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Доказательства в гражданском процессе

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OAA?E*ANEEE ENEEE OAEOEUeOAO

EAOAAe?A A?AAEAeAINEIAI I?IOeANNA

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA N1

II A?AAEAeAINEIIO I?IOeANNO

OAIA: AeIEACAOAEUeNOAA A A?AAEAeAINEII

I?IOeANNA

Oaia: AeIEACAOAEUeNOAA A A?AAEAeAINEII

IEAI

AAAAeAIEA

AEAAA I. Noaeaaiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa

1.1 Iiiyoea noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa

1.2 Eeanneoeeaoeey noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa

1.3 Noaeaaiia aeieacuaaiea e aai noauaeou

1.4 I?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey

AEAAA II. Aeieacuaaiea a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna

2.1 Iauea i?aaeea aeieacuaaiey

2.3 I?ioeann aeieacuaaiey

2.4 N?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey

CAEETH*AIEA

NIENIE ECO*AIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

AAAAeAIEA

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo eaeae e iieeoe/aneeo i?eaioaoeee
aeaiie?aoe/aneia i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai i?e aa?oiaainoaa i?aaiaiai caeiia
e i?ei?eoaoa i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia i?aeoe/anee aini?eiyoi
iauanoaii eae aoaeouaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy Oe?aeiu. ?aoaiea yoie
caaea/e naycaii ia oieueei n nicaeaieai nia?aiaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iaania/aieai caeiiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa
e aai i?aaiia, ioieoeeiaeueiie nenoaiu e iauanoaaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee,
iaaeaaeiie, auno?ie e ni?aaaaeeeaie thnoeoeee, iacaaeneiiai
i?aainoaeey, ii n i?aiaeieaieai aeinoeaoaai iianiuo i?aaeaeia i?aaiaiai
ieaeeecia, iaoiaeyuaainy iuia ia a?aie aani?aaeaea ai anao noa?ao
ainoaea?noaaiiie e iauanoaaiiie aeecie, e, aeaaiia, oi?ie?iaaiea
aunieiai o?iaiy i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u iauanoaa e eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey yoeo i?ioeannia yaeyaony eo i?aaiaia
nii?iaiaeaeaiea e iaania/aiea ainoaea?noaii – aaeeinoaaiiie ia
oa??eoi?ee no?aiu iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeythuae
noaa?aieoao, enoi/iee eioi?iai – ia?iae Oe?aeiu. Ii ainoaea?noai e
i?aai eiatho ia oieueei eino?oiaioaeueiia cia/aiea e ” naiinoiyoaeueioth
oeaiiinoue. Iaeiia?aiaiii yoi i?aai aeeoue oeeaeeeciaaiiie aeeciueth e
n?aaenoai iaania/eoue /aeiaaeo niioaaonoaothuea naiaiaeu”. E yoie oeaee
iauanoai i?eaeao oieueei /a?ac iiauoaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aiceiaeaiiie
” ia einoeooou ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe”, ?aoeoaeueiua aeaenoaey ii
yeiiiie/aneiio, iieeoe/aneiio e nioeeaeueiiio ?aoi?ie?iaaieth,
nicaeaieth ea/anoaaiiie ” i?aaiaie aacu aeey oaeeo aeaenoaee”.

Yoi iio?aaoao aunieii?ioanneiiaeueiiai ninoaaa th?enoia e
aeinoaoi/iie i?aaiaie a?aiioiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo e ae?oaeo
eeoe, caiyouo th?eaee/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Iauanoaaiiay
iieaciinoue e i?anoeaeiinoue yoie aeayoaeueiinoe cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao
a ia?eiae ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee, nioeeaeueiie eiino?oeoeee
iauanoaa, aai iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?eaioaoeee.

I?ioanneiiaeeci th?enoa caeeth/aaony a aai ciaiee e oiaiee
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo i?aaa. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai
caieiaao aaaeouaa ianoi n?aaee inoaeueiuo io?aneae i?aaa, oae eae a
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie iaaeaeo oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie e
i?inoi a iaeoiaea iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie aicieeatho ioiioaiey oae eee
eia/a naycaiiua n aii?inaie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa e ethaie th?eno iaycai
ciaoue eae ii caeiio ?ac?aoaoue nii?u aicieeathuea i?e yoeo ioiioaieyo.
Ii ciaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa ( a aeaiiii neo/aa a?aaeaeaineiai) aua
naii ii naaa ie/aai ia ?aoaao, oae eae iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue e a oi/iinoe
auieiyoue caeii i?eiaiaiey yoiai iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa. I?eiaiaiea a
aeecie iaoa?eaeueiiai caeiia – a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa ii?iaeaeaao
naiinoiyoaeueioth i?aaiaoth iaoeo – A?AAEAeAINEEE I?IOeANN. Aaaeiinoue
aa aeoaieiai iiciaiey ia?aioeaieoue o?oaeii, oae eae ia?ooaiey a oiaea
i?ioeanna i?eiaiaiey a?aaeaeaineiai caeiia iiaeao naanoe ia iao oneeey
anao o/anoieeia i?aaiioiioaiee, ?ac?aoaaiuo a oie eee eiie neooaoeee.

I?aaeeaaaaiay ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enneaaeiaaiea iaeioi?uo
i?iaeai iauae oai?ee aeieacuaaiey a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna, o.a.
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe noaea ii onoaiiaeaieth enoeiu.

I?e iaienaiee ?aaiou eniieueciaaeinue aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
eeoa?aoo?a ii a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao e a?aaeaeaineiio i?ioeanno,
niaoeeaeueiua eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee, ioiinyueany e ii?aaeaeaiiui
?acaeaeai oai?ee aeieacuaaiey e ae?oaeo iaoe, aeinoeaeaiey eioi?uo
eniieuecothony i?e aeieacuaaiee a oiaea a?aaeaeaineiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

AEAAA I. NOAeAAIUA AeIEACAOAEUeNOAA

1.1 Iiiyoea noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa

Inouanoaeaiea i?aainoaeey ninoieo a i?eiaiaiee noaeii caeiia e
onoaiiaeaiiui a oiaea noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaeoe/aneei
ianoiyoaeuenoaai. I?aaeaea /ai niaa?oeoue aeo i?eiaiaiey i?aaa, ioaeii
ciaoue, /oi auyaeaiiua a noaea ianoiyoaeuenoaa iieiinoueth
niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eae iaania/eoue oaeia iiciaiea?
ssaeaiey, niauoey, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a ianoiyuee iiiaio eee iinyo
aeeyueeny oa?aeoa?, iiaeii, eiia/ii, anaaaea iiciaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii.
Oae enneaaeothony, iai?eia?, oece/aneea, oeceieiae/aneea eee oeie/aneea
i?ioeannu, niioaaonoaothuea yaeaiey eee oaeou. Anoue, iaeiaei, oeaeue
?yae iaeanoae /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aaea, eae i?aaeei,
iaiaoiaeeii iiciaoue niauoey, eioi?ua eiaee ianoi a i?ioeii. Eiaiii n
oaeeie iauaeoaie eiatho aeaei a?oaieiaey, enoi?ey. Iiciaiea i?ioeuo
yaeaiee – iniiaiay caaea/a noaea.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aini?eyoea yaeaiey ninoaaii noaea – i/aiue ?aaeeee
neo/ae. Ciaeiinoai n ee/iinoueth noi?ii, ianoiue iniio? – aio
iaiiiai/eneaiiua i?eia?u oaeiai iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iiciaiey. A
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa noaeo i?eoiaeeony iiciaaaoue
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iaai oaeou e yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia i?yii, a
iiin?aaeiaaiii, n iiiiuueth aeieacaoaeuenoa. Aeieacuaaiea a noaea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, oaeei ia?acii, niinia iiin?aaeiaaiiiai iiciaiey,
eiaaea noae aeaeaao auaiae i nouanoaiaaiee eee ianouanoaiaaiee oaeoia,
eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea, ia iniiaaiee ae?oaeo oaeoia, iieo/ay
naaaeaiey i iiaeeaaeaueo onoaiiaeaieth oaeoao ec niioaaonoaothueo
enoi/ieeia.

A iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ethaee iinoiyiii auioaeaeaiu i?eaaaaoue e
iiin?aaeiaaiiiio iiciaieth e eniieueciaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa: a iaoea e
oaoieea, a noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a aeiiaoiai iaeoiaea.
Iniaoth ?ieue aeieacaoaeuenoaa ea?atho a aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. Noae, a?aeo?aaeiue noae, aaeieieno?aoeaiua
i?aaiu – ana iie eniieuecotho aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Iineieueeo yoe
aeieacaoaeuenoaa yaeythony n?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia
e ianoiyoaeuenoa e iineieueeo noa?a eo i?eiaiaiey naycaia n
aeayoaeueiinoueth th?enaeeeoeeiiiuo i?aaiia, iie iiaoo auoue iacaaiu
th?eaee/aneeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie. Eniieuecoaiua a noaea th?eaee/aneea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iacuaathony noaeaaiuie. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi
eiia/iie oeaeueth i?aaenoaaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea ia eo iniiaa aioo?aiiaai noaeaeneiai oaaaeaeaiey,
eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyao niaea?aeaiea ethaiai aeoa i?aainoaeey. Niae?aiea,
enneaaeiaaiea e ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa i?ienoiaeyo a niaoeeaeueiie
i?ioeannoaeueiie oi?ia, i?enouae eiaiii aeayoaeueiinoe noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia.

*oi aea oaeia noaeaaiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa? Caeii onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai yaeythony ethaua oaeoe/aneea
aeaiiua, ia iniiaa eioi?uo a ii?aaeae?iiii caeiiii ii?yaeea noae
onoaiaaeeaaao iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea ianoiyoaeuenoa, iainiiauaathueo
o?aaiaaiey e aic?aaeaiey noi?ii, e eiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eiathuea
cia/aiea aeey i?aaeeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey aeaea (no. 27 AIE Oe?aeiu). A yoie
aea noaouea oeacuaaaony, /oi oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua onoaiaaeeaathony
iauyniaieyie noi?ii e oaoueeo eeoe, iieacaieyie naeaeaoaeae,
ienueiaiiuie e aauanoaaiiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, caeeth/aieyie
yenia?oia. Eoae, aeieacaoaeuenoaa – yoi ethaua oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua, o.a.
oaeou iauaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea naaaeaiey i ieo. Oaeo
iaoiaeaeaiey eeoea a ii?aaeae?iiia a?aiy a iaeiie ianoiinoe aeieacuaaao
iaaiciiaeiinoue ee/iiai niaa?oaiey ei eaeeo-eeai aeaenoaee a yoi aea
a?aiy a ae?oaie ianoiinoe (aeeae).

Ec ciaiey i nouanoaiaaiee iaeiiai oaeoa iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i
nouanoaiaaiee eee ianouanoaiaaiee ae?oaiai oaeoa eee ae?oaeo oaeoia. Any
noaeaaiay aeayoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau auynieoue oaeoe/aneoth
noi?iio aeaea, o.a. niiinoaaeoue e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
iaeieie ecaanoiuie noaeo oaeoaie e ae?oaeie oaeoaie, iiaeeaaeaueie
onoaiiaeaieth.

Aianoa n oai oaeou iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeyo ca
i?aaeaeaie i?ioeanna ii aeaeo e iiyoiio iicaaoue eo iiaeii oieueei n
iiiiuueth naaaeaiee i oaeoao. Aeey oiai /oiau onoaiiaeoue, iai?eia?,
aeeae, ioaeii eiaoue naaaeaiey i oii, aaea iaoiaeeeinue niioaaonoaothuaa
eeoei a iiiaio niaa?oaiey i?aaiia?ooaiey, /ai caieiaeinue e eaeea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa eneeth/aee aiciiaeiinoue aai i?enoonoaey a ae?oaii
ianoa.

Aeieacaoaeuenoaaie caeii iacuaaao ethaua oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua, o.a.
ethaua oaeou e naaaeaiey i ieo, eioi?ua ieacaeenue aiaea/?iiuie a i?aeoo
noaeaaiiai enneaaeiaaiey. I?e auyaeaiee ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo
cia/aiea aeey aeaea, noaea iiaeao noieeiooueny n naiuie ?acee/iuie
oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie. Noi?iia, iai?eia?, iiaeao nineaoueny ia oaeo
iiaaoaiey aeieaa, iiaeoaa?aeaeay aai niioaaonoaothuae ?anieneie, iaeiaei
a oiaea ?anniio?aiey aeaea aoaeao onoaiiaeai oaeo iiaeeiaa ?anienee. Ii
aeaeo i aiciauaiee a?aaea iiaoo auoue aeaiu naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey,
eioi?ua iinea i?iaa?ee ieacaeenue iaaeinoiaa?iuie eee aeaaea caaaaeiii
eiaeiuie. Naaaeaiey ia io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiea ee/iinoe noi?iiu iiaoo
auoue ii?iaa?aioou naaaeaieyie, iieiaeeoaeueii oa?aeoa?ecothueie
ee/iinoue, e o.ae. Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo ethaua oaeou e ethaua naaaeaiey
i ieo, eae niioaaonoaothuea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae e ia
iiaeoaa?aeeaoeany iinea i?iaaae?iiie i?iaa?ee, ea?atho ?ieue noaeaaiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa. A eeoa?aoo?a eiiaaea ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi oaeoe/aneea
aeaiiua yaeythony aeieacaoaeuenoaaie eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iie
iaoiaeyony aa nayce n eneiiuie oaeoaie e yaeythony aeinoiaa?iuie.. Yoi
iaaa?ii, oae eae aii?in i iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee nayce iaaeaeo
aeieacaoaeuenoaii e eneiiui oaeoii, o.a. aii?in i aeinoiaa?iinoe
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iiaeao auoue ieii/aoaeueii ?aoai eeoue iinea
caaa?oaiey i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey. Anee aeieacaoaeuenoaii n/eoaoue
oieueei oi, /oi “aeieacuaaao”, oi, /oi aeinoiaa?ii, i?iaeaia niae?aiey,
enneaaeiaaiey e ioeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoaa aiiaua nieiaaony, oae eae
enneaaeiaaoue e ioeaieaaoue iiaeii oieueei oi, /oi o?aaoao ioeaiee,
“aeinoiaa?iia” aeieacaoaeuenoai ia/aai ioeaieaaoue – iii oaea i?eciaii
oaeiaui.

Oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua onoaiaaeeaathony n iiiiuueth i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiii n?aaenoa: iauyniaiee noi?ii e oaoueeo eeoe, iieacaiee
naeaeaoaeae, ienueiaiiuo e aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, caeeth/aiee
yenia?oia. N?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey oanii naycaiu n oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie.
Eiaiii n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey yaeythony enoi/ieeaie iieo/aiey naaaeaiee
i oao oaeoao, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue ii aeaeo. Yoi aea?o
iniiaaiea n/eoaoue, /oi naie n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey ia?yaeo n
oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie ea?atho ?ieue noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ia
neo/aeii e caeii i?eiaiyao e n?aaenoaai aeieacuaaiey oa?iei
“aeieacaoaeuenoaa” (ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, aauanoaaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa). Eiia/ii, iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie e n?aaenoaaie
aeieacuaaiey eiathony ?acee/ey: oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua yaeythony
niaea?aeaieai noaeaaiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey –
aai oi?iie. Ia?ac?uaiay naycue oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaa
icia/aao, /oi a ethaii n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoueny
oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua, a, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua iiaoo
auoue iieo/aiu noaeii oieueei n iiiiuueth onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii n?aaenoa
aeieacuaaiey. N?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey, ia niaea?aeauea naaaeaiey i oaeoao
eeai niaea?aeauea naaaeaiey, iieo/aiiua ia ec onoaiiaeaiiuo a caeiia
enoi/ieeia, aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiiai cia/aiey ia eiatho.

Noaeaaiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa eniieuecothony a noaea a ii?aaeae?iiii
caeiiii ii?yaeea, o.a. a i?ioeannoaeueiie oi?ia. Eiia/ii, aeieacuaaiea a
iao/iie noa?a eee eniieueciaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa ai aianoaeaaiuo i?aaiao
oiaea i?ienoiaeeo oii?yaei/aiii. Iaeiaei yoi ia oio i?ioeannoaeueiue
ii?yaeie, eioi?ue i?eiaiyaony a oiaea aeieacuaaiey a noaea.
A?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiay oi?ia eniieueciaaiey noaeaaiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa ninoieo a oii, /oi, ai-ia?auo, a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa
aeieacuaaiey iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny oieueei oaeea enoi/ieee, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniio?aiiu AIE; ai-aoi?uo, aeieacaoaeuenoaa auyaeythony,
oeene?othony, niae?athony, eniieuecothony a ii?yaeea, eioi?ue aeaoaeueii
?aaeaiaioe?iaai caeiiii e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeioth nenoaio
acaeiinaycaiiuo o?aaiaaiee io iiiaioa auyaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaa aei aai
ioeaiee. Naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, iai?eia?, iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a
i?ionithciuo eiieoaoao, i?aaiao iiaee iiia/eoaeuenoaa e ae?oaeo i?aaiao.
Iaeiaei noaeaaiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey noaiiayony
oieueei a noaea. Oai iii auyaeyaony a niaoeeaeueiie i?ioeannoaeueiie
oi?ia (no.143 AIE Oe?aeiu), naeaeaoaeue aucuaaaony a noae a iniaii
ii?yaeea (no.90 AIE Oe?aeiu), ii ioaa/aao ca ioeac io iieacaiee e
caaea/o caaaaeiii eiaeiuo iieacaiee (no.41AIE Oe?aeiu)a niioaaonoaee
ni naeaeaiiui noaeii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai (no.182 AIE Oe?aeiu), a iniaii
ii?yaeea i?ienoiaeeo aeii?in naeaeaoaey (no. 168, 182 e ae?. AIE
Oe?aeiu) e o.ae. Oaeaea naeaeaoaeth a niioaaonoaee ni no. 63
Eiinoeoooeee Oe?aeiu ?acuyniyaony, /oi eeoei ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ioeac io aea/e iieacaiee a ioiioaiee naay eee aeeceeo ?iaenoaaiieeia,
e?oa eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiii.

Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iieo/aiiua n
ia?ooaieai caeiia, ia eiatho th?eaee/aneie neeu e ia iiaoo auoue
iieiaeaiu a iniiao ?aoaiey noaea.

Eoae, noaeaaiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie yaeythony ana oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua
(oaeou, naaaeaiey i oaeoao), a oaeaea n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey, eioi?ua a
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii i?ioeannoaeueiuo oi?iao eniieuecothony a noaea
aeey ananoi?iiiaai e iieiiai enneaaeiaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa e auianaiey
caeiiiiai e ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?aoaiey.

1.2 Eeanneoeeaoeey noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa

Iineieueeo i?aaeeiaeaiiia auoa ii?aaeaeaiea ioaaouaaao ?acii?iaeiua
yaeaiey (oaeou, naaaeaiey i oaeoao, n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey), iineieueeo
eeanneoeeaoeey aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny ii ianeieueeei
iniiaaieyi eee i?eciaeai. Oae, iai?eia?, aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiua oaeou
eeanneoeoee?othony ii iaeiiio i?eciaeo, a n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey ii
ae?oaei. Eeanneoeoee?oy aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iu oii?yaei/eaaai e iaeaa/aai
ec aiaeec, ia?auaai aieiaiea ia inaaiiinoe enneaaeiaaiey e ioeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa a caaeneiinoe io oiai ianoa, eioi?ia iie caiyee a
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiie nenoaia. Yoi eiaao eae oai?aoe/aneia, oae e aieueoia
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

Eeanneoeeaoeey aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiuo oaeoia. Aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii
eeanneoeeaoeee aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiuo oaeoia yaeyaony eo ?aca?aie/aiea ii
oa?aeoa?o nayce n eneiiui oaeoii ia i?yiua e einaaiiua. Eae iu
onoaiiaeee, aeieacaoaeuenoaaie yaeythony i?aaeaea anaai naie oaeou
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaaeaeo oaie oaeoaie, eioi?ua noae oaea
onoaiiaee, e oaie, eioi?ua ioaeii au? onoaiiaeoue, nouanoaotho
ii?aaeae?iiua nayce. A iaeieo neo/ayo nayce iinyo iaeiicia/iue oa?aeoa?,
e oiaaea iu eiaai aeaei n i?yiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo
oa?aeoa? nayce iiiaicia/ai, e iiyoiio aeieacaoaeuenoai yaeyaony
einaaiiui. Anee ii aeaeo ia onoiiaeaiee iooeianoaa ioaao/ee nnueaaony ia
oi, /oi ii a oa/aiee i?ieooi?a eao n iaoa?ueth ?aa?iea, oaeo aai
ionoonoaey yaeyaony i?yiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii eneeth/aiey iooeianoaa.
Iaaeaeo yoeie oaeoaie iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeia naycue, e iia iineo
io?eoeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?: iaeei oaeo eneeth/aao ae?oaie.

Ii aeaeo i aiciauaiee a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai enoi/ieeii iiauoaiiie
iianiinoe (no. 450 AE Oe?aeiu) iiae oi?aaeaieai a?-ia E., noae
onoaiiaee, /oi: a) iioa?iaaoee a iiiaio i?e/eiaiey a?aaea iaoiaeeeny a
ninoiyiee iiueyiaiey; a) iaacae ia iioa?iaaoaai i?iecio?e aia ciiu
iaoaoiaeiiai ia?aoiaea, ia i?iacaeae /anoe aei?iae, ia?aaeae?iiie io
iaoaoiaeiie aei?iaeee niaoeeaeueiui eonoa?ieeii; a) a ?acoeueoaoa
?aceiai oi?iiaeaiey, i?aaei?eiyoiai aiaeeoaeai, i?iecioei noieeiiaaiea
ianeieueeeo iaoei. Eaaeaeue ec oeacaiiuo oaeoia nai ii naaa ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeiu naiiai iioa?iaaoaai, ii a niaieoiiinoe iie aeatho
iniiaaiey aeey auaiaea i iaee/ee a?oaie iaa?aaeiinoe a aai aeaenoaeyo e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ionoonoaee aeiu o i?e/eieoaey. Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai
i?eia?a aeaeii, /oi eniieueciaaiea einaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa iaoneiaeaii
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eniieueciaaiey ianeieueeeo oaeoia, ia?acothueo
caieioooth oeaiue. Ii ia anaaaea oaea?ony nicaeaoue iiaeiaioth oeaiue e
naeaeaoue auaiae i nouanoaiaaiee eneiiiai oaeoa. Oiaaea einaaiiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai iiaeao eiaoue cia/aiea aeey noaea a ea/anoaa i?eaioe?a,
iai?aaeythuaai aieiaiea noaea ia iaenneaaeiaaiiue o/anoie aeaea. Ethaie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiue oaeo, ea?athuee ?ieue eae i?yiiai, oae e einaaiiiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, aeieaeai auoue aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeai noaeii. Iaeiaei
anee aeinoiaa?iinoue i?yiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaoneiaeeaaao e
aeinoiaa?iinoue eneiiiai oaeoa, n eioi?ui i?yiia aeieacaoaeuenoai
iaoiaeeony a iaeiicia/iie nayce, aeinoiaa?iinoue einaaiiiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?yii ia iaania/eaaao aeinoiaa?iinoe eneiiiai oaeoa,
aeey i?eciaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeia oeaiue (nenoaia)
ianeieueeeo einaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. E a yoii ioee/ea i?yiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa io einaaiiuo, o?aaothuaa io noaea iiauoaiiiai aieiaiey
e niae?aieth, enneaaeiaaieth e ioeaiee einaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa.

Eeanneoeeaoeey naaaeaiee i oaeoao e n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey. Iineieueeo
naaaeaiey i oaeoao yaeythony niaea?aeaieai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a n?aaenoaa
aeieacuaaiey eo oi?iie, eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeao auoue i?eiaieia e e oai, e
e ae?oaei.

Ii enoi/ieeo iie aeaeyony ia ee/iua e aauanoaaiiua. Iiae enoi/ieeii
iiieiaaony ii?aaeae?iiue iauaeo eee noauaeo, ia eioi?ii eee a niciaiee
eioi?iai iaoee io?aaeaiea ?acee/iua oaeou, eiathuea cia/aiea aeey aeaea.
A ?acoeueoaoa a iaeiii neo/aa enoi/ieeii naaaeaiee yaeyaony /aeiaae, a
ae?oaii – i?aaeiao, aauue. Ee/iua aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeaeyony ia aeaa
a?oiiu: a) iauyniaiey noi?ii e o?aoueeo eeoe; a) iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae.
Aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa (a oe?ieii niunea) aeaeyony ia a)
ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa e a) aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Iniaia
ianoi caieiatho caeeth/aiey yenia?oia, eioi?ua iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa niaoaiiiai aeaea aeieacaoaeuenoa: enoi/ieeii naaaeaiee,
niaea?aeaueony a caeeth/aiee, yaeyaony eeoei (yenia?o), naii aea
caeeth/aiea iniiaaii ia enneaaeiaaiee iiaeaa?aioouo yenia?oeca aauae,
i?aaeiaoia, oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia e o.ae. ?aca?aie/aiea
aeieacaoaeuenoa ii enoi/ieeo eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea n oi/ee c?aiey
iaoiaeeee eo i?ioeannoaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey, enneaaeiaaiey e ioeaiee.

Ii niiniao ia?aciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeaeyony ia ia?aiia/aeueiua e
i?iecaiaeiua. Naaaeaiey i oaeoao, iaoaaeoeo ioi?ieaiea a iaeiii ec
n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey (a iieacaieyo naeaeaoaeae, ienueiaiiuo eee
aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoaao e o.ae.), ia?acothony a ?acoeueoaoa
io?aaeaiey eaeiai-eeai yaeaiey eee ianoiyoaeuenoaa a niciaiee /aeiaaea
eeai ioo?i io?aaeaiey ia niioaaonoaothuai iaiaeooaae?iiii i?aaeiaoa. Yoi
ia?aiia/aeueiue yoai ia?aciaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa. Inoaaea neaae ia
i?aaeiaoa eee a niciaiee eeoea, oaeo iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iiaeao iaeoe aeaeueiaeoaa i?iecaiaeiia io?aaeaiea. Eeoei,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aini?eiyaoaa oaeo, iiaeao ?anneacaoue i i?i ae?oaei
eeoeai, i/aaeaeaoe eaeiai-eeai niauoey iiaeao caienaoue naie aia/aoeaiey
a aeiaaieea, eceiaeeoue a ienueia. I?aaeiao, ia eioi?ii inoaaeaiu
neaaeu, iiaeao auoue noioia?aoe?iaai, niyo ia eeiiie?ieo e o.ae. O
ia?aiia/aeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa anoue aannii?iua i?aeiouanoaa ii
n?aaiaieth n i?iecaiaeiuie. Ia?aiia/aeueiia aeieacaoaeuenoai anaaaea
aicieeaao ec ia?aienoi/ieea. Yoi – iiaeeeiiue aeieoiaio (oaeno
aeiaiai?a, naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?iaeaeaiee, a?aea, nia?oe, eaeoaioeey i
naea/a aauae ia o?aiaiea e o.ae.), iieacaiey naeaeaoaey-i/aaeaeoea, nai
nii?iue i?aaeiao e o.ae. I?iecaiaeiia aeieacaoaeuenoai aicieeaao ia aaca
ia?aiia/aeueiiai, iii oiaea iiaeao auoue aeinoiaa?iui, ii e aai ioeaiea
noae aeieaeai iiaeoiaeeoue n inoi?iaeiinoueth. Iieacaiey
naeaeaoaey-i/aaeaeoea iiaeii ia?ai?iaa?eoue, ooi/ieoue, yoe aea
naaaeaiey, eceiaeaiiua naeaeaoaeai a ienueia eee a aeiaaieea, eiiaaea
ia?ai?iaa?eoue aiiaua iaeuecy (a neo/aa nia?oe naeaeaoaey). Eiiey
aeieoiaioa, oioinieiie i?aaeiaoa, naeaeaoaeuenoai ii neooo e o.ae.,
eiia/ii iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a noaea, ii a eaaeaeii neo/aa o?aaotho
iniaaiii ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee.

1.3 Noaeaaiia aeieacuaaiea e aai noauaeou

Noaeaaiia aeieacuaaiea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae /anoueth noaeaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iicaieythuae noaeo inouanoaeoue i?eiaiaiea i?aaa e
aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeaiiui oaeoe/aneei ianoiyoaeuenoaai.

Iiiyoea aeieacuaaiey. Eniieueciaaiea a noaeaaiii i?ioeanna
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue i?ioeann, a eioi?ii oanii
ia?aieaoathony yaeaiey /enoi eiae/aneiai e
a?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiiai ii?yaeea. Anyeia aeieacuaaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iuneeoaeueioth, oinoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, e
noaeaaiia aeieacuaaiea ia yaeyaony caeanue eneeth/aieai. Aianoa n oai
aeieacuaaiea a noaea iie?aaony ia oieueei ia caeiiu eiaeee, ii
?aaoee?oaony e i?ioeannoaeueiuie ii?iaie, iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?othueie
aanue i?ioeann aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Caeii ii?aaeaeyao,
eoi aeieaeai caieiaoueny aeieacuaaieai, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeieacuaaoue,
eaeeie n?aaenoaaie yoi aeaeaoue e o.ae. A eeoa?aoo?a eiiaaea
i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee naanoe aeieacuaaiea eeai oieueei e oinoaaiiie,
eeai, iaiai?io, oieueei e i?ioeannoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi iaaa?ii.
Noaeaaiia aeieacuaaiea – iaeiia?aiaiii e i?ioeannoaeueiay, e eiae/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue. I?ioeannoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia auoue
aoeaaeueii i?iiecaia eiaeeie iuoeaiey, a naith i/a?aaeue iuneeoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue a oiaea noaeaaiiai aeieacuaaiey aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny
a ?aieao no?iaie i?ioeannoaeueiie oi?iu. Niaea?aeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe ii
aeieacuaaieth ii?aaeaeyaony ianeieueeeie caaea/aie, eioi?ua noiyo ia?aae
noaeii e eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a aeaea. Ia?aay ec ieo ninoieo a oii,
/oiau auyaeoue, nia?aoue, a a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo caoeene?iaaoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Aoi?ay – enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa, o?aouey – eo
ioeaiea. Caaea/a auyaeaiey e niae?aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa eanaaony aeaaiui
ia?acii eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea, oioy noae oiaea iaaeae?i
ii?aaeae?iiuie i?aaaie (no.30 AIE Oe?aeiu). Enneaaeiaaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoa inouanoaeyaony noaeii aianoa n eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a
aeaea. Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa ioiineony eneeth/eoaeueii e eiiiaoaioeee
noaea (no. 62 AIE). A oi aea a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue oanioth naycue
anao noi?ii aeayoaeueiinoe ii aeieacuaaieth. Oaeei ia?acii, noaeaaiia
aeieacuaaiea – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue noaea e eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea,
ii auyaeaieth, niae?aieth, enneaaeiaaieth e ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa,
iai?aaeaiiay ia onoaiiaeaiea oaeoia e ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo cia/aiea
aeey aeaea.

Noauaeou aeieacuaaiey. A nai? a?aiy ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi “noae yaeyaony
iniiaiui noauaeoii aeieacuaaiey”. Yoi niioaaonoaiaaei aeaenoaothuaio a
oi a?aiy caeiio, eioi?ue iaycuaae noae aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue a
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (no.30 AIE Oe?aeiu a ?aae. 1964 a.).
Iinea aianaiey eciaiaiee a no. 15, 30 AIE Oe?aeiu noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi
caeiiiaeaoaeue n/eoaao iniiaiuie noauaeoaie aeieacuaaiey noi?iiu e
ae?oaeo eeoe o/anoaothueo a aeaea, inaiaiaeaeay noae io eiia?aoeaiie
iaycaiiinoe “i?eieiaoue ana i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii ia?u aeey
ananoi?iiiaai, iieiiai e iauaeoeaiiai auyaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea” (no. 15 AIE Oe?aeiu- noa?ay ?aaeaeoeey).

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iniiaiuie noauaeoaie aeieacuaaiey yaeythony eeoea
o/anoaothuea a aeaea. Noi?iiu, o?aouee eeoea, cayaeoaee,
caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea aeoeaii o/anoaotho eae a niae?aiee, oae e a
enneaaeiaaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa. Eaaeaeay noi?iia aeieaeia aeieacaoue oa
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ia eioi?ua iia nnueaaony eae ia iniiaaiea naieo
o?aaiaaiee e aic?aaeaiee (no. 30 AIE Oe?aeiu). Yoi i?aaeei
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaeao iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
a aeaeao, aicieeathueo ec aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia?ooaiee.
Iai?aaenoaaeaiea yoeie eeoeaie aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao iiaea/ue aeey ieo
iaaeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey. I?ieo?i? e i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey eiatho i?aai i?aaenoaaeyoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa e o/anoaiaaoue a
eo enneaaeiaaiee. A nai?i caeeth/aiee iie aeieaeiu i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
nia?aiiua ii aeaeo aeieacaoaeuenoaa. A neo/ayo aicaoaeaeaiey aeaea eo
aeaaiay caaea/a ninoieo a oii, /oiau nia?aoue e i?aaenoaaeoue a noae
iaiaoiaeeiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a caoai i?eiyoue o/anoea a eo
enneaaeiaaiee. Noaeaaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee (no. 11–117 AIE Oe?aeiu) oaeaea
yaeythony noauaeoaie aeieacuaaiey, iie i?aaenoaaeytho aeieacaoaeuenoaa e
aeoeaii o/anoaotho a eo enneaaeiaaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii noauaeou aeieacuaaiey a /anoe niae?aiey e enneaaeiaaiey –
yoi noi?iiu e ae?oaea, o/anoaothuea a aeaea eeoea, a a /anoe ioeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa – noae, eioi?ue ioeaieaaao aeieacaoaeuenoaa ii
aioo?aiiaio oaaaeaeaieth, iniiaaiiiio ia aani?eno?anoiii, ananoi?iiiai e
iieiii ?anniio?aiee aeieacaoaeuenoa a eo niaieoiiinoe (no. 62 AIE
Oe?aeiu, a ?aaeaeoeee 1995 a.)

1.4 I?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey

Iu onoaiiaeee, eoi e n iiiiuueth eaeeo n?aaenoa aeieaeai inouanoaeyoue
aeieacuaaiea. Oaia?ue iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue aii?in i oii, /oi
aeieaeii auoue aeieacaii, o.a. ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey. Caeii
onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi aeieacuaaieth iiaeeaaeao ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
iainiiauaathuea o?aaiaaiey e aic?aaeaiey noi?ii, a oaeaea eiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eiathuea cia/aiea aeey aeaea (no. 1 no. 27 AIE
Oe?aeiu). Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey aeeth/aao a naay
neiaeioth niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia e ianoiyoaeuenoa. I?aaeaea
anaai i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony th?eaee/aneeie oaeoaie,
eaaeaueie a iniiaaiee enea eeai a iniiaaiee aic?aaeaiee ii iaio. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey a yoeo neo/ayo “ni?eaioe?iaai” ia ii?io
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa. Iai?eia?, eeoei, i?aaeuyaeaoaa ene i aiciauaiee
oua?aa, i?e/ei?iiiai caei?iaueth aeieaeii aeieacaoue, /oi aio
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?e/eiaii oaa/uea eee eiia iia?aaeaeaiea caei?iauey; a
?acoeueoaoa yoiai iia?aaeaeaiey ii oo?aoee ca?aaioie (aeioiae), eioi?ue
ii eiae eeai ii?aaeae?iii iia eiaoue; iioa?iaaoee aue auioaeaeai iiianoe
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu ia ea/aiea, aeiiieieoaeueiia ieoaiea,
i?eia?aoaiea eaea?noa, i?ioace?iaaiea, iinoi?iiiee ooiae,
naieoa?ii-eo?i?oiia ea/aiea, i?eia?aoaiea niaoeeaeueiuo o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa e o.ae.

Ii aeiaeeeaoeeiiiiio eneo enoaoe aeieaeai aeieacaoue oaeou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea i?aai nianoaaiiinoe eee i?aai caeiiiiai aeaaeaiey,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea, /oi eiouanoai auauei ec aeaaeaiey enooea iiieii aai
aiee e o.ae. Caeii eiiaaea i?yii ia?a/eneyao oa th?eaee/aneea oaeou,
eioi?ua aeey ioaao/eea iiaoo yaeoueny iniiaaieai aai aic?aaeaiee.
Aeaaeaeaoe enoi/ieea iiauoaiiie iianiinoe iiaeao nnueaoueny ia
iai?aiaeieeioth neeo eee oiunae iioa?iaaoaai (no. 450 AE Oe?aeiu), a a
ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo – ia a?oaoth iainoi?iaeiinoue naiiai iioa?iaaoaai
(no. 454 AE Oe?aeiu).

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaieai eneiauo
o?aaiaaiee e aic?aaeaiee noi?ii. Iaeiaei yoei ia en/a?iuaaaony i?aaeiao
aeieacuaaiey, oae eae caeii i?yii oeacuaaao ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue
onoaiiaeaiey iiieii iniiaaiee o?aaiaaiee e aic?aaeaiee noi?ii e eiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea. *oi yoi ca
ianoiyoaeuenoaa? Ai-ia?auo, naie noi?iiu ia anaaaea a ninoiyiee
i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaaiea naieo o?aaiaaiee eee aic?aaeaiee e
nineaoueny ia ana iaiaoiaeeiua oaeou. A oaeii neo/aa eieoeeaoeao a
ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey iiaeao i?iyaeoue noae, ii iiaeao
aeeth/eoue a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey e oaeea oaeou, ia eioi?ua noi?iiu ia
nnueathony. Ai-aoi?uo, a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey aeeth/athony ia oieueei
th?eaee/aneea oaeou iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a, ii e oaeou
i?ioeannoaeueiua. Oae, ii iaeioi?ui aeaeai enoaoe aeieaeai aeieacaoue
oaeo niaethaeaiey i?aoaiceiiiiai ii?yaeea. A neo/aa cayaeaiey
i?ioeannoaeueiiai oiaeaoaenoaa (ia ioaiaea, i i?einoaiiaeaiee
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia inoaaeaiee cayaeaiey aac ?anniio?aiey e o.ae.) eeoei,
o/anoaothuaa a aeaea, aeieaeii aeieacaoue oa ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ia eioi?ua
iii nnueaaony eae ia iniiaaiee naieo i?ioeannoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee. A-
o?aoueeo, a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey aoiaeyo e aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiua oaeou,
o.a. oaeea oaeoe/aneea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a noaea
aeey onoaiiaeaiey eneiiuo oaeoia, oioy naie ii naaa yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa
eaeeo-eeai iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee ia aeaeoo.

Aii?in i oii, aoiaeyo ee i?ioeannoaeueiua oaeou a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey,
yaeyaony nii?iui. Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u n/eoatho, /oi a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey
aoiaeyo oieueei th?eaee/aneea oaeou iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a.
Eceiaeaiiay iaie oi/ea c?aiey a iineaaeiea aiaeu iaoiaeeo an? aieueoa
noi?iiieeia. Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a nayce n ?acaeaeaieai
a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ia o?e aeaea aeieacuaaiey a iaeneiauo
i?iecaiaenoaao ii?aaeaeyaony no. 247 AIE Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay i?yii
iaycuaaao noae auynieoue oaeou, naycaiiua n i?aaeeueiinoueth e
caeiiiinoueth aeaenoaee aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaia. Noae, a /anoiinoe,
aeieaeai i?iaa?eoue: i?iecaiaeeony ee acuneaiea ia iniiaaiee caeiia e
oiieiiii/aiiui ia oi i?aaiii eee aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii; aue ee niaethae?i
onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie i?eaea/aiey eeoea, e eioi?iio i?aaeuyaeaii
o?aaiaaiea, e auiieiaieth aiceiaeaiiie ia iaai iaycaiiinoe; niaa?oee ee
ioo?aoiaaiiue ia?ooaiea e aeiiaai ee ii a niaa?oaiee yoiai ia?ooaiey; ia
i?aauoaao ee iaeiaeaiiue oo?ao onoaiiaeaiiue i?aaeaeueiue ?acia?; o/oaiu
ee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?acia?a oo?aoa oyaeanoue niaa?o?iiiai i?inooiea,
ee/iinoue aeiiaiiai e aai eiouanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea e o.ae.

A iniaii i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony iniiaaieyie
o?aaiaaiee cayaeoaey e iniiaaieyie aic?aaeaiee caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe,
anee iie auee eie naeaeaiu. Oae, iai?eia?, cayaeoaeue ii aeaeo
ianeaaenoaa, aeieaeai aeieacaoue, /oi a) ii iaoiaeeeny ia eaeaeeaaiee
ianeaaeiaaoaey; a) eaeaeeaaiea auei iieiui; a) eaeaeeaaiea
i?iaeieaeaeinue ia iaiaa iaeiiai aiaea aei nia?oe ianeaaeiaaoaey; a)
eaeaeeaaiaoe yaeyaony iao?oaeiniiniaiui eeoeii (no. 531 AE Oe?aeiu). Ii
aeaeai ia onoaiiaeaiee iaeioi?uo th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia (iai?eia?, oaeoa
?aaeno?aoeee ?iaeaeaiey, nia?oe e o.ae.) aeieacaoue oaeou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea iaaiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey iaaeeaaeaueo aeieoiaioia
eeai iaaiciiaeiinoue ainnoaiiaeaiey oo?a/aiiuo aeieoiaioia (no. 274 AIE
Oe?aeiu). A naith i/a?aaeue, caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea, i?eaea/?iiua e
aeaeo iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaoo aeieacuaaoue oaeou, iieiaeaiiua a
iniiao eo aic?aaeaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, ii aeaeo i i?eciaiee eeoea
iaaeaaniiniaiui aneaaenoaea aeooaaiie aieacie eee neaaioiey a?aaeaeaiei,
i i?eciaiee eioi?iai iaaeaaniiniaiui ?anniao?eaaaony aeaei, iiaeao
aeieacuaaoue, /oi, ianiio?y ia iaee/ea aeooaaiie aieacie, a? oa?aeoa? ia
iaoaao aio i?eieiaoue cia/aiea naieo aeaenoaee e ?oeiaiaeeoue eie, a
/anoiinoe, ?aaioaoue ii niaoeeaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, o/eouaay ana aeaeu noaeii?iecaiaenoaa a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeanna, a oaeaea oa?aeoa? anao iiaeeaaeaueo onoaiiaeaieth
ianoiyoaeuenoa, i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue eae
niaieoiiinoue oaeoia, onoaiiaeaiea eioi?uo iaania/eaaao i?aaeeueiia,
caeiiiia e iainiiaaiiia ?aoaiea a?aaeaeaineiai aeaea. I?aaeeueiia
ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey, o.a. e?oaa oao oaeoia e
ianoiyoaeuenoa, eioi?ua ioaeii onoaiiaeoue ii aeaeo, eiaao aieueoia
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea aeey auno?iai e i?aaeeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey aeaea.
Oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey ia/eiaaony oaea a noaaeee
aicaoaeaeaiey aeaea, i?iaeieaeaaony a oiaea iiaeaioiaee aeaea e
ieii/aoaeueii i?ienoiaeeo a noaaeee noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa. Noi?iiu
e ae?oaea eeoea, o/anoaothuea a aeaea, iiaoo ?anoe?eoue eee noaeaoue
e?oa oaeoia, aoiaeyueo a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey, a caaeneiinoe io
eciaiaiey oa?aeoa?a naieo eioa?ania (eciaiaiea iniiaaiey eee i?aaeiaoa
enea, i?eciaiea eee ioeac io enea, ie?iaia niaeaoaiea e o.ae.). A
eannaoeeiiiie e iaaeci?iie einoaioeeyo i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey iiaeao
auoue ?anoe?ai ca n/ao i?aaenoaaeaiey caeioa?aniaaiiuie eeoeaie
aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia.

Iaeioi?ua oaeou ia aoiaeyo a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey, oioy aac eo
onoaiiaeaiey iaaiciiaeii i?aaeeueiia ?ac?aoaiea aeaea. Ec yoiai
neaaeoao, /oi i?aaeiao noaeaaiiai iiciaiey ia niaiaaeaao n i?aaeiaoii
aeieacuaaiey. A i?aaeiao noaeaaiiai iiciaiey aoiaeyo e oaeea oaeou,
eioi?ua aeieacuaaoue ia ioaeii eeai a neeo eo iauaecaanoiinoe, eeai a
neeo i?athaeeoeee. Iauaecaanoiinoue oaeoa ii?aaeaeyaony noaeii (/. 1 no.
32 AIE Oe?aeiu). A oiaea ?anniio?aiey aeaea noae ?aoaao, iiaeii ee
i?eciaoue oaeo iauaecaanoiui, e anee i?ecia?o aai oaeiaui, oi ia o?aaoao
io noi?ii eee ae?oaeo eeoe, nnueathueony ia yoio oaeo, i?aaenoaaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa a aai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea. ?ani?inoai?iiinoue ciaiee i
oaeoa, aea e cia/eiinoue naiiai oaeoa iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie. Oaeou,
naycaiiua n niauoeyie ie?iaie enoi?ee, (aeaou ia/aea e eiioea Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, aeaoa ia?aiai iie?oa /aeiaaea a einiin e o.ae.),
ecaanoiu iianaianoii. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei, o/eouaaoue, /oi n oa/aieai
a?aiaie niauoey ecaanoiiai ?iaea oo?a/eaatho ea/anoai iauaecaanoiinoe.
Ia an? inoa?ony a iaiyoe iaanaaaea. Oae, a eiioea 40-o e a ia/aea 60-o
aiaeia auee iauaecaanoiu aeaiaaeiua ?aoi?iu, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi
ecaanoii aeaeaei ia anai, e a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe niioaaonoaothuea
oaeou aeieaeiu auoue onoaiiaeaiu n iiiiuueth aeieacaoaeuenoa. Eiiaaea
iauaecaanoiinoue oaeoa aiiaua ia iineo iianaianoiiai oa?aeoa?a, iia
eieaeueii, ia?aie/aia ii?aaeae?iiie ianoiinoueth. Auei au iaaa?iui
o?aaiaaoue io caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe iaycaoaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oaeeo oaeoia, iineieueeo eo
ecaanoiinoue ia?aie/aia. Oaeo iaaiaeiaiey, caieao?ynaiey, eaniiai
iiaea?a eee ae?oaiai noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii
ecaanoai eiaiii a aeaiiie ianoiinoe, e noae iiaeao i?eciaoue iiaeiaiua
oaeou ia ioaeaeathueieny a aeieacuaaiee a neeo eo iauaecaanoiinoe,
naeaeaa niioaaonoaothuoth nnueeo ia yoi a noaeaaiii ?aoaiee.

I?athaeeoeey (i?aae?aoaiea) eneeth/aao ec i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey oaeou,
eioi?ua oaea auee onoaiiaeaiu a ae?oaii aeaea e cae?aieaiu anooieaoeie a
caeiiioth neeo noaeaaiuie iinoaiiaeaieyie. Acaeiiie i?athaeeoeee naycaiu
?aoaiea noaea ii iaeiiio a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo e ?aoaiea noaea ii
ae?oaiio aeaeo, ?aoaiea noaea ii a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo e i?eaiai? ii
oaieiaiiio aeaeo, i?eaiai? noaea ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo e ?aoaiea ii
a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo, Oae, oaeou, onoaiiaeaiiua anooieaoei a caeiiioth
neeo ?aoaieai noaea ii iaeiiio a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo, ia aeieacuaathony
i?e ?acae?aoaeuenoaa ae?oaeo a?aaeaeaineeo aeae, a eioi?uo o/anoaotho oa
aea eeoea (/.2 no. 32 AIE Oe?aeiu).

I?e i?aaeuyaeaiee ?aa?anneaiiai enea e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio i?e/eieoaeth
a?aaea (oioa?o) aeaaeaeaoe enoi/ieea iiauoaiiie iianiinoe
(aaoii?aaei?eyoea) ia aeieaeai aoi?e/ii aeieacuaaoue oaeo i?e/eiaiey
a?aaea iioa?iaaoaio, anee yoio oaeo aue onoaiiaeai i?e ?anniio?aiee
iniiaiiai enea e caoeene?iaai a ?aoaiee ii aeaeo, eioi?ia anooieei a
neeo. Caeii i?aaeinoaaeyao i?aai caeioa?aniaaiiiai eeoea inia?eaaoue
onoaiiaeaiiue anooieaoei a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaieai oaeo, anee yoi eeoei
ia i?eaeaeaeinue noaeii e o/anoeth a aeaea. Oae, iai?eia?, i?iaeaaaoe,
ia i?eaea/?iiue e o/anoeth a aeaea i aeiaeeeaoeee i?iaeaiiie aaue o
iieoiaoaey, eiaao i?aai inia?eaaoue oaeou, naycaiiua n i?aaeeueiinoueth
aaaeaiey aeaea iieoiaoaeai. Caeioa?aniaaiiia eeoei, ia i?eaea/?iiia e
o/anoeth a aeaea ia onoaiiaeaiee th?eaee/aneiai oaeoa (no. 273 AIE
Oe?aeiu), iiaeao inia?eaaoue onoaiiaeaiiue oaeo a ae?oaii i?ioeanna,
anee oaeie aicieeaao aeey ?ac?aoaiey nii?a i i?aaa a ii?yaeea eneiaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii iiyoiio /.2 no. 32 AIE Oe?aeiu iiae/??eeaaao, /oi
i?athaeeoeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony eeoue ia oao eeoe, eioi?ua o/anoaiaaee a
ia?aiia/aeueiii aeaea.

Anooieaoee a caeiiioth neeo i?eaiai? noaea ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo
iaycaoaeai aeey noaea, ?anniao?eaathuaai aeaei i a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo
iineaaenoaeyo aeaenoaee eeoea, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai ninoiyeny i?eaiai?,
eeoue ii aii?inai i oii, eiaee ee ianoi aeaenoaey e niaa?oaiu ee iie
aeaiiui eeoeii . Caeii iiae/??eeaaao, /oi i?athaeeoeey i?eaiai?a ii
oaieiaiiio aeaeo ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey
aeaenoaee eeoea, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai ninoiyeny i?eaiai?. Ia ae?oaeo
eeoe i?athaeeoeey oaeoia, onoaiiaeaiiuo a i?eaiai?a ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony.
Oae oaeou, onoaiiaeaiiua i?eaiai?ii ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo ia oaeenoaa, ia
iiaeeaaeao aoi?e/iiio onoaiiaeaieth i?e ?anniio?aiee a?aaeaeaineiai
aeaea i aiciauaiee oua?aa a nayce n iioa?ae ei?ieeueoea.

I?athaeeoeey i?eaiai?a ia?aie/eaaaony eeoue aeaoiy oaeoaie: “eiaee ee
ianoi aeaenoaey” e “niaa?oaiu ee iie aeaiiui eeoeii” . Ana ae?oaea
oaeou, onoaiiaeaiiua i?eaiai?u, a oii /enea e aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe
eeoea, i?athaeeoeeaeueiiai cia/aiey ia eiatho. Iiyoiio, anee eeoei
inaiaiaeaeaii io ioauoey oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey aaeaeo aeoa aiienoee, yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai ia eneeth/aao ?anniio?aiea a ii?yaeea a?aaeaeaineiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa aii?ina i aai a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.
Iaeiia?aiaiii eiaao ianoi i?athaeeoeey noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey ii ioiioaieth
e oaieiaiiio aeaeo. Anooieaoea a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeaiea
eee iinoaiiaeaiea noaea ii a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo iaycaoaeueii aeey noaea,
i?ieo?i?a, neaaeiaaoaey e eeoea, i?iecaiaeyuaai aeiciaiea i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo, oieueei ii aii?ino i oii, eiaeinue ee
niauoea eee aeaenoaea, ii ia a ioiioaiee aeiiaiinoe iaaeiyaiiai. Oae,
iai?eia?, i?e ?anniio?aiee a?aaeaeaineiai aeaea i aiciauaiee a?aaea,
i?e/ei?iiiai enoi/ieeii iiauoaiiie iianiinoe (no. 450 AE Oe?aeiu),
onoaiiaeaiiua noaeii oaeou aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey e
oi?aaeaiey o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaii a iiiaio i?ienoanoaey ioaao/eeii, ia
aeieaeiu aoi?e/ii aeieacuaaoueny i?e ?anniio?aiee oaieiaiiai aeaea,
aicaoaeaeaiiiai i?ioea ioaao/eea.

AEAAA II. AeIEACUAAIEA A A?AAEAeAINEII I?IOeANNA

2.1 Iauea i?aaeea aeieacuaaiey

Aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?oaony caeiiiii
e aaaaeaia a /?oeea i?ioeannoaeueiua ?aiee. Yoa aeayoaeueiinoue
iai?aaeyaony iaueie i?eioeeiaie i?ioeanna (ninoycaoaeueiinoue,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoue e o.ae.) e aeaoaeece?oaony ia anao noaaeeyo
i?ioeanna. Eaaeaeia aeaenoaea noaea eee eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea, ii
niae?aieth, enneaaeiaaieth eee ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa iiae/eiyaony
i?ioeannoaeueiui i?aaeeai. A ?yaeo yoeo i?aaee iniaia ianoi caieiatho
iauea i?aaeea aeieacuaaiey: a) ioiineiinoue aeieacaoaeuenoa; a)
aeiionoeiinoue aeieacaoaeuenoa e a) ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae ii
aeieacuaaieth.

I?aaeei ioiineiinoe iaycuaaao noae i?eieiaoue a i?ioeanna oieueei oa ec
i?aaenoaaeyaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, eioi?ua eiatho cia/aiea aeey aeaea (no.
28 AIE Oe?aeiu), o.a. ioiinyony e aeaeo. Aeieacaoaeuenoai oiaaea eiaao
cia/aiea aeey aeaea, eiaaea iii iiaeao eiaoue nayce n eneiiuie oaeoaie,
aoiaeyueie a i?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey. Caaea/a noaea ninoieo a oii, /oiau
i?eaea/ue a aeaei an? iaiaoiaeeiua, eiathuea cia/aiea aeey aeaea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa e iaeiia?aiaiii ia aeiionoeoue caa?iiiaeaeaiea aai
iaoa?eaeaie e oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie, eioi?ua e aeaeo ia ioiinyony.
I?aaeei ioiineiinoe oanii naycaii n i?aaeiaoii aeieacuaaiey. A ninoaa
i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey aeieaeiu aeeth/aoueny eeoue oaeea oaeou e
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua eiatho cia/aiea aeey aeaea, o.a. iicaieytho ia
eo iniiaa ?ac?aoeoue nii?, onoaiiaeoue iaiaoiaeeiue oaeo e o.ae. Oae,
iai?eia?, anee ii aeaeo i eeoaiee ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aa eee ii aeaeo i
auianaiee aaeaeo iaaiciiaeiinoe niaianoiiai i?iaeeaaiey, eeai ii aeaeo i
ainnoaiiaeaiee oaieaiiiai ca i?iaoe aeieaeai enneaaeiaaoue
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ee/iinoue e iiaaaeaiea ioaao/eea eee
enooea, oi ii eneo i acuneaiee aeieaa enneaaeiaaiea iiaeiaiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa ia eiatho cia/aiea aeey aeaea.

A oiaea iiaeaioiaee aeaea e noaeaaiiio ?acae?aoaeuenoao noaeuey iaycai
ioia?aoue an? ioiinyuaany e aeaeo oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua. Yoa aea
iaycaiiinoue eaaeeo ia noaea e a noaaeee noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa.
Caeii i?yii iaycuaaao i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaai ono?aiyoue ec aeaea an?,
ia eiathuea ioiioaiey e ?anniao?eaaaiiio aeaeo (/. 2 no. 162 AIE
Oe?aeiu). Noi?iiu e ae?oaea eeoea, o/anoaothuea a aeaea, nnueaynue ia
ii?aaeae?iiua oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua e n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey, iaycaiu
oeacaoue ia niaea?aeaiea yoeo aeaiiuo eee n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey, /oiau
noae iia noaeeoue ia eo ioiineiinoe e aeaeo.

Oae, eeoei, i?aaenoaaeythuea ienueiaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai eee
oiaeaoaenoaothuaa i aai eno?aaiaaiee, iaycaii oeacaoue, eaeea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eiathuea cia/aiea aeey aeaea, iiaoo auoue ei
onoaiiaeaiu. Oaeia aea i?aaeei aeaenoaoao a ioiioaiee naeaeaoaeueneeo
iieacaiee, aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa .

I?aaeei ioiineiinoe iaycuaaao noae auynieoue e enneaaeiaaoue an?
ioiinyuaany e aeaeo oaeou e ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Iieiioa iaoa?eaeia aeaea
iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue ioeaie i?e iainiiaaiee noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey.
Iaeiia?aiaiii ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey
niioaaonoaothueo oaeoia iiaeao auoue i/aiue iiiai. Naeaeaoaeyie
ian/anoiiai neo/ay ia oeeoea iiaeao auoue ianeieueei aeanyoeia /aeiaae;
aieueoia /enei ethaeae iiaeao aeaoue naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey i
acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie (i?e ?ac?aoaiee nii?a i ia?aaea/a
?aa?iea ia ainieoaiea io iaeiiai ?iaeeoaey e ae?oaiio) e o.ae.
Iaiaoiaeeii ee anao aiciiaeiuo naeaeaoaeae aucuaaoue a noae? Caaea/a
noaea ninoieo a oii, /oiau auyaeoue oa ec aiciiaeiuo n?aaenoa
aeieacuaaiey, eioi?ua iaeaieaa aeecei e iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n
eneiiuie oaeoaie, n oai, iaeiaei, /oiau eo eiee/anoai auei aeinoaoi/iui
aeey aeinoiaa?iiai onoaiiaeaiey yoeo oaeoia. Ioiineiinoue
aeieacaoaeuenoa ii?aaeaeyaony noaeii ia iniiaaiee noaeaeneiai
oaaaeaeaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia aiaeeca anao iaoa?eaeia ?anniao?eaaaiiai
aeaea.

I?aaeei aeiionoeiinoe onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea, eioi?ua
ii caeiio aeieaeiu auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu ii?aaeae?iiuie n?aaenoaaie
aeieacuaaiey, ia iiaoo iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny ieeaeeie ae?oaeie n?aaenoaaie
aeieacuaaiey . Aeiionoeiinoue a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna ia?ac?uaii
naycaia n onoaiiaeaiiuie a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa oi?iaie naeaeie e
iineaaenoaeyie ianiaethaeaiey onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii oi?iu. Anee au
caeiiiaeaoaeue ia onoaiiaee niioaaonoaothueo i?aaee i oi?iao naeaeie a
iaeanoe a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaiia?ooaiee, i?aaeei aeiionoeiinoe a
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna auei au eceeoiei. Eae ecaanoii, ianiaethaeaiea
o?aaoaiie caeiiii oi?iu i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee aea/?o
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee a neo/ayo, i?yii oeacaiiuo a caeiia. Oae,
iai?eia?, aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee aeiia (iaaeaeaeeiinoe) aeieaeai auoue
niaa?o?i a ienueiaiiie oi?ia ioo?i ninoaaeaiey iaeiiai aeieoiaioa,
iiaeienaiiiai noi?iiaie ( co. no. 226-227 AE Oe?aeiu). Ianiaethaeaiea
oi?iu aeiaiai?a i?iaeaaee iaaeaeaeeiinoe aea/?o aai
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue (no. 47 AE Oe?aeiu). Ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie
ienueiaiiie oi?iu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie naeaeee aea/?o
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee (/. 2 no. 45 AE Oe?aeiu).

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea caeii i?yii ia aiai?eo i iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
ianiaethaeaiea oi?iu caeeth/aiey naeaeee aea/?o iaaiciiaeiinoue
eniieueciaaiea noi?iiaie ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey a
niioaaonoaee n 46 AE Oe?aeiu “ianiaethaeaiea o?aaoaiie caeiiii i?inoie
ienueiaiiie oi?iu eeoaao noi?iiu i?aaa, a neo/aa nii?a, nnueaoueny a
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea naeaeee ia naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, a a neo/ayo i?yii
oeacaiiuo a caeiia, aea/ao ca niaie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee n
iineaaenoaeyie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie /anoueth aoi?ie noaouee 48 AE
Oe?aeiu”.

Ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeeii ioiineiinoe i?aaeei aeiionoeiinoe iineo aieaa
oceee oa?aeoa?. Ioiineiinoue eanaaony eae oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, oae e
n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey; ioiineiinoue yaeyaony iauei i?aaeeii, a
aeiionoeiinoue – aai naiaia?aciui aeiiieiaieai. Aeieacaoaeuenoai iiaeao,
iai?eia?, ioiineoueny e aeaeo (naeaeaoaeue i?enoonoaiaae i?e caeeth/aiee
aeiaiai?a caeia ia noiio ?aaioth aeaaaeoeaoe ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ia
iieaou o?oaea), ii aai iaeuecy aeiionoeoue a i?ioeanna, oae eae caeii
?ac?aoaao iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue yoio oaeo a noaea oieueei ienueiaiiuie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie. Anee i?aaeei ioiineiinoe naycuaaao noae
ioiineoaeueii ii?aaeae?iii, oi i?aaeei aeiionoeiinoe eiaao eiia?aoeaiue
oa?aeoa?. Noae ia iiaeao ii naiaio oniio?aieth aeiionoeoue eee ia
aeiionoeoue naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, ii iaycai a neeo i?yiiai oeacaiey
caeiia eneeth/eoue ec noa?u aeieacuaaiey ioaeaeueiua n?aaenoaa
aeieacuaaiey, iacaaeneii io eo niaea?aeaiey e cia/aiey aeey aeaea.

I?aaeea ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaycaiiinoae ii aeieacuaaieth iniiaaiu ia iauai
iieiaeaiee: iaycaiiinoue aeieacuaaiey aiceaaaaony ia eeoei, eioi?ia
auaeaeaaao niioaaonoaothuaa o?aaiaaiea eee aic?aaeaiea. A ioee/ea io
oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna, a eioi?ii aeaenoaoao i?acoiioeey
(i?aaeiieiaeaiea) iaaeiiaiinoe, a neeo eioi?ie iaycaiiinoue aeieacuaaiey
aeiu iaaeiyaiiai eaaeeo ia iaaeieoaea, a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna
aeaenoaoao i?acoiioeey iaioaaonoaaiiinoe, a neeo eioi?ie iaycaiiinoue
aeieacuaaiey oaeoia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i niaa?oaiee ioaao/eeii
ia?ooaiey i?aaa, eaaeeo ia enooea. Anee enoaoe ia niiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue
aeieacaoaeuenoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo aai o?aaiaaiea, a eieoeeaoeaa noaea
a yoii iai?aaeaiee oaeaea ia aeaea ?acoeueoaoia, a enea aeieaeii auoue
ioeacaii a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie no. 30 AIE Oe?aeiu. A ioaeaeueiuo
neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii, iaycaiiinoe ii aeieacuaaieth
?ani?aaeaeythony iniaui ia?acii a neeo onoaiiaeaiiie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie i?acoiioeee. Oae, iai?eia?, onoaiiaeaiu:
i?acoiioeey aeiu i?e/eieoaey a?aaea (/. 2 no. 440 AE Oe?aeiu);
i?acoiioeey aeiu ?ani?ino?aieoaey ii?i/aueo naaaeaiee (/. 1 no. 7 AE
Oe?aeiu) e ae?. Aeaenoaea i?acoiioeee ia inaiaiaeaeaao eeoei io
iaycaiiinoae aeieacuaaiey aiiaua, ii ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao yoe iaycaiiinoe
iniaui ia?acii, aiceaaay iaycaiiinoue aeieacuaaiey iaeioi?uo oaeoia ia
ioaao/eea. Enoaoe aeieaeai aeieacaoue iaee/ea oneiaee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
i?eiaiaiey i?acoiioeee. Iioa?iaaoee, iai?eia?, aeieaeai aeieacaoue, /oi
aio aeaenoaeoaeueii i?e/ei?i iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a e oua?a yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaee ioaao/eea. N yoiai iiiaioa ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue
i?acoiioeey aeiu ioaao/eea e eiaiii ii aeieaeai aeieacaoue, /oi a?aae
i?e/ei?i ia ii aai aeia. Aeaenoaea i?acoiioeee eiaao i?aaeaea anaai
i?ioeannoaeueiia cia/aiea, oae eae ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao iaycaiiinoe ii
aeieacuaaieth, ii a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo i?eiaiaiea i?acoiioeee iiaeao
aea/ue iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey. Anee i?e/eieoaeue a?aaea
(ioaao/ee) ia niiaeao aeieacaoue ionoonoaea aeiu a naieo aeaenoaeyo,
noae aeieaeai oaeiaeaoai?eoue ene, oioy o iaai iiaeao e ia auoue i?yiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa aeiu i?e/eieoaey. A iniiao oaeiai noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey
aoaeao iieiaeaia caeiiiay i?acoiioeey. I?acoiioeey, i?aaeoniio?aiiay
caeiiii, ii?iaa?aeeia. Ana caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea ai?aaa inia?eaaoue
i?aaeeiaeaiea, noi?ioee?iaaiiia a caeiia, e aeieacuaaoue aai
iaiainiiaaiiinoue. Noae aeieaeai eniieueciaaoue aeaenoaea i?acoiioeee
aeey aeoeaecaoeee aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe caeioa?aniaaiiuo
eeoe, a oi aea a?aiy no?aiynue e onoaiiaeaieth ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea a
iieiii niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.

2.2 I?ioeann aeieacuaaiey

I?ioeann aeieacuaaiey neeaaeuaaaony ec o??o iai?aaeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua iu aiaeece?oai a
niioaaonoaothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiay a aeaeo, /oi ana yoe
iai?aaeaiey ia?ac?uaii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie.

Auyaeaiea, niae?aiey e i?aaenoaaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa. A niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii ninoycaoaeueiinoe auyaeyoue, niae?aoue e i?aaenoaaeyoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu noi?iiu, aeaeiaueee, cayaeoaee e ae?oaea
eeoea, o/anoaothuea a aeaea. Noae iiaeao iiiiaaoue yoei eeoeai, a a
iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo aeaenoaiaaoue ii naiae eieoeeaoeaa (no. 30 AIE
Oe?aeiu). A eneiaii cayaeaiee enoaoe aeieaeai oeacaoue ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ia eioi?uo ii iniiauaaao nai? o?aaiaaiea, e
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea eceiaeaiiua enooeii ianoiyoaeuenoaa
(i. 4-5 no. 137 AIE Oe?aeiu). Ii aeaeai iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa caeii
iaycuaaao cayaeoaeae i?aaenoaaeyoue niioaaonoaothuea aeieacaoaeuenoaa
oaea i?e iiaea/a cayaeaiey (no. 250, 253, 259, 265 AIE). Anee a eneiaii
cayaeaiee, aeaeiaa eee cayaeaiee ii aeaeai iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa
eiathony iaaeinoaoee, naycaiiua n i?aaenoaaeaieai aeieacaoaeuenoa,
noaeuey i?eiaieoaeueii e no. 130 AIE aea?o enooeai, aeaeiaueeai eee
cayaeoaeyi n?ie, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey eni?aaeaiey iaaeinoaoeia,
iaeiia?aiaiii i?eieiay ia?u ii eno?aaiaaieth iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa io naiaai eiaie.

Iiaeaioiaea aeaea e noaeaaiiio ?acae?aoaeuenoao a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
naycaia n auyaeaieai, niae?aieai e i?aaenoaaeaieai aeieacaoaeuenoa. A
niioaaonoaee ni no. 143 AIE Oe?aeiu noaeuey ii?aoeaaao enooea ii
nouanoao eneiauo o?aaiaaiee, auyniyao o iaai aiciiaeiua aic?aaeaiey ni
noi?iiu ioaao/eea, i?aaeeaaaao a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaenoaaeyoue
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Noaeuey ?ac?aoaao aii?in i auciaa
naeaeaoaeae, i?iecaiaenoaa yenia?oecu e o.ae. Iniaua ia?u ii niae?aieth
aeieacaoaeuenoa a yoie noaaeee noaeuey inouanoaeyao ii aeaeai iniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa (no.no. 254, 258, 263 AIE Oe?aeiu). Aeieacaoaeuenoaa
auyaeythony, niae?athony e i?aaenoaaeythony a noaaeee noaeaaiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa. Ia/eiay n iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie /anoe e aei auianaiey
?aoaiey ii aeaeo caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea, a oaeaea noae iiaoo i?eieiaoue
ia?u ii i?eaea/aieth a i?ioeanna aeieacaoaeuenoa, eioi?ua ia auee
i?aaeuyaeaiu a noae a noaaeee aicaoaeaeaiey eee iiaeaioiaee aeaea. Anee
ai a?aiy i?aiee eee caeeth/aiey i?ieo?i?a, a oaeaea a iiiaio auianaiey
?aoaiey noae i?ecia?o iaiaoiaeeiui auynieoue iiaua ianoiyoaeuenoaa eee
enneaaeiaaoue iiaua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii auiineo ii?aaeaeaiea i
aiciaiiaeaiee ?anniio?aiey aeaea ii nouanoao (no. 196 AIE Oe?aeiu). A
eannaoeeiiioth e iaaeci?ioth einoaioeee caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea iiaoo
i?aaenoaaeoue iiaua iaoa?eaeu.

Ia?aia iai?aaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe naycaii n aeaoiy
iniauie neo/ayie auyaeaiey e oeene?iaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa.

Noaeaaiia ii?o/aiea i?eiaiyaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
aeaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaoiaeyony a ae?oaie ianoiinoe. Noae,
?anniao?eaathuee aeaei, iiaeao ii?o/eoue noaeo ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?iecaanoe i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey ii auyaeaieth,
niae?aieth e enneaaeiaaieth iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. A ii?aaeaeaiee
i noaeaaiii ii?o/aiee eceaaaaony nouanoai ?anniao?eaaaiiai aeaea,
oeacuaathony ianoiyoaeuenoaa, iiaeeaaeauea auyniaieth, e
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua ioaeii nia?aoue. Noaeaaiia ii?o/aiea
iaycaoaeueii aeey noaea, eioi?iio iii aae?aniaaii, e aeieaeii auoue
eniieiaii a n?ie aei aeanyoe aeiae (no. 33 AIE Oe?aeiu). Auiieiyy
noaeaaiia ii?o/aiea, noae auyaeyao ioiinyuaany e aeaeo aeieacaoaeuenoaa,
a caoai enneaaeoao eo a nai?i noaeaaiii canaaeaiee n auciaii anao
o/anoaothueo a aeaea eeoe, iayaea eioi?uo ia i?aiyonoaoao auiieiaieth
ii?o/aiey. Naeaeaoaee aeii?aoeaathony ii iiaiaeo oao ianoiyoaeuenoa,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue auyniaiu, e eo iieacaiey oeene?othony a i?ioieiea
noaeaaiiai canaaeaiey. Aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa iniao?eaathony n
caianaieai ?acoeueoaoia iniio?a a i?ioieie, yenia?ou aeatho caeeth/aiea.
Ana nia?aiiua ii aeaeo iaoa?eaeu (i?ioieieu, ienueiaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ienueiaiiua caeeth/aiey yenia?oia e o.ae.) iaiaaeeaiii
iai?aaeythony a noae, ?anniao?eaathuee aeaei. Anee eeoea, o/anoaothuea a
aeaea, a oaeaea naeaeaoaee, aeaaaaoea iieacaiey noaeo, auiieiyaoaio
ii?o/aiea, yayony a noae, ?anniao?eaathuee aeaei, iie aeatho iauyniaiey
e iieacaiey a iauai ii?yaeea ( /. 5 no. 33 AIE Oe?aeiu).

Iaania/aiea aeieacaoaeuenoa. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eeoea, caeioa?aniaaiiua
a i?aaenoaaeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa, iianathony, /oi yoi iiaeao ieacaoueny
aeey ieo iaaiciiaeiui eee cao?oaeieoaeueiui (naeaeaoaeue iiaeao oaoaoue
a eiiaiaee?iaeo, ea/ue a aieueieoeo, aauanoaaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai
iiaeao eciaieoue naie aiaoiee aeae, ea/anoai, naienoai e o.ae.). A yoii
neo/aa iie iiaoo i?ineoue noae ia iaania/aiee aeieacaoaeuenoa.
Iaania/aiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – iniaue niinia eo oeene?iaaiey, i?eiaiyaiue
aei enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa a noaeaaiii canaaeaiee, anee anoue
iniiaaiey iianaoueny, /oi eo i?aaenoaaeaiea noaeo a aeaeueiaeoai noaiao
iaaiciiaeiui eee cao?oaeieoaeueiui. Aei aicaoaeaeaiey aeaea a noaea
aeieacaoaeuenoai iaania/eaaaony iioa?eaeueiuie eiioi?aie, a iinea
aicaoaeaeaiey aeaea – oai noaeii, a ?aeiia aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?iai
aeieaeiu auoue niaa?oaiu i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey ii iaania/aieth
aeieacaoaeuenoa (no. 35, 37 AIE Oe?aeiu). Cayaeaiea ia iaania/aiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaea?ony noi?iiaie e ae?oaeie eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a
aeaea, n oeacaieai, eaeea aeieacaoaeuenoaa ioaeii iaania/eoue, a
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoa ioaeiu aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii eaeie
i?e/eia cayaeoaeue ia?auaaony n i?inueaie, a oaeaea aeey eaeiai aeaea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeiu (no. 37 AIE Oe?aeiu). Iaania/aiea
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?iecaiaeeony noaeue?e. Cayaeoaeue e ae?oaea eeoea,
o/anoaothuea a aeaea, ecaauathony i a?aiaie e ianoa iaania/aiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa, ii eo iayaea ia i?aiyonoaoao ?anniio?aieth cayaeaiey.
I?ioieieu e ana nia?aiiua ii aeaeo iaoa?eaeu ia?anueathony a noae,
?anniao?eaathuee aeaei (no. 36 AIE Oe?aeiu).

Enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa. Enneaaeiaaiea noaeaaiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa
– yoi aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aini?eyoea, i?iaa?ea iaeiiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa n iiiiuueth ae?oaeo, auyaeaiea e ono?aiaiea
i?ioeai?a/ee, anee iie eiathony a i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoaao.
Aeieacaoaeuenoaa enneaaeothony noaeii e eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a aeaea.
Noae aicaeaaeyao aeayoaeueiinoue ii enneaaeiaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Ii
caneooeaaao iauyniaiey eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea, aeii?aoeaaao
naeaeaoaeae e yenia?oia, ciaeiieony n ienueiaiiuie e aauanoaaiiuie
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie (no. 160 AIE Oe?aeiu). Iaeiia?aiaiii aeieacaoaeuenoaa
aeieaeiu auoue enneaaeiaaiu anaie eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a aeaea.
Acaeiinaycue aeaenoaee noaea ii enneaaeiaaieth aeieacaoaeuenoa n
aeaenoaeyie eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea, – aaaeiia oneiaea aeinoeaeaiey
oniaoa a auyaeaiee e onoaiiaeaiee oaeoi?ia e ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo
cia/aiea aeey aeaea.

Enneaaeiaaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa i?iecaiaeeony ?acee/iuie niiniaaie,
i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo caaeneo io aeaea niioaaonoaothuaai n?aaenoaa
aeieacuaaiey. Iauyniaiey noi?ii e o?aoueeo eeoe caneooeaathony noaeii
(no. 180 AIE Oe?aeiu), i?e/?i noae e eeoea, o/anoaothuea a aeaea, iiaoo
caaeaaaoue noi?iiai e o?aoueei eeoeai aii?inu. A neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe
noae iiaeao i?iecaanoe aoi?e/iue aeii?in, a oaeaea i?iaanoe i/ioth
noaaeo iaaeaeo naeaeaoaeyie aeey auyniaiey i?ioeai?a/ee a eo iieacaieyo.
Ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ienueiaiiua iauyniaiey eeoe, o/anoaothueo
a aeaea, a oaeaea ienueiaiiua iaoa?eaeu, iieo/aiiua n iiiiuueth
noaeaaiiai ii?o/aiey eee a ?acoeueoaoa iaania/aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa,
iaeaoathony a noaeaaiii canaaeaiee e i?aaeuyaeythony aeey iciaeiieaiey
eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a aeaea, noaeaaiui i?aaenoaaeoaeyi, a a
iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo yenia?oai e naeaeaoaeyi. Aauanoaaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iniao?eaathony noaeii e i?aaeuyaeythony aeey
iciaeiieaiey eeoeaie, o/anoaothuei a aeaea, i?aaenoaaeoaeyi, a a
iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo yenia?oai e naeaeaoaeyi (no. 188 AIE Oe?aeiu).
Iniio? ia ianoa i?eiaiyaony aeey enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa. E
i?ioieieo iiaoo auoue i?eeiaeaiu ninoaaeaiiua eee i?iaa?i/iua i?e
iniio?a ieaiu, /a?oaaee, noaiu. A iniio?a iiaoo o/anoaiaaoue eeoea,
o/anoaothuea a aeaea, a a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo naeaeaoaee e yenia?ou
(no. 189 AIE Oe?aeiu).

Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – caaa?oathuee yoai i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey. Yoi
o?aouea iai?aaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?ac?uaii
naycaii n aeaoiy ia?auie. Oaea i?e aicaoaeaeaiee aeaea, a caoai a oiaea
iiaeaioiaee e noaeaaiiio ?acae?aoaeuenoao noaeuey i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
ioeaieaaao i?aaenoaaeyaiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa ia iniiaaiee i?aaeea
ioiineiinoe: eiathuea cia/aiea i?eieiaao, a ia ioiinyuaany e aeaeo
ono?aiyao. Ioeaii/iia noaeaeaiea noaeuee eee noaea i iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
eee iaaeinoiaa?iinoe aeieacaoaeuenoa, eiathueony a aeaea, aea/?o
ii?aaeaeaiea noaea ia eno?aaiaaiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa,
i?eiyoee ia? ii i?iaa?ea i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa e o.ae.
Ioeaii/iua noaeaeaiey noaea i neea, cia/aiee e aeinoiaa?iinoe
aeieacaoaeuenoa, oaeea aea noaeaeaiey eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea,
yaeythony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth i?ioeanna noaeaaiiai aeieacuaaiey.
Iaeiaei oeacaiiua noaeaeaiey, oioy e iinyo ioeaii/iue oa?aeoa?, ia
yaeythony ioeaieie aeieacaoaeuenoa a oii niunea, eae a? iiieiaao caeii.
Yoi – i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua noaeaeaiey, ii ia eo ieii/aoaeueiay ioeaiea.
Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa – yoi eiathuaa i?aaiaia iineaaenoaea
ieii/aoaeueiia noaeaeaiea noaea i aeinoiaa?iinoe, neea e cia/aiee
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, caoeene?iaaiiia a niioaaonoaothuai noaeaaiii
iinoaiiaeaiee. Caeii onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa noaeii
i?ienoiaeeo ii aioo?aiiaio oaaaeaeaieth, iniiaaiiiio ia ananoi?iiiai
iieiii ?anniio?aiee a noaeaaiii canaaeaiee anao ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea a
eo niaieoiiinoe (/. 1 no. 62 AIE Oe?aeiu).

Oaeei ia?acii, aeieacaoaeuenoaa ioeaieaathony oieueei noaeii iinea oiai,
eae ana aeaei auei ?anniio?aii a noaeaaiii canaaeaiee e anoue
aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieoue eaaeaeia aeieacaoaeuenoai ioaeaeueii, a oaeaea a
niaieoiiinoe n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie. Noauaeo ioeaiee – noae
(noaeuey); ianoi e iiiaio ioeaiee – niaauaoaeueiay eiiiaoa, auianaiea
?aoaiey; i?ioeannoaeueiay oi?ia ioeaiee – iioeae?iai/iay /anoue
noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey (/. 4 no. 203 AIE Oe?aeiu). Noaeaeaiea noaea ia
ioeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa eiaao i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey, iii anooiaao a neeo
aianoa ni anai ?aoaieai e i?eia?aoaao neeo i?athaeeoeee . Ioeaieaay
aeieacaoaeuenoai, noae i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeyao aai aeinoiaa?iinoue,
o.a. niioaaonoaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Iaiaoiaeeii ioeaieoue enoi/iee aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ue iiaeao
caneoaeeaaoue aeiaa?ey, a iiaeao e ia caneoaeeaaoue. Oae, iai?eia?,
naeaeaoaeue eee yenia?o, aeathuee iieacaiey ii niaoeeaeueiiio
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio aii?ino, iiaeao ia caneoaeeaaoue aeiaa?ey, oae eae
i?e ia?ae??noiii aeii?ina auynieeanue aai iaeiiiaoaioiinoue a
niioaaonoaothuae io?anee ciaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii, aeaeaa, ioeaieoue
naaaeaiey, eioi?ua auee iieo/aiu ec niioaaonoaothuaai enoi/ieea,
niiinoaaeoue eo n ae?oaeie naaaeaieyie ia yoii aea oaeoa. Aeey ioeaiee
aeinoiaa?iinoe aeieacaoaeuenoaa eiaao cia/aiea noaiaiue
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe eeoea, aeathuaai iieacaiey. ?iaenoaaiiua, ae?oaeaneea
eee a?aaeaeaaiua ioiioaiey iiaoo io?aceoueny ia aeinoiaa?iinoe
naaaeaiee, niiauaaiuo noaeo naeaeaoaeai, noi?iiie eee ae?oaei eeoeii.
Noaeaaiia aeieacaoaeuenoai iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioeaieoue n oi/ee c?aiey
aai neeu e cia/aiey aeey aeaea, o.a. n oi/ee c?aiey oiai, ianeieueei
aeaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai naii ii naaa eee a niaieoiiinoe n ae?oaeie
niiniaii oaaaeeoue a nouanoaiaaiee eneiiuo oaeoia.

A iniiaa ioeaiee noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa eaaeeo aioo?aiiaa noaeaeneia
oaaaeaeaiea. Oaaaeaeaiea noaea, aoaeo/e naiaiaeiui, iaeiia?aiaiii
iaoneiaeaii caeiiii. Iii neeaaeuaaaony iinoaiaiii, a ?acoeueoaoa
iiciaiey noaeii anao ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea, e oeene?oaony a onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiii i?ioeannoaeueiuo oi?iao. Ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa ia iiaeao auoue
aacio/?oiie e eiooeoeaiie, iia aeieaeia auoue iioeae?iaaiiie, a iioeau
ioeaiee aeieaeiu iaeoe io?aaeaiea a ienueiaiiii aeieoiaioa – noaeaaiii
?aoaiee. Ioaa?aay, iai?eia?, aeieacaoaeuenoai aaeaeo aai
iaaeinoiaa?iinoe, noae iaycai iauynieoue nai? noaeaeaiea ii yoiio
aii?ino. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa eeoea, o/anoaothuea a aeaea, a oaeaea
auoanoiyuee noae ia iiaoo ciaoue, ii eaeei iniiaaieyi noae i?eiye iaeie
aeieacaoaeuenoaa e ioaa?a ae?oaea. Naiaiaea noaea a ioeaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoa e aai iacaaeneiinoue a ?aoaiee aii?inia oaeoa e i?aaa
iaania/eaaaony neaaeothuei i?ioeannoaeueiui i?aaeeii: “Ieeaeea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa ia eiatho aeey noaea ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiie neeu” (/. 2
no. 62 AIE Oe?aeiu). Ethaia aeieacaoaeuenoai iacaaeneii io aai aiaoiae
aaoi?eoaoiinoe eee iaaaoi?eoaoiinoe noae iiaeao i?eiyoue eee
ioaa?aiooue, anee iauaeoeaiia niaea?aeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoaa
niioaaonoaoao oaeoe/aneei ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeaea. Aeaaea caeeth/aiea
yenia?oa iaiaycaoaeueii aeey noaea e ioeaieaaaony ei ii iauei i?aaeeai
ioeaiee anao aeieacaoaeuenoa (no. 60 AIE Oe?aeiu).

2.3 N?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey

I?ioeannoaeueiue caeii ?anniao?eaaao a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia naaaeaiee i
oaeoao neaaeothuea n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey: iauyniaiey noi?ii e o?aoueeo
eeoe, naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa,
aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa e caeeth/aiey yenia?oia. Yoio ia?a/aiue
en/a?iuaathuee, ae?oaeo n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey iao caeii ia ciaao.
Iiae/eiyynue iauei i?aaeeai nia?aiey, enneaaeiaaiey e ioeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa, ana aeaeu n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey iaeiia?aiaiii
iaeaaeatho ii?aaeae?iiie niaoeeoeeie n oi/ee c?aiey eae anaai
niaea?aeaiey, oae e i?ioeannoaeueiie oi?iu eniieueciaaiey. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai o?aaoao naiinoiyoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey eaaeaeiai ec
n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey.

Iauyniaiey noi?ii e o?aoueeo eeoe. Enoi/ieeii naaaeaiee i oaeoao e
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea, iiaoo auoue iauyniaiey
noi?ii, o?aoueeo eeoe, a oaeaea ae?oaeo caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe ii aeaeai
iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaeai, aicieeathuei ec aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
i?aaiia?ooaiee (aeaeiaueeia, cayaeoaeae e ae?.). ssaeyynue iaoa?eaeueii
caeioa?aniaaiiuie noauaeoaie, yoe eeoea iiaoo auneacuaaoue ?acee/iua
niia?aaeaiey ii nouanoao aeaea. Enoaoe, aunooiay a i?ioeanna, iiaeao,
iai?eia?, cayaeoue ia ioeaca io enea eee i iaia?aiee caeeth/eoue
ie?iaoth naeaeeo. Ioaao/ee iiaeao niiaueoue noaeo, /oi ii i?ecia?o ene.
Caeioa?aniaaiiia eeoei ii aeaeo iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao cayaeoue i
aicaoaeaeaiee nii?a i i?aaa e o.ae. Aunooiay a i?aieyo, noi?iiu e
ae?oaea eeoea iiaoo auneacuaaoue noaeaeaiea i oii, eaeay ii?ia i?aaa
aeieaeia auoue i?eiaiaia ii aeaeo, ioaa?aaoue e niaeaoaoueny n auaiaeaie
e niia?aaeaieyie ae?oaeo eeoe. Oeacaiiua eeoea, iaeiiaoe, iiaoo
niiauaoue noaeo naaaeaiey i ?acee/iuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao e oaeoao,
eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea. Enoaoe, iai?eia?, iiaeao oeacaoue ia
eiie?aoiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa (eoi, aaea, eiaaea), i?e eioi?uo aio auei
iaianaii oaa/uea, ioaao/ee iiaeao i?eciaoue iaeei ec oaeoia, ia eioi?ua
nnueaaony enoaoe, e, a naith i/a?aaeue, nineaoueny ia ae?oaea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa e o.ae. Oaeei ia?acii, niaea?aeaiea iauyniaiee noi?ii e
ae?oaeo eeoe iiiaiia?acii. Iaeiaei aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey
noaea eiatho ia ana iauyniaiey noi?ii e ae?oaeo eeoe, a eeoue oa eo
/anoue, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo a naaa naaaeaiey ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao e
oaeoao, eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea. Eiaiii yoa /anoue iauyniaiee
iicaieyao niiinoaaeoue naaaeaiey, iieo/aiiua io noi?ii e ae?oaeo eeoe,
ni naaaeaieyie, iieo/aiiuie n iiiiuueth ae?oaeo n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey, e
a ?acoeueoaoa eiiieaeniie ioeaiee naeaeaoue auaiae i nouanoaiaaiee eee
ianouanoaiaaiee eneiiuo oaeoia.

Ianiio?y ia noauaeoeaioth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue noi?ii, o?aoueeo eeoe e
ae?oaeo noauaeoia, eo iauyniaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
onoaiiaeaiey oaeoia e iiaeaa?aioou iauaeoeaiie i?iaa?ea.
Caeioa?aniaaiiinoue noi?iiu iaycuaaao noae iniaaiii aieiaoaeueii
iiaeieoe e i?iaa?ea e ioeaiea eo iauyniaiee (no. 40 AIE Oe?aeiu). Aianoa
n oai iauyniaiey noi?ii e ae?oaeo eeoe iiaoo aeaoue noaeo aaaeiua
iaoa?eaeu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey, e?oaa
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiuo oaeoia e o.ae. Aeaaea yaii iaaeinoiaa?iua
iauyniaiey (iinea onoaiiaeaiey eo iaaeinoiaa?iinoe) iiaoo iiii/ue noaeo
a onoaiiaeaiee eneiiuo oaeoia.

Iniaui aeaeii iauyniaiee yaeyaony i?eciaiea. I?eciaiea – iauyniaiea, a
eioi?ii niaea?aeeony iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oaeoia eee ianoiyoaeuenoa,
niiau?iiuo i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iiie. ?acee/atho i?eciaiea enea,
i?aaiioiioaiey eee oaeoa. I?eciaiea enea ia yaeyaony aeieacaoaeuenoaii,
oae eae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeo ?anii?yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiui i?aaii
(aiaeiae/iui ioeaco io enea). I?eciaiea i?aaiioiioaiey eee i?eciaiea
oaeoa aeieaeii ?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa, oae eae
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao ii?aaeae?iiua oaeou e ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ia eioi?ua
nnueaaony ae?oaay noi?iia. Oaeia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aeieaeii
niioaaonoaiaaoue iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi
noaeii, anee o iaai iao niiiaiee a oii, /oi i?eciaiea niioaaonoaoao
ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeaea. I?eciaiea eeoeii oaeoa, ia eioi?ue nnueaaony
ae?oaay noi?iia, ia anaaaea icia/aao i?eciaiea i?aaiioiioaiey. Ioaao/ee,
iai?eia?, iiaeao i?eciaoue oaeo niaianoiiai i?iaeeaaiey e aaaeaiey
iauaai oicyenoaa n enoeoeae aei ?iaeaeaiey ?aa?iea, ii ia i?eciaoue
naieo ?iaeeoaeueneeo iooeianeeo iaycaiiinoae, nnueaynue ia oi, /oi
enoeoea ?iaeeea ?aa?iea io ae?oaiai ioae/eiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
i?eciaaay i?aaiioiioaiea, ioaao/ee iiaeao aeaeaoue yoi ia iniiaaiee ia
oao oaeoia, ia eioi?ua oeacuaaao enoaoe. Noae iiaeao n/eoaoue i?eciaiiue
oaeo onoaiiaeaiiui, anee o iaai iao niiiaiee a oii, /oi i?eciaiea
niioaaonoaoao ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeaea e ia niaa?oaii eeoeii iiae aeeyieai
iaiaia, ianeeey, oa?icu, caaeoaeaeaiey eee nie?uoey enoeiu (/. 3 no. 40
AIE Oe?aeiu).

I?eciaiea, niaa?o?iiia a noaea, iacuaatho noaeaaiui i?eciaieai. Iii
i?ienoiaeeo a oiaea noaeaaiiai canaaeaiey, e eeoei, nnueaaoaany ia
oaeou, i?eciaiiua a canaaeaiee, inaiaiaeaeaaony io eo aeieacuaaiey.
I?eciaiea, eioi?ia auei naeaeaii aei noaea eee aia noaea, iacuaatho
aianoaeaaiui. Oaeia i?eciaiea noae ia iiaeao aini?eiyoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii, iiyoiio iii aeieaeii auoue aeieacaii oai eeoeii,
eioi?ia nnueaaony ia iaai. A i?ioeanna aeieacuaaiey aianoaeaaiia
i?eciaiea aoaeao ea?aoue ?ieue aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiiai oaeoa. ?acee/atho
i?inoia e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia i?eciaiea. I?inoia i?eciaiea ia niaea?aeeo
eaeeo-eeai iaiai?ie eee oneiaee, a eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiii i?eciaiee
niaea?aeeony iaiai?ea, /anoe/ii ia?aeecothuay i?eciaiea. Oae, ioaao/ee,
iai?eia?, i?ecia?o oaeo i?e/eiaiey a?aaea enooeo, ii nnueaaony ia oi,
/oi ii eiae ianoi a ?acoeueoaoa iainoi?iaeiinoe naiiai iioa?iaaoaai.
Eeoei, naeaeaaoaa eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiia i?eciaiea, iaycaii aeieacaoue
naeaeaiioth ei iaiai?eo.

Iauyniaiea noi?ii, o?aoueeo eeoe e ae?oaeo eeoe iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey onoaiiaeaiey ethauo oaeoia e ianoiyoaeuenoa.
Eaeeo-eeai ia?aie/aiee caeii ia onoaiaaeeaaao. I?aaeei “aeiionoeiinoe
aeieacaoaeuenoa” ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia iauyniaiea noi?ii e ae?oaeo
eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea. Iie iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu e a
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oaeeo oaeoia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue onoaiiaeaiu
“ii?aaeae?iiuie n?aaenoaaie aeieacuaaiey” (no. 29 AIE Oe?aeiu).

Naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey. Naeaeaoaeai iiaeao auoue ethaia eeoei,
eioi?iio ecaanoiu eaeea-eeai ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ioiinyueany e aeaeo (/. 1
no. 41 AIE Oe?aeiu). Naeaeaoaeue yaeyaony noauaeoii a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaiioiioaiey e eae oaeiaie eiaao ii?aaeae?iiua
i?ioeannoaeueiua i?aaa e ian?o niioaaonoaothuea iaycaiiinoe. Io ae?oaeo
noauaeoia naeaeaoaey ioee/atho niaoeeoe/aneea i?eciaee a) naeaeaoaeyie
anaaaea yaeythony a?aaeaeaia, aic?ano ia ia?aie/ai. Anee noae i?ecia?o
iaiaoiaeeiui, a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae iiaoo auoue aeii?ioaiu iaeieaoiea,
eioi?ua niiniaiu ?acoiii aini?eieiaoue oaeou ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe; a) naeaeaoaee ioiinyony e /eneo th?eaee/anee
iacaeioa?eniaaiiuo eeoe. Iath?eaee/aneay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue
(?iaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, ae?oaeaa, a?aaeaea, caaeneiinoue ii neoaeaa e
o.ae.) ia i?aiyonoaoao aunooieaieth a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey; a)
naeaeaoaeue yaeyaony eeoeii, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aini?eieiathuei
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea.

Naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey – iaeii ec ae?aaiaeoeo aeaeia n?aaenoa
aeieacuaaiey. Eo aeinoiaa?iinoue iaoneiaeaia anoanoaaiiui no?aieaieai
/aeiaaea aiai?eoue i?aaaeo. Aeaaaoue i?aaaeeaua iieacaiey – eaa/a, /ai
oiuoeaiii eneaaeaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Eiaeiua iieacaiey – yoi
anaaaea “eaaaiaea”, eioi?oth ioaeii auaeoiaoue, iino?ieoue. Eiaeiua
iieacaiey ioaeii caiiiieoue, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaoi?eoue, ia aiaaeay
a i?ioeai?a/ey. Naaaeaiey, oiuoeaiii eneaaeathuea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue,
ieeiaaea ia iiaoo i?aaeoniio?aoue e io?aceoue anaai aa iiiaiia?acey. Aio
ii/aio naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey ioiinyony e /eneo iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey e, ianiio?y ia aiciiaeiinoue eo
oaeueneoeeaoeee a neeo neo/aeiuo eee oiuoeaiiuo i?e/ei, iiaoo auoue
aeinoiaa?iui n?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey enoeiu.

Naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea ia noaea ieacuaaao nouanoaaiioth iiiiuue
i?aainoaeeth, a iiyoiio aai neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue a ea/anoaa aaaeiie
iaycaiiinoe eaaeaeiai a?aaeaeaieia. Eeoei, aucaaiiia a ea/anoaa
naeaeaoaey, iaycaii yaeoueny a noae e aeaoue i?aaaeeaua iieacaiey (/. 2
no. 42 AIE Oe?aeiu). Ca ioeac eee oeeiiaieth io aea/e iieacaiee
naeaeaoaeue ian?o ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii no. 179 OE Oe?aeiu, a ca aea/o
caaaaeiii eiaeiiai iieacaiey – ii no. 178 OE OE Oe?aeiu.

Ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa. I?aaeiaou, ia eioi?uo n iiiiuueth ciaeia
ii?aaeaeaiiua iunee, niaea?aeauea naaaeaiey i oaeoao e ianoiyoaeuenoaao,
eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea, yaeythony ienueiaiiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie.
A caeiia ia?a/eneythony ioaeaeueiua aeaeu ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa:
aeou, aeieoiaiou, ienueia aeaeiaiai eee ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a ( no. 46 AIE
Oe?aeiu). Oeacaiiue ia?a/aiue ia yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei, oae eae e
/eneo ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa ioiinyony: /a?oaaee, ea?ou, noaiu,
iocueaeueiua iiou e o.ae. I?eciaeaie ienueiaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa
yaeythony: a) iaee/ea niioaaonoaothuaai iineoaey eioi?iaoeee (aoiaaa,
iaaieoiay eaioa, iaoaee, aea?aai, ea?oii e o.ae.); a) iaee/ea
niioaaonoaothuaai niiniaa oeene?iaaiey (aoeau, oeeo?u, iiou, oneiaiua
ciaee e o.ae.); a) iaee/ea niioaaonoaothueo iuneae, eioi?ua iaoee
io?aaeaiea ia iineoaea n iiiiuueth i?eiyoiai eniieieoaeai niiniaa.
Iniaia ianoi n?aaee ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa caieiatho aeou. A eo
/enea: aeou i?aainoaeey (noaeaaiua ?aoaiey, i?eaiai?u, ii?aaeaeaiey e
o.ae.); aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou (?aoaiey e iinoaiiaeaiey); aeou
a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey (naeaeaoaeuenoaa i ?iaeaeaiee, nia?oe,
?aaeno?aoeee a?aea, ?acaiaea e o.ae.); aeou iauanoaaiiuo
th?enaeeeoeeiiiuo i?aaiia (?aoaiey EON, i?ionithciuo eiieoaoia); aeou
a?aeo?aaeiuo noaeia. Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie aeoia yaeyaony iniaue,
ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie auianaiey, th?eaee/aneay neea, ii?yaeie
iaaeaeiaaiey e o.ae. E /eneo aeieoiaioia ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai ee/iua
aeieoiaiou a?aaeaeai (ianii?o, aeeieii, aiaiiue aeeao, o?oaeiaay eieaeea
e o.ae.). A ee/iuo aeieoiaioao eiinoaoe?othony oaeou, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
ee/iinoue a?aaeaeaieia, – eiy, io/anoai, oaieeey, a?aiy ?iaeaeaiey ianoi
?iaeaeaiey, nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea, ia?aciaaiea, eiua aieaoiua aeaiiua
e o.i. Iniaaiiinoueth yoiai aeaea ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa yaeyaony
oi, /oi iie, eae i?aaeei, ninoaaeythony ia niaoeeaeueii ecaioiaeaiiuo
aeaieao, eiathueo no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aeaeceou (na?ee, iiia?a, ia/aoe,
aa?aiaoth aoiaao e o.ae.).

Aeieoiaioaie yaeythony oaeaea ienueiaiiua iineoaee, eioi?ua
oaeinoiaa?ytho ii?aaeaeaiiua oaeou, naycaiiua n niaa?oaieai th?eaee/anee
cia/eiuo aeaenoaee. E iei ioiinyony: aeiaiai?u, cayaee, iiaanoee,
eaeoaioeee, ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou, aaainiaua io/aou, aeou ?aaecee e o.i.
Nouanoai yoeo th?eaee/aneeo aeieoiaioia ninoieo a oeenaoeee
aieaecuyaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo eeoe ia niaa?oaiea eaeeo-eeai aeaenoaee.
Aeieoiaioai yoiai aeaea, aaconeiaii, i?enoua ii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ia, ii iia
iaiaa anaiauaiethua e aeaoaeueia, /ai oi?ia aeoia ii i?eiaiaieth i?aaa
eee ee/iuo aeieoiaioia. Oaeei ia?acii, th?eaee/aneeie aeieoiaioaie
yaeythony oaeaea iineoaee ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia eee ee/iinoe
eeoea e ninoaaeaiu a niaoeeaeueii i?aaeoniio?aiiie caeiiii oi?ia.

TH?eaee/aneea aeieoiaiou ninoaaeytho eeoue /anoue ienueiaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ia ana ienueiaiiua iineoaee eioi?iaoeee i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey onoaiiaeaiey th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia e ia ana iie eceaaathony a
i?aaeoniio?aiiie caeiiii niaoeeaeueiie oi?ia. E /eneo aeieacaoaeuenoa
oaeiai aeaea i?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao ioianoe ienueia aeaeiaiai oa?aeoa?a
ii naiui ?acee/iui aii?inai: ecaauaiea i iiaeaioiaea iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee, i?inueao ia ieacaiee oaoie/aneie iiiiue, caeeth/aiea ii
auiieiaiiie ?aaioa, oiaeaoaenoai i i?aaeinoaaeaiee caiaeueiiai o/anoea e
o.i. Iie iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a noaea aeey onoaiiaeaiey
ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo cia/aiey aeey aeaea. Ee/iay ia?aienea a?aaeaeai
oaeaea ioiineony e /eneo ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Iia, eiia/ii,
ieeiaaea ia eceaaaaony a eaeeo-eeai niaoeeaeueiuo oi?iao, ii eiiaaea
iiaeao i?yii eniieueciaaoueny aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia
(iai?eia?, ee/iia ienueii, niaea?aeauaa i?eciaiea eeoeii naiaai
iooeianoaa). Aeey ee/iie ia?aienee oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa aa o/anoieee ia i?aaeiieaaatho th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey oao
naaaeaiee, eioi?ua eceaaatho. Naaaeaiey iiaoo i?eia?anoe, a iiaoo e ia
i?eia?anoe th?eaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a a caaeneiinoe ia ianoiyoaeuenoa
eiie?aoiiai aeaea.

Iniaue aeae ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa ninoaaeytho ?acee/iua
oaoie/aneea iineoaee eioi?iaoeee: ea?ou, /a?oaaee, noaiu, ieaiu. Iie
oe?iei aioee a iaeoiae a iineaaeiea aiaeu, a nayce n aiaae?aieai
?acee/iuo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai. Niaoeeoe/aneee niinia oeenaoeee
oaeoia iaoneiaeeaaao e iniaua niiniau aini?eyoey naaaeaiee, eioi?ua
iiiauaiu ia oaoie/aneeo iineoaeyo. Anee th?eaee/aneee aeieoiaio
(aeiaiai?, n/ao, eaeoaioeey e o.i.) iiaeao auoue aini?eiyo iau/iui
niiniaii, o.a. iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?i/eoai, oi oaoie/aneee iineoaeue
eioi?iaoeee ai iiiaeo neo/ayo o?aaoao ?anoeo?iaee n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeenoa.

A eiioea 80-o aiaeia Aa?oiaiue Noae NNN? auneacae noaeaeaiea, eioi?ia e
nae/an eiaao i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea: “A neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe noaeii
iiaoo auoue i?eiyou a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoa aeieoiaiou, iieo/aiiua n
iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. N o/aoii iiaiey eeoe,
o/anoaothueo a aeaea, noae iiaeao oaeaea enneaaeiaaoue i?aaenoaaeaiiua
caoei- eee aeaeaicaiene. Yoe iaoa?eaeu ioeaieaathony a niaieoiiinoe n
ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie”. Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
ienueiaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai eiaao aeey noaea cia/aiea i?aaeaea anaai n
oi/ee c?aiey niaea?aeaiey eceiaeaiiuo a iai iuneae, ioee/aynue yoei io
aauanoaaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oaeoao ia
niaea?aeaiea, a aiaoiei aeaeii, ea/anoaii, naienoaii. Iaeiia?aiaiii
iaiaoiaeeii ioee/aoue ienueiaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai io naeaeaoaeueneiai
iieacaiey, eceiaeaiiiai a ienueiaiiie oi?ia. I?ioieie aeii?ina
naeaeaoaey, iieo/aiiue a ii?yaeea iaania/aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa eee
auiieiaiey noaeaaiiai ii?o/aiey (no.33 AIE Oe?aeiu), ia i?eia?aoaao
oa?aeoa?a ienueiaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a inoaaony naeaeaoaeueneei
iieacaieai, eceiaeaiiui a ienueiaiiie oi?ia. Eiie acaeyae ia yoe
“ienueiaiiua iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae” i?eaae au e iaoiaeo caeiia i
iaaeiionoeiinoe eniieueciaaiey naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee a
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iaeioi?uo oaeoia e ianoiyoaeuenoa. Caeii i?eaeaao
ienueiaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaai iniaia cia/aiea, o?aaoy a ?yaea neo/aaa
niaa?oaiey naeaeie e ioi?ieaiey aeieoiaioia a ienueiaiiie oi?ia iiae
no?aoii iaaiciiaeiinoe a neo/aa nii?a nnueaoueny ia naeaeaoaeueneea
iieacaiey. Ienueiaiiay oi?ia i?eaeaao ioiioaieyi onoie/eaue, /aoeee
oa?aeoa?, niinianoaoao i?i/iinoe a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa e iaeaa/aao
onoaiiaeaiea nii?iuo oaeoia i?e ?anniio?aiee a?aaeaeaineeo aeae.

N oi/ee c?aiey aeinoiaa?iinoe ie iaeiiio ec aeaeia aeieacaoaeuenoa caeii
ia ?ac?aoaao ioaeaoue eaeia-eeai i?aaeii/oaiea. A oi aea a?aiy o
ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa anoue ?yae iieiaeeoaeueiuo ea/anoa: aoaeo/e
noi?ioee?iaaiu e caoeene?iaaiu ia aoiaaa eee ia ae?oaii iineoaea, iie
aieaa onoie/eau e ii?aaeaeaiu, /ai naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey.
Naeaeaoaeue iiaeao eciaieoue iieacaiey, caauoue eee, iaiai?io,
aniiiieoue eaeea-eeai ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea.

A noaeaaiii canaaeaiee ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaeaoathony e
i?aaeuyaeythony caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeai, a a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo –
yenia?oai e naeaeaoaeyi. Ee/iay ia?aienea a?aaeaeai a ioe?uoii noaeaaiii
canaaeaiee iiaeao auoue iaeaoaia oieueei n niaeaney eeoe, iaaeaeo
eioi?uie iia i?ienoiaeeea. I?e iaee/ee aic?aaeaiee ee/iay ia?aienea
iaeaoaaony e enneaaeoaony a cae?uoii noaeaaiii canaaeaiee. Ienueiaiiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai iiaeao auoue inii?aii eeai iooai ii?iaa?aeaiey aai
niaea?aeaiey eee ianiioaaonoaey onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia, eeai iooai
cayaeaiey nii?a i iiaeeiaa. Aeou i?aainoaeey, anooieaoea a caeiiioth
neeo (noaeaaiua ?aoaiey, i?eaiai?u, ii?aaeaeaiey, iinoaiiaeaiey), ia
iiaoo inia?eaaoueny ii niaea?aeaieth. Caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea iiaoo
aeiaeaaoueny eo ioiaiu a ii?yaeea iaaeci?a eee ii aiiaue ioe?uaoeiny
ianoiyoaeuenoaai.

N oi/ee c?aiey niaea?aeaiey ienueiaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai aeieaeii
enoiaeeoue eiaiii io oiai eeoea, eioi?ia cia/eony aai aaoi?ii,
niioaaonoaiaaoue aai aiea, io?aaeaoue oa ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea e oaeou,
eioi?ua eiaee ianoi a ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?,
eeoei iiaeao inia?eaaoue niaea?aeaiea auaeaiiie ?anienee, nnueaynue ia
oi, /oi ?anienea ii iieo/aiee aeaiaa auea ninoaaeaia iiae oa?icie.
Niaea?aeaiea ni?aaee AEYO i i?iienea n i?aaii ia ieiuaaeue iiaeii
inia?eaaoue nnueeie ia oi, /oi ni?aaea auaeaia ia ia iniiaaiee i?aea?a e
iiyoiio ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e o.ae. N oi/ee c?aiey oi?iu
ienueiaiiia aeieacaoaeuenoai aeieaeii enoiaeeoue io eiiiaoaioiiai i?aaia
eee aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea, oaeiaeaoai?youe anai niaoeeaeueiui
o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeaiiui caeiiii e oi?ia niioaaonoaothuaai aeoa eee
th?eaee/aneiai aeieoiaioa. Oae, iai?eia?, ni?aaea ia ieii/aiee aoca
iaaeaenoaeoaeueia, oae eae aaeeinoaaiiui aeieoiaioii, oaeinoiaa?ythuei
ieii/aiea aunoaai o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey, yaeyaony aeeieii.
Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiu ethaua ni?aaee, auaeaiiua i?aaei?eyoeai i
i?ioiaeaeaiee eeoeii neoaeau a Niaaoneie A?iee. Auaea/a oaeeo ni?aaie –
eiiiaoaioeey aiaiiiai eiienna?eaoa e o.ae. Ai anao iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo iu
eiaai aeaei n ii?iaa?aeaieai ienueiaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa aaeaeo
i?ioeai?a/ey aai onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia. Ia?aienea eee eaeea-eeai
ienueiaiiua iaoa?eaeu ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a (caienee, aeiaaieee, caiaoee,
iaaeiene ia iiaea?eao, yeneea?enu e o.ae.) iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a
noae a ethaie oi?ia.

Nii? i iiaeeiaa. A neo/aa cayaeaiey i iiaeeiaeiinoe ienueiaiiiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa noae aeieaeai i?eiyoue ia?u aeey auyniaiey aai
aeia?iea/anoaaiiinoe. Noae iiaeao iacia/eoue e?eieiaeenoe/aneoth
yenia?oeco aeey auyaeaiey oaeoa iiaeaeaeee eee iiaeeiaa aeieoiaioa, a
oaeaea eniieueciaaoue aeey yoiai ana ae?oaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa: n?aaieoue
caiiaeic?aiiue aeieoiaio n ae?oaeie; cai?ineoue i?aaiecaoeeth,
auaeaaooth aeieoiaio, aucaaoue e aeii?ineoue a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae
eeoe, oeacaiiuo a ienueiaiiii aeieacaoaeuenoaa, e o.ae. I?e iacia/aiee
yenia?oecu ii iiaiaeo iiaeeiaa noae aeieaeai enoiaeeoue ec iao/iuo
aiciiaeiinoae yenia?oecu. A noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ecaanoai neo/ae, eiaaea
iiaeeia aeieoiaioa aue iaia?oaeai n?aaieoaeueii eaaei: aeieoiaio,
aeaoe?iaaiiue 1886 a., aue ecaioiaeai ia aoiaaa n aiaeyiuie ciaeaie 1871
a. Auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea iiaeeia onoaiiaeoue cao?oaeieoaeueii, a
eiiaaea e iaaiciiaeii. A 1971 a. iaeei ec noaeia a.Ieinea a nayce ni
nii?ii i iiaeeiaa iinoaaee ia?aae yenia?oecie aii?in: niioaaonoaoao ee
a?aiy ninoaaeaiey ?anienee, auaeaiiie a?-iii E. a?-io E. ia 2400 ?oa.,
ia?oo 1967 a. Yenia?o ia niia ioaaoeoue ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in aaeaeo
ionoonoaey aeinoiaa?iie iao/ii ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee onoaiiaeaiey
aeaaiinoe iaienaiey ?oeiieniiai oaenoa. Anee noae i?eaeao e auaiaeo i
iiaeeiaeiinoe ienueiaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii ono?aiyao aai ec /enea
aeieacaoaeuenoa e a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo aicaoaeaeaao oaieiaiia aeaei
eeai iai?aaeyao iaoa?eaeu a iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee eee a
oiaa?euaneee noae aeey i?eiyoey ia? iauanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey e eeoeo,
aeiionoeaoaio i?aaenoaaeaiea iiaeeiaeiiai eee iiaeaeaeueiiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa. I?aaeiaou, eioi?ua aeaaiaea?y naiei
naienoaai, ea/anoao, aiaoiaio aeaeo, ianoiiaoiaeaeaieth e o.ae. iiaoo
neoaeeoue n?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey oaeoia e ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo
cia/aiea aeey aeaea, iacuaathony aauanoaaiiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie. Ii
aeaeo i ?acaeaea eiouanoaa oia?oaai ooaeiaeieea a ea/anoaa aauanoaaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaeao oeao?e?iaaoue nia?aiea ea?oei, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo
ianeaaeiaaoaeth. A aeaea i aiciauaiee a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai oiuoeaiiui
iia?aaeaeaieai eiouanoaa, aauanoaaiiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie iiaoo auoue
auoiaua i?aaeiaou, iia?aaeaeaiiua ioaao/eeii (iaeueoi, oaeaaeci?,
ineieee oa?oi?iaie iinoaeu e ae?.). Ii aeaeo i acuneaiee aeieaa
aauanoaaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii yaeyaony, iai?eia?, ?anienea ni neaaeaie
eni?aaeaiee. A ea/anoaa aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa iiaoo oeao?e?iaaoue
oaeaea oioia?aoee, neaiee, iooenee. Oae, iai?eia?, ii aeaeo i ?acaeaea
aeiia a ea/anoaa aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa eniieueciaaeenue
oioia?aoee aeiia aei ia?ano?ieee. Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo i?eia?ia aeaeii, /oi
aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?aciu. Yoi iiaeao auoue
nii?iay aauue ii aeiaeeeaoeeiiiiio eneo, i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a auoiaiai
iiae?yaea, iiaeaeaeueiue aeieoiaio, iia?aaeaeaiiia eiouanoai. Ethaie
i?aaeiao, anee oieueei inoaaeaiiua ia iai neaaeu, aai aiaoiee aeae, a a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo nai oaeo iaoiaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoa a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa
niiniaiu iiaeoaa?aeeoue ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eiathuea cia/aiea aeey aeaea,
iiaeao nua?aoue ?ieue aauanoaaiiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?aaenoaaeythony a noae noi?iiaie e
ae?oaeie eeoeaie, o/anoaothueie a aeaea, a oaeaea iiaoo auoue
eno?aaiaaiu noaeii ii naiae eieoeeaoeaa. Anee aauanoaaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaoiaeyony o ae?oaeo eeoe, yoe eeoea iaycaiu
i?aaenoaaeoue eo a noae ii aai o?aaiaaieth. Oeeiiaiea io yoiai ii
i?e/eiai, i?eciaiiui noaeii iaoaaaeeoaeueiuie, aea/ao iaeiaeaiea oo?aoa
ia aeiiaiuo eeoe (no.47-48 AIE Oe?aeiu). Aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa
o?aiyony a aeaea eee ii iniaie iiene naeathony a eaia?o aauanoaaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa noaea. Anee a ea/anoaa aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa
oeao?e?otho i?iaeoeou eee ae?oaea aaue, iiaeaa?aathueany auno?ie ii?/a,
noae iaycai iaiaaeeaiii eo iniio?aoue, iinea /aai iie aica?auathony oai
eeoeai, io eioi?uo auee iieo/aiu, eeai ia?aaeathony i?aaiecaoeeyi,
iiaouei eniieueciaaoue eo ii iacia/aieth. A iineaaeiai neo/aa
aeaaeaeueoeo aauae aiineaaenoaee aeieaeiu auoue aica?auaiu i?aaeiaou
oiai aea ?iaea e ea/anoaa eee eo noieiinoue ii ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiai
ia iiiaio aica?auaiey (no.55-56 AIE Oe?aeiu). Iinea anooieaiey ?aoaiey
noaea a neeo aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa aica?auathony eeoeai, io
eioi?uo auee iieo/aiu, eee ia?aaeathony eeoeai, ca eioi?uie noae i?eciae
i?aai ia yoe aaue.

Caeeth/aiea yenia?oia. A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa e
onoaiiaeaiey eiathueo cia/aiea aeey aeaea ianoiyoaeuenoa noae iiaeao
ano?aoeoueny n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iieo/aiey naaaeaiee i oaeoao e
ianoiyoaeuenoaao io eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Onoaiiaeaiea
i?ioeaioa oo?aou o?oaeiniiniaiinoe, noaiaie eciina iia?aaeaeaiiie
aaoiiaoeiu, iaee/ee ieaaeaoa a iocueaeueiii i?iecaaaeaiee eee iiaeaeaeee
a i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeieoiaioao e o.i. iiaoo auoue iaeaieaa aeinoiaa?ii
inouanoaeaiu yenia?oii, niaoeeaeenoii a oie iaeanoe iaoee, oaoieee,
eneonnoaa eee ?aianea, ciaiea eioi?ie iaiaoiaeeii a aeaiiii eiie?aoiii
aeaea. Yenia?o yaeyaony noauaeoii a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai
i?aaiioiioaiey e a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?ioeannoaeueiua i?aaa e ianao i?ioeannoaeueiua iaycaiiinoe. Caeeth/aiea
yenia?oa – iaeei ec aeaeia n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey. Yenia?oeca – i?ioeann
yenia?oiiai enneaaeiaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea. A enoi?ee a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeanna, a oaeaea a ?acee/iuo aeaenoaothueo i?ioeannoaeueiuo nenoaiao
caeeth/aieth yenia?oa i?eaeaaaeinue ?acee/iia cia/aiea. A
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee yenia?oeca ?anniao?eaaeanue eae niinia
i?iaa?ee aeieacaoaeuenoa, a ?ieue yenia?oa naiaeeeanue iaeioi?uie
o/aiuie e ?iee “oaaee/eoaeueiiai noaeea a ?oeao noaeuee”. A
aiaeinaeniineeo no?aiao yenia?ou ?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae
iniaiai ?iaea. Iie, eae i?aaeei, i?eaeaeathony a aeaei naieie noi?iiaie.
Ai O?aioeee yenia?oeca i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiinoiyoaeueiue aeae
n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey, i?e/ai auai? yenia?oia i?aaeinoaaeai noaeo. A
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna caeeth/aiea yenia?oa eiaao cia/aiea
naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeaea n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey. Ii naiae i?e?iaea yoi
caeeth/aiea iaeuecy i?e?aaiyoue e naeaeaoaeueneiio iieacaieth.
Naeaeaoaeue “nicaeaaony” ianoiyoaeuenoaaie aeaea. Aai iieacaiea eiaao
cia/aiea n oi/ee c?aiey oie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth iii niaea?aeeo ia
eneiiuo oaeoao, a ia n oi/ee c?aiey eaeeo-eeai ioeaiie. Caeeth/aiea
yenia?oa aaaeii aeey noaea i?aaeaea anaai eae enoi/iee, niaea?aeauee
aiaeec e ioeaieo niaoeeaeenoii oaeoia e ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiathueo
cia/aiea aeey aeaea. I?iaaaeaiea yenia?oecu, eiia/ii, naycaii n
i?iaa?eie aeieacaoaeuenoa, ii yenia?o ia oieueei i?iaa?yao oaeou e
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii e aeaao ei ioeaieo, niiauaao noaeo iao/iua,
oaoie/aneea eee ae?oaea niaoeeaeueiua naaaeaiey i niioaaonoaothueo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, ?anoe?yy oai naiui i?aaeiao noaeaaiiai iiciaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa, iiaeeaaeauaai enneaaeiaaieth, e niaea?aeaiey
aii?inia, aeey ?ac?aoaiey eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua iiciaiey, a
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna i?eiaiyaony ianeieueei aeaeia yenia?oec:
iaaeeoeeineay, ineoeao?e/aneay, oeie/aneay, oaoie/aneay,
e?eieiaeenoe/aneay, aooaaeoa?neay, eeoa?aoo?iaaae/aneay e ae?.

Noauaeoii yenia?oecu yaeyaony iacia/aiiue noaeii yenia?o, o.a. eeoei,
iaeaaeathuaa niaoeeaeueiuie iiciaieyie a iaeanoe iaoee, oaoieee,
eneonnoaa eee ?aianea. A neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, eiaaea iiaeeaaeauee
auyniaieth aii?in ioiineony e ianeieueeei iaeanoyi ciaiee, iiaeao auoue
iacia/aii ianeieueei yenia?oia e i?iaaaeaia eiiieaeniay yenia?oeca. I?e
iacia/aiee ianeieueeeo yenia?oia iie ai?aaa niaauaoueny iaaeaeo niaie e
i?aaenoaaeoue noaeo iaeii caeeth/aiea (no.60 AIE Oe?aeiu). Aeey
oii?yaei/aiey e iaaeeaaeauaai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey i?iaiaeeiuo
yenia?oec a no?aia nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua yenia?oiua o/?aaeaeaiey.

Yenia?oiia o/?aaeaeaiea noauaeoii yenia?oecu ia yaeyaony. Ai anao
neo/ayo noauaeoii yenia?oecu yaeyaony a?aaeaeaiei (eee a?aaeaeaia i?e
eiiieaeniie yenia?oeca), oae eae oieueei oece/aneia eeoei niiniaii
iaeaaeaoue niaoeeaeueiuie iiciaieyie e ianoe ee/ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
i?aaeeueiinoue yenia?oiiai caeeth/aiey. Aeey iaania/aiey
aani?eno?anoiinoe e iauaeoeaiinoe caeeth/aiey caeii ia ?ac?aoaao auoue
yenia?oaie: a) eeoeai, iaoiaeyueiny a ?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo ni
noi?iiie eee ae?oaei eeoeii, o/anoaothuei a aeaea, e eo
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie; a) eeoeai, caeioa?aniaaiiui a aeaea i?yii eee
einaaiii, a oaeaea i?e iaee/ee ianoiyoaeuenoa, aucuaathueo niiiaiea a eo
aani?eno?anoiinoe; a) eeoeai, iaoiaeyueiny a neoaeaaiie eee eiie
caaeneiinoe io noi?ii e ae?oaeo eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeoea, e eo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae; a) eeoeai, i?iecaiaeeaoei ?aaeceth, iaoa?eaeu eioi?ie
iineoaeeee iniiaaieai e aicaoaeaeaieth aeaiiiai a?aaeaeaineiai aeaea;
ae) eeoeai, eioi?ua o/anoaiaaee i?e i?aaeuaeouai ?anniio?aiee aeaea a
ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey, ia?aaiae/eea, i?aaenoaaeoaey, i?ieo?i?a, nae?aoa?y;
a) eeoeai, ia iaeaaeathuei iaiaoiaeeiie eiiiaoaioiinoueth (no.19 AIE
Oe?aeiu). I?e iacia/aiee yenia?oa noae aeieaeai i?iaa?eoue iaee/ea o
aoaeouaai yenia?oa niaoeeaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, noaaea ?aaiou ii
niioaaonoaothuae niaoeeaeueiinoe e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oneiaee,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia yenia?oec. Oae, iai?eia?,
noaeaaii-oeie/aneay yenia?oeca aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa aeieaeia
i?iaiaeeoueny noaeaaiuie oeieeaie, eiathueie aunoaa oa?iaoeaaoe/aneia
ia?aciaaiea e niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo ii noaeaaiie oeiee.

Iauaeo yenia?oecu ii?aaeaeyaony e?oaii aii?inia, ii eioi?ui o?aaoaony
caeeth/aiea. Yoe aii?inu oi?ioee?othony noaeii n o/aoii iiaiey eeoe,
o/anoaothueo a aeaea. Noae iiaeao iinoaaeoue ia?aae yenia?oii ethaua
aii?inu, eanathueany ioeaiee oaeoe/aneeo ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea, i?e/ei
eo i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaee/ee eee ionoonoaey naycae iaaeaeo oaeoaie,
iao/iuo aeaiiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiie io?anee ciaiee e o.ae. A ii?aaeaeaiee
noaea i iacia/aiee yenia?oecu aii?inu aeieaeiu auoue noi?ioee?iaaiu
/aoei e ia eanaoueny i?aaiaie ioeaiee ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea. Iai?aaeeai,
iai?eia?, aii?in: “ssaeyaony ee a?-i I. iaaeaaniiniaiui?”. Aii?in i
iaaeaaniiniaiinoe iiaeao ?aoeoue oieueei noae, a ia?aae yenia?oii
aeieaeai auoue iinoaaeai aii?in: “Iiaeao ee a-i I. iiieiaoue cia/aiea
naieo aeaenoaee eee ?oeiaiaeeoue eie?”.

I?aaeiaoii yenia?oiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony aaue, ia eioi?uo
inoaeenue neaaeu, ia?acoeu oiaa?a, ninoiyiea caei?iauey eeoea, enoi?ey
aai aieacie e o.ae.

Yenia?oeca, eae i?aaeei, iacia/aaony a noaaeee iiaeaioiaee aeaea e
noaeaaiiio ?acae?aoaeuenoao ii i?inueaa eeoe, o/anoaothueo a aeaea, eee
ii eieoeeaoeaa naiiai noaea. A i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii neo/ayo
iacia/aiea yenia?oecu yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui. Oae, noae iaycai
iacia/aoue yenia?oeco ii aeaeai iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa i i?eciaiee eeoea
iaaeaaniiniaiui a ?acoeueoaoa aeooaaiie aieacie eee neaaioiey (no.258
AIE Oe?aeiu), a oaeaea a neo/ayo ?aoaiey aii?ina i aeaaniiniaiinoe
aucaei?iaaaoaai eeoea (no.260 AIE Oe?aeiu). Yenia?oeca iiaeao auoue
iacia/aia e a noaaeee noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa. A yoii neo/aa noae
aeieaeai ioeiaeeoue aeaei aeey i?iaaaeaiey yenia?oiiai enneaaeiaaiey.
Naii yenia?oiia enneaaeiaaiea iiaeao i?iecaiaeeony eae a noaeaaiii
canaaeaiee, oae e aia noaea a caaeneiinoe io i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey e
oa?aeoa?a aii?inia, iinoaaeaiiuo ia?aae yenia?oii. Caeeth/aiea yenia?oa
aeieaeii auoue i?aaenoaaeaii a noae a ienueiaiiie oi?ia. Yenia?o
aeieaeai eceiaeeoue a caeeth/aiee oiae enneaaeiaaiey, iaoiaeeee, eioi?ua
ei i?eiaiyeenue, auaiaeu e ioaaou ia iinoaaeaiiua noaeii aii?inu.
Ioeaieaay caeeth/aiea yenia?oa, noae aeieaeai i?iaa?eoue, eniieueciaae
ee yenia?o iiaaeoea iaoiaeeee e ?aniieaaae ee iaiaoiaeeiui aeey aea/e
caeeth/aiey iaoa?eaeii. Anee, ioeaieaay caeeth/aiea yenia?oa, noae
i?eaeao e auaiaeo i oii, /oi caeeth/aiea iaaeinoaoi/ii ynii e iieii, ii
iiaeao iacia/eoue aeiiieieoaeueioth yenia?oeco. A neo/aa
iaiainiiaaiiinoe caeeth/aiey yenia?oa eee iaee/ey i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo
caeeth/aieyie ianeieueeeo yenia?oia, noae iacia/aao iiaoi?ioth
yenia?oeco (no.61 AIE Oe?aeiu).

Yenia?o iaeaaeaao oe?ieeie i?ioeannoaeueiuie i?aaaie: ii iiaeao
ciaeiieoueny ni anaie iaoa?eaeaie aeaea, i?ineoue noae i i?aaenoaaeaiee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. A noaeaaiii canaaeaiee yenia?o eiaao i?aai
caaeaaaoue aii?inu eeoeai, o/anoaothuei a aeaea, e naeaeaoaeyi. Yenia?o
ai?aaa ioeacaoueny io aea/e caeeth/aiey, anee i?aaeinoaaeaiiua aio aeey
enneaaeiaaiey iaoa?eaeu ieaaeoony iaaeinoaoi/iuie eee ii noieeiaony n
aii?inii, ii eioi?iio ia iaeaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiuie niaoeeaeueiuie
iiciaieyie. Yenia?o eiaao i?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca naie o?oae .
Yenia?o iaycai yaeoueny ii auciao noaea, i?iecaanoe enneaaeiaaiea e
aeaoue iauaeoeaiia e iainiiaaiiia caeeth/aiea ii iinoaaeaiiui aii?inai.
Ca ioeac io aea/e caeeth/aiey eee ca aea/o caaaaeiii eiaeiiai
caeeth/aiey yenia?o ianao oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii no.179 OE
Oe?aeiu.

CAEETH*AIEA

Eiia/ii,a iauaia 1-e eo?niaie ?aaiou o?oaeii iieiinoueth inaaoeoue
oaeoth aeoaieoth e iaoe?ioth oaio eae AeIEACAOAEUeNOAA A A?AAEAeAINEII
I?IOeANNA, iaeiaei ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iiiyoey e aaciaua iieiaeaiey a
oeacaiiie ?aaioa i?eaaaeaiu. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?aaioai?/aneee
iiaeoiae e aii?inai a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna ii-?inneeneiio e
ii-oe?aeineiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ianeieueei ioee/athony ae?oa io
ae?oaa, ii yoe ioee/ey ia noieue nouanoaaiiua e e oiio aea ii ?yaeo
iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo i?e/ei ?inneeneay i?aaioai?/aneay iuneue
iaiiiai iia?aaeaao oe?aeineoth, /oi aeaao iaoei caeiiiaeaoaeyi
eniieueciaaoue iieiaeeoaeueiue iiuo iaeiieaiiue ?inneeneeie th?enoaie
iinea i?eiyoey oao eee eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, e ecaaaaoue
ioeaie,iaycaoaeueii ano?a/athueony ia oaeii oa?ienoii iooe eae
i?aaioai?/anoai. *oi aea eanaaony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe , oi
caeanue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ioaiaeeony iiiai a?aiaie ia ia i?eiyoea
ea?aeeiaeueiuo aeaenoaee, oae eae ethaia i?iiaaeeaiea a?iceo eiioeeeoaie
iaaeaeo ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?aaa oae eee eia/a
naycaiiuo n a?aaeaeaineeie i?aaiioiioaieyie, a ana yoi a naith i/a?aaeue
i?aiyonoaoao ii?iaeueiiio ?acaeoeth ainoaea?noaa.

Eniieuecoy iieiaeeoaeueiue iiuo ia oieueei ?innee ,ii e ae?oaeo
?acaeouo ainoaea?noa,o/eouaay iaoeeiiaeueiua e enoi?e/aneea iniaaiiinoe
iaoaai ia?iaea Oe?aeia noaiao aeaiie?aoe/aneei e i?aaiaui ainoaea?noaii,
eioi?ia caeiao naia aeinoieiia ianoi n?aaee ?acaeouo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa.

ENIIEUeCIAAIIAss EEOA?AOO?A

1.Eiinoeoooeey (Iniiaiie Caeii) Oe?aeiu – I?eiyoay Aa?oiaiui Niaa-

oii Oe?aeiu 28.06.1996a

2.A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen Oe?aeineie NN?: Io/i.-i?aeo.eiiiaio. Ia?.
n

oe?. /E.A.Aaaiia,I.E.Aa?o,E.A.Aaeai/oe e ae?. -E: Iieeoecaeao Oe?ae-

iu,1981.- 639 n.

3. A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen Oe?aeiu a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee.

4. Atheeaoaiue Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN?”, 1983, N 6; 1987, N 3.

5.A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann. O/aaiee / Iiae ?aae. A.A.Ioneia, I.A.*a/eiie,
.I.*a/ioa.- I.: OII “Oe?ia AA?AeA?EEA”,1996, -480 n.

6. Eo?ueaa N.A. Iniiau oai?ee aeieacuaaiey a noaeaaiii i?aainoaeee.
Ieine, 1969, n.151.

7. Eaeeei A.Ae. Noaeiono?ienoai e a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann
eaieoaeeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa. I., 1958, /.2, n.237-238.

8.Ineiia TH.E. Iniiaiua i?eciaee noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. – O?oaeu
Naa?aeeianeiai th?eae. ei-oa, aui.8, 1968, n.386-388.

9.Io/eineee A.E.Aiaeeeneee a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann. I.,1974, n.142.

10. Niaaoneee a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann, E.,1984, n.,135 (aaoi? aeaau
Ae.I.*a/io);

11.Oeoeiy A.A. I?eiaiaiea e?eieiaeenoe/aneie oaeoeee a a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna. Ieine, 1976, n. 127.

12.THaeaeuenii E.N. I?iaeaia aeieacuaaiey a niaaoneii a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna. I., 1952 a., n.249.

13.TH?eaee/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. – I.: NY. – 1984.

Ineiia TH.E. Iniiaiua i?eciaee noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. – O?oaeu
Naa?aeeianeiai th?eae. ei-oa, aui.8, 1968, n.386-388.

A?oea noaea Eeaaneiai ?aeiia a.Iaeannu, a?aaeaeaineia aeaei
N1-175/1994.

Niaaoneee a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann, E.,1984, n.,135 (aaoi? aeaau
Ae.I.*a/io);

Ni. no. -15, 30 AIE Oe?aeiu a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee.

THaeaeuenii E.N. I?iaeaia aeieacuaaiey a niaaoneii a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna. I., 1952 a., n.249.

Atheeaoaiue Aa?oiaiiai Noaea NNN?”, 1983, N 6; 1987, N 3.

Eo?ueaa N.A. Iniiau oai?ee aeieacuaaiey a noaeaaiii i?aainoaeee. Ieine,
1969, n.151.

Oeoeiy A.A. I?eiaiaiea e?eieiaeenoe/aneie oaeoeee a a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna. Ieine, 1976, n. 127.

Io/eineee A.E.Aiaeeeneee a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann. I.,1974, n.142.

Eaeeei A.Ae. Noaeiono?ienoai e a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann
eaieoaeeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa. I., 1958, /.2, n.237-238.

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