeie ieiuaaee a eiiia?aoeaiuo aeiiao, oi aei
iieiie auieaou iaaaiai aciina ii i?ienoiaeeo i?e iaee/ee neaaeothueo
oneiaee. I?aaeaea anaai, ia?aie/ai e?oa eeoe, iaaeaeo eioi?uie oaeie
?acaeae iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeai, Yoi – noi?oae e ianeaaeieee. Ca
noi?oaii /eaia eiiia?aoeaa iiaeao auoue i?eciaii i?aai ia eiiia?aoeaioth
eaa?oe?o i?e oneiaee, /oi iaaiaeiieaiey iiea/eaaeenue ec iauaai
eiouanoaa noi?oaia. Ana eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, i?eia?aoaiiua a ia?eiae
niaianoiie noi?oaeaneie aeecie, i?eiaaeeaaeao iaiei noi?oaai. ( no.223
AE ?A; no. 19, 20 Eiaeaena i a?aea e naiuee Eacaoneie NN?).
Eiiia?aoeaiay eaa?oe?a ia ninoaaeyao eneeth/aiey. Oaeoe/anee noi?oa
/eaia eiiia?aoeaa, eiathuee i?aai ia iaaiaeiieaiey ?aaiii?aaai n /eaiii
eiiia?aoeaa, ai aeaaeaiee, iieueciaaiee e ?anii?yaeaiee eaa?oe?ie.
?acee/ea a i?aaiaii iieiaeaiee eanaaony eeoue o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee
eiiia?aoeaii, eioi?ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo oieueei /eaio eiiia?aoeaa, ii ia aai
noi?oao.

A aiaeiae/iii iieiaeaiee iaoiaeyony ianeaaeieee oia?oaai /eaia
eiiia?aoeaa, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathuea aianoa n iei a eiiia?aoeaiie
eaa?oe?a.

?acaeae aeeeiai iiiauaiey a eiiia?aoeaiie eaa?oe?a iiaeao auoue
i?iecaaaeai e iaaeaeo ianeaaeieeaie, eioi?ua eiatho i?aeiouanoaaiiia
i?aai ia anooieaiea a aeaiiue eiiia?aoea a neeo a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo
iniiaaiee. Iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai ?acaeaea eiiia?aoeaiie eaa?oe?u
iaaeaeo ianeaaeieeaie oaeaea yaeyaony auaeaeaiea eaaeaeiio ec ieo a yoie
eaa?oe?a eciee?iaaiiiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey. Nii?u i ?acaeaea aeeeuo
iiiauaiee, a oii /enea e nii?u, naycaiiua n ia?aiai?oaeiaaieai eaa?oe?,
iacaaeneii io oiai, iaaeaeo eaeeie noauaeoaie iie aicieeatho,
?ac?aoathony a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea.

a) Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey i?e ia?aono?ienoaa

e ia?aieaie?iaea aeeeiai iiiauaiey.

A aeaiiii neo/aa i?aaeiao aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey i?aoa?iaaaao
eciaiaiey ia oieueei a neeo anoanoaaiiiai eciina, eioi?ue iaecaaaeii
i?ienoiaeeo, ii e a ?acoeueoaoa i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aono?ienoaa e
ia?aieaie?iaee, eioi?ue iiaeao eiaoue ianoi ii eieoeeaoeaa eae
iaieiaoaey, oae e iaeiiaeaoaey. Ii io eiai au ie enoiaeeea yoa
eieoeeaoeaa e /ai au iie ie auea i?iaeeeoiaaia, ia?aono?ienoai e
ia?aieaie?iaea aeiioneathony oieueei a oeaeyo iiauoaiey aeaaiono?ienoaa
eaa?oe?u, ia?aaeei yoi aucaaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aiai?oaeiaaiey
niaaeiuo eiiiao a eciee?iaaiiua a oeaeyo iineaaeothuaai ?acaeaea aeeeie
ieiuaaee. Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa a eaa?oe?a ia?aieaie?iaee e ia?aono?ienoaa
iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue niaeanea anao i?iaeeaathueo a eaa?oe?a iaieiaoaeae e
/eaiia eo naiae, a oaeaea iaeiiaeaoaey. E?iia niaeaney anao oeacaiiuo
auoa eeoe, iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aoaiea niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaia ?aeiiiie eee
ai?iaeneie aaeieieno?aoeee, /oi au?aaeaaony a ooaa?aeaeaiee n
oaoie/aneie noi?iiu i?iaeoa ia?aieaie?iaee.

Anee eoi-eeai ec eeoe, niaeanea eioi?uo o?aaoaony, aic?aaeaao i?ioea
ia?aieaie?iaee, oi aicieeoee nii? ia?aaeaaony ia ?ac?aoaiea noaea. Anee
niioaaonoaothuee i?aai ioeacuaaaony ooaa?aeaeaoue i?iaeo n oaoie/aneie
noi?iiu, oi oaeie ioeac caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea oaeaea iiaoo
iaaeaeiaaoue.

Anee ?a/ue eaeao i iiiauaiee, i?eiaaeeaaeauai a?aaeaeaieio ia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe, oi ioeac nianoaaiieea aeaoue ?ac?aoaiea ia ia?aieaie?iaeo
ie a eaeii ii?yaeea inii?eoue iaeuecy.

AEeeia iiiauaiea, i?aaeinoaaeyaiia ia a?aiy eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa
aeieaeii ioaa/aoue naieoa?iui e oaoie/aneei o?aaiaaieyi.

I?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiey. Aunaeaiea.

Oioy aeeeeuiua i?aaiioiioaiey e iinyo aeeyueeny oa?aeoa?, ?aii eee
iicaeii ianooiatho ianoiyoaeuenoaa, n eioi?uie caeii naycuaaao eo
i?ae?auaiea. Oeacaiiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa eiaiothony th?eaee/aneeie oaeoaie
e iiae?acaeaeythony ia niauoea e aeaenoaey.

Anee a aeaiiie ianoiinoe i?iecioei caieao?ynaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
?ooioe aeeeie aeii, oi oioy au aai iaeoaoaee e ooeaeaee, aeaenoaea
aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey i?ae?aoeeinue, iineieueeo iiiauaiee, a eioi?uo
aeeee ethaee, aieueoa iao.

I?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey eiaao ianoi e oiaaea, eiaaea
/aeiaae, eioi?ue yoei iiiauaieai iieueciaaeny, oie?aao.

I?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaii
enoa/aieai n?iea, naee i?aaiioiioaiea iineo n?i/iue oa?aeoa?,
iai?eaiaeiinoueth iiiauaiey aeey i?iaeeaaiey, aueoiii eiiia?aoeaiie
eaa?oe?u e ae?oaeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. A oeacaiiuo neo/ayo ?a/ue eaeao
eeai i niauoeyo, eeai i oaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, n eioi?uie nai caeii
naycuaaao i?ae?auaiea i?aaiioiioaiee. Oae, aueoi eiiia?aoeaiie eaa?oe?u
aea/ao i?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey e aicieeiiaaiea
i?aaiioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe a neeo caeiia.

AEeeeuiia i?aaiioiioaiea iiaeao auoue i?ae?auaii ii acaeiiiio
niaeaoaieth aai o/anoieeia, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiii e ii o?aaiaaieth iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia.

Aeou ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe eae
iniiaaiey i?ae?auaiey aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee iiaoo ni/aoaoueny ia
oieueei n aeaenoaeyie eo o/anoieeia eee ae?oaeo eeoe, ii oaeaea e n
eiuie ia?eiaee/aneeie oaeoaie. Oae, aaa?eeiia ninoiyiea aeiia,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiia aeoii iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiie eiienneae, neoaeeo iniiaaieai
aeey ia?auaiey a i?ieo?aoo?o ca aea/ae naieoeee ia aaeieieno?aoeaiia
aunaeaiea i?iaeeaathueo a aeiia eeoe.

I?ae?auaiea aeeeeuiiai i?aaiioiioaiey iiaeao eae nii?iaiaeaeaoueny, oae
e ia nii?iaiaeaeaoueny aunaeaieai a?aaeaeai.

Aunaeaiea , ii eaeei au iniiaaieyi e a eaeii au ii?yaeea iii ie
i?iecaiaeeeinue, ai anao neo/ayo ioiineony e i?eioaeeoaeueiui ia?ai
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai aicaeaenoaey. Aunaeaiea ec aeeeeu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea aeiioneaaony eeoue ii iniiaaieyi
onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiii ( no.103 – 105 CiAEI).

Aunaeaiea aeiioneaaony a neeo ?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a iaeia e a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ae?oaiai aeaaiono?iaiiiai
aeeeeua:

1)anee aeeeie aeii, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony aeeeeua, iiaeeaaeeo niino a
nayce n ecuyoeai caiaeueiiai o/anoea aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaaeiaiinoae;

2)anee aeeeie aeii iiaeeaaeeo ia?aiai?oaeiaaieth a iaaeeeia caeaiea a
neeo iai?eaiaeiinoe aai aeey aeaeueiaeoaai i?iaeeaaiey;

3)anee aeeeeua a?iceo iaaaeii;

4)nouanoaaiiiai eciaiaiey oneiaee i?iaeeaaiey a ?acoeueoaoa
eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa aeeeeua.

5)i?eciaiea aeiaiai?a iaeia aeeeeua iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui ii iniiaaieyi,
i?aaeoniio?aiiui i.2 no.108 CiAEI.

Ia aeiioneaaony aunaeaiea ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey
ae?oaiai i?eaiaeiiai aeeeeua ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea,
anee iie inoaeenue aac iiia/aiey ?iaeeoaeae.

Ec neoaeaaiuo aeeeuo iiiauaiee a?aaeaeaia aunaeythony aac
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ae?oaiai aeeeeua ( no. 101 i.5 e 6), a oaeaea aunaeaiea
aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey ae?oaiai aeeeeua aeiioneaaony a neo/ayo:

1)anee iaieiaoaeue, /eaiu aai naiuee nenoaiaoe/anee ?ac?ooatho eee
ii?oyo aeeeeua;

2)anee iie nenoaiaoe/anee ia?ooatho i?aaeea iauaaeeoey;

3)anee iie aac oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei oeeiiythony a oa/aiea

4)anee iie naiioi?aaii caiyee aeeeeua;

5)anee iie eeoaiu ?iaeeoaeueiuo i?aa e eo iaeanoiia i?iaeeaaiea n
aeaoueie, a ioiioaiee eioi?uo iie eeoaiu ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa e o.ae.

Aunaeaiea ec iauaaeeoee, oioy e a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, ii aac
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aunaeyaiui ae?oaiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey i?aaeoniio?aii no.
114 CiAEI ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai. Aunaeaieth aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey ae?oaiai
aeeeeua iiaeeaaeao naciiiua e a?aiaiiua ?aaioieee, eeoea, ?aaioaaoea ii
n?i/iiio o?oaeiaiio aeiaiai?o (eiio?aeoo), a oaeaea eeoea, iao/aaoeany a
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo e auauaoea ec ieo.

Eeoea, i?eiyoua ia iinoiyiioth ?aaioo, iiaoo auoue aunaeaiu ec
iauaaeeoey aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey ae?oaiai aeeeiai iiiauaiey a neo/aa
oaieueiaiey ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth aac oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei, ca
ia?ooaiea o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu eee ca niaa?oaiea i?anooieaiey.

Nianoaaiiee iiaeao ioeacaoue iaieiaoaeth a aiciaiiaeaiee aeiaiai?a iaeia
ia iiaue n?ie, anee aeiaiai? caeeth/ai ia n?ie ia nauoa iaeiiai aiaea,
i?e/ai a aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniio?aii iaycaoaeuenoai iaieiaoaey inaiaiaeeoue
iiiauaiey ii enoa/aiee yoiai n?iea.

Aeaaa II. Eiiaeiieieoi iniaay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia aeeeeua.

& 1.Iiiyoea eiiaeiieieoia.

Iiiyoea eiiaeiieieoia oe?iei eniieuecoaony a ca?oaaaeiii i?aaa. A
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ioaee/iii i?aaa eiiaeiieieoi – yoi niaianoiia
inouanoaeaiea ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe aeaoiy e
aieaa ainoaea?noaaie. A /anoiii i?aaa yoio oa?iei icia/aao, eae i?aaeei,
niaianoiia aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea eaeei-eeai eiouanoaii ianeieueeeie
nianoaaiieeaie. A ?eineii /anoiii i?aaa e aei?aaiethoeeiiiii ?onneii
i?aaa iiiyoeai eiiaeiieieoia iaicia/aeinue i?aai iauae nianoaaiiinoe. A
iaeioi?uo no?aiao eiiaeiieieoiii iacuaathony iauaaeeiaiey (annioeeaoeee)
nianoaaiieeia a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao. Niaeanii Caeiio
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 15 ethiy 1996 a. “0 oiaa?euanoaao
nianoaaiieeia aeeeuey” eiiaeiieieoiii i?eciaaony aaeeiue eiiieaen
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, aeeth/athuee caiaeueiue o/anoie a onoaiiaeaiiuo
a?aieoeao e ?aniieiaeaiiia ia iai aeeeia caeaiea, eiua iauaeou
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, a eioi?ii ioaeaeueiua /anoe, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
aeeeuo eee eiuo oeaeae (iiiauaiey), iaoiaeyony a nianoaaiiinoe
a?aaeaeai, th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, noauaeoia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee (aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeaa)
– /anoiie, ainoaea?noaaiiie, ioieoeeiaeueiie e eiie oi?iao
nianoaaiiinoe, a inoaeueiua /anoe (iauaa eiouanoai) iaoiaeyony a eo
iauae aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe (no. 1).

Oaeei ia?acii, eiiaeiieieoi a iaeieo neo/ayo – yoi iauay nianoaaiiinoue
ia iaeio e oo aea aauue, a ae?oaeo – iauaaeeiaiea nianoaaiieeia aeeeuo e
iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao, a o?aoueeo –
eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen, a eioi?ii ioaeaeueiua /anoe iaoiaeyony a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a ianoa iauaai iieueciaaiey, a oii
/enea caiaeueiue o/anoie – a iauae nianoaaiiinoe nianoaaiieeia
ioaeaeueiuo iiiauaiee. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Eacaonoaia iiiyoea
eiiaeiieieoia eiaao ianeieueei eiia niaea?aeaiea. Aia?aua iii cae?aieaii
a Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, eiathuai neeo Caeiia, io 22
aeaeaa?y 1995 a. “0 caiea” (aeaeaa Oeac “0 caiea”). Iiaeioieoii 1 no. 1
onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiiaeiieieoiii yaeyaony oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia
iaaeaeaeeiinoue, i?e eioi?ie ioaeaeueiua /anoe iaaeaeaeeiinoe, a oii
/enea ioaeaeueiua caiaeueiua o/anoee, iaoiaeyony a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai, th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e (eee) ainoaea?noaa, a oa
/anoe iaaeaeaeeiinoe, eioi?ua ia iaoiaeyony a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
(iaaeaeeiue caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeiia, caiey iauaai iieueciaaiey),
i?eiaaeeaaeao nianoaaiieeai /anoae iaaeaeaeeiinoe ia i?aaa iauae
nianoaaiiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao Eacaonoaia eiiaeiieieoi yoi iniaay
oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao e eiuo caeaieyo, i?e
eioi?ie ni/aoathony ?acaeaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ia eaa?oe?u e eiua
iiiauaiey e iauay nianoaaiiinoue ia ianoa iauaai iieueciaaiey, a oii
/enea ia caiaeueiue o/anoie.

Iniaaiiinoueth ia?aiai iiuoa ?aaoee?iaaiey a Eacaonoaia ioiioaiee,
aicieeathueo a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeaie
iiiauaiee ii ioiioaieth e iauaio eiouanoao, yaeyaony oi, /oi a
niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 26 Oeaca ‘0 caiea” a aeaiiuo aeiiao i?eiaiaiea
oaeie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe, eae eiiaeiieieoi, aiciiaeii, ii ia
iaycaoaeueii. A niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no, 26 Oeaca a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo
aeeeuo aeiiao aiciiaeii ii?aaeaeaiea noaeueau oieueei caiaeueiiai
o/anoea, eioi?ue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe eee i?aaa
caieaiieueciaaiey nianoaaiieeo (nianoaaiieeai) aeiia, th?eaee/aneiio
eeoeo, ia?aciaaiiiio nianoaaiieeaie eaa?oe? (iiiauaiee), eeai
ainoaea?noao a iai?eaaoece?iaaiiuo aeiiao. Noaeueaa eiouanoaa,
iaoiaeyuaainy ca i?aaeaeaie eaa?oe? (eanoie/iuo ieiuaaeie, ooiaeaiaioa,
eeooia e o.ae.), aeey aeaiiiai neo/ay ia ii?aaeaeaia. E?iia oiai,
eceaaaaiay ii?ia Oeaca “0 caiea” aeiioneaao aicieeiiaaiea aauiuo i?aa ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie (i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe eee i?aaa caieaiieueciaaiey) ia
o nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao, a o
ia?aciaaiiiai nianoaaiieeaie eaa?oe? th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. Oaeea
th?eaee/aneea eeoea /aua anaai nicaeaaaeenue a oi?ia iio?aaeoaeueneiai
eiiia?aoeaa nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe? e (eee) iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee e yaeyeenue
(yaeythony) iaeiie ec oi?i oi?aaeaiey iiiaieaa?oe?iuie aeeeuie aeiiaie.
I?aaeoniio?aiiay a caeiia aiciiaeiinoue cae?aieaiey ca ieie i?aa ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie yaeyaony ia?ooaieai i?eioeeia iaio?uaiinoe i?aa ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie e ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iai caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey,
cae?aieaiiiai a no. 18 Oeaca “0 caiea” (“naeaeaiiia iaae iiaa?oiinoueth
neaaeoao ca iiaa?oiinoueth”). Aeaiiue i?eioeei a no?aiao, a eioi?uo
yeiiiie/aneea e i?aaiaua nenoaiu aace?othony ia i?aaa /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, o?aaeeoeeiiii ii?aaeaeye niioiioaiea i?aa ia caiaeueiue
o/anoie e iaoiaeyueany ia iai ae?oaea iauaeou iaaeaeaeeiinoe (caeaiey,
no?iaiey, ianaaeaeaiey, iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeiua iauaeou e ae?.). A nayce n
eceiaeaiiui, cae?aieaiea i?aa ia caiaeueiue o/anoie, aoiaeyuee a ninoaa
iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia, ca th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, yaeythueiny i?aaiii
oi?aaeaiey iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia, a ia ca nianoaaiieeaie iiiauaiee,
iaeuecy n/eoaoue i?aaiia?iui. Ii?iaoeaiua i?aaiaua aeou, i?eiyoua
iicaea, cae?aieee ii?io, eioi?ay i?eciaao iauaa eiouanoai a iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia, a oii /enea caiaeueiue o/anoie, iauae nianoaaiiinoueth
naieo o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia, a ia th?eaee/aneeo eeoe (i. 2 no. 31
Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”, i. 6 no. 209 AE ?E). A nayce n yoei i.
1 no. 26 Oeaca “0 caiea” i?eoae a i?ioeai?a/ea n oeacaiiuie caeiiaie. A
neeo i?ei?eoaoa iaaeaeo iaeiio?iaiaauie ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauie aeoaie a
caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie eo i?eiyoey (no. 6 Caeiia ?E io 24 ia?oa 1998 a.
“0 ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoao”) a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
noauaeoia aauiuo i?aa ia caiaeueiue o/anoie, aoiaeyuee a ninoaa iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia, aeaenoaotho ii?iu AE e Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”.
Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao a
eiiaeiieieoia nianoaaiieeaie caiaeueiiai o/anoea i?eciathony
nianoaaiieee iiiauaiee.

I?e?iaea i?aa ia caiaeueiue o/anoie e ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iai iauaeou
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, eae i?aaeei, niaiaaeaao. A /anoiinoe, i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia caeaiey aea/ao ca niaie i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie e o.ae. (no. 18 Oeaca “0 caiea”). Aianoa n oai,
ie?iaay i?aeoeea, eae e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Eacaonoaia, ciatho iaiaei
i?eia?ia ianiaiaaeaiey i?e?iaeu oeacaiiuo i?aa. Iai?eia?, a ?yaea
neo/aaa a?aiaeiaeaoaeue i?e naea/a caiaeueiiai o/anoea a aeieain?i/ioth
a?aiaeo i?aaeinoaaeyao a?aiaeaoi?o i?aai no?ieoue ia a?aiaeiaaiiie caiea
caeaiey (no?iaiey) ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
Eacaonoaia ec oeacaiiiai i?aaeea eiatho ianoi neaaeothuea eneeth/aiey:
1) i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caeaiey (nii?oaeaiey), ?aniieiaeaiiua ia
caiaeueiii o/anoea e?anoueyineiai (oa?ia?neiai) oicyenoaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeauaai aai /eaiai ia i?aaa iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey; 2)
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caeaiey (nii?oaeaiey), aicaaaeaiiua a ii?yaeea,
onoaiiaeaiiii iiaeioieoii 5 i. 1 no. 28 Oeaca “0 caiea”, ia caiaeueiuo
o/anoeao, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ai a?aiaiiia caieaiieueciaaiea; 3) i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa ia caeaiey (aeey ?aciauaiey
iinieuenoa e eiuo oeaeae), ?aniieiaeaiiua ia caiaeueiuo o/anoeao,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oeacaiiui noauaeoai ia i?aaa a?aiaiiiai
caieaiieueciaaiey, anee eiia ia onoaiiaeaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii
(ni.: i. 3 no. 4 Eiinoeoooeee ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, i. a no. 38 Oeaca “0
caiea”).

Caeiiii “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” aeiioneaaony ianiaiaaeaiea aeaea i?aa
ia caiaeueiue o/anoie e ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iai iauaeou iaaeaeaeeiinoe aua
a iaeiii neo/aa. Ioieoii 2 no. 31 aeaiiiai Caeiia onoaiiaeaii, /oi
caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeeeii aeiia iiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue nianoaaiieeai
iiiauaiee ia i?aaa iauaai caieaiieueciaaiey. Caiaeueiue o/anoie a
eiiaeiieieoiao iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny iiae aeiiii e aicea iaai. Iaeiaei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey caiaeueiiai o/anoea, iaiaoiaeeiiai
aeey ?aciauaiey, yenieoaoaoeee e niaea?aeaiey iiiaieaa?oe?iiai aeiia,
eniieuecoao a iaeieo neo/ayo au?aaeaiea “caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeiia”
(i. 1 no. 26 Oeaca “0 caiea”, i. 2 no. 31 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”), a ae?oaeo – “i?eaeiiiaue caiaeueiue o/anoie” (i. 2 no. 26
Oeaca “0 caiea”). Oaeei ia?acii, a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeiia e i?eaeiiiaue
caiaeueiue o/anoie – yoi iaeii e oi aea e aeeth/aao a naay eae o/anoie
iiae aeiiii, oae e i?e aeiia. Iaaeaeo oai iaeuecy niaeaneoueny n oai,
/oi i?e?iaea i?aa ia caiaeueiue o/anoie, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ?aciauaiey,
yenieoaoaoeee e niaea?aeaiey iiiaieaa?oe?iiai aeiia, iiaeao ia
niaiaaeaoue, e?iia neo/aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie,
n i?e?iaeie i?aa ia iiiauaiey, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia.
Ae?oaia aeaei, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i aeai?iauo caiaeueiuo o/anoeao,
eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu ca i?aaeaeaie a?aieoe caiaeueiiai o/anoea,
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aciauaiey e niaea?aeaiey aeiia. I?aaiaie ?aaeei
oaeeo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia iiaeao ioee/aoueny io i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia
“i?eaeiiiaiai caiaeueiiai o/anoea”. A nayce n eceiaeaiiui, n/eoaai, /oi
?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiue e. 2 no. 31 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”,
iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai oieueei aeey aeai?iauo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea iie noi?ie?iaaiu a naiinoiyoaeueiua caiaeueiua o/anoee.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii ?acaeoey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai i
eiiaeiieieoia iinea Oeaca “0 caiea” yaeyaony i?eiyoea Caeiia io 16
ai?aey 1997 a. “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” e aianaiea aeiiieiaiee a no. 209
AE ?E Caeiiii ?E io 2 ia?oa 1998 a.”0 aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a
A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai (Iauay /anoue) e a
iinoaiiaeaiea Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “0 aaaaeaiee a
aeaenoaea A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai (Iauay /anoue)”.
Ec ii?aaeaeaiee, aeaiiuo a oeacaiiuo caeiiao, neaaeoao, /oi
eiiaeeieieoiii yaeyaony iniaay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia iaaeaeaeeiinoue
eae aaeeiue eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen, i?e eioi?ie iiiauaiey iaoiaeyony a
?acaeaeueiie (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie) nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai, th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe, ainoaea?noaa, a iauaa eiouanoai i?eiaaeeaaeeo ei ia i?aaa iauae
aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe. A ioee/ea io Oeaca “0 caiea”, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui i?eiaiaiea eiiaeiieieoia aiciiaeii oieueei eae iaeiie ec oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao (i. 2 no. 26), a
niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no. 31 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” a aeeeuo
aeiiao, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeaoi e aieaa nianoaaiieeai iiiauaiee,
ia?acoaony iniaay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe – eiiaeiieieoi. Oaeei ia?acii,
niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao eiiaeiieieoi nicaeaaony ia
aieaecuyaeaieai nianoaaiieeia, a a neeo naiiai oaeoa iaoiaeaeaiey a
iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao e a eiuo caeaieyo ioaeaeueiuo iiiauaiee a
?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a iano iauaai iieueciaaiey – a iauae.

Iiiyoea eiiaeiieieoia i?eiaiyaony /aua anaai ii ioiioaieth e
iiiaieaa?oe?iui aeiiai. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi aiaeiae/iua
ioiioaiey aicieeatho ia oieueei a aeeeuo aeiiao, ii e a ae?oaeo
caeaieyo, /anoe eioi?uo iaoiaeyony a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
(eiii aauiii i?aaa), a ae?oaea /anoe (ianoa iauaai iieueciaaiey) – a
iauae. A nayce n yoei ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao Eacaonoaia eiiaeiieieoi
ia?aciauaaaony ia oieueei a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao, ii e a
ae?oaeo caeaieyo, yaeythueony iauaeoaie eiiaeiieieoia. Iai?eia?, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaea eiiia?/aneea th?eaee/aneea eeoea aueoiatho aeey
?aciauaiey naieo neoaea ioaeaeueiua iiiauaiey, iaoiaeyueany a caeaieyo,
ae?oaea iiiauaiey eioi?uo i?eiaaeeaaeao eiui eeoeai, a ianoa iauaai
iieueciaaiey i?eiaaeeaaeao anai nianoaaiieeai. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?eiaiaiey a oeacaiiuo neo/ayo ?aaeeia eiiaeiieieoia iaoneiaeaia
niaoeeoeeie ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie. Eiiaeiieieoi
oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie /a?oaie:

1)a eiiaeiieieoia ni/aoaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ia
ioaeaeueiua aeeeua e /eee iaaeeeua iiiauaiey ( aeaeaa «aoi?e/iue
iauaeo») e iauay nianoaaiiinoue ia ianoa iauaai iieueciaaiey;

2)eiiaeiieieoi nicaeaaony ia aieaecuyaeaieai o/anoieeia, a
ia?aciauaaaony a neeo oaeoa iaoiaeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo iiiauaiee a
iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao eee eiuo caeaieyo (aeaeaa «ia?ae/iue
iauaeo) a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe )eiii iauai aauiii i?aaa) e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eciaiey iano iauaai iieueciaaiey iauae nianoaaiiinoueth
anao nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee;

3)iauaeo eiiaeiieieoia i?eciaaony eiouanoaaiiui eiiieaenii, a ninoaa
eioi?iai aoiaeyo eae iiiauaiey, iaoiaeyueany a ?acaeaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe (eiii iauai aauiii i?aaa), oae e iauaa eiouanoai,
i?eiaaeeaaeauaa anai o/anoieeai eiiaeiieieoia ia i?aaa iauae aeieaaie
nianoaaiiinoe (eiii iauai aauiii i?aaa), a oii /enea iiaeuacaeu,
eanoieoeu, eeoou, e?uoe, /a?aeaee, iiaeaaeu, aiaeaa?oe?iua eeai
iauaaeiiiaua eiaeaia?iua nenoaiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, caiaeueiue o/anoie,
aeeth/ay yeaiaiou aeaaiono?ienoaa e ae?oaia eiouanoai iauaai
iieueciaaiey;

4) o/anoieee eiiaeiieieoia ianoo iaycaoaeuenoaa ii niaea?aeaieth
eiouanoaa, a oaeaea iaeiaiaua e eiua iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae o?aoueeie
eeoeaie, naycaiiua n iaeaaeaieai iauei eiouanoaii (ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth
na?aeoooia, iiaeaea?aeaieth iauaai eiouanoaa a iaaeeaaeauai ninoiyiee e
o.ae.);

5) o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue ia oieueei
nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee, ii e aeaaeaeueoeaa eiuo aauiuo i?aa, ianoueo
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii niaea?aeaieth iauaai eiouanoaa e yaeythueony
noauaeoaie iaeiaiauo i?aaiioiioaiee;

6) anee eiia ia onoaiiaeaii caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie eee niaeaoaieai
o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia, iauai eiouanoaaiiuo iaycaiiinoae o/anoieea
eiiaeiieieoia, naycaiiuo n iauei eiouanoaii (iaeiaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa,
ii ?aiiioo, niaea?aeaieth iauaai eiouanoaa e o.ae.), ii?aaeaeyaony
aeieae o/anoieeia a iauai eiouanoaa;

7) aeiey o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa, anee eiia ia
onoaiiaeaii caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie eee niaeaoaieai o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia, caaeneo io ieiuaaee aoi?e/iiai iauaeoa, iaoiaeyuaainy a
?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe;

8) aeiey o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa iaioaeaeeia io i?aaa
ia iiiauaiea, iaoiaeyuaany a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, e ia iiaeao
auoue naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaeiaoii io/oaeaeaiey.

Oeacaiiua iieiaeaiey auoaeatho ec aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
?aaoee?othuaai niioaaonoaothuea ioiioaiey. Iie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
niaoeeoe/aneii ?aaeeia, nouanoaothuai a eiiaeiieieoia e ioee/athuai aai
io ?aaeeia iauae nianoaaiiinoe, i?e eioi?ii aeiey o/anoieea iineo, eae
i?aaeei, ?aaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oi anoue iiaeao auoue auaeaeaia a iaoo?a e,
e?iia oiai, iiaeao auoue naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaeiaoii naeaeee.

& 2.Iauaeo eiiaeiieieoia e aai ninoaa.

A eiiaeiieieoia ?acee/athony oaeea iiiyoey, eae iauaeo eiiaeiieieoia e
aai ninoaa, o/anoieee eiiaeiieieoia, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia e eo aeiey a iauai eiouanoaa e ae?oaea. Ia aeaiiii yoaia
?acaeoey ?anniao?eaaaiiai einoeoooa oyniaiea niaea?aeaiey ia?a/eneaiiuo
iiiyoee i?aaenoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiua neiaeiinoe, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue eo aieaa iiae?iaii.

A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iao niaoeeaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey “iauaeo
eiiaeiieieoia”. Iaeiaei ec naiiai iiiyoey eiiaeiieieoi neaaeoao, /oi
iauaeo eiiaeiieieoia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen, a
ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeyo caiaeueiue o/anoie e ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iai
iiiaieaa?oe?iue aeeeie aeii eee eiia caeaiea, a eioi?uo iiiauaiey
iaoiaeyony a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a eiouanoai, iaoiaeyuaany ca
i?aaeaeaie oaeeo iiiauaiee, i?eiaaeeaaeeo o/anoieeai eiiaeiieieoia ia
i?aaa iauae aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe, a a neo/ayo, onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, eiii iauai aauiii i?aaa. A /anoiinoe, o/anoieeai
eiiaeiieieoia, eioi?ui iiiauaiey i?eiaaeeaaeao ia i?aaa iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey eee oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey, iauaa eiouanoai i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia
ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, a niioaaonoaaiii ia i?aaa iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey, oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey, a caiaeueiue o/anoie ia i?aaa
iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai i?eciaiey ia?ae/iiai iauaeoa
iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea aoi?e/iuo iauaeoia,
iaoiaeyueony a aai ninoaaa, a ?acaeaeueiie (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie)
nianoaaiiinoe (eiii iauai aauiii i?aaa), a iano iauaai iieueciaaiey – a
iauae aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe (eiii iauai aauiii i?aaa) anao o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia.

0i?aaeaeaiea ninoaaa eiouanoaa, aoiaeyuaai a ninoaa iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia, yaeyaony /?acau/aeii aaaeiui, iineieueeo ei anaio oaeiio
eiouanoao i?eiaiyaony ?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiue aeey eiiaeiieieoia. A
/anoiinoe, i?aai ia iauaa eiouanoai iaioaeaeeii io i?aa ia eiouanoai,
iaoiaeyuaany a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e o.ae. Ia i?aeoeea ninoaa
oaeiai eiouanoaa ia anaaaea eaaei onoaiiaeoue. Iao ieeaeeo niiiaiee,
iai?eia?, a oii, /oi a ninoaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia aoiaeeo
iiiaieaa?oe?iue aeeeie aeii eee eiia caeaiea, a eioi?ii iaia?oaeeaatho
naay auoaeceiaeaiiua i?eciaee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia. Iaeiaei ec
nouanoaothuaai ii?aaeaeaiey eiiaeiieieoia ia auoaeaao, /oi ?aaeei
eiiaeiieieoia iiaeao auoue ?ani?ino?aiai ia oieueei ia caiaeueiue
o/anoie i?e aeiia, ii e ia ae?oaea caiaeueiua o/anoee, oaeiaeaoai?ythuea
oa eee eiua ioaeaeu o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia. Iai?eia?, a nianoaaiiinoue
o/anoieeai eiiaeiieieoia i?aaeinoaaeyaony caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeiia.
Aeai?iaua aea caiaeueiua o/anoee, eioi?ua a ?yaea neo/aaa i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey ianeoaeeaaiey ianeieueeeo aeiiia, i?aaeinoaaeythony o/anoieeai
ianeieueeeo iauaeoia eiiaeiieieoia, eae i?aaeei, ia a nianoaaiiinoue, a
a caieaiieueciaaiea. A oaeeo neo/ayo o o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia anoue
aeiey a i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeiia e aeiey a
i?aaa caieaiieueciaaiey ia aeai?iaue caiaeueiue o/anoie. Aeai?iaue
caiaeueiue o/anoie iiaeao auoue cae?aieai oaeaea a nianoaaiiinoue
o/anoieeia iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo eiiaeiieieoiia. Aeey ?aoaiey yoeo
i?iaeai auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?E io 22 aeaeaa?y 1997
a. ? 1813, eioi?ui aue ooaa?aeaeai Ii?yaeie i?aaeinoaaeaiey caiaeueiiai
o/anoea nianoaaiieeai iiiauaiee (o/anoieeai) eiiaeiieieoia (aeaeaa
iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?E ? 1813). Oeacaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai
ii?aaeaeaii, /oi i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia o/anoieeai
nouanoaothueo iauaeoia eiiaeiieieoia iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue th?eaee/aneoth
noaeueao aeai?iauo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia (i. 5). I?aaiaie ?aaeei oaeeo
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia oaeaea neaaeoao iiae/eieoue ?aaeeio eiiaeiieieoia,
iineieueeo i?e ia?aoiaea i?aa ia eaa?oe?u eee eiua iiiauaiey e
i?eia?aoaoaeth aeieaeia ia?aoiaeeoue ia oieueei aeiey a i?aaao ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie i?e aeiia, ii e a i?aaao ia aeai?iaue eee eiie
caiaeueiue o/anoie, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey ioaeae iaueo o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia. Iaeiaei ec ii?aaeaeaiey eiiaeiieieoia auoaeaao, /oi a
ninoaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia aoiaeeo i?eaeiiiaue caiaeueiue o/anoie.

Ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai aeiioneaaony nicaeaiea
eiiaeiieieoia ia oieueei a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeiiao, ii e a ae?oaeo
neo/ayo. Iai?eia?, i. 2 no. 78 Oeaca “0 caiea” onoaiiaeaii, /oi
nianoaaiieee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aeey naaeiaiaenoaa e
aea/iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ai?aaa nicaeaoue e oaeoth oi?io nianoaaiiinoe,
i?e eioi?ie ni/aoaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caiaeueiua
o/anoee n iauae nianoaaiiinoueth ia eiouanoai (a oii /enea caieth),
i?eia?aoaiiia eee nicaeaiiia aeey iaueo ioaeae, aeiee a eioi?ii ia
auaeaeaiu a iaoo?a e iaioaeaeeiu io ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai
o/anoieea ia naie o/anoie (eiiaeiieieoi). Niaeanii yoie ii?ia, eae e a
neo/ayo, iaiai?aiiuo a i. 2 no. 26 Oeaca “0 caiea”, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
oieueei aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaiey eiiaeiieieoia. Iaeiaei i?e
i?eaaoecaoeee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey aea/iiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa e naaeiaiaenoaa, eiouanoai, a oii /enea aei?iae,
i?ineoaeueiua naoe e o.ae., inoaaony a iauai iieueciaaiee, a cia/eo a
iauai aauiii i?aaa nianoaaiieeia oeacaiiuo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia. I?aaa ia
oaeia eiouanoai aeieaeiu auoue iaioaeaeeiuie io i?aa ia aea/e eee eiua
iauaeou iaaeaeaeeiinoe, iaoiaeyueany a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Yoi
iio?aaoao i?eiaiaiey e aicieeathuei ioiioaieyi ?aaeeia eiiaeiieieoia. A
?anniao?eaaaiuo neo/ayo aiciiaeii cae?aieaiea caiaeueiiai o/anoea a
iauoth nianoaaiiinoue anao o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia i?e ?acaeaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia aea/e eee naaeiaua aeiieee. I?e oaeie neooaoeee ia
aicieeaao ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caiaeueiue o/anoie. I?eaaaeaiiay
iiaeaeue aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, auiieiythueo caieaono?ieoaeueiue
i?iaeo, yaeyaony i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae, iineieueeo i?e ?acaeaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caiaeueiua o/anoee, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua aeey aea/iiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa eee naaeiaiaenoaa, caiaeueiua o/anoee, iaoiaeyueany a
iauae nianoaaiiinoe, aeieaeiu auoue noi?ie?iaaiu a naiinoiyoaeueiua
caiaeueiua o/anoee n i?enaiaieai ei eaaeano?iauo iiia?ia, onoaiiaeaieai
a?aieoe, ioi?ieaieai i?aaionoaiaaeeaathueo aeieoiaioia e o.ae.
Oaoie/anee e th?eaee/anee yoi auiieieoue neiaeiaa. Naie nianoaaiieee
i?aaeii/eoatho ?acaeaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue ia caiaeueiua o/anoee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey naaeiaiaenoaa e aea/iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. A nayce n
eceiaeaiiui, i?eiaiaiea ?aaeeia eiiaeiieieoia i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia aeey naaeiaiaenoaa e aea/iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa
yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui.

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Eacaonoaia noauaeoaie ioiioaiee a
eiiaeiieieoiao i?eciaao nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee. Iaaeaeo oai i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee e?oaa oaeeo noauaeoia iaiaoiaeeii enoiaeeoue ec oiai, ia
eii eaaeao iaycaiiinoe, naycaiiua n iaeaaeaieai iauei eiouanoaii,
aoiaeyuei a ninoaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia. Eae i?aaeei, oaeea
iaycaoaeuenoaa ianao nianoaaiiee eiouanoaa. A /anoiinoe, i?e naea/a
iiiauaiee a a?aiaeo noauaeoii ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca auiieiaiea
niioaaonoaothueo eiouanoaaiiuo iaycaiiinoae, eae i?aaeei, yaeyaony
nianoaaiiee, a ia a?aiaeaoi? (ni. no. 36 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”, i. 2 no. 42 Oeaca “0 caiea”). Aianoa n oai a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo oaeea iaycaiiinoe e, niioaaonoaaiii, ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aiceaaathony ia ia nianoaaiieeia, a ia noauaeoia eiuo aauiuo i?aa. A
/anoiinoe, ii iauaio i?aaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea,
eiathuea a iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee eee oicyenoaaiiii aaaeaiee iiiauaiey,
iaoiaeyueany a ninoaaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia, naie ianoo oaeea
iaycaoaeuenoaa. Aiaeiae/iua ioiioaiey aicieeatho n o/anoeai
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ai anao ia?a/eneaiiuo neo/ayo
noauaeoaie iaeiaiauo ioiioaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa, naycaiiuo n
niaea?aeaieai iauaai eiouanoaa, i?eciathony ia nianoaaiieee, a noauaeou
i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey eee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey.

A nayce n eceiaeaiiui. i?e ?aaoee?iaaiee ioiioaiee. aicieeathueo a
eiiaeiieieoia. iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe iiiyoea o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia. Caeii
oiiieiaao oaeia iiiyoea (i. 2 no. 32 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”).
ii ia ii?aaeaeyao aai niaea?aeaiey. Iaaeaeo oai onoaiiaeaiea e?oaa oaeeo
noauaeoia yaeyaony /?acau/aeii aaaeiui. iineieueeo iie yaeythony
iaeaaeaoaeyie eae i?aa, oae e iaycaiiinoae o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia.

I?aaa o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia ia aoi?e/iua iauaeou aeieaeiu
iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny i?aaionoaiaaeeaathueie aeieoiaioaie A oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia yaeythony ia nianoaaiieee, a noauaeou
eiuo aauiuo i?aa, a Eacaonoaia aicieeatho iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua
n i?eciaieai i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, iaoiaeyuaany
a iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee eee oicyenoaaiiii aaaeaiee. A /anoiinoe,
ainoaea?noaaiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea e iaainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey
aeieaeiu eiaoue i?aaionoaiaaeeaathuea aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea
i?aai iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey eee oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey ia iiiauaiey
(aeeeua eee iaaeeeua) e i?aai iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eciaiey ca noauaeoaie i?aaa
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey eee oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey ia iiiauaiey, i?aaa
iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey ia caiaeueiue o/anoie auoaeaao ec i. 1 no.
40 Oeaca “0 caiea”. A nayce n yoei a eiiaeiieieoia aicieeaao neooaoeey,
eiaaea nianoaaiieee iiiauaiee i?eia?aoatho ia caiaeueiue o/anoie i?aai
iauae aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe, a o/anoieee eiiaeiieieoia, ia yaeythueany
nianoaaiieeaie iiiauaiee, i?eia?aoatho ia caiaeueiue o/anoie i?aai
iauaai aeieaaiai iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey. I?aai iinoiyiiiai
caieaiieueciaaiey yaeyaony ia?aie/aiiui aauiui i?aaii e i?iecaiaeii io
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. A nayce n yoei aicieeaao aii?in, iaiaoiaeeii ee a
oeacaiiuo neo/ayo ioi?ieaiea ia iauaeou iaaeaeaeeiinoe i?aa ia oieueei
o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia, ia yaeythueony nianoaaiieeaie, ii e naieo
nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee. Anee o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia yaeythony
ainoaea?noaaiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea, nianoaaiieeii niioaaonoaothuaai
eiouanoaa yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Nianoaaiieeii eiouanoaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeauaai iaainoaea?noaaiiiio o/?aaeaeaieth yaeythony aai
o/?aaeeoaee.

A niioaaonoaee ni no 26 Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai,
eiathuaai neeo Caeiia, io 25 aeaeaa?y 1995 a “0 ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e naeaeie n iei” (aeaeaa –
Oeac “0 ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee”) i?e i?eia?aoaiee iaaeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuie th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie o oece/aneeo eeoe eee
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe iaeiia?aiaiii n ?aaeno?aoeeae
i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey eee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaeeony
?aaeno?aoeey i?aaa ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii,
e?iia oiai, onoaiiaeai i?eioeei i?acoiioeee i?aaa ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caiaeueiua o/anoee, ia iaoiaeyueany a /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe (i 2 no 30 Oeaca “0 caiea”).

A nayce n eceiaeaiiui, ainoaea?noao a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea o/anoieeaie
eiiaeiieieoia yaeythony ainoaea?noaaiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea, eae
i?aaeei, ia o?aaoaony ioi?ieaiey i?aa ia oeacaiiua iauaeou
iaaeaeaeeiinoe ioaeaeueii io ioi?ieaiey i?aa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. A oao aea neo/ayo, eiaaea o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia
yaeythony iaainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaa iineaaeieo i?iecaiaeiu
io i?aa o/?aaeeoaeae, i?aaa eioi?uo aeieaeiu iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny
niioaaonoaothueie aeieoiaioaie. Iaeiaei ec eceiaeaiiiai i?aaeea, ia iao
acaeyae, iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua eneeth/aiey, eioi?ua ia aeaiiue
iiiaio ia i?aaeoniio?aiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e nicaeatho iaeioi?oth
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a i?aaao. A /anoiinoe, i?e i?eia?aoaiee
iaainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa ia iniiaaiee
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaiauo naeaeie io o?aoueeo eeoe eee ia?aiia/aeueiuie
niiniaaie, a oii /enea a ?acoeueoaoa iiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, a ia io
o/?aaeeoaeae, oaeia eiouanoai i?eia?aoaaony o/?aaeaeaieai,
naiinoiyoaeueii caeeth/athuei naeaeeo, a iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea, a ia a
nianoaaiiinoue. A oaeeo naeaeeao ieaaea ia oiiieiathony o/?aaeeoaee e
oa?aeoa? eo i?aa ia i?eia?aoaaiia o/?aaeaeaieai eiouanoai. I?aaa ia
iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai ia i?eciathony aac ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
i?aa a i?aaiaii eaaeano?a. Iineieueeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia i?aaeoniio?aia ii?ia,
a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey i?aaa
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey iaainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee icia/aea au
iaeiia?aiaiii ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
o/?aaeeoaeae, i?eciaiea i?aa iineaaeieo ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai
o/?aaeaeaiey noaiiaeony aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeaiaoe/iui. A nayce n
eceiaeaiiui, n/eoaai iaiaoiaeeiui i?aaeoniio?aoue a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai ii?io,
i?eciathuoth i?aai nianoaaiiinoe o/?aaeeoaeae ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiia ia i?aaa iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Aicieeaao aii?in i oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe o/?aaeeoaeae ia
oaeia eiouanoai. Anee eiia ia onoaiiaeaii caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie eee
niaeaoaieai o/?aaeeoaeae, oaeia eiouanoai, ia iao acaeyae, aeieaeii
i?eciaaaoueny eo iauae aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoueth ni?acia?ii aeeaaeai.

Aua aieueoay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee aauiuo i?aa o/?aaeeoaeae iaainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ia
caiaeueiua o/anoee, eioi?ua ei i?aaeinoaaeythony a iinoiyiiia
caieaiieueciaaiea. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii caiaeueiua
o/anoee, ia eioi?uo iaoiaeyony iauaeou iaaeaeaeeiinoe, iaoiaeyueany a
iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee, a oii /enea aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia, i?aaeinoaaeythony ia i?aaa iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey
(ni.: i. 1 no. 40 Oeaca “0 caiea”). Enoiaey ec eceiaeaiiiai i?eioeeia
i?acoiioeee i?aaa ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caiaeueiua o/anoee,
ia iaoiaeyueany a ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, caiaeueiua o/anoee,
ioi?ieaiiua a iinoiyiiia caieaiieueciaaiea iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, nio?aiythony a ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e
o/?aaeeoaee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia ieo ia i?eia?aoatho. I?e iaoiaeaeaiee
ia oaeeo caiaeueiuo o/anoeao iauaeoia iaaeaeaeeiinoe, i?eciaaaaiuo
nianoaaiiinoueth o/?aaeeoaeae, i?iaeaio iiaeii ?aoeoue ia iniiaaiee no.
18 Oeaca “0 caiea”. Anee aea ia caiaeueiii o/anoea iao ieeaeeo ae?oaeo
iauaeoia iaaeaeaeeiinoe, iinea eeeaeaeaoeee iaainoaea?noaaiiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey caiaeueiue o/anoie aeieaeai auoue aica?auai nianoaaiieeo,
oi anoue ainoaea?noao. Eceaaaaiay i?iaeaia iiaeao auoue ?aoaia aeaoiy
niiniaaie. Aiciiaeii, i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee caiaeueiiai o/anoea
iaainoaea?noaaiiiio o/?aaeaeaieth neaaeoao oeacaoue, /oi caiaeueiue
o/anoie i?aaeinoaaeyaony aai o/?aaeeoaeyi ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.
Iaeiaei oaeia ?aoaiea iaoaeiaii ii aeaoi i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, caiaeueiua
o/anoee i?aaeinoaaeythony oece/aneei e th?eaee/aneei eeoeai ia iniiaaiee
eo cayaeaiee e, ai-aoi?uo, ana caiaeueiua o/anoee eiatho oeaeaaia
iacia/aiea. A nayce n yoei i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa yaeyaony aoi?ie niinia,
i?e eioi?ii ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaa iinoiyiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee aoaeao icia/aoue ?aaeno?aoeeth ia
caiaeueiue o/anoie i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe aai o/?aaeeoaeae. Iineieueeo i?e
oaeii ?aoaiee iiaoo auoue cao?iioou eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia ia
eiaao a oao eee eiuo neo/ayo iaia?aiey i?aaeinoaaeyoue caiaeueiue
o/anoie a nianoaaiiinoue, a ?aoaiee i i?aaeinoaaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii
iaaiaa?eaaoue, /oi caiaeueiue o/anoie i?aaeinoaaeyaony
iaainoaea?noaaiiiio o/?aaeaeaieth ia i?aaa a?aiaiiiai, a a neo/ayo,
onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie, ia i?aaa iinoiyiiiai
caieaiieueciaaiey aac i?eia?aoaiey ia caiaeueiue o/anoie i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe o/?aaeeoaeae. Iaeiaei, anee caiaeueiue o/anoie
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aciauaiey caeaiee, yaeythueony
nianoaaiiinoueth o/?aaeeoaeae, ainoaea?noai ia iiaeao ioeacaoue a
i?aaeinoaaeaiee ia oaeea caiee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.

& 3.Ainaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoia eiiaeiieieoia

Noaoueae 32 Caeiia ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”
onoaiiaeaia ii?ia, niaeanii eioi?ie eiiaeiieieoi aeieaeai auoue
ca?aaeno?e?iaai eae aaeeiue eiiieaen a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i ?aaeno?aoeee i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e
naeaeie n iei. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Eacaonoaia i?aaeoniio?aia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaeno?aoeee a i?aaiaii eaaeano?a i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai. E?iia ?aaeno?aoeee i?aa aaaeaony o/ao eee ?aaeno?aoeey naiiai
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa. Iai?eia?, a niioaaonoaee n Ii?yaeeii aaaeaiey
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai caiaeueiiai eaaeano?a, ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 6 ethiy 1996 a. ? 710, o/ao
caiaeue aeey oeaeae ?aaeno?aoeee inouanoaeyaony i?aaiaie, aaaeoueie
Ainoaea?noaaiiue caiaeueiue eaaeano?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeacaiiay
ooieoeey inouanoaeyaony Eiieoaoii ii oi?aaeaieth caiaeueiuie ?ano?naie
Ieienoa?noaa naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai e aai
oa??eoi?eaeueiuie i?aaiaie. O/ao caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee aeieaeai aanoenue
a a?aaeino?ieoaeueiii eaaeano?a, nicaeaiea eioi?iai i?aaeoniio?aii no.
21 Caeiia ?E io 22 ieoya?y 1993 a. “Ia a?oeoaeoo?a e
a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa a ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai”. I?aaeea aaaeaiey
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiiai eaaeano?a ii?aaeaeythony Ii?yaeeii nicaeaiey e
aaaeaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?aaeino?ieoaeueiiai eaaeano?a,
ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia ?E io 6 ethey 1995 a. I
931. Iaeiaei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Eacaonoaia a?aaeino?ieoaeueiue eaaeano?
ia aaaeaony.

Oaeei ia?acii, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Eacaonoaia ?acee/aao o/ao
(?aaeno?aoeeth) iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa e ?aaeno?aoeeth i?aa ia iaai. A
nayce n eceiaeaiiui, aicieeaao aii?in i oii, eaeay ?aaeno?aoeey
i?aaeiieaaaeanue a Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”. Ioaao ia oeacaiiue
aii?in iiaeii iaeoe ai A?aiaiiii iieiaeaiee i ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia, ooaa?aeaeaiiii i?eeacii aee?aeoi?a Aaaionoaa ii
?aaeno?aoeee iaaeaeaeeiinoe e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 20 ai?aey 1998 a. (aeaeaa A?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea).
Ioieoii 1.3 A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia caeeth/aaony a caianaiee a ?aaeno?aoeeiiiua aeieoiaiou
naaaeaiee, eaeaioeoeoee?othueo caiaeueiue o/anoie, ia?ae/iua iauaeou a
niioaaonoaee n oi?iie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiiai eenoa, e iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia oa?aeoa?enoee aoi?e/iuo iauaeoia, a
oaeaea naaaeaiee i aeaea i?aaa, oi?ia iauae nianoaaiiinoe (eiiai aauiiai
i?aaa) e ?acia?ao aeieae o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia a iauae nianoaaiiinoe
(a eiii aauiii i?aaa, a oii /enea a iauai caieaiieueciaaiee).

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia caeeth/aaony ia
oieueei a caianaiee a ?aaeno?aoeeiiiua aeieoiaiou naaaeaiee,
eaeaioeoeoee?othueo ninoaaiua /anoe eiouanoaaiiiai eiiieaena,
yaeythuaainy iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia, ii e, e?iia oiai, naaaeaiee i
?acia?ao aeieae o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?e ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia ii?aaeaeeoue
oaeea aeiee iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi i?aaiaie eaaeano? yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii th?eaee/anee cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e naeaeie n iei (i. 15
A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey i ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aa ia
iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e naeaeie n iei, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?E io 20 oaa?aey 1997 a.; aeaeaa – A?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea i
?aaeno?aoeee). ?acia? aeiee o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa
ii?aaeaeyao aeieth aai ?anoiaeia ia niaea?aeaiea iauaai eiouanoaa, anee
eiia ia onoaiiaeaii niaeaoaieai noi?ii (i. 3 no. 35 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”), a oaeaea ?acia? iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa. Iineieueeo
i?aaiaie eaaeano? yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii naaaeaiee i
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo i?aaao, eioi?iaoeey ia oeacaiiuo aeieyo iiaeao auoue
iieo/aia oieueei ec iaai.

A eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa onoaiaaeeaathony aeiee eae
nianoaaiieeia aeeeuo, oae e nianoaaiieeia iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee. I?e/ai,
anee eiia ia onoaiiaeaii niaeaoaieai o/anoieeia, ?acia? oaeie aeiee
caaeneo io ?acia?a iiiauaiey, iaoiaeyuaainy a ?acaeaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Aianoa n oai, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo iaaeeeua iiiauaiey iaoiaeyony ai ano?iaiii-i?eno?iaiiuo
iiiauaieyo eee eiatho ioaeaeueiua aoiaeu. Aiceiaeaiea a oaeeo neo/ayo ia
nianoaaiieeia iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee ?anoiaeia ii niaea?aeaieth iauaai
eiouanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy a iieueciaaiee nianoaaiieeia aeeeuo iiiauaiee,
e iaiai?io, aiceiaeaiea ia nianoaaiieeia aeeeuo iiiauaiee ?anoiaeia ia
niaea?aeaiea iauaai eiouanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy a iieueciaaiee oieueei
nianoaaiieeia iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee, yaeyaony iani?aaaaeeeaui. A nayce n
yoei noaoueae 37 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi
nianoaaiiee iaaeeeiai iiiauaiey ia iaycai o/anoaiaaoue a iaueo
?anoiaeao, eioi?ua naycaiu eneeth/eoaeueii n iieueciaaieai aeeeuie
iiiauaieyie (i. 1), e ?anoiaeu, ioiinyueany e oai /anoyi iauaai
eiouanoaa, eioi?ua naycaiu eneeth/eoaeueii n iieueciaaieai iaaeeeuie
iiiauaieyie, ianoo nianoaaiieee yoeo iiiauaiee. Oaeei ia?acii,
eneeth/aiea ec i?aaeea, onoaiiaeaiiiai i. 3 no. 35 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”, iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaii ia oieueei niaeaoaieai
nianoaaiieeia, ii e i?aaeoniio?aii a naiii Caeiia (no. 37, 50).

?acia? aeieae o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa ii?aaeaeyaony a
niioaaonoaee n ii?yaeeii en/eneaiey, onoaiiaeaiiui ioieoii 3 noaouee 31
Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?acia? aeiee, anee
eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii niaeaoaieai nianoaaiieeia, ii?aaeaeyaony
ioiioaieai iieaciie ieiuaaee aeeeuo iiiauaiee e ieiuaaee iaaeeeuo
iiiauaiee, iaoiaeyueony a ?acaeaeueiie (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie)
nianoaaiiinoe, e iauae ieiuaaee anaai aeiia. Oeacaiiay aeiey yaeyaony
eaeaaeueiie e ia iiaeeaaeeo auaeaeaieth a iaoo?a. A oi?ioea ?an/aoa
aeieae o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia, i?aaeoniio?aiiii no. 31 Caeiia “0
aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”, caeiiiaeaoaeai aeiiouaia ioeaea. Aeaei a oii, /oi
i?e ?an/aoa noiia aeieae anao o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa
aeieaeia ?aaiyoueny 100 i?ioeaioai. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aoaeoo
eiiiaine?iaaiu 100 i?ioeaioia ?anoiaeia, oiea/aiu 100 i?ioeaioia iaeiaia
e o.ae. Iaaeaeo oai, i?e ?an/aoa ii i?eaaaeaiiie oi?ioea niaieoiiinoue
aeieae anao o/anoieeia ia ninoaaeyao 100 i?ioeaioia. Yoo oi?ioeo
iaiaoiaeeii eciaieoue. ?acia? aeiee, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
niaeaoaieai o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia, aeieaeai ii?aaeaeyoueny ioiioaieai
iieaciie ieiuaaee aeeeiai iiiauaiey eee ieiuaaee iaaeeeiai iiiauaiey,
iaoiaeyueony a ?acaeaeueiie (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie) nianoaaiiinoe, ia i?aaa
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey eee oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey, e noiia iieaciie
ieiuaaee anao aeeeuo e ieiuaaee anao iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee, iaoiaeyueony a
aeaiiii iiiaieaa?oe?iii aeeeii aeiia eee eiii caeaiee, yaeythuainy
iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia.

?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia iaiaoiaeeia ia oieueei aeey oeacaiiuo
oeaeae. A niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 32 Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo” aei
oaeie ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia eeai i?aaia,
oi?aaeythuaai iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia, naycaiiua n iauae
nianoaaiiinoueth, ia i?eia?aoatho th?eaee/aneie neeu. Aeiey o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa neaaeoao ca noaeueaie iiiauaiey,
iaoiaeyuaainy a ?acaeaeueiie (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie) nianoaaiiinoe. A nayce
n yoei oeacaiiia ia?aie/aiea i?e ionoonoaee ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia naeaeee n eaa?oe?aie. Iauaa eiouanoai
iiaeao noaoue naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaeiaoii naeaeie oieueei a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea ec oaeiai eiouanoaa ia?aciauaaaony naiinoiyoaeueiia iiiauaiea.
Iai?eia?, anee iiaeaaeueiua iiiauaiey iai?oaeiaaiu ai aoi?e/iua iauaeou,
oi iie ii niaeaniaaieth anao o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia iiaoo auoue
io/oaeaeaiu. A oaeeo neo/ayo oeacaiiua iiiauaiey eneeth/athony ec iauaai
eiouanoaa e ia?aoiaeyo a ?acaeaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue i?eia?aoaoaey.
Ii?ia, i?eciathuay iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie naeaeee n iauei eiouanoaii a
nayce n ionoonoaeai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia,
eiaao ioiioaiea e iaiei neo/ayi.

A nayce n eceiaeaiiui, ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e naeaeie n iei i?eia?aoaao
i/aiue aaaeiia cia/aiea. Iaaeaeo oai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia i?aeoeea
oaeoth ?aaeno?aoeeth inouanoaeoue aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeaiaoe/ii. Aeaei a
oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea iauaeoia iaaeaeaeeiinoe, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
aeaiiiai iauaeoa. Oi?ie?iaaiea caeaiey eae iauaeoa i?aa i?ienoiaeeo i?e
i?eaiea a yenieoaoaoeeth caaa?oaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaii iauaeoa e aai
eiaaioa?ecaoeee, a oiaea eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythony ana iaiaoiaeeiua
eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u ia?ae/iiai iauaeoa (yoaaeiinoue, ieiuaaeue
e ae?oaea oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee). Iaeiaei a ?anioaeeea n
oi?ie?iaaieai oeacaiiuo iauaeoia aicieeaao iiiaeanoai i?iaeai, naycaiiuo
ni neaaeothueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. Iiiaieaa?oe?iua aeeeua aeiia aei
i?eaaoecaoeee iaoiaeeeenue ia aaeaina ianoiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia
(eiiioiaeueiue aeeeeuiue oiiae), ieienoa?noa, aineiieoaoia, aaaeiinoa,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee
(aaaeiinoaaiiue aeeeeuiue oiiae) eee ainoaea?noaaiiuo th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe, iino?ieaoeo eee i?eia?aooeo ca n/ao naieo n?aaenoa aeeeuea
(aeeeeuiue oiiae i?aaei?eyoee). A ?yaea neo/aaa aaeainiaea?aeaoaeyie
i?iecaiaeeeanue auai?i/iay eiaaioa?ecaoeey oeacaiiuo iauaeoia. Iinea
i?iaaaeaiey i?eaaoecaoeee iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi iiiaea aeiia ia
i?ieiaaioa?ece?iaaiu. Iaaeaeo oai aac yoiai ?aaeno?aoeeth iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia i?iecaanoe iaeuecy. I?e ?aaeno?aoeee iaiaoiaeeii
onoaiiaeoue ana oaoie/aneea ia?aiao?u ia?ae/iiai iauaeoa, a oii /enea
iauoth ieiuaaeue aeiia, ieiuaaeue iano iauaai iieueciaaiey e anao
aoi?e/iuo iauaeoia. Ana iacaaiiua ia?aiao?u oeacuaathony a ieaia e a
iiyoaaeiuo ieaiao ia?ae/iiai iauaeoa, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoue
aeey ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia. O/anoieee eiiaeiieieoia iiaoo
naie caeacaoue eiaaioa?iua ieaiu. Iaeiaei a nayce n o?oaeiinoueth
oeiaine?iaaiey oaeeo ?aaio eiaaioa?ecaoeey nouanoaothueo iauaeoia
eiiaeiieieoia i?aeoe/anee ia i?iaiaeeony. Ec-ca ionoonoaey oaeeo ieaiia
?aaeno?aoeeth iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia i?iecaanoe iaaiciiaeii. Aua aieueoa
i?iaeai aicieeaao n oi?ie?iaaieai caiaeueiiai o/anoea, aoiaeyuaai a
ninoaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia. Caiaeueiue o/anoie yaeyaony ninoaaiie
/anoueth iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia e aei ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia
ii aeieaeai auoue noi?ie?iaai. Iaaeaeo oai a ?anioaeeea caiaeueiua
o/anoee i?e iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao noi?ie?iaaiu a ?aaeeeo
neo/ayo. Ia ii?aaeaeaiu eo a?aieoeu, ieiuaaeue, iao aeoa i?aaeinoaaeaiey
eo ainoaea?noaii o/anoieeai eiiaeiieieoia e o.ae. Niaeanii
iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?E ? 1813 onoaiiaeai o?aoiany/iue n?ie
aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio e i?eiyoey ia? ii ii?aaeaeaieth a?aieoe
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia e ioi?ieaieth i?aa ia caiaeueiua o/anoee,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua nianoaaiieeai iiiauaiee (o/anoieeai) eiiaeiieieoia. Ii
iineieueeo iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai cae?aieaiey caiaeueiuo o/anoeia
yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea caieaono?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio, noieiinoue eioi?uo
aeinoaoi/ii ia?aiaieoaeueia aeey nianoaaiieeia aoi?e/iuo iauaeoia,
ioi?ieaiea i?aa ia caiaeueiua o/anoee cao?oaeiaii.

A nayce n oeacaiiuie i?iaeaiaie a ?anioaeeea ?aaeno?aoeey iauaeoia
eiiaeiieieoia i?ioiaeeo i/aiue iaaeeaiii. I?e ionoonoaee
i?aaionoaiaaeeaathueo aeieoiaioia ia caiaeueiue o/anoie, ii i?e iaee/ee
eiaaioa?iuo aeaiiuo ia ia?ae/iue iauaeo eae a?aiaiiay ia?a
i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue /anoe/iie ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia aac i?aaionoaiaaeeaathueo aeieoiaioia ia caiaeueiue
o/anoie (i. 2.3 A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey). I?e yoii o/anoieeai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony oanoeiany/iue n?ie aeey ioi?ieaiey i?aa ia caiaeueiue
o/anoie, ii enoa/aiee eioi?iai aac iieiie ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia naeaeee n iauei eiouanoaii ?aaeno?aoeee a i?aaiaii
eaaeano?a ia iiaeeaaeao.

I?e ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia a ?aaeno?aoeeiiiua aeieoiaiou
aiineony eioi?iaoeey i aeiea o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa.
Ia?a/aiue aeieoiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa
eiiaeiieieoia onoaiiaeai i 2 3 A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey.

A /anoiinoe, aeey ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia cayaeoaeue
i?aaenoaaeyao a ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai neaaeothuea aeieoiaiou

-ienueiaiiia cayaeaiea a onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia n i?inueaie i ?aaeno?aoeee
iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia,

-ieai e iiyoaaeiue ieai ia?ae/iiai iauaeoa n oeacaieai ieiuaaee
eaaeaeiai aoi?e/iiai iauaeoa, caaa?aiiua oiieiiii/aiiuie i?aaiaie,

-i?aaionoaiaaeeaathuee aeieoiaio ia caiaeueiue o/anoie n i?eeiaeaieai
oaeinoiaa?aiiiai oiieiiii/aiiui i?aaiii ieaia caiaeueiiai o/anoea n
oeacaieai ?aniieiaeaiey ia?ae/iuo iauaeoia,

-niaeaoaiea, caeeth/aiiia anaie o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia, ia
ii?aaeaeaiee ?acia?a eo aeieae a iauae nianoaaiiinoe eee eiii iauai
aauiii i?aaa, a i?e ionoonoaee oaeiai niaeaoaiey ?an/ao oeacaiiuo
aeieae, i?iecaaaeaiiue a ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiii i 3 no. 31 Caeiia “0
aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo eeai cayaeaiea n i?inueaie i?iecaanoe oaeie ?an/ao
naiei ?aaeno?e?othuei i?aaiii ia iniiaaiee oeacaiiie noaouee Caeiia “0
aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo”.

I?e ?aaeno?aoeee iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia a ?aaeno?aoeeiiiua aeieoiaiou
aiineony, e?iia eaeaioeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeia iauaeoia iaaeaeaeeiinoe,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iauaeoa, aua e aeiey o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia a iauai
eiouanoaa. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, oaeay aeiey iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia
niaeaoaieai noi?ii. I?e ionoonoaee oaeiai niaeaoaiey aeiey ii?aaeaeyaony
ii oi?ioea. A ?yaea neo/aaa ?an/ao aeiee ii oi?ioea ia nianai
niioaaonoaoao eioa?anai o/anoieeia. Iaeiaei ninoaaeaiea niaeaoaiey
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeaiaoe/iui. A /anoiinoe, iineieueeo niaeaoaiea
eanaaony ?acia?a aeiee a iauai eiouanoaa, a iai aeieaeiu i?eiyoue
o/anoea ana nianoaaiieee. Anee o/anoieeii eiiaeiieieoia yaeyaony
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaa eeoei, oi ia niaa?oaiea oaeeo naeaeie a niioaaonoaee
n Caeiiii ?E “0 a?aea e naiuea” iaiaoiaeeii niaeanea i?aaiia iiaee e
iiia/eoaeuenoaa. E?iia oiai, anee naeaeea ia oaeinoiaa?aia a
iioa?eaeueiii ii?yaeea, i?e ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai
aeieaeai oaeinoiaa?eoueny a iiaeeeiiinoe aiee e iiaeeeiiinoe iiaeienae
anao o/anoieeia naeaeee (i. 62 A?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey i ?aaeno?aoeee).
Oaeia niaeaoaiea aeieaeii auoue iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?aii, eeai ana
o/anoieee naeaeee aeieaeiu ee/ii yaeoueny a ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai aeey
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey iiaeeeiiinoe aiee e iiaeienae. Aeiioneaaony oaeaea
canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea a iioa?eaeueiii ii?yaeea iiaeeeiiinoe iiaeienae
oao o/anoieeia, eioi?ua ia iiaoo ee/ii yaeoueny a ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai.
?aaeno?e?othuaio i?aaio iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue iieiue ia?a/aiue
o/anoieeia eiiaeiieieoia, /oiau oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi ana iie i?eiyee
o/anoea a ninoaaeaiee oaeiai niaeaoaiey. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa naeaeea a
iineaaeothuai iiaeao auoue inii?aia o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia, ia
o/anoaiaaaoeie a aai caeeth/aiee, iineieueeo oaeei niaeaoaieai
ii?aaeaeyaony eo aeiey a iauai eiouanoaa, a cia/eo ii?aaeaeythony eo
i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe. Ninoaa oaeeo o/anoieeia iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai ia
iniiaaiee aeaiiuo i?aaiaiai eaaeano?a. Iaeiaei a eaaeano?a iao naaaeaiee
i anao o/anoieeao eiiaeiieieoia. A /anoiinoe, anee i?aaa ia iaaeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai aicieeee aei aaaaeaiey nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, i?aaa n/eoathony aicieeoeie aac
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a i?aaiaii eaaeano?a a
ioiioaiee ?aiaa aicieeoeo i?aa eiathony naaaeaiey i a?aaeaeaiao,
yaeythueony i?aaiiaeaaeaoaeyie eaa?oe? e aeeeuo aeiiia, iineieueeo AE
Eac. NN? io 28 aeaeaa?y 1963 a. e AEeeeuiue eiaeaen io 1 ethey 1992 a.
onoaiiaeee ii?iu, iaycuaathuea ?aaeno?e?iaaoue a ianoiuo eniieieoaeueii
?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo i?aaiao iaeioi?ua naeaeee n aeeeuie aeiiaie e
eaa?oe?aie (no. 226, 249, 251, 331 AE Eac. NN?, no. 17 AEE). I?aaiaie
eaaeano? aaaeaony ?aaeno?e?othueie i?aaiaie Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee ?E,
eioi?ua yaeythony i?aaii?aaiieeaie oi?aaeaiee ii ioeaiea e ?aaeno?aoeee
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aia?aciaaeenue ec auaoeo
ath?i oaoie/aneie eiaaioa?ecaoeee (AOE). Iaeiaei i?aaiu ii aaaeaieth
i?aaiaiai eaaeano?a ia ?aniieaaatho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeinoiaa?iie
eioi?iaoeeae i th?eaee/aneeo eeoeao, yaeythueony i?aaiiaeaaeaoaeyie
aoi?e/iuo iauaeoia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iauaeoa eiiaeiieieoia. E?iia
oiai, ia ana oece/aneea eeoea ca?aaeno?e?iaaee a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo
naie ?aiaa aicieeoea i?aaa. I?e oaeeo oneiaeyo i?e ?aaeno?aoeee
niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia aeey onoaiiaeaiey anao aai
o/anoieeia iio?aaoaony i?aaenoaaeaiea a ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai
i?aaionoaiaaeeaathueo aeieoiaioia ia aoi?e/iua iauaeou. Ana yoi
cia/eoaeueii cao?oaeiyao caeeth/aiea o/anoieeaie eiiaeiieieoia
niaeaoaiey i aeieyo a iauai eiouanoaa. A nayce n eceiaeaiiui, n/eoaai
iaiaoiaeeiui oi?inoeoue ii?yaeie i?eiyoey oaeiai niaeaoaiey. Iai?eia?, a
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea a aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeno?e?othueo i?aaiia
i?aeoeeoaony einoeooo eeyoaaiiie aeaeea?aoeee, i?e eioi?ie cayaeoaeue
aa?aioe?oao iiaeeeiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeieoiaioia e naaaeaiee, e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo iaaeinoiaa?iinoue ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai ia ianao.
A iaoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ia iao acaeyae, neaaeiaaei au aiceiaeeoue
iaycaiiinoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca onoaiiaeaiea ninoaaa o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia, niae?aiea eo iiaeienae a niaeaoaiee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
eo aeinoiaa?iinoue ia oiieiiii/aiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia, eioi?ue iiaeaao cayaeaiea ia ainoaea?noaaiioth
?aaeno?aoeeth. *aua anaai oaeei i?aaenoaaeoaeai aunooiatho i?aaiu
oi?aaeaiey iauaeoia eiiaeiieieoia, n?aaee ieo – eiiia?aoeau
nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe? eee iiiauaiee. Iineieueeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i
eiiaeiieieoiao ia onoaiaaeeaaao niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaee, ?aaoee?othueo
ii?yaeie caeeth/aiey oaeeo niaeaoaiee, i?e eo ?aaeno?aoeee
?aaeno?e?othuea i?aaiu o?aaotho niaethaeaiey ii?i caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
iauae nianoaaiiinoe. Niaethaeaiea anao oaeeo o?aaiaaiee /?acau/aeii
ia?aiaieoaeueii. A nayce n yoei oaeea niaeaoaiey caeeth/athony ?aaeei.
Aiciiaeiuie iie noaiiayony oieueei a aeiiao, aaea eiee/anoai aoi?e/iuo
iauaeoia iacia/eoaeueii. *aua anaai ?an/ao aeieae o/anoieeia
eiiaeiieieoia a iauai eiouanoaa aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny ii oi?ioea.

A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiiaeo no?ai oi?ie?oaony niaoeeaeueiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i eiiaeiieieoiao. A Eacaonoaia oaeea ii?iu
niaea?aeaony, e?iia iaeiie noaouee a AE (no. 209), a Caeiia “0 aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo”. Iaeiaei, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, eiiaeiieieoiu aicieeatho ia
oieueei a iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeeeuo aeiiao, ii a ae?oaeo caeaieyo, a
eioi?uo aoi?e/iua iauaeou iaoiaeyony a ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a
ianoa iauaai iieueciaaiey – a iauae. A nayce n yoei oeacaiiuo ii?i ia
aeinoaoi/ii aeey o?aaoee?iaaiey anao aicieeathueo a eiiaeiieieoia
ioiioaiee, iiyoiio n/eoaai, /oi eo caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
aeieaeii auoue ?anoe?aii. Ia iao acaeyae, a Eacaonoaia iaiaoiaeeii
i?eiyoea niaoeeaeueiiai caeiia i eiiaeiieieoiao.

Aeaaa III. Oi?aaeaiea iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia.

Iineieueeo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeeeua aeiia, iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuea a
oi?ia eiiaeiieieaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, oi?aaeythony iiniaoii
ia?aciaaiiuie eiiia?aoeaaie nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe? (ENE), oaeay oi?ia
oi?aaeaiey eiiaeiieieoiii i?aaenoaaeyaony ia ia?aue acaeyae aaeeinoaaiii
aiciiaeiie. Ii Caeii ia niaea?aeeo iiaeiaiiai eaoaai?e/aneiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey, iai?ioea, aeiioneaao nouanoaiaaiea e ae?oaeo oi?i
oi?aaeaiey ii auai?o nianoaaiieeia ( no. 42 CAEI).

I?e auai?a oi?iu oi?aaeaiey anai aeiiii iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi aeii
aeieaeai oi?aaeyoueny aanue a oeaeii eae aaeeiue aeeeeuiue eiiieaen, eai
aaeeinoai e iauay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue anao aia eaa?oaeueiuo iiiauaiee e
nii?oaeaiee, anae eiaeaia?iie nenoaiu, iaania/eaathuae
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue oaeiai aeeeeuiiai eiiieaena, ianoiyoaeueii
o?aaotho a ioiioaiee anaai aeiia iai?a?uaiiai iaaethaeaiey, eiio?iey,
?aiiioa, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aaa?ee e ono?aiaiey eo iineaaenoaee. Neiaii,
anao iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaenoaee, aac eioi?uo yenieoaoaoeey aeiia e oneiaey
i?iaeeaaiey a iai aoaeoo ?acei oooaeoaiu eee aeaaea ?ac?ooaiu.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeiaiai?u, ia oooaeoathuea aaeeiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey,
aiciiaeiu eeoue aeey ieacaiey noaoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oneoa:
aioo?eeaa?oe?iia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiea, oaeaoii e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea oneoae.

Aeey aeiiia, a eioi?uo iiieii eaa?oe? eiathony e ae?oaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii eniieuecoaiua nianoaaiieeii iaaeeeua iiiauaiey ( ioenu,
iaaaceiu, ia?eeiaoa?neea, ?aiiioiua ianoa?neea e o.i.), i?aai
oi?aaeaiey, aiaeiae/iue ENE, aieaa oi/ii eiaiiaaoue eiiia?aoeaii
nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee – ENI. I?aaiaie noaoon ENI e ENE yaeyaony
oiaeaeanoaaiiui e e?iia iaaieueoeo ?acee/ee, naycaiiuo n niaea?aeaieai
aeeeuo e iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee, oneiaey nicaeaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe eae ENE
, oae e ENI yaeythony iaeiioeiiuie.

?acoiaaony, eca?aiea oie eee eiie oi?iu oi?aaeaiey ioiineony, eae oaea
aiai?eeinue, e eiiiaoaioeee nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe?. Ii iineieueeo,
ai-ia?auo, eniieueciaaiea eaeie-eeai oi?iu iaiaoiaeeii, e ai-aoi?uo,
oi?aaeaiea aeiiii eae oaeiaui iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eeoue a iaeiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?ia, neaaeoao ?aaeueii o/eouaaoue aieaa
oeaeaniia?aciie oi?io ENE.

Niaeanii Caeiio ethaie ec nianoaaiieeia iiaeao auoue eieoeeaoi?ii
ia?aciaaiey ENE, ii ?aoaiea ia yoii aeieaeii auoue i?eiyoi ia
o/?aaeeoaeueiii nia?aiee, ia eioi?ii i?enoonoaoao ia iaiaa iieiaeiu
nianoaaiieeia a iiiauaiee. Anee ia nia?aiee ia aoaeao oaeiai eai?oia,
i?aaeoniio?aiiiai ioieoaie 4 e 5 noaouee 43 CAEI, iii n/eoaaony
ianinoiyaoeiny. Iacia/aaony iiaoi?iia nia?aiea, eioi?ia iiaeao
ninoiyoueny iacaaeneii io /enea aai o/anoieeia.

I?ioea yoie ii?iu auaeaeaathony e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey, naiaeyueany e
oiio, /oi iaeuecy i?eaeaaaoue th?eaee/aneoth neeo ?aoaieth nia?aiey, ia
eioi?ii auei iaiaa iieiaeiu nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee.

Ii aeiaiaeu iiaeiaiiai ?iaea iaoaaaeeoaeueiu. Aeii ia iiaeao ii?iaeueii
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a ea/anoaa iaoi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa, iiyoiio iaoiaay
neooaoeey a onoaiiaeaiee eaeie-eeai oi?iu oi?aaeaiey aeieaeia auoue oae
eee eia/a i?aiaeieaia. E onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiiue iooue i?aiaeieaiey
(i?iaaaeaiea iiaoi?iiai o/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey i?e ethaii eiee/anoaa
o/anoieeia) yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?acoiiui. Ii, enoaoe neacaoue, i?eiaiyaony
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eai?oia e ae?oaeo nia?aiee a aeia?iaieueii
nicaeaaaaiuo iauaaeeiaieyo (ni., iai?eia?, noaoueth 65 Oeaca I?aceaeaioa
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, eiathuaai neeo Caeiia, io 2 iay 1995 aiaea «I
oicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?euanoaao»).

Eoae, a neeo ?aoaiey o/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey ENE i?eciaaony
ia?aciaaiiui. Ethaie nianoaaiiee eiaao i?aai n/eoaoue naay /eaiii
eiiia?aoeaa, iacaaeneii io oiai, o/anoaiaae ee ii a o/?aaeeoaeueiii
nia?aiee e (eee) a ae?oaeo nia?aieyo eiiia?aoeaa. Aeey yoiai ia
o?aaoaony ieeaeeo cayaeaiee e i?eaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?.

Ia eneeth/ai, eiia/ii, aa?eaio, i?e eioi?ii o/anoiee eiiaeiieieoia
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii au?acee naith aieth ia anooiaoue a eiiia?aoea.
Oiaaea, anoanoaaiii, oaeiai o/anoieea iaeuecy n/eoaoue /eaiii
eiiia?aoeaa, eai /eainoai yaeyaony aeia?iaieueiui. Aeaiiue nianoaaiiee
eaa?oe?u (iiiauaiey) ia o/anoaoao a oi?aaeaiee eiiia?aoeaii e a
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee iauaai nia?aiey, ii aeieaeai iiae/eiyoueny anai
?aoaieyi i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey eiiia?aoeaii, ioiinyueiny e niaea?aeaieth e
eniieueciaaieth iauaai eiouanoaa, iaania/eaathuei i?i/iinoue e
aaciianiinoue yenieoaoaoeee aeiia.

Iaeiaei n oi?ie?iaaieai ENE aeanoue nianoaaiieeii iiiauaiee a
ii?aaeaeaiee oi?iu oi?aaeaiey ia i?ae?auaaony. Ai-ia?auo ii ?aoaieth
/eaiia ENE oaeay oi?ia iiaeao auoue eciaiaia ( ioieo 6 Caeiia). ENE,
iai?eia?, iiaeao ia?aaeaoue ii aeiaiai?o aeii a oi?aaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiio oece/aneiio eee th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo ( iiaeioieo 7 ioieoa
1 noaouee 47 CAEI).

Ai-aoi?uo, anee ENE iauaaeeiyao ianeieueei aeiiia, oi nianoaaiieee
eaeiai-eeai aeiia ai?aaa aueoe ec ninoaaa eiiia?aoeaa e ia?aciaaoue naie
ioaeaeueiue eiiia?aoea eee i?eiaieoue eioth oi?io oi?aaeaiey (ioieo 7
noaouee 42).

Eiiia?aoeau nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe? oaeaea iiaeeaaeao ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee, ii ?aaeno?e?othony iie eae th?eaee/aneea eeoea, oi anoue
ioaeaeueii io ?aaeno?aoeee eiiaeiieieoiia.

Caeeth/aiea

Ia iniiaaiee auoaeceiaeaiiiai iai?aoeaathony neaaeothuea auaiaeu e
i?aaeeiaeaiey:

1.Ia iuiaoiai yoaia ?aoaiey aeeeeuiie i?iaeaiu iaiaoeeenue eae
iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua oaiaeaioeee. Iieiaeeoaeueiua
oniao?eaathony a oii, /oi ?anoe?aiu aiciiaeiinoe a?aaeaeai ii
?anii?yaeaieth i?eaaoece?iaaiiui eee eoieaiiui aeeeueai .(A /anoiinoe,
a?aaeaeaia eiatho i?aai io/oaeaeaoue, ia?aaeaaaoue ianeaaeieeai e o.ae.)

2.Na?ueaciui iiaoanoaii aianaiiui Caeiiii «I aeeeeuiuo ioiioaieyo»
yaeyaony aaaaeaiea «Eiiaeiieieoia» eae iniaie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe ia
iaaeaeaeeiinoue. Neaaeoao /aoei ia?aie/eoue eiiaeiieieoi eae iauaeo
i?aaiauo ioiioaiee io noauaeoia yoeo ioiioaiee.

I?aai iieueciaaiey iauei eiouanoaii eiiaeiieieoia i?eiaaeeaaeeo anai
o/anoieeai a neeo oiai oaeoa, /oi ana iie yaeythony nianoaaiieeaie
ioaeaeueiuo iiiauaiee eiiaeiieieoia. Yoi i?aai ia o?aaoao ieeaeeo
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee, ?aoaiee eee iniauo ?aaeno?aoeee. ?aoaiey iiaoo aeeyoue
ia ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey i?aaa, ii ia ia aai nouanoaiaaiea.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue o/anoieea eiiaeiieieoia e aeiey yoiai
o/anoieea a iauae eiouanoaa ia?acaeaeeii naycaiu.

Eiiaeiieieoi, eae anyeay iaaeaeaeeiinoue, iiaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee a ea/anoaa aaeeiiai eiiieaena, a eioi?ii auaeaeythony
iauaeou eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e ?acaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

3.A ioiioaiee i?aaia oi?aaeaiey iauaeoaie eiiaeiieieoia, iaeuecy
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oaeea oi?iu oi?aaeaiey eae eiiia?aoea nianoaaiieeia
eaa?oe? eee eiiia?aoea nianoaaiieeia iiiauaiee yaeythony eaeaaeueiuie.
Eca?aiea oie eee eiie oi?iu oi?aaeaiey ioiineony, e eiiiaoaioeee
nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe?, iiyoiio aeieaeia i?eiaiyoueny oa oi?ia oi?aaeaiey
eioi?oth iie n/eoatho oeaeaniia?aciie. Iai?eia? yoi iiaeao auoue
eca?aiea oi?aaeythuaai iauaeoii eiiaeiieieoia ec /enea aeeeueoeia
iaeiiai iiiaieaa?oe?iiai aeiia, eioi?ue caeeth/aao eiio?aeou n ae?oaeie
neoaeaaie ia ianeoaeeaaiea yoiai aeiia.

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iauaaeeiaiea a iaeei ENE «Aeeiae» a.Aeiaou 98
aeiiia, ninoaaeythueo 3359 eaa?oe? iauaaeeiythueo nauoa 10000 aeeeueoeia
– nianoaaiieeia eaa?oe?, ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe /eaiai yoiai ENE
o/anoaiaaoue ?aaeueii a oi?aaeaiee iauaeoaie eiiaeiieieoia.

Aunoei i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey ENE yaeyaony iauaa nia?aiea aai /eaiia. Eae
iiaeii i?iaanoe nia?aiea a aeaiiii ENE «Aeeiae» e i?eiyoue eaeea-oi
?aoaiey?

?aaeueii ENE auiieiyao oa aea ooieoeee /oi e auaoay AEYEe (
aeeeeuii-yenieoaoaoeeiiiua eiieoaou) oieueei ca?ieaoo iieo/atho ca n/ao
aciinia aiineiuo aeeeueoeaie ia niaea?aeaiey aeeeuey.

4.I?aaiaua iieiaeaiey /eaia ENE ei?aiiui ia?acii ioee/aaony io i?aaiaiai
iieiaeaiey /eaia aeeeeuiiai eiiia?aoeaa ( e AEE). *eai AEE iiaeao auoue
aunaeai ec eaa?oe?u i?e ia?ooaiee caeiia eee onoaaa eiiia?aoeaa; /eai
ENE iiaeao auoue aunaeai eeoue a eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii a neo/aa i?ae?auaiey i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe.

A oeaeii ii ia?a ?acaeoey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai
?aoaiea e ?aaeecaoeee yoeo i?aaeeiaeaiee ia iao acaeyae aoaeoo
niinianoaiaaoue oaaee/aieth oe?ieiai neiy nianoaaiieeia aeeeuey e
oeo/oaieth aeeeeuiuo oneiaee a?aaeaeai ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u,

caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia.

Eiinoeoooeey ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, i?eiyoay 30 aaaonoa 1995 aiaea
a.Aeiaou, 1995.

Caeii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 16 ai?aey 1997 aiaea «I aeeeeuiuo
ioiioaieyo». Aeiaou, 1997.

Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 6 naioya?y 1993 aiaea «I iiaie
aeeeeuiie iieeoeea».

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 4 ieoya?y 1995
aiaea ? 1299 «I ia?ao ii ?acaeoeth aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa
?anioaeeee».

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 12 ai?aey 1996
aiaea ? 437 «I ia?aoiaea ia iiaua i?eioeeiu iieaou niaea?aeaiey
aeeeuey».

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 27 iay 1996 aiaea
«I ia?ao ii ?acaeoeth iio?aaeoaeueneeo eiiia?aoeaia nianoaaiieeia
eaa?oe? e iaaeeeuo iiiauaiee a aeeeuo aeiiao».

Iinoaiiaeaiea Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai ? 9 io 18
ethey 1997 aiaea «I i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey noaeaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii
i?eaaoecaoeee a?aaeaeaiaie aeeeuo iiiauaiee».

Iinoaiiaeaiea Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 11
ieoya?y 1991 aiaea «I i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey noaeaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e
?anniio?aiee aeae ii nii?ai iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie e AENE».

Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I i?eaaoecaoeee aeeeeuiiai oiiaea» io 5
naioya?y 1991 aiaea.

AEeeeuiue eiaeaen ?NON? io 24 ethey 1983 aiaea.

Caeii Eu?aucneie ?anioaeeee io 28 ieoya?y 1997 aiaea «I oiaa?euanoaao
nianoaaiieeia aeeeuey (eiiaeiieieoiao)».

Aanei TH.A. Eiiiaioa?ee e aeeeeuiiio eiaeaeno Eacaoneie NN?. Aeia-Aoa,
1987.

Aanei TH.A. Iiaia aeeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Eacaonoaia. Ni.
A?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai – oieeiaaiea e
eiiiaioe?iaaiea. Aeiaou, 1998. A ei. 5.

Aii/aei A.I. Iniiaaiey eciaiaiey aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Aaoi?aoa?ao
eaiae. aeenn. Naa?aeeiane. 1984.

AEeeeuiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai: Eiiiaioa?ee ( ioa. ?aaeaeoi?u A.O.
sseiaeaa, I.E. Naaeoaei I. 1991)

Ei?iaaa N.I. Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey aeeeeuiiai i?aaa a oneiaeyo
noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ni.: A?aaeaeaineia i?aai ?innee i?e
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo. I. 1996.

Ei?ooiia I.I. Aeii a ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe. I. 1991.

Eanei A.N. Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Aaoi?ao. Eaiae. Aeenn. E.
1967.

Nieieia N.I. Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Aaoi?ao. Eaiae. Aeenn.
Ieine, 1988.

Oienoie TH.E. AEeeeuiia i?aai. Ni. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai. O. II . I. 1997.

1 Aaaeiiinoe NNN?, 1981, ? 26, no.834

2 Aaaeiiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa Eacaoneie NN? 1983, ? 38, no.299

3 Aaaeiiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai 1992, ? 15, no.356;
1993. ? 8, nue.159

4 Aaaeiiinoe Ia?eaiaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai, 1997, ? 8, no.84

1 NAAI Eacaoneie NN?, 1985, ? 4, no.10

2 NAAI Eacaoneie NN?, 1985, ? 4, no.12

1 Nai?iee ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ENE, Aeiaou, 1995.

1 Oienoie TH.E. “AEeeeuiia i?aai a ei. Oienoie TH.E., Na?aaaa A.I.
“A?aaeaeaineia i?aai” I. 1997. /. II, n. 210.

1 Ni. iai?eia?: Oienoie TH.E Iiaia niaaoneia aeeeeuiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. I.1984, sseiaeaa A.O., Naaeoaei I.E. AEeeeuiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai I. 1991., Aanei TH.A., Noeaeiaiia I.E. Eiiiaioa?ee e
aeeeeuiiio eiaeaeno. Aeia-Aoa, 1987a.

2 Ei?iaaa N.I., E?aoaieieiieeia I.A. I?eaaoecaoeey aeeeeuiiai oiiaea. I.
1996., n.16

1 TH.E. Oienoie “AEeeeuiia i?aai” a ei. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai. “I?iniaeo”
1997. N. 217

1 TH.A.Aanei. Aii?inu niaaoneiai aeeeeuiiai i?aaa. Aeia-Aoa, 1963.N.118

2 I.E. Noeaeiaiia. Aauiua i?aaa ii a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao ?E. A ei.:
Aeooaeueiua aii?inu eiiia?/aneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ?E e i?aeoeea aai
i?eiaiaiey. O.1 Aeiaou. Aaeeeao-i?ann. 1996. N. 249.

1 NI ?O .1983. ? 18 No.111.

2 TH.E. Oienoie Oeac. ?aaioa N. 250.

1 Ni.: Aaaeiiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai. 1992, ? 15
no.356; 1993. ? 8. No.159.

1 Iooeei A.A. I?aaeinoaaeaiea aeeeuo iiiauaiee e iieueciaaiea eie. E.,
1988, n.55

2 Iooeei A.A. I?aaeinoaaeaiea aeeeuo iiiauaiee e iieueciaaiea eie. E.,
1988, n.55

1 Nai?iee ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ENE

1 I. Ae/oeaeia. Ii/aio a ENE “Anue” oaioanoe/aneea oa?eou ia oaiei e
ai?y/oth aiaeo? Ni.: aacaoa “Ia/iai n iiiaaeaeueieea”. 2.04.1998 ? 13
(182)

1 Eanei A.N. Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Aaoi?aoa?ao eaiae.
aeenn. E. 1967; Aii/aei A.I. Iniiaaiey eciaiaiey aeeeeuiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee. Aaoi?ao. Eaiae. Aeenn. Naa?aeeiane, 1984; Nieieia N.I.
Eciaiaiea aeeeeuiuo i?aaiioiioaiee. Aaoi?ao.eaiae. aeenn. Ieine. 1988.

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