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23

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Yeiiiieee e Oeiainia.

Iauayeiiiie/aneee oaeoeueoao.

Eaoaae?a oicyenoaaiiiai i?aaa.

?aoa?ao ia oaio: “Aaoi?neia i?aai”.

Auiieiee:

Nooaeaio a?.214

Aeoa?ia N.A.

I?iaa?ee:

TH?eai E.TH.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1999.

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Iiiyoea, enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa. I?aaiaua enoi/ieee e
einoeooou. 3

2. Iiiyoea iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Noa?a aai aeaenoaey. 5

3. Aeaeu iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa. 7

4. E?eoa?ee i?eiaieiinoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa. 12

5. Noauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Oeiieiaey noauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa. 13

6. I?aaa aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee/eeoa?aoo?u/eneonnoaa. 15

7. Caueoa aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa. 20

8. Io?aia i?iecaaaeaiee ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia ca ?oaaaeii. 22

Caeeth/aiea. 22

1. Iiiyoea, enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa. I?aaiaua enoi/ieee
e einoeooou.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaoi?neia i?aai i?aaenoaaeyao ia ?ac?iciaiioth
niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaothueo ia ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia, a aeinoaoi/ii neiaeioth e oeaeinoioth nenoaio. Oeaio?aeueiia
ianoi n?aaee ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, ?aaoee?othueo aaoi?neia i?aai, caieiaao
Caeii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao” io 09.07.1993. ei
?aaoee?othony aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu ioiioaiee: ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a
nayce n nicaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eneonnoaa,
eeoa?aoo?u, eioi?ua e ninoaaeytho i?aaeiao ?aaoee?iaaiey aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, e ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n nicaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai oiiia?aii,
iinoaiiaie, i?aaiecaoeee oaea?aaeeiaauaiey – oae iacuaaaiua “niaaeiua”
i?aaa.

Caeii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao aeiaieueii iieii ?ane?uaaao
i?aaeiao i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, noa?o aai aeaenoaey, ia?aoiae aai e ae?oaei eeoeai. Iniaue
?acaeae iinayuai i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaui aii?inai, ooieoeeyi e
iaycaiiinoyi i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythueo eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa. Iineaaeiyy /anoue niaea?aeeo ii?iu, ?ane?uaathuea
iiiyoey ia?ooaiey aaoi?neeo/niaaeiuo i?aa e niiniau caueou e iaania/aiey
niioaaonoaothueo eneia.

Eiia/ii, o?aaoaony iiynieoue naii iiiyoea i?aaeiaoa, eioi?ue ?aaoee?oao
aaoi?neia i?aai. Yoei i?aaeiaoii yaeyaony eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue. Yoi iiiyoea aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei, ii a oi aea a?aiy
aeiaieueii iaeiie?aoii e ?aciuoi, /oi iicaieyei aicieeaoue nii?ai ia
oianoiinoe aai i?eiaiaiey a th?eni?oaeaioeee.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea yoiai oa?ieia iau/ii naycuaatho n o?aioeocneei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii XVIII aaea, /ae iiaeoiae e iiiyoeth iie?aeny ia
oai?eth anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa o?aioeocneeo i?inaaoeoaeae. Niaeanii yoie
oai?ee, i?aai nicaeaoaey ethaiai oai?/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa yaeyaony aai
iaiouaieaiui i?aaii, aicieeathuei ec naiie i?e?iaeu oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, e ia caaeneo io i?eciaiey. Aeaeaa oai?ey io?aiu i?aa
nicaeaoaeae e ecia?aoaoaeae iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai iiiaeo no?aiao
ie?a.

Naia eiae/aneia caaa?oaiea yoio iiaeoiae iaoae a oai?ee
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo i?aa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui i?aaa aaoi?ia e
ecia?aoaoaeae i?eciaaaeenue i?aaaie iniaiai ?iaea, aia eeanne/aneiai
aeaeaiey ia aauiua, iaycaoaeueiua e ee/iua.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?inney o/anoaoao ai iiiaeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
niaeaoaieyo, n?aaee eioi?uo aaaeiia ianoi caieiaao Eiiaaioeey,
o/?aaeaeaaoay Anaie?ioth i?aaiecaoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe,
io 14.07.1967. A iae oeacuaaaony, /oi eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue
aeeth/aao i?aaa, ioiinyueany e:

– eeoa?aoo?iui/ooaeiaeanoaaiiui/iao/iui i?iecaaaeaieyi

– eniieieoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a?oenoia, caoeicaiene,
oaea?aaeeiaauaieth

– ecia?aoaieyi ai anao iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

– iao/iui ioe?uoeyi

– i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeai

– oiaa?iui ciaeai, oe?iaiiui iaeiaiiaaieyi e eiiia?/aneei iaicia/aieyi

– caueoa i?ioea iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee.

E a Eiiaaioeee, e a AE ?O oa?iei “eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue”
eniieuecoaony a niae?aoaeueiii niunea. Oaeei ia?acii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiae yoei iiiyoeai iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue i?aa eae ee/iiai, oae e
eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a ia ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie e a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e ia iaeioi?ua i?e?aaiaiiua e iei
iauaeou.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iu AE ?O, ioiinyueany e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, ia?acotho iniaoth iiaeio?aneue a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa,
eioi?oth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 4 ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaiauo
einoeoooa.

I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue einoeooo aaoi?neiai i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aa. Ii iaania/eaaao auiieiaiea ooieoeee aaoi?neiai i?aaa,
n?aaee eioi?uo /aua anaai iacuaatho aeaa:

– noeioee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe ii nicaeaieth i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee,
eneonnoaa, eeoa?aoo?u. A yoeo oeaeyo aaoi?neia i?aai niinianoaoao
nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey caiyoee oai?/aneei o?oaeii, iaania/eaaao
i?aaiaia i?eciaiea e caueoo aeinoeaioouo oai?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia,
cae?aieaiea ca aaoi?aie i?aa ia eniieueciaaiea nicaeaiiuo eie
i?iecaaaeaiee, iieo/aiea aeioiaeia e o.ae.

– nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee a
eioa?anao iauanoaa.

Oaeea ianeieueei i?ioeai?a/eaua ooieoeee e caaea/e aaoi?neiai i?aaa
oanii naycaiu n aai i?eioeeiaie, eioi?ua i?iiecuaatho ana niaea?aeaiea
nenoaiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa, aiieiuathony a noauaeoeaiuo i?aaao e
th?eaee/aneeo iaycaiiinoyo o/anoieeia aaoi?neeo i?aaiioiioaiee. E /eneo
iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia aaoi?neiai i?aaa iiaeii ioianoe:

– i?eioeei naiaiaeu oai?/anoaa, eioi?ue cae?aieai iaiin?aaenoaaiii 44
no. Eiinoeoooeee ?O. Ii i?aaeiieaaaao oai?/aneee iiene a ethaii
iai?aaeaiee, n ethaie oaiie, iacaaeneii io iacia/aiey i?iecaaaeaiey e,
niioaaonoaaiii, cai?auaao oeaico?o

– ni/aoaiea ee/iuo eioa?ania aaoi?a n eioa?anaie iauanoaa. Ii
ii?aaeaeyao ia?o iiiiiieueiiai i?aaa eniieueciaaiey aaoi?ii naieo
i?iecaaaeaiee ia a oua?a iauanoao. Iieiay iiiiiieey nio?aiyaony,
eiia/ii, oieueei eanaaii ia iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. A inoaeueiii,
i?eciaaony i?aai a?aaeaeai ?O o/anoaiaaoue a eoeueoo?iie aeecie e
iieueciaaoueny aeinoeaeaieyie eoeueoo?u

– iieiaeaiea i iaio/oaeaeaaiinoe ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa. Yoe i?aaa
ia iiaoo ia?aeoe e ae?oaei eeoeai aeaaea i?e niaeanee aaoi?a. E yoei
i?aaai ioiinyony i?aai ia eiy, aaoi?noai, caueoo ?aiooaoeee. A oi aea
a?aiy eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?ia iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny ae?oaei eeoeai ii
aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o a neeo caeiia

– i?eioeei naiaiaeu aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a, eioi?ue eneeth/aao iiyaeaiea a
aaoi?neii aeiaiai?a ioe?iaaiii “eaaaeueiuo” oneiaee aeey aaoi?a, a oi
aea a?aiy iaania/eaay aai ii?aaeaeaiiui iaai?ii i?aa.

Ae?oaeie i?aaiauie einoeoooaie yaeythony einoeooo iaoaioiiai i?aaa,
einoeooo oe?iaiiuo iaeiaiiaaiee e oiaa?iuo ciaeia e einoeooo
iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

A caeeth/aiea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
aeeth/aao a naay aeiaieueii iieioth niaieoiiinoue i?aaiauo ii?i,
?aaeaiaioe?othueo i?aaiioiioaiey a iaeanoe aaoi?noaa e eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee.

2. Iiiyoea iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Noa?a aai aeaenoaey.

Iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeythony i?iecaaaeaiey. Aeaenoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia niaea?aeeo ioeoeeaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey. Niaeanii no. 6 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao”, aaoi?neia i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia i?iecaaaeaiey
iaoee/eneonnoaa/eeoa?aoo?u, yaeythueany ?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe iacaaeneii io iacia/aiey e aeinoieinoa i?iecaaaeaiey. A
nayce n yoei nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ii?aaeaeaiee yoiai iiiyoey.
Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eei ii?aaeaeaiea, noi?ioee?iaaiiia A.E.
Na?aa?ianeei: “I?iecaaaeaiea – yoi niaieoiiinoue eaeae, iuneae, ia?acia,
iieo/eaoeo a ?acoeueoaoa oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaoi?a naia
au?aaeaiea a aeinooiiie aeey aini?eyoey /aeiaa/aneeie /oanoaaie
eiie?aoiie oi?ia, aeiioneathuae aiciiaeiinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey”.

A ethauo ii?aaeaeaieyo iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea – aeaai
iaiaoa?eaeueiia. Iii yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/aneiai iicaa, eioi?ue iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei
iaiaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou. Aneaaenoaea yoiai aaaeii ?acee/aoue naii
i?iecaaaeaiea e aauanoaaiioth oi?io aai aiieiuaiey. Naycue i?iecaaaeaiey
n aai iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai iiaeao auoue ia?ac?uaiie: ea?oeia eee
neoeueioo?a yaeythony iauaeoaie ?aaoee?iaaiey eae aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oae
e i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.

Aaoi?neia i?aai ia naycaii n i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe ia iaoa?eaeueiue
iauaeo, a eioi?ii iii au?aaeaii. Eneeth/aieai iiaeii n/eoaoue
ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai: i?e ia?aaea/a i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e
i?eia?aoaoaeth ia?aoiaeyo ioaeaeueiua aaoi?neea i?aaa. Aaoi?o
i?iecaaaeaiey iaania/eaaaony eeoue i?aai aeinooia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?eciathony i?iecaaaeaiey, ii
oieueei oa ec ieo, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii
i?eciaeaie: oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? i?iecaaaeaiey e iauaeoeaiay oi?ia aai
au?aaeaiey.

Iieacaoaeai oai?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a i?iecaaaeaiey, ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa
?inneeneeo o/aiuo, yaeyaony aai iiaecia, i?e/ai yoiio iiiyoeth
i?eaeathony iiiaeanoaaiiua cia/aiey: i?eaeiaeueiinoue, oai?/aneay
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Iiiuoee auaeaeeoue iiaecio i?iecaaaeaiey a
iainiaeaiiue e?eoa?ee ie e /aio ia i?eaaee: aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao
oi?io i?iecaaaeaiey, i?e/ai iiiyoea i?ei?eoaoiinoe (aai iiaeciu)
aaoi?neiio i?aao /oaeaei.

?acoeueoao oai?/anoaa noaiiaeony iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eiaaea ii
au?aaeai a eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, eioi?ay ioaeaeaia io ee/iinoe
aaoi?a. I?e yoii aaniethoii ia o/eouaaaony caaa?oaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey
(caueuathony yneecu, iaa?inee, ieaiu e eiua i?iiaaeooi/iua ?acoeueoaou).
*oi aea eanaaony ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aeinoieinoa oiai eee eiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, oi a niaaoneie th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a auneacuaaeinue
iiaiea, /oi iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo e?eoa?eaa i?aainiiniaiinoe
i?iecaaaeaiey aeieaeia n/eoaoueny aai iauanoaaiiay iieaciinoue. Iaeiaei
yoa iiceoeey a iaoea iiaeaea?aeee ia iieo/eea, e auea ioaa?aiooa
aieueoeinoaii o/aiuo. E?iia oiai, a caeiia “Ia aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo
i?aaao” i?yii oeacuaaaony ia oi, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
ana i?iecaaaeaiey, iacaaeneii io eo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aeinoieinoa. Eiia
?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina ioe?uei au oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey noauaeoeaecia
a ioeaiea oao eee eiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, oae eae n/eoaaony iaaiciiaeiui
auyaeoue iauaeoeaiua e?eoa?ee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oeaiiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iaeioi?ua i?aaiioiioaiey aicieeatho eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea auiieiaiu iaeea
iaiaoiaeeiua oi?iaeueiinoe. Aeey aicieeiiaaiey, inouanoaeaiey e io?aiu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia o?aaoaony ?aaeno?aoeee i?iecaaaeaiey, ae?oaiai
niaoeeaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, eee niaethaeaiey eiuo
oi?iaeueiinoae. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, aaoi?neia i?aai
ii?iaeaeaaony naiei oaeoii iiyaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, i?e/ai anee
aicieeaao nii? i i?eciaiee aeaiiiai iauaeoa /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?iecaaaeaieai, aeaiiue aii?in ?ac?aoaaony a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea.

E?iia oiai, iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeyaony ia oieueei i?iecaaaeaiea
a oeaeii, ii e aai /anoue, aeeth/ay iacaaiea, eioi?ay yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia naiinoiyoaeueii (no. 6, i. 3). A nayce n yoei, aieueoia
cia/aiea eiaao auaeaeaiea o i?iecaaaeaiey “th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo” e
“th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iuo” /anoae. A ?inneeneie th?eaee/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a yoa i?iaeaia iaeaieaa iieii enneaaeiaaia a ?aaioao A.ss.
Eiiana. Ei auee i?aaeeiaeaiu aeaa a?oiiu yeaiaioia i?iecaaaeaiey. E
th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iui, oi anoue iaio?aiyaiui, yeaiaioai
i?iecaaaeaiey auee ioianaiu oaia, iaoa?eae i?iecaaaeaiey, nthaeaoiia
yae?i, eaeaeiia niaea?aeaiea. E niaea?aeaieth i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ia ia
io?aiyaony aaoi?neei i?aaii, ioiineony e aai iacaaiea (caaieiaie), e?iia
oao neo/aaa, eiaaea iii yaeyaony i?eaeiaeueiui e io?aaeaao naiiauoiinoue
aaoi?a.

*oi aea eanaaony cia/eiuo (io?aiyaiuo) yeaiaioia i?iecaaaeaiey, oi e iei
ioiinyony ia?acu e ycue i?iecaaaeaiey. Iaa yeaiaioa n/eoathony ia
aini?iecaiaeeiuie aac niaeaney aaoi?a e oeacaiey enoi/ieea a ia?aii
neo/aa, e oeeoe?iaaiey ai aoi?ii.

E /eneo iauaeoia, ia io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii, ioiinyony, i?aaeaea
anaai, oa ec ieo, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeatho oioy au iaeiei ec oeacaiiuo a
caeiia i?eciaeia i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u/iaoee/eneonnoaa. Oae, ia
io?aiythony iauaeou ?aaiou, eiathuae /enoi oaoie/aneee aniaeo:
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua ?anienaiey, oaeaoiiiua ni?aai/ieee, aae?aniua eieae,
i?e oneiaee, /oi ninoaaeoaeai ia aue i?eiaiai eaeie-eeai i?eaeiaeueiue
niinia ni?oe?iaee/iienea/i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo.

A aeiaaaeaiea e auoaeceiaeaiiiio iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?inneeneia
aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao eeoue aiaoithth oi?io i?iecaaaeaiey, a ia aai
niaea?aeaiea. Yoi iaoei io?aaeaiea a no. 6 i. 4 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”, eioi?ay aeaneo, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
eaeae/iaoiaeu/nenoaiu/i?ioeannu/niiniau/eiioeaioeee/i?eioeeiu/ioe?uoey/o
aeou.

E?iia oiai, nouanoaotho i?iecaaaeaiey, iaeaaeathuea anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie
i?eciaeaie, ii ia aeeth/aiiua a noa?o aeaenoaey a neeo ?acee/iuo i?e/ei.
N?aaee ieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue:

1. i?iecaaaeaiey, ia eioi?ua enoae n?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa

2. ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou, eo ia?aaiaeu, ainoaea?noaaiiua neiaieu e
ciaee

3. i?iecaaaeaiey ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa (/anoooee/ iiaiai?ee/ oaioeu/
aiaeaeiou)

4. niiauaiey i niauoeyo/oaeoao, eiathuea eioi?iaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?.

3. Aeaeu iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

E?oa io?aiyaiuo caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee aeinoaoi/ii oe?ie. I?iecaaaeaiey
?acee/athony ii oi?ia, niiniaai eo aini?iecaaaeaiey, noaiaie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, aeaeai eniieueciaaiey e oeaeiio ?yaeo ae?oaeo
iniiaaiee. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo i?iecaaaeaieyie o/eouaathony i?e eo io?aia e
neacuaathony ia eo i?aaiaii ?aaeeia. Aneaaenoaea yoiai nenoaiiia
no?oeoo?e?iaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaii aeaeaiea ia: i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee/eeoa?aoo?u/eneonnoaa.

Ia?aaeei a oai?ee aaoi?neiai i?aaa ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi aaoi?neei i?aaii
io?aiythony eeoue oa ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua
“iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioiinyony e iaeanoe iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa”.

A oi aea a?aiy noaiiaeony yniui, /oi yoe iiiyoey eniieuecothony ia a
naiai i?yiii cia/aiee: anee iiae eeoa?aoo?ie iiieiaoue ethaia
i?iecaaaeaiea, au?aaeaiiia a neiaaniie oi?ia, oi oaeea iiiyoey
iaeeaaeuaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa. Niaoeeaeueiia auaeaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee
eeoa?aoo?u eiaao niune eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea yoei oa?ieiii ioaaouaathony
i?iecaaaeaiey, ia yaeythueany iauaeoaie iaoee eee eneonnoaa. Oae,
i?iecaaaeaieyie iaoee iiaoo e aeieaeiu n/eoaoueny ethaua i?iecaaaeaiey,
iniiaiie caaea/ae eioi?uo yaeyaony au?aaioea e nenoaiaoecaoeey
iauaeoeaiuo ciaiee i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay i?iecaaaeaiey iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?u. I?iecaaaeaieyie eeoa?aoo?u n/eoathony iauaeou
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa, au?aaeaiiua a neiaaniie oi?ia. E,
iaeiiaoe, e i?iecaaaeaieyi eneonnoaa ioiinyony ana inoaeueiua
i?iecaaaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa, aeeth/ay i?iecaaaeaiey
a?oeoaeoo?u, aeeaiiene, a?aoeee, neoeueioo?u, iocuee, eeii, oaao?a e
ae?oaeo.

Oaeia aeaeaiea yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii iauei, e aneaaenoaea yoiai
cae?aieaiiue Caeiiii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao” ia?a/aiue
io?aiyaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee iineo aieaa iaoe?iue oa?aeoa?:

1. Eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey.

A aieaa iieiii ii?aaeaeaiee eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea ioaaouaaao ia
oieueei eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiua, ii e iao/iua, o/aaiua,
ioaeeoeenoe/aneea e eiua ?aaiou. Iii iiaeao auoue caoeene?iaaii ia
ethaii iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea. Aneaaenoaea yoiai caeiiii io?aiythony e

1. ?a/e/eaeoeee/aeieeaaeu/eiua onoiua aunooieaiey

2. ienueia/aeiaaieee/ee/iua caiaoee

I?aaiaay io?aia oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee oanii naycaia n iaania/aieai
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa a?aaeaeai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue eo ee/iie
aeecie. E?eoa?eai i?aaiaie io?aiu yaeyaony eeoue /anoiue oa?aeoa?
niaea?aeaueony a ieo naaaeaiee. Aeey iioaeeeiaaiey ienai, aeiaaieeia
o?aaoaony niaeanea aaoi?a, a neo/aa n ienueiaie – e niaeanea aae?anaoa.
A neo/aa nia?oe eiai-eeai ec oeacaiiuo eeoe niaeanea iiaeao auoue
iieo/aii io noi?oaa eee aeaoae oia?oaai.

3. eioa?aueth/aeeneonnee/ienueia a ?aaeaeoeee

Eioa?aueth noaiiaeony io?aiyaiui caeiiii i?iecaaaeaieai oieueei a neo/aa
i?eia?aoaiey ei i?eaeiaeueiie oi?iu aeaaiaea?y ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaiiie
eiiiiceoeee e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio noeeth. Oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? o/anoieeia
eioa?aueth ii?aaeaeyaony aeoeaiinoueth eo aeeaaea a nicaeaiea
i?eaeiaeueiie aoiinoa?u, iano?iy e o.ae. iiyoiio /aua anaai eiaiii
niaaoi?noai ii?aaeaeyao aaoi?neea i?aaa ia eioa?aueth.

Aaoi?noai aeeneonnee eae oi?iu ianoaeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie aeo?iaeenoii
i?iaeaiu i?eciaaony ca aeo?iaeenoii, eioi?ue oioy e ia i?eieiaao y?ei
au?aaeaiiiai o/anoey, ii i?aaiecoao e iiaeaao iaoa?eae, ii?aaeaeyao
caiunae aeeneonnee, i?eaeaao ae i?eaeiaeueioth oi?io e au?aaeaiiue
oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Aeiaieueii naiaia?aciui i?aaiaui ?aaeeiii iaeaaeatho ienueia a
?aaeaeoeeth. A ioee/ea io /anoiuo, ienueia a ?aaeaeoeee aacao e
aeo?iaeia iiaoo auoue iineaaeieie iioaeeeiaaiu, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa,
eiaaea a ienueia niaea?aeeony i?yiie cai?ao ia iioaeeeiaaiea. ?aiaa
oaeie aeae eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee i?yii ia oeacuaaeny a caeiia, ii
oaia?ue, niaeanii no. 42 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao”, “ienueii, aae?aniaaiiia a ?aaeaeoeeth, iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaii a iaoa?eaeao e niiauaieyo aeaiiiai NIE, anee i?e yoii ia
eneaaeaaony niune ienueia e ia ia?ooathony iinoaiiaeaiey ianoiyuaai
Caeiia”. Iaeiaei aaaeii e oi, /oi ienueia a ?aaeaeoeeth /aua anaai
iai?ioanneiiaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey. Iie iiaoo niaea?aeaoue eioa?aniue
iaoa?eae, eioi?ue iiaeai a iai?eaieaiie aeey ia/aoe oi?ia. Iiyoiio iie
ia?aaeei iiaeaa?aathony ?aaeaeoi?neie ia?aaioea. Anee a ienueia ia
eacaiu cai?aou aaoi?a ia ia/aoue, aianaiea eciaiaiee, eoith?u, oi
?aaeaeoeey eiaao i?aai aei?aaioaoue iaoa?eae, ia eciaiyy, iaeiaei, aai
niunea. Oeaeaniia?aciui yaeyaony niaeaniaaiea n aaoi?ii aei?aaioaiiiai
aa?eaioa ienueia.

4. Ia?aaiaeu yaeythony naiinoiyoaeueiui aeaeii eeoa?aoo?iuo
i?iecaaaeaiee, io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii. Iauaecaanoii, /oi niuneiaia
cia/aiea neia e au?aaeaiee iaeiiai ycuea ia eiaao iieiiai niioaaonoaey a
ae?oaii. Aeey nio?aiaiey niunea, noeeenoeee e iniaaiiinoae ia?aaiaeeiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey ia?aaiae/ee aeieaeai oai?/anee inouanoaeyoue caiaio
ia?aaiaeeiiai neiaa eiui, aieaa aeeceei ii niuneo, caiaiyoue onoie/eaua
au?aaeaiey eiino?aiiiai ycuea aaeaeaaoiuie ei au?aaeaieyie ycuea
ia?aaiaea. A oi aea a?aiy o?oae ia?aaiae/eea, ia yaeythueeny oai?/aneei,
(?a/ue eaeao i iaoaie/aneii, oae iacuaaaiii, “iiaeno?i/iii” ia?aaiaea)
ia i?eciaaony iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa. A oi aea a?aiy ia i?eciaaony
iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia?aaiae ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, anee
ia?aaiae nai yaeyaony ioeoeeaeueiui aeieoiaioii.

5. I?ia?aiiu aeey YAI. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI i?eia?aee
cia/aiea oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiai/eneaiiuo ianoaeaeaiee
auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea n/eoaoue i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI i?aaeiaoii aaaeaiey
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oae eae iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iauaeoeaioth oi?io
i?aaenoaaeaiey niaieoiiinoe aeaiiuo e eiiaiae, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo e
eniieiaieth YAI n oeaeue aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa.
Iaeiaei aia noa?u io?aiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa eaaeao aeai?eoiu i?ia?aii,
i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie eaeae e i?eioeeiu, eaaeauea a iniiaa iaienaiey
oaenoa i?ia?aiiu. Iiyoiio auei ?aoaii auaeaeeoue iniaiai ?iaea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, i?aaenoaaeaiiia Caeiiii ?O “I i?aaiaie io?aia
i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo”. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI
eaaeao a noa?a ?aaoee?iaaiey n?aco aeaoo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoa: aaoi?neiai
i?aaa e i?aaiaie caueoa i?ia?aii aeey YAI. Yoi iieiaeaiea iaeaieaa iieii
iicaieyao caueoeoue oaeie ?acoeueoao eioaeeaeooaeueiie e oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

2. Ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?eciathony ana ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey
ai anao eo aeai?iauo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo, iaoiaeao noeaie/aneiai aiieiuaiey
e oi?iao iauaeoeaiiai au?aaeaiey.

3. Iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey n oaenoii e aac oaenoa,
iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iocueaeueiui i?eciaaony i?iecaaaeaiea, a eioi?ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
ia?acu au?aaeathony n iiiiuueth caoeia. Aeey oiai /oiau yaeyoueny
iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa, iii aeieaeii iineoue oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?
iacaaeneii io iacia/aiey e aeinoieinoa.

1. Iaeiaeey. Iiaeeaaeeo caueoa, ii oieueei aianoa n ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie
iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey.

2. A?aiaee?iaee/i?eano?iaee/aa?eaoeee.

Iiae a?aiaee?iaeie iiieiaaony ia?aeiaeaiea iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey,
iaienaiiiai aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aieinia, eino?oiaioia. ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
a?aiaee?iaee yaeyaony i?eano?iaea, o.a. ia?aeiaeaiea iocueaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, iaienaiiiai aeey iaeiiai eino?oiaioa, aeey eniieiaiey
i?eano?ii.

Io?aiyaony aaoi?neei i?aaii e oaeia naiaia?aciia iocueaeueiia
i?iecaaaeaiea, eae aa?eaoeee, o.a. oaeay ia?aaeaeea iocueaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie iniiaiay iocueaeueiay oaia i?eaeiaea inoaaony
ociaaaaiie.

4. Noeaia?iua i?iecaaaeaiey.

N?aaee iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa iacaaiu noeaia?ee, ii eioi?ui noaayony
oeeueiu, aaeaoiua niaeoaeee, ianniaua i?aaenoaaeaiey.

5. Aoaeeiaecoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey.

E i?iecaaaeaieyi oaeiai ?iaea ioiineony oe?ieee e?oa eeii- oaea-
aeaeaii?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua ?ann/eoaiu ia iaeiia?aiaiiia aecoaeueiia e
neooiaia aini?eyoea. Iie yaeythony neioacii ?acee/iuo i?iecaaaeaiee e
oai?/aneei ?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou iiiaeo ethaeae – ooaeiaeieeia,
eiiiiceoi?ia, aeoa?ia e i?i/. Iaeioi?ua eiiiiiaiou iiaoo eiaoue
naiinoiyoaeueiia oai?/aneia e oeaiiinoiia cia/aiea, e auaeaeythony eae
iacaaeneiua iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou (?aaeenno?a,
?aaioa iia?aoi?a) ia iiaeaeathony iainiaeaieth e ia iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny naiinoiyoaeueii.

Oae eae oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe
eieeaeoeaa ethaeae, aicieeaao aii?in i i?eciaiee eo niaaoi?noaa a eo
nicaeaiee. Ianoiyuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a niioaaonoaee ni no. 13 Caeiia
?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao” i?eciaao aaoi?noai oieueei ca
o?aiy eeoeaie: ?aaeenna?ii-iinoaiiaueeii, noeaia?enoii e aaoi?ii
i?eaeiaeueiie iocuee.

6. I?iecaaaeaiey aeaei?aoeaiiai e i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa.

1. I?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa.

E iei caeii ioiineo i?iecaaaeaiey aeeaiiene, neoeueioo?u, a?aoeee,
aeecaeia, eiieenu, a?aoe/aneea ?anneacu, i?iecaaaeaiey iiioiaioaeueiiai
e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa.

Aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa
yaeyaony ia?ac?uaiay naycue i?iecaaaeaiey n aai iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai.
Iiyoiio iniaaiii aaaeii ?aca?aie/eaaoue i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia ea?oeio
eee neoeueioo?o e aaoi?neia i?aai ia naii i?iecaaaeaiea. Aaoi?neia i?aai
ia i?iecaaaeaiea niaea?aeeo aiciiaeiinoue aai ioaee/iue iieac.
Nianoaaiiee aea iaycai iaania/eoue iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, ia ai?aaa aiineoue eaeea-eeai eciaiaiey a
iaai e iaycai ia i?aiyonoaiaaoue aaoi?o a inouanoaeaiee aai i?aa.

2. Eiiee i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa

I?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa iiaoo ia oieueei
aini?iecaiaeeoueny, ii e ainnicaeaaaoueny a naiae i?eaeiaeueiie
i?aaeiaoiie oi?ia. Aii?in i i?aaiaii ?aaeeia oaeeo eiiee ?aoaaony a
niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Niyoea eiiee n oaeeo
i?iecaaaeaiee aiciiaeii eeoue n niaeaney aaoi?a eee aai i?aaii?aaiieeia,
a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo – n niaeaney nianoaaiieea. I?iecaaaeaiey, a
ioiioaiee eioi?uo enoaeee n?iee io?aiu, e iaoiaeyueany a ioaee/iii
ianoa, iiaoo eiie?iaaoueny aac /ueaai-eeai ?ac?aoaiey.

3. I?iecaaaeaiey aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa e aeecaeia.

Oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey yaeythony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiee
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. Oa?aeoa?iuie eo i?eciaeaie yaeythony
ooeeeoa?iinoue e ooaeiaeanoaaiiinoue eniieiaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, iie
?aoatho iaeiia?aiaiii i?aeoe/aneea e ooaeiaeanoaaiiua caaea/e. Caeii ia
aeaao /aoeiai eo ii?aaeaeaiey, oioy i?eaiaeeo i?eaioe?iai/iue nienie:
thaaee?iua, aaeaioa?aeiua, iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey, ecaeaeey ec eiaee,
ieanoiannu, einoe, ea?ooee, cia/ee, noaaie?u. Ia yaiinoue oiiieiaiey
oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee a caeiia ii?iaeaeaao ?acee/iua nii?u e iaeiaeaiea
iiiyoee i?aaeiaoa aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa e i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?acoea.

4. Oioia?aoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey.

Oioia?aoee eee eiua i?iecaaaeaiey, iieo/aiiua niiniaaie, aeeceeie e
oioia?aoee, i?eciathony iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Ia?yaeo n
oioia?aoeae io?aiie aaoi?neiai i?aaa iieuecothony aieia?aoee, neaeaeu e
ae?oaea i?iecaaaeaiey.

5. Io?aia i?aa eeoea, ecia?aaeaiiiai ia i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa.

Iioaeeeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, niaea?aeauaai ecia?aaeaiea ae?oaiai eeoea,
aiciiaeii eeoue n niaeaney ecia?aaeaiiiai, iinea nia?oe – n niaeaney
ia?aaeeaoaai noi?oaa eee aeaoae. Yoi i?aai ia aoiaeeo a einoeooo
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ii ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia inouanoaeaiea
aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee. Eneeth/aiey nouanoaotho a neo/ayo, eiaaea
ecia?aaeaiiia eeoei iice?iaaei ca ieaoo e eiaaea ainoaea?noaii
?ani?ino?aiyaony eioi?iaoeey i aeaiiii eeoea a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo/iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao.

7. I?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u, a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
oicyenoaa.

I?aaeaea anaai, oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey eiatho aeaieiia cia/aiea.
Aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie io?aia iiaeeaaeeo eiaiii ooaeiaeanoaaiiay noi?iia yoeo
i?iecaaaeaiee. Iiyoiio aaoi?neei i?aaii io?aiyaony, iai?eia?, ia aanue
i?iaeo, a eeoue aai a?oeoaeoo?iay /anoue. I?aaeiaoii io?aiu yaeythony e
i?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?iie a?aoeee e ieanoeee: yneecu, ia?niaeoeau,
?enoiee, iaeaou.

Iaeiaei a?oeoaeoi? ia iiaeao aini?aiyonoaiaaoue aini?iecaaaeaieth naiaai
i?iecaaaeaiey, onoaiiaeaiiiai a iauanoaaiiii ianoa. Yoe ii?iu,
cae?aieaiiua a no. 21 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”,
niaea?aeao nouanoaaiiua ecuyoey ec aaoi?neeo i?aa a?oeoaeoi?ia ii
n?aaiaieth n nicaeaoaeyie ae?oaeo oai?/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee.

8. I?iecaaaeaiey oi?aia?aoee e iaioiieiu.

Caeii aa?aioe?oao io?aio ethauo i?iecaaaeaiee oaeiai ?iaea, anee aaoi?
noiaao aeieacaoue aaoi?neea i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea. Aaaeiui iiiaioii
yaeyaony eo oeenaoeey, iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth aeaeai- e oioinuaiee.

9. Ea?oia?aoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey.

E iei ioiinyony aaia?aoe/aneea, aaieiae/aneea e ae?oaea ea?ou, ieaiu e
ieanoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey, ioiinyueany e aaia?aoee, oiiia?aoee e
ae?oaei iaoeai. Ia anyeay ea?oa yaeyaony iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa.
Oai?/aneee aeeaae ninoaaeoaey ea?aao a aeaiiii neo/aa ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea.

10. Nai?ieee e ae?oaea ninoaaiua i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iie yaeythony iniaui iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Oai?/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ninoaaeoaey caeeth/aaony a naiinoiyoaeueiii ioai?a
iaoa?eaea, ?aniieiaeaiee aai a i?eaeiaeueiie nenoaia e ia?aaioea.
Eneeth/eoaeueiui i?aaii eniieueciaaiey nai?ieea iaeaaeaao ecaeaoaeue.

4. E?eoa?ee i?eiaieiinoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

1. Iaia?iaeiaaiea/iioaeeeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey.

Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea eiaao aeaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee ia iaia?iaeiaaiiua e ia
iaia?iaeiaaiiua e aeeceia e iei aeaeaiea ia iioaeeeiaaiiua e
iaiioaeeeiaaiiua. Caeiiii io?aiythony e oa, e ae?oaea, ii nouanoaotho
iaeioi?ua ?acee/ey a oneiaeyo i?aaiaie io?aiu.

I?aaeaea anaai, neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie
“iaia?iaeiaaiea” e “iioaeeeiaaiea”

Niaeanii no.1 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”,
iaia?iaeiaaieai i?eciaaony inouanoaeaiiia n niaeaney aaoi?a aeaenoaea,
eioi?ia aia?aua aeaeaao i?iecaaaeaiea aeinooiiui aeey anaiauaai
naaaeaiey iooai aai iioaeeeiaaiey, ioaee/iiai iieaca, eniieiaiey eee
ae?oaei niiniaii. Iioaeeeiaaieai n/eoaaony auione a ia?auaiey
yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey n niaeaney aaoi?a a eiee/anoaa, aeinoaoi/iii
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?acoiiuo iio?aaiinoae ioaeeee enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?a
i?iecaaaeaiey. Iioaeeeiaaiea yaeyaony iaeiei ec niiniaia iaia?iaeiaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy yoe iiiyoey ia noieue oanii naycaiu, /oiau iaaeaeo ieie
ia i?iaiaeeeenue th?eaee/aneea ?aca?aie/aiey. I?iecaaaeaiea,
iioaeeeiaaiiia aac niaeaney aaoi?a, n/eoaaony ia iaia?iaeiaaiiui, e
aaoi? iiaeao caueuaoue naie i?aaa a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

2. I?iecaaaeaiey i?eaeiaeueiua e i?iecaiaeiua.

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a aeieo?eia aaoi?neiai i?aaa iaoiaeeo aeaeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee ia i?eaeiaeueiua (naiinoiyoaeueiua) e i?iecaiaeiua
(caaeneiua). I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea aeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee ninoieo a oii,
/oi i?eaeiaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey eniieuecothony eo aaoi?aie ii naiaio
oniio?aieth, a aeey nicaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaeiuo o?aaoaony
?ac?aoaiea iaeaaeaoaeae aaoi?neeo i?aa ia oa i?iecaaaeaiey, ia iniiaa
eioi?uo iie nicaeaiu.

I?eaeiaeueiui yaeyaony oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea, ana io?aiyaiua yeaiaiou
eioi?iai nicaeaiu naiei aaoi?ii.

E /eneo i?iecaiaeiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ioiinyony ?acee/iiai ?iaea
ia?a?aaioee, ia?aaiaeu, a?aiaee?iaee e i?eano?iaee, aiiioaoeee, ?acthia,
iaci?u. Iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai i?aaiaie io?aiu oaeiai i?iecaaaeaiey
yaeyaony aai oai?/aneay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n i?eaeiaeii e
niaethaeaiea aaoi?neeo i?aa ia enoiaeiia i?iecaaaeaiea.

3. Neoaeaaiua e ianeoaeaaiua i?iecaaaeaiey.

Aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia aeeyiea ia aaoi?neea i?aaiii/ey ieacuaaao
i?eciaiea i?iecaaaeaiey neoaeaaiui. Caeii i?yii ia oeacuaaao
ii?aaeaeaiea oaeiai i?iecaaaeaiey, ii ioiineo eo e i?iecaaaeaieyi,
nicaeaiiui a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae eee neoaeaaiiai
caaeaiey ?aaioiaeaoaey (no.4 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao”).

?inneeneia aaoi?neia i?aai nio?aiyao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aaoi?neeo
i?aaiii/ee ca nicaeaoaeai i?iecaaaeaiey, aeaaea anee iii auei nicaeaii a
ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey. A oi aea a?aiy aai i?aaiii/ey
ia iinyo aaca?aie/iue oa?aeoa?: aaoi? oaeiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia iiaeao
?aoaoue aii?in i aioiaiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey e iaia?iaeiaaieth – ioeac io
iaia?iaeiaaiey a aeaiiii neo/aa aoaeao ?aaiicia/ai ia?ooaieth o?oaeiauo
iaycaiiinoae. Aaoi? oaeaea ia iiaeao aini?aiyonoaiaaoue ?aciauaieth ia
oeooeueiii eenoa i?iecaaaeaiey iaeiaiiaaiea eee eiaioei i?aaei?eyoey, a
?aieao eioi?iai aeaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea auei nicaeaii. ?aaeei
eniieueciaaiey oaeiai i?iecaaaeaiey a caeiia iienai /aoei: ana i?aaa ia
eniieueciaaiea i?eiaaeeaaeao ?aaioiaeaoaeth, ii caaeaieth eioi?iai auei
nicaeaii yoi i?iecaaaeaiea.

Aii?in i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ?aoaaony iniai: ?acia? aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eaaeaeue aeae eniieueciaaiey neoaeaaiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony aeiaiai?ii iaaeaeo ?aaioiaeaoaeai e
aaoi?ii. A oi aea a?aiy, anee a o?oaeiaii aeiaiai?a oeacaia oai?/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue aeaiiiai eeoea, oi aaoi?neeo i?aa ia nicaeaiiua ei
i?iecaaaeaiey ii ia eiaao. Yoi eanaaony aacao, aeo?iaeia, ae?oaeo
ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee. Oaeia iieiaeaiea, eiia/ii, naycaii oieueei n
aii?inii iieaou. A inoaeueiii i?aaa aaoi?a, anoanoaaiii, nio?aiythony.
Oaeia oieeiaaiea aeaiiie /anoe caeiia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiii aa?iui. *oi
aea eanaaony i?aa ?aaioiaeaoaey, oi ca iei nio?aiythony eneeth/eoaeueiua
i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea a oeaeii, e ii iiaeao aunooiaoue a noaea a caueoo
naieo eioa?ania.

5. Noauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Oeiieiaey noauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

1. Aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee.

Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeythony eeoea, eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeeo
noauaeoeaiia aaoi?neia i?aai a ioiioaiee i?iecaaaeaiey. A niioaaonoaee n
?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa iiaoo auoue
?inneeneea a?aaeaeaia e eiino?aioeu, eo i?aaii?aaiieee e ana ?inneeneia
Ainoaea?noai a oeaeii. I?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea o ?aciuo eaoaai?ee
noauaeoia aicieeatho a nayce n ?acee/iuie th?eaee/aneeie oaeoaie.

Aaaeiaeoeie noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeythony aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee.
Eie i?eciathony eeoea, oai?/aneei o?oaeii eioi?uo nicaeaii
i?iecaaaeaiea. Oai?oeii i?iecaaaeaiey iiaeao auoue ethaia oece/aneia
eeoei, iacaaeneii io iiea, aic?anoa, ninoiyiey aeaaniiniaiinoe.
Aaoi?neea i?aaa o nicaeaoaey iiyaeythony n?aco, eae oieueei aeinoeaiooue
oai?/aneee ?acoeueoao iaeaeaaony a iauaeoeaioth oi?io, aeinooiiuie aeey
aini?eyoey ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Aaoi?aie i?eciathony oaeaea oai?oeu
i?iecaiaeiuo i?iecaaaeaiee.

A oi aea a?aiy ?aaeei i?aaiaie io?aiu aeey ?acee/iuo a?oii aaoi?ia
?acee/ai. Aai, eae e naieo aaoi?ia, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia iainiaeaiiua
a?oiiu.

1.1 Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea e iaaeaaniiniaiua aaoi?u.

Ia?aaeei oai?/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey nicaeathony a?aaeaeaiaie, ia
aeinoeaoeie niaa?oaiiieaoey eee i?eciaiiua a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii
ii?yaeea iaaeaaniiniaiuie.

Aiciiaeiinoue yoeo a?aaeaeai eiaoue i?aaa aaoi?ia ia aucuaaao niiiaiee.
Iineoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa yaeythony naie ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea e
iaaeaaniiniaiua a?aaeaeaia. A oi aea a?aiy inouanoaeaieai eo i?aa
caieiathony ae?oaea eeoea: ca iaeieaoieo (ia aeinoeaoeo 14 eao) e
iieiinoueth iaaeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai aaoi?neea i?aaa inouanoaeytho eo
?iaeeoaee, iiaeoiu, caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee. Noi?iiie ii aeiaiai?o,
iaeiaei, yaeyaony nai iaeieaoiee eee iaaeaaniiniaiue, a iiaeoiu eee
?iaeeoaee eeoue aunooiatho io aai eiaie.

Aaoi?, aeaaniiniaiinoue eioi?iai ia?aie/aia ii noaeo, nai inouanoaeyao
naie aaoi?neea i?aaa, ii iiae eiio?ieai iiia/eoaey, caaea/ae eioi?iai
yaeyaony ia?aaeaeaiea iiaeiia/iiai io ceioiio?aaeaiee ni noi?iiu
o?aoueeo eeoe, a oaeaea io aai nianoaaiiuo a?aaeiiiniuo aeaenoaee. Oaeea
neo/ae iau/ii naycuaatho ni ceioiio?aaeaieyie aeeiaieai e ia?eioeeaie.

Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea (eeoea io 14 aei 18 eao) inouanoaeytho naie i?aaa
niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueii, /oi yaeyaony eneeth/aieai ec iauaai i?aaeea,
niaeanii eioi?iio eeoea inouanoaeytho naie a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa n 18 eao.

1.2 Aaoi?neea i?aaa th?eaee/aneeo eeoe.

Ia?yaeo n oece/aneeie eeoeaie iaeaaeaoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa iiaoo
aunooiaoue e th?eaee/aneea eeoea. ?a/ue eaeao i i?iecaiaeiuo aaoi?neeo
i?aaao – oao, eioi?ua aicieeatho ia a nayce n nicaeaieai i?iecaaaeaiey,
a a nayce n ia?aoiaeii aaoi?neeo i?aa io nicaeaoaey e aeaiiiio
th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo aneaaenoaea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey,
naeaeee, i?aaii?aainoaaiiinoe e o.i.

Aii?in i aicieeiiaaiee ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa o th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe a ianoiyuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?inoi ia noaaeony.

1.3 Eiino?aiiua aaoi?u.

Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?eciathony ia oieueei a?aaeaeaia ?innee, ii
e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa e eiino?aioeu. Ii io?aia i?iecaaaeaiee
eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia caaeneo io auiieiaiey iaeioi?uo oneiaee. I?eciathony
e io?aiythony aaoi?neea i?aaa i?iecaaaeaiee, iaia?iaeiaaiiuo eeai
iaoiaeyueony a eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. Anee i?iecaaaeaiea iaia?iaeiaaii ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, aai
io?aia inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie.

Ii Caeiio ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao” i?iecaaaeaiea
n/eoaaony iioaeeeiaaiiui a ?O, anee a oa/aiea 30 aeiae iinea
iioaeeeiaaiey ca aa i?aaeaeaie, iii auei iioaeeeiaaii a ?O.

1.4 Niaaoi?noai.

Aicieeaao i?e nicaeaiee oai?/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey aeaoiy eee aieaa
eeoeaie. Aaoi?neia i?aai i?eiaaeeaaeeo anai nicaeaoaeyi i?iecaaaeaiey,
i?eieiaaoei a aai nicaeaiee oai?/aneia o/anoea. Oneiaeai i?eciaiey eeoe
niaaoi?aie yaeyaony aua e niaeaoaiea i niaaoi?noaa, caeeth/aiiia iaaeaeo
yoeie eeoeaie.

2. Ianeaaeieee e eiua i?aaii?aaiieee.

Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa iinea nia?oe aaoi?a noaiiayony aai
ianeaaeieee. Ianeaaeiaaiea i?aa inouanoaeyaony eeai ii caeiio, eeai ii
caaauaieth.

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai – aaoi?neia e ianeaaenoaaiiia – ia
niaea?aeeo /aoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee i?aa ianeaaeieeia, e inouanoaeaiea eo
i?aa i?iecaiaeeony iooai oieeiaaiey ?acee/iuo ii?i caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
Aaoi?neia i?aai ia?aaeaaony eae aacaeieaaia, – o.a. eae aaeeiia oeaeia.
Iii ia iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaii ia eaeea-eeai /anoe.

A caeiia oeacaiu oaeaea e i?aaii?aaiieee – a eo ?iee iiaoo aunooiaoue
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, eioi?ua i?eia?aoatho ia iieiue iaai? aaoi?neeo
i?aa.

3. I?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythuea eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa.

Oaeea i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaeaaeaoaeyie
aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa a oeaeyo iaania/aiey yoeo i?aa a neo/ayo,
eiaaea eo i?aeoe/aneia inouanoaeaiea a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ii?yaeea
cao?oaeiaii. Yoe i?aaiecaoeee eiatho iieiiii/ey, ia?aaeaiiua ei aaoi?aie
niaeanii aeiaiai?o eee onoaao aeaiiiai iauanoaa. E ooieoeeyi oaeiai
?iaea iauanoa ioiinyo:

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea eeoeaicee iieueciaaoaeyi

– nai? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eniieueciaaiea aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa

– ?ani?aaeaeaiea e ?aaoey?iay auieaoa nia?aiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
iaeaaeaoaeyi aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa.

6. I?aaa aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee/eeoa?aoo?u/eneonnoaa.

A ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee/eeoa?aoo?u/eneonnoaa aai
aaoi? i?eia?aoaao ?yae noauaeoeaiuo i?aa eae eiouanoaaiiiai, oae e
ee/iiai iaeiouanoaaiiiai. Yoe i?aaa a aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
eiaiothony eneeth/eoaeueiuie. Eneeth/eoaeueiinoue ninoieo a i?eciaiee
oiai, /oi eiaiii aaoi? ?aoaao aii?in ia inouanoaeaiee aaoi?neeo
iieiiii/ee, e i?aaeaea anaai naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiey.

Naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie eeanneoeeaoeeae aaoi?neeo i?aa yaeyaony eo
aeaeaiea ia eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua. Caeii yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao. A niioaaonoaee ni no.15 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao”, e ee/iui iaeiouanoaaiiui i?aaai ioiinyony: i?aai
aaoi?noaa, i?aai ia eiy, ia iaia?iaeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, ia iocua, ia
caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a. Eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?a yaeythony aai
i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a ethaie oi?ia e ethaui niiniaii,
eioi?ua aeeth/atho i?aaa ia aini?iecaaaeaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaiea, eiii?o,
ioaee/iue iieac, ioaee/iia eniieiaiea, ia?aaea/o a yoe?, i?aaa ia
ia?aaiae e ia?a?aaioeo (no.16 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao”).

Aeaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey eiaao aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa i?eiaaeeaaeao oieueei aaoi?o, ia io/oaeaeaaiu io
aai ee/iinoe e ia iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny ae?oaei eeoeai. Io?aiythony
aann?i/ii.

Iai?ioea, eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?a iiaoo ia?aoiaeeoue e ae?oaei eeoeai
ia iniiaaiee aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia, eiatho n?i/iue oa?aeoa? – ia?eiae eo
aeaenoaey ia?aie/eaaaony n?ieii aeecie aaoi?a e 50 aiaeaie iinea aai
nia?oe.

? Ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?ia.

1. I?aai aaoi?noaa.

Yoi iaeii ec aeaaiuo i?aa, aicieeathueo o aaoi?a a nayce n nicaeaieai ei
i?iecaaaeaiey. Iii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae th?eaee/anee iaania/aiiay
aiciiaeiinoue eeoea n/eoaoueny aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey e ionthaea
aiciiaeiinoue i?eciaiey yoiai ae?oaeie eeoeaie. ssaeyaony iaioaeaeeiui
io ee/iinoe aaoi?a, ia ia?aaeaaony ii aeiaiai?o eee ianeaaenoao. Io
yoiai i?aaa iaeuecy ioeacaoueny. Iii aicieeaao a nayce n nicaeaieai
i?iecaaaeaiey, aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea anae aeecie aaoi?a e i?ae?auaaony n
aai nia?oueth.

Iii yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei aaoi?neei i?aaiii/eai: ana inoaeueiua i?aaa
i?aaeinoaaeythony aio iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii eiaao i?aai aaoi?noaa.

2. I?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy.

Caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aaoi? iiaeao eniieueciaaoue eee ?ac?aoaoue
eniieueciaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea iiae iiaeeeiiui eiaiai, inaaaeiieiii eee
aiiieiii, o?aaiaaoue oeacaiey aai eiaie i?e ecaeaiee, ioaee/iii
i?i/oaiee, oeeoe?iaaiee e eiii eniieueciaaiee.

3. I?aai ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a.

N iiiaioa nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey ca aai aaoi?ii cae?aieyaony i?aai ia
caueoo i?iecaaaeaiey, aeeth/ay aai iacaaiea, io anyeiai iinyaaoaeuenoaa
eee eneaaeaiey, niiniaiiai iaianoe oua?a /anoe e aeinoieinoao aaoi?a.
I?aeoe/anee yoi au?aaeaaony a iai?aaiii/iinoe aianaiey eaeeo-eeai
eciaiaiee a i?iecaaaeaiea, niaaaeaiea aai i?aaeeneiaeyie e
iineaneiaeyie, eeethno?aoeeyie aac niaeaney aaoi?a.

4. I?aai ia iaia?iaeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey e aai iocua.

Nouiinoue aeaiiiai i?aaa ii?aaeaeyaony eae th?eaee/anee iaania/aiiay
aaoi?o aiciiaeiinoue ioaee/iie iaeanee naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey. Yoi i?aai
?aoaao aii?in i ianoa, a?aiaie e niiniaa iaia?iaeiaaiey. Ca aaoi?ii
cae?aieyaony e i?aai iocuaa i?iecaaaeaiey. Oneiaeai ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai
i?aaa yaeyaony aiciauaiea oauoeia iieueciaaoaeyi io oiouaiiie auaiaeu.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, yoi i?aai ia?aoiaeeo e
ianeaaeieeai aaoi?a, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oneiaiinoue aeaeaiey i?aa.

5. I?aai ia iioaeeeiaaiea.

Yoi i?eciaaaaiay ca aaoi?ii aiciiaeiinoue auionea a ia?auaiea
yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey a eiee/anoaa, aeinoaoi/iii aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?acoiiuo iio?aaiinoae ioaeeee, enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?a
i?iecaaaeaiey.

? Eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?ia.

1. I?aai ia aini?iecaaaeaiea.

Yoi anoue i?aai ia iiaoi?iia i?eaeaiea i?iecaaaeaieth iauaeoeaiie
oi?iu, aeinooiiie aeey aini?eyoey o?aoueeie eeoeaie. Aini?iecaaaeaieai a
oi/iii niunea i?eciaaony naii ecaioiaeaiea eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey a ethaie
iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia. Ie nianoaaiiee, ie aaoi? ia aeieaeiu
ceioiio?aaeyoue yoei i?aaii.

2. I?aai ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e i?aai ia eiii?o.

Naiinoiyoaeueiui niiniaii eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony aai
?ani?ino?aiaiea. I?aaeaea anaai, caeii naycuaaao yoi i?aai oieueei n
oaie i?iecaaaeaieyie, eioi?ua au?aaeaiu eee caoeene?iaaiu a
iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea. ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea eiiee
i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua e ioneathony a a?aaeaeaineee iai?io, e ei aoaeao
i?eciaaaoueny i?iaeaaea, naea/a a i?ieao eee aaaaeaiea a a?aaeaeaineee
iai?io eiui niiniaii ia?aie/aiiiai /enea eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey.

Ia?yaeo n i?aaii ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, caeii auaeaeyao eneeth/eoaeueiia
i?aai aaoi?a ia eiii?oe?iaaiea yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey a oeaeyo
?ani?ino?aiaiey. Eiaaony a aeaeo i?aai aaoi?a eiio?iee?iaaoue aaic
yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaiiiai ei, ia oa??eoi?eth aeaenoaey aai
aaoi?neeo i?aa.

3. I?aai ia ioaee/iue iieac e ioaee/iia eniieiaiea.

E /eneo eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa aaoi?ia caeii ioiineo e yoi i?aai. Ia?aia
?aaeecoaony a ioiioaiee i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa,
aoi?ia – a ioiioaiee iocueaeueiuo/ ae?aiaoe/aneeo/ oi?aia?aoe/aneeo/
eeoa?aoo?iuo/ ae?oaeo i?iecaaaeaiee. Iiae iieacii i?iecaaaeaiey
iiae?acoiaaaaony aeaiiino?aoeey i?eaeiaea eee yecaiiey?a i?iecaaaeaiey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee ia ye?aia n iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa. Eniieiaieai aea i?eciaaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey
iin?aaenoaii ea?u, aeaeeaiaoeee, oaioea, iaiey a aeeaii eniieiaiee e
o.ae. ?acee/eai iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy aeaeaie aeaiiino?aoeee ninoieo a
oii, /oi a ia?aii neo/aa eiioaeo i?iecaaaeaiey e ioaeeee
iaiin?aaenoaaiai, ai aoi?ii – iiin?aaeoaony aeoeaiuie aeaenoaeyie
eniieieoaey.

Aeaenoaea yoiai i?aaa ia naycuaaaony n ia?ae/iinoueth aeaiiino?aoeee.
Eiuie neiaaie, aaoi? iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue yoe i?aaa e iiaoi?ii a ethaia
a?aiy.

4. I?aai ia ia?aaea/o a yoe? e i?aai ia niiauaiey aeey anaiauaai
naaaeaiey ii eaaaeth.

Oaeia i?aai eiaao iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe. Ia?aaea/ae a yoe? i?eciaaony
aeiaaaeaiea aei anaiauaai naaaeaiey iin?aaenoaii ?aaeeiaiei, eioi?ua
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey i?ineooeaaiey naiie oe?ieie aoaeeoi?eae. Ia?aaea/ae
a yoe? iiaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny iaia?iaeiaaiiia e ia iaia?iaeiaaiiia
i?iecaaaeaiea, inouanoaeyoueny o?aineyoeey ec ianoa aeaiiino?aoeee eee
eniieiaiey. Ia?aaea/a ii eaaaeth ia eiaao nouanoaaiiuo ioee/ee ii nooe:
neaiaeu ia?aaeathony a i?iaiaeao, iioiaieieiiiuo ieoyo e o.ae.
aaeeinoaaiiui oneiaeai n/eoaaony ionoonoaea iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae a
i?ioeanna aini?eyoey i?iecaaaeaiey: eannao, aeeneia e o.i.

5. I?aai ia ia?aaiae e i?aai ia ia?a?aaioeo i?iecaaaeaiey.

Eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia ia?aaiae e ia?a?aaioeo i?iecaaaeaiey
cae?aieythony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ca aaoi?ii eee aai i?aaii?aaiieeaie.
Oaeoe/anee yoi i?aai naiaeeony e i?aao aaoi?a aeaaaoue niaeanea ia
ia?aaiae e ia?a?aaioeo naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey. Yoi inouanoaeyaony iooai
caeeth/aiey niioaaonoaothueo aeiaiai?ia. A neo/aa iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe
aaoi?ii ia?aaiaeii, ii iiaeao cai?aoeoue eniieueciaaiea oaeiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Yoe i?aaa i?eciathony ca aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey e aai
i?aaii?aaiieeaie a oa/aiea anaai n?iea io?aiu i?iecaaaeaiey. Ieeaeeo
eiuo a?aiaiiuo e ae?oaeo ia?aie/aiee aeaiiiai i?aaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao.

6. Eiua i?aaa aaoi?ia.

Oaeea i?aaa nouanoaotho ia?yaeo n auoaoeacaiiuie. Iie eee i?yii
i?iienaiu a Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”, eee
neaaeotho ec iaai. E iei ioiinyony:

– I?eiaieoaeueii e eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee a?oeoaeoo?u, aeecaeia e
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa – i?aai i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoa.
Yoi icia/aao, /oi aiieiuaiea a aeeciue oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee iiaeao auoue
inouanoaeaii oieueei n niaeaney aaoi?a.

– I?eiaieoaeueii e i?iecaaaeaieyi ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa – i?aai
neaaeiaaiey, eioi?ia caeeth/aaony a iieo/aiee aaoi?ii 5% ia?ai?iaeaaeiie
oeaiu, anee a neo/aa ia?ai?iaeaaee i?iecaaaeaiey i?iaeaaeiay oeaia
i?aauoaao i?aaeuaeouoth ia iaiaa /ai ia 20%.

– I?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey. Iii
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?e ia?aaea/a i?aa ia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey, aaoi? eiaao i?aai o?aaiaaoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, e?iia
neo/aaa, oeacaiiuo a caeiia.

? Naiaiaeiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee.

Eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee aaoi?a ae?oaeie eeoeaie aeiioneaaony eeoue
n aai niaeaney, ii a eioa?anao iauanoaa, a oii /enea aeey iaania/aiey
aeinooia e ciaieyi e ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee i oaeoueo niauoeyo,
caeiiii onoaiaaeeaathony neo/ae naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee. Yoi, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, eanaaony eeoue i?aaiia?ii
iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Oaeaea aaoi?o aaconeiaii aa?aioe?oaony
nio?aiaiea aai i?aa ia eiy e caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a. Oneiaeai
naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey yaeyaony e ionoonoaea oua?aa ii?iaeueiiio
eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiey e ouaieaiey caeiiiuo eioa?ania aaoi?a.

E neo/ayi naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey ioiinyony:

– oeeoe?iaaiea (oeeoaou iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny eeoue a iao/iuo,
e?eoe/aneeo e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?aaioao; oeeoaou aiciiaeiu oieueei ec
i?iecaaaeaiee, iaia?iaeiaaiiuo caeiiiui niiniaii; oeeoe?iaaiea
aeiioneaaony a iauaia, ii?aaaeaiiii oeaeueth oeeoe?iaaiey).

– eniieueciaaiea i?aaiia?ii iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee a ea/anoaa
eeethno?aoeee, a ?aaioao o/aaiiai oa?aeoa?a a iauaia, ii?aaaeaiiii
iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth.

– aini?iecaaaeaiea a NIE i?aaiia?ii iioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee,
iinayuaiiuo oaeouei niauoeyi. Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai n/eoaaony ionoonoaea
cai?aoa aaoi?a ia oaeia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey.

– ecaeaiea ?aeueaoii-oi/a/iui iaoiaeii (o?eooii A?aeey) i?aaiia?ii
iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aeey neaiuo.

– ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiea a aaeeie/iii yecaiiey?a aac iieo/aiey i?eauee.

– ioaee/iia eniieiaiea iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ai a?aiy ioeoeeaeueiuo
e ?aeeaeiciuo oea?aiiiee a iauaia, ii?aaaeaiiii oa?aeoa?ii oaeeo
oea?aiiiee.

– aianaiea eciaiaiee a i?ia?aiiu e aacu aeaiiuo aeaaeaeueoeai yecaiiey?a
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa a i?aaeaeao iaeiie YAI e aeey ia?niiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey.

? N?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Ii iauaio i?aaeeo, aaoi?neia i?aai aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea anae aeecie
aaoi?a e 50 eao iinea aai nia?oe. Oeacaiiue iyoeaeanyoeeaoiee n?ie
en/eneyaony n 1 yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii nia?oe aaoi?a, e
enoaeaao a eiioea iineaaeiaai, iyoeaeanyoiai aiaea n?iea.

A neo/aa aiiieiiiai iioaeeeiaaiey aaoi?neia i?aai aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea
50 eao, n/eoay n 1 yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii eo i?aaiia?iiai
iaia?iaeiaaiey.

A neo/aa niaaoi?noaa io?aia aaoi?neiai i?aaa aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea 50 eao
iinea nia?oe aaoi?a, ia?aaeeaoaai ae?oaeo aaoi?ia aeaiiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey.

Anee i?iecaaaeaiea auei iaia?iaeiaaii iinea nia?oe aaoi?a, oi
iyoeaeanyoeeaoiee n?ie io?aiu en/eneyaony n iiiaioa iaia?iaeiaaiey.
E?iia oiai, Caeii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”
i?aaeiieaaaao oaaee/aiea n?iea io?aiu ia 4 aiaea aeey aaoi?ia,
i?eieiaaoeo o/anoea a AIA eee ?aaioaaoeo a yoio ia?eiae.

Ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?iecaaaeaiea n/eoaaony
ia?aoaaeoei a iauanoaaiiia aeinoiyiea. Iie iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ethaui
eeoeii aac auieaou aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, i?e oneiaee nio?aiaiey
i?aaa aaoi?noaa, i?aaa ia eiy e caueoo aaoi?neie ?aiooaoeee.

7. Caueoa aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa.

Iiiyoeai “caueoa aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa” ioaaouaaaony iai?aaeaiiuo ia
ainnoaiiaeaiea eee i?eciaiea aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa e caueoo
eioa?ania eo iaeaaeaoaeae i?e eo ia?ooaiee. Caueoa aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo
i?aa inouanoaeyaony a i?aaeoniio?aiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea, i?e/ai
auaeaeytho aeaa oi?iu caueou:

a) th?enaeeeoeeiiioth, o.a. iaania/aiioth caueoie e iiiiuueth
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia – iin?aaenoaii noaea.

a) iath?enaeeeoeeiiioth, eioi?ay ioaaouaaao niaie aeaenoaey a?aaeaeai e
i?aaiecaoeee ii caueoa aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa, inouanoaeyaiua eie
naiinoiyoaeueii, aac ia?auaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiui/eiui eiiiaoaioiui
i?aaiai.

Iaeaieueoaa i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiatho a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua niiniau
caueou aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa, ?aaeecoaiuo a ?aieao th?enaeeeoeeiiiie
oi?iu. Iiae niiniaaie caueou iiieiathony cae?aieaiiua caeiiii
iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaua ia?u i?eioaeeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, iin?aaenoaii
eioi?uo e i?iecaiaeeony caueoa, o.a. ainnoaiiaeaiea/i?eciaiea
ia?ooaaiuo/ inia?eaaaiuo i?aa. Enoaoe iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue:

1. I?eciaiey aaoi?neeo/niaaeiuo i?aa.

2. Ainnoaiiaeaiey iieiaeaiey, nouanoaiaaaoaai aei ia?ooaiey i?aaa.

3. I?ana/aiey aeaenoaee, ia?ooathueo i?aai eee nicaeathueo oa?ico
ia?ooaiey.

4. I?eioaeaeaiey e eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoe a iaoo?a.

5. Aiciauaiey oauoeia e acuneaiey iacaeiiii iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea,
auieaoo eiiiainaoeee.

6. I?ae?auaiey/eciaiaiey i?aaiioiioaiee.

Iiyniaiey iiaoo o?aaiaaoue eeoue iaeioi?ua ec ia?a/eneaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae. Iiae eniieiaieai iaycaiiinoe a iaoo?a iiieiaaony
?aaeueiia auiieiaiea ia?ooeoaeai a ioiioaiea iioa?iaaoaai aeaenoaee,
oeacaiiuo a iaycaoaeuenoaao, naycuaathueo noi?iiu. Eeoue a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea ?aaeueiia eniieiaiea iaaiciiaeii, aeaiiue niinia caueou
caiaiyaony ae?oaei ii auai?o iioa?iaaoaai.

Iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiui niiniaii caueou aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa yaeyaony
aiciauaiea oauoeia, acuneaiea iacaeiiii iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea e auieaoa
eiiiainaoeee. Yoeie niiniaaie oaeiaeaoai?yaony eiouanoaaiiue eioa?an
iioa?iaaoaai.

A niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no.49 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao”, iniiaiie oi?iie eiiiainaoeee i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa yaeyaony
aiciauaiea oauoeia. Iiae oauoeaie iiieiathony ?anoiaeu, i?iecaaaeaiiua
eeoeii, i?aai eioi?iai ia?ooaii, oo?aoa eee iia?aaeaeaiea eiouanoaa, a
oaeaea iaaeiiieo/aiiua aeioiaeu, eioi?ia yoi eeoei iieo/eei au, anee au
aai i?aai ia auei au ia?ooaii. Aiciauaieth iiaeeaaeao oaeaea ?anoiaeu ia
ieacaiea th?eaee/aneie iiiiue ii caueoa aaoi?neeo/niaaeiuo i?aa,
noaeaaiua ?anoiaeu e ae?oaea.

A ea/anoaa oiouaiiie auaiaeu ?anniao?eaaaony eae ieieioi iacaeiiii
iieo/aiiay i?eaueue. A oi aea a?aiy iainiiaaiea ?acia?a i?e/eiaiiuo
oauoeia yaeyaony caaea/ae iioa?iaaoaai. Ei aea aeieacuaaaony nai oaeo
ia?ooaiey aaoi?neeo/niaaeiuo i?aa. Yoi i?aaenoaaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiie i?ioeaaeo?ie. Iiyoiio aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii caueou
yaeyaony acuneaiea n ia?ooeoaey iacaeiiii iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea. ?acia?
aeioiaea iiaeii au/eneeoue n iiiiuueth niioaaonoaothueo ?an/aoia. Aua
i?iua iio?aaiaaoue n ia?ooeoaey auieaou eiiiainaoeee, ?acia? eioi?ie
ii?aaeaeyaony noaeii a ?acia?a io 10 aei 50000 I?IO, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O. Eiiiainaoeee iiaeao iiaeeaaeaoue e ii?aeueiue
a?aae. Oi?ia e ?acia? eiiiainaoeee ii?aeueiiai a?aaea ii?aaeaeythony
noaeii iacaaeneii io ?acia?a e oi?iu aiciauaiey eiouanoaaiiiai a?aaea.

E?iia oiai, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O ia?yaeo n ia?aie a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie
caueou onoaiaaeeaaao e oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea
aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa. Oaieiaiui i?anooieaieai, niaeanii no.146 OE
?O, iacaeiiiia eniieueciaaiea iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ?aaii eae e
i?enaiaiea aaoi?noaa. Iauaeoii yoie ii?iu i?aaa yaeythony ia ana
aaoi?neea e niaaeiua i?aaa, a oieueei i?aai aaoi?noaa e i?aai ia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, o.a. niaieoiiinoue i?aaiii/ee
eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Ia?ooaiea ae?oaeo i?aa, io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei
i?aaii, oaieiaii iaeacoaiiai aeayiey ia ia?acotho.

A ?anniao?eaaaiii i?anooieaiee anoue aeaa noi?iiu: iauaeoeaiay e
noauaeoeaiay. E iauaeoeaiie noi?iia ioiineony niaa?oaiea
iaeiiai/ianeieueeeo aeaenoaee, iiaeiaaeathueo iiae aeaenoaea no.146 OE
?O, a eiaiii: i?enaiaiea aaoi?noaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea e niaa?oaiea ethaiai
?iaea aeaenoaee, naycaiiuo n iacaeiiiui eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiey
eee iauaeoa niaaeiuo i?aa. E?eoa?eai i?eiaieiinoe OE ?O n/eoaaony
?aaeueiia i?e/eiaiea oua?aa a e?oiiii ?acia?a. I?ioeaii?aaiua aeaenoaey,
ia i?e/eieaoea oaeiai oua?aa, ii iiaouea aai aucaaoue, ii?aaeaeythony
eae iieooaiea ia i?anooieaiea. Aeaenoaey, eioi?ua ia i?e/eieee e ia
iiaee i?e/eieoue e?oiiiai oua?aa, oaieiaiui i?anooieaieai ia
i?eciathony. Noauaeoeaiay noi?iia oaeiai i?anooieaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony
i?yiui oiuneii.

Oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa ianoo
eeoea, aeinoeaoea 16 eao. Aeaiiia i?anooieaiea iaeacuaaaony oo?aoii io
200 aei 400 I?IO, eeai iaycaoaeueiuie ?aaioaie ia n?ie io 180 aei 240
/ania, eeai eeoaieai naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei aeaoo eao.

Aeey eeoe, niaa?oeaoeo oa aea aeaenoaey iaiaeiie?aoii, eeai a naiai?a n
ae?oaeie eeoeaie, eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea aeaiiuo aeaeia iaeacaiey
oaeaaeaaaony – oaeaaeaathony oo?aou, n?iee iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio e eeoaiey
naiaiaeu.

8. Io?aia i?iecaaaeaiee ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia ca ?oaaaeii.

Aaoi?neia i?aai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii aniaeoa eiaao niaa?oaiii ae?oaie
oa?aeoa?, iaaeaee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iii eiaao no?iai
oa??eoi?eaeueiue oa?aeoa?, /oi icia/aao aeanoeoth i?eayceo e no?aia, a
eioi?ie yoi i?iecaaaeaiea auei nicaeaii. A ae?oaie no?aia yoi
i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao naiaiaeii eniieueciaaoueny aac auieaou
niioaaonoaothuaai aaoi?neiai aiii?a?a. *oiau io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa
aeaenoaiaaea e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau aeaiiay no?aia
o/anoaiaaea a iiiainoi?iiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiii niaeaoaiee ia io?aia
aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa.

E?iia oiai, aeaaea anee oaeay caueoa inouanoaeyaony ia oa??eoi?ee
ae?oaiai ainoaea?noaa, oi iia i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaa, a eioi?ii i?iecaaaeaiea iaoiaeeony a
aeaiiue iiiaio (aioiaeony e ia/aoe, caienuaaaony aeey i?iaeaaee e o.i.).

Iaeeo/oea oneiaey aeey io?aiu aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa ca ?oaaaeii
nicaeathony i?e o/anoee no?aiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nenoaia io?aiu
aaoi?neeo i?aa. ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey o/anoaoao i?aeoe/anee ai anao
iniiaiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiiaaioeeyo ia io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa.
Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea n?aaee ieo iieo/eee Aa?ineay eiiaaioeey ia io?aia
eeoa?aoo?iuo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee e Anaie?iay eiiaaioeey ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa. Ni a?aiaiai eo niaea?aeaiea noaei i?aeoe/anee
eaeaioe/iui, ii Aa?ineay eiiaaioeey eiaao ia?aoioth neeo: ai anao
no?aiao, o/anoaothueo a Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee, aoaeoo io?aiyoueny ana
i?iecaaaeaiey, ia eioi?ua ia enoae n?ie io?aiu a aeaiiie no?aia, aeaaea
anee iie auee iaia?iaeiaaiu (iioaeeeiaaiu) ?aiueoa aeaou iiaeienaiey
aeaiiie no?aiie Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaoi?u aieueiu a naiai auai?a ianoa iaia?iaeiaaiey,
iioaeeeiaaiey, ia?aecaeaiey, i?iaeaaee i?iecaaaeaiee. I?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee n ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oia?aie inouanoaeyaony a iauai
ii?yaeea iin?aaenoaii aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a. Aiii?a? (aaoi?neia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea) auiea/eaaaony a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii. Aeey
ono?aiaiey aeaieiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?iecaiaeyony ca/aou iaeiaia ia
noiiu oiea/aiiuo iaeiaia a eiino?aiiii ainoaea?noaa i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee
aeieoiaioia, oaeinoiaa?ythueo yoio oaeo.

Caeeth/aiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, a yoie ?aaioa auea ?anniio?aia no?oeoo?a aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, iniaaiiinoe aai io?aiu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, iaeioi?ua
ithainu a ii?aaeaeaieyo eae iauaeoia, oae e noauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

A ?aaioo niciaoaeueii ia aeeth/aii e ia ?ane?uoi iiiyoea aaoi?neiai
aeiaiai?a, eae i?aaiii/iie oi?iie ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aaoi?aie e o?aoueeie
eeoeaie, oae eae yoi yaeyaony neeoeii iauaiiie oaiie, eioi?ay iiaea au
noaoue aua iaeiei ?aoa?aoii.

Eiia/ii, a eaaeaeii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa anoue ia?aoe, yaiua e iayaiua, ii
anee iii ana-oaee anoue, oi iiaeii iaaeayoueny, /oi iaeaeoony neeu e
n?aaenoaa, /oiau eniieiyoue i?aaiaua ii?iu oaea nouanoaothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aeaeeia?aoey:

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