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1. Aaia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe ionouiue

Aieueoeinoai ionouiue ie?a noi?ie?iaaeenue ia aaieiae/aneeo ieaooi?iao e
caieiaao ae?aaiaeoea o/anoee nooe. Ionouie a Acee, Ao?eea e Aano?aeee
?aniieiaeaiu iau/ii ia aunioao io 200-600 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y, a
Oeaio?aeueiie Ao?eea e Naaa?iie Aia?eea – ia aunioa 1 oun. i iaae
o?iaiai ii?y.

Ionouie – iaeei ec eaiaeoaooia Caiee, aicieeoae oae aea caeiiiia?ii, eae
e ana ae?oaea, aeaaiaea?y i?aaeaea anaai naiaia?aciiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth
ii caiiie iiaa?oiinoe oaiea e aeaae e naycaiiiio n yoei ?acaeoeth
i?aaie/aneie aeecie, oi?ie?iaaieth aeiaaioeaiioe/aneeo nenoai. Ionouiy –
ii?aaeaeaiiia aaia?aoe/aneia yaeaiea, eaiaeoaoo, aeeaouee naiae iniaie
aeeciueth, iaeaaeathuee naieie caeiiiia?iinoyie, eiathuee i?e ?acaeoee
eee aeaa?aaeaoeee naie i?enouea aio /a?ou, oi?iu eciaiaiee.

Aiai?y i ionouie eae i ieaiaoa?iii e caeiiiia?ii aicieeoai yaeaiee, ia
neaaeoao iiae yoei iiiyoeai iiae?acoiaaaoue ia/oi iaeiiia?aciia,
iaeiioeiiia. Aieueoeinoai ionouiue ie?oaeaii ai?aie eee, /oi auaaao
/aua, a?aie/eo n ai?aie. A iaeieo ianoao ionouie ?aniieiaeaiu ii
ninaaenoao n iieiaeuie aunieeie ai?iuie nenoaiaie, a ae?oaeo – n
ae?aaieie, neeueii ?ac?ooaiiuie ai?aie. E ia?aui ioaeii ioianoe Ea?aeoiu
e Eucueeoi, ionouie Oeaio?aeueiie Acee – Aeaoaiue e I?aein,
thaeiiaia?eeaineea ionouie; ei aoi?ui iaaei ioianoe Naaa?ioth Naoa?o.

Ai?u aeey ionouiue yaeyaony iaeanoyie oi?ie?iaaiey aeeaeeiai noiea,
eioi?ue i?eoiaeeo ia ?aaieio a aeaea o?aiceoiuo ?ae e iaaieueoeo, ni
“neaiuie” onoueyie. Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey ionouiue eiaao oaeaea
iiaecaiiue e iiae?oneiaie noie, ieoathuee eo iiaecaiiua aiaeu. Ai?u –
iaeanoe, ioeoaea auiinyony i?iaeoeou ?ac?ooaiey, aeey eioi?uo ionouie
neoaeao ianoii aeeoioeyoeee. ?aee iinoaaeytho ia ?aaieio ianno ?uoeiai
iaoa?eaea. Caeanue ii ioni?oe?iauaaaony, ia?aoe?aaony a aua aieaa iaeeeo
/anoeoeu e aunoeeaao iiaa?oiinoue ionouiue. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiaiaaeiaie
?aaiou ?ae ?aaieiu iie?uaathony iiiaiiao?iaui neiai aeethaeaeueiuo
ioeiaeaiee. ?aee noi/iuo iaeanoae auiinyo ia?iiioth ianno ia?aaayiiiai e
iaeiii/iiai iaoa?eaea a Ie?iaie ieaai. Iiyoiio ionouie noi/iuo iaeanoae
ioee/athony iacia/eoaeueiui ?ani?ino?aiaieai ae?aaiaaeethaeaeueiuo e
ica?iuo ioeiaeaiee (Naoa?a e ae?.). Iaiai?io, aannoi/iua iaeanoe
(Oo?aineay ieciaiiinoue, E?aineia iaai?uea e ae?.) ioee/athony iiuiuie
oieuaie ioeiaeaiee.

Iiaa?oiinoiua ioeiaeaiey ionouiue naiaia?aciu. Yoei iie iaycaiu
aaieiae/aneiio no?iaieth oa??eoi?ee e i?e?iaeiui i?ioeannai. Ii aeaiiui
I. I. Iao?iaa (1973), iiaa?oiinoiua ioeiaeaiey ionouiue anthaeo
iaeiioeiiu. Yoi “eaiaienoue e uaaienoue yethaee ia o?aoe/iuo e iaeiauo
eiiaeiia?aoao, ian/aieeao e ia?aaeyo, neaaathueo no?oeoo?iua ?aaieiu;
aaea/iua, ian/aiua eee noaeeienoi-aeeienoua i?iethaeaeueiua iaiinu
iiaeai?iuo ?aaiei; ian/aiua oieue ae?aaieo aeaeueo e ica?iuo aeai?annee
e, iaeiiaoe, yieiaua ianee” (Iao?ia, 1973). Ionouiyi naienoaaiiu
iaeioi?ua iaeiioeiiua i?e?iaeiua i?ioeannu, yaeythueany i?aaeiinueeaie
ii?oiaaiaca: y?icey, aiaeiay aeeoioeyoeey, auaeoaaiea e yieiaua
iaeiieaiey ian/aiuo iann. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi noiaenoai iaaeaeo
ionouiyie iaia?oaeeaaaony a aieueoii eiee/anoaa i?eciaeia. *a?ou
?acee/ee caiaoiu ?aaea e ia?aie/aiu iaiiiaeie i?eia?aie, aei aeinoaoi/ii
?acei.

?acee/ey aieaa anaai naycaiu n aaia?aoe/aneei iieiaeaieai ionouiue a
?acee/iuo oaieiauo iiynao Caiee: o?iie/aneei, noao?iie/aneii, oia?aiiii.
A ia?auo aeaoo iiynao ?aniieiaeaiu ionouie Naaa?iie e THaeiie Aia?eee,
Aeeaeiaai e N?aaeiaai Ainoiea, Eiaeee, Aano?aeee. N?aaee ieo auaeaeytho
eiioeiaioaeueiua e ieaaie/aneea ionouie. A iineaaeieo eeeiao niya/aaony
aeecinoueth ieaaia, io/aai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oaieiaui e aiaeiui
aaeainaie, inaaeeaie e enia?aieyie ia iioiaee ia niioaaonoaothuea
aaee/eiu, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho eiioeiaioaeueiua ionouie. Ai?i/ai, aeey
i?eieaaie/aneeo ionouiue aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho iiuaathuea iaoa?eee
ieaaie/aneea oa/aiey – oaieua e oieiaeiua. Oaieia oa/aiea ianuuaao
eaeouea n ieaaia aicaeooiua iannu aeaaie, e iie i?eiinyo ia iiaa?aaeuea
inaaeee. Oieiaeiia oa/aiea, iaiai?io, ia?aoaaouaaao aeaao aicaeooiuo
iann, e iie iinooiatho ia iaoa?ee nooeie, oneeeaay a?eaeiinoue
iiaa?aaeee. I?eieaaie/aneea ionouie iaoiaeyony o caiaaeiuo aa?aaia
Ao?eee e THaeiie Aia?eee.

A oia?aiiii iiyna Acee e Naaa?iie Aia?eee ?aniieiaeaiu eiioeiaioaeueiua
ionouie. Iie eaaeao aioo?e iaoa?eeia (ionouie N?aaeiae Acee) e
ioee/athony a?eaeiuie e yeno?aa?eaeiuie oneiaeyie, ?aceei ?anoiaeaeaieai
iaaeaeo oaieiaui ?aaeeiii e inaaeeaie, aunieie enia?yaiinoueth,
eiio?anoaie eaoieo e ceiieo oaiia?aoo?. Ia ?acee/ey i?e?iaeu ionouiue
ieacuaaao naia aeeyiea oaeaea eo aunioiia iieiaeaiea.

Ai?iua ionouie, eae e iaoiaeyueany a iaaeai?iuo aiaaeeiao, iau/ii
ioee/athony iiauoaiiie a?eaeiinoueth eeeiaoa. Iiiaiia?acea noiaenoaa e
?acee/ee ionouiue i?aaeaea anaai naycaii n ianoiiaoiaeaeaieai a ?aciuo
oe?ioao iaieo iieooa?ee, a aea?eii e oia?aiiii iiynao Caiee. A nayce n
yoei o Naoa?u iiaeao ieacaoueny aieueoa noiaenoaa n aano?aeeeneie
ionouiae e aieueoa ?acee/ee n Ea?aeoiaie e Eucueeoiii a N?aaeiae Acee. A
?aaiie noaiaie o ionouiue, ia?aciaaaoeony a ai?ao, iiaeao auoue iaaeaeo
niaie ?yae i?e?iaeiuo aiiiaeee, ii aua aieueoa ?acee/ee n ionouiyie
?aaiei.

?acee/ey auaatho a n?aaeieo e e?aeieo oaiia?aoo?ao a oa/aiea iaeiiai e
oiai aea naciia aiaea, ai a?aiaie auiaaeaiey inaaeeia (iai?eia?,
ainoi/iia iieooa?ea Oeaio?aeueiie Acee aieueoa inaaeeia iieo/aao eaoii
io ionniiiuo aao?ia, a ionouie N?aaeiae Acee e Eacaonoaia – aaniie).
Nooea ?onea – iaycaoaeueiia oneiaea i?e?iaeu ionouiue, ii oaeoi?u eo
aicieeiiaaiey ?aciua. ?ac?aaeaiiinoue iie?iaa a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeyao ieceia niaea?aeaiea aoiona a ionouiiuo ii/aao. Yoiio aea
niinianoaoao nooinoue aicaeooa a eaoiaa a?aiy, /oi i?aiyonoaoao aeoeaiie
iee?iaeieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (a ceiiee ia?eiae aeinoaoi/ii ieceea
oaiia?aoo?u caiaaeeytho yoe i?ioeannu).

2. Caeiiiia?iinoe ia?aciaaiey ionouiue

“Iaoaieci” oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ionouiue iiae/eiai i?aaeaea anaai
ia?aaiiia?iinoe a ?ani?aaeaeaiee ia Caiea oaiea e aeaae, ciiaeueiinoe
aaia?aoe/aneie iaiei/ee iaoae ieaiaou. Ciiaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oaiia?aoo? e aoiinoa?iiai aeaaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao niaoeeoeeo aao?ia,
iauoth oee?eoeyoeeth aoiinoa?u. Iaae yeaaoi?ii, aaea i?ienoiaeeo
iaeaieueoee iaa?aa nooe e aiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe, ainiiaenoaotho
ainoiaeyuea aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa.

Caeanue ia?acoaony iaeanoue ooeeae e neaauo ia?aiaiiuo aao?ia. Oaieue
aicaeoo, iiaeiyaoeeny iaae yeaaoi?ii, ianeieueei ioeaaeaeaynue, oa?yao
aieueoia eiee/anoai aeaae, auiaaeathuae a aeaea o?iie/aneeo eeaiae.
Caoai a aa?oieo neiyo aoiinoa?u aicaeoo noaeaao ia naaa? e tha, a
noi?iio o?iieeia. Yoe aicaeooiua iioiee iacuaatho aioeiannaoaie. Iiae
aeaenoaeai a?auaiey caiee a naaa?iii iieooa?ee aioeiannaou ioeeaiythony
ai?aai, a thaeiii – aeaai.

I?eia?ii iaae oe?ioaie 30-40° N (o noao?iieeia) oaie eo ioeeiiaiey
ninoaaeyao ieiei 90° N, e iie ia/eiatho ia?aiauaoueny oaea ii
ia?aeeaeyi. Ia yoeo oe?ioao aicaeooiua iannu iioneathony e iaa?aoie
iiaa?oiinoe, aaea aua aieueoa iaa?aaathony, e oaeaeythony io e?eoe/aneie
oi/ee ianuuaiey. A nayce n oai /oi a o?iieeao e?oaeue aiae aunieia
aoiinoa?iia aeaaeaiea, a o yeaaoi?a, iaiai?io, iiieaeaiiia, o
iiaa?oiinoe caiee aicieeaao iinoiyiiia aeaeaeaiea aicaeooiuo iann
(iannaoia) io noao?iieeia e yeaaoi?o. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai oiai aea
ioeeiiythuaai aeeyiey Caiee a naaa?iii iieooa?ee iannaou aeaeaeoony n
naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae, a thaeiii – n thai-ainoiea ia
naaa?i-caiaae.

Iannaou caoaaouaatho oieueei ieaeithth oieuo o?iiinoa?u – 1,5-2,5 ei.
Ainiiaenoaothuea a yeaaoi?eaeueii-o?iie/aneeo oe?ioao iannaou
ii?aaeaeytho onoie/eaoth no?aoeoeeaoeeth aoiinoa?u, i?aiyonoaotho
aa?oeeaeueiui aeaeaeaieyi e naycaiiiio n ieie ?acaeoeth iaeaeia,
auiaaeaieth inaaeeia. Iiyoiio iaea/iinoue a yoeo iiynao i/aiue ia
cia/eoaeueia, a i?eoie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee iaeaieueoee. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai caeanue iaaethaeaaony e?aeiyy nooinoue aicaeooa (ioiineoaeueiay
aeaaeiinoue a eaoiea ianyoeu ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai ieiei 30%) e
eneeth/eoaeueii aunieea eaoiea oaiia?aoo?u. N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a
aicaeooa ia iaoa?eeao a o?iie/aneii iiyna eaoii i?aauoaao 30-35° N;
caeanue auaaao naiay aunieay ia caiiii oa?a oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa – iethn
58° N. N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay aiieeooaea oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa – ieiei 20° N,
a nooi/iay iiaeao aeioiaeeoue aei 50° N, iiaa?oiinoe ii/au – ii?ie
i?aauoaao 80° N.

Inaaeee auiaaeatho i/aiue ?aaeei, a aeaea eeaiae. A noao?iie/aneeo
oe?ioao (iaaeaeo 30 e 45° N naaa?iuo e thaeiuo oe?io) aaee/eia noiia?iie
?aaeeaoeee oiaiueoaaony, a oeeeeiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue niinianoaoao
oaeaaeiaieth e auiaaeaieth inaaeeia, i?eo?i/aiiuo aeaaiui ia?acii e
oieiaeiiio ia?eiaeo aiaea. Iaeiaei ia iaoa?eeao ?acaeaathony
iaeiiiaeaeaeiua aeai?annee oa?ie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, aucuaathuea
?aceoth canooeeainoue. Caeanue n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a eaoieo ianyoeaa 30°
N e aieaa, iaeneiaeueiay aea iiaeao aeinoeaiooue 50° N. A noao?iie/aneeo
oe?ioao iaeaieueoae nooinoueth ioee/athony iaaeai?iua aiaaeeiu, aaea
aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia ia i?aauoaao 100-200 ii.

A oia?aiiii iiyna oneiaey aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ionouiue aicieeatho ai
aioo?eeiioeiaioaeueiuo ?aeiiao, oaeeo eae Oeaio?aeueiay Acey, aaea
inaaeeia auiaaeaao ia aieaa 200 ii. A nayce n oai /oi Oeaio?aeueiay Acey
ioai?iaeaia io oeeeeiiia e ionniiia ai?iuie iiaeiyoeyie, caeanue eaoii
ia?acoaony aa?e/aneay aeai?anney. Aicaeoo ioee/aaony aieueoie
nooinoueth, aunieie oaiia?aoo?ie (aei 40° N e aieaa) e neeueiie
caiueaiiinoueth. ?aaeei i?iieeathuea nthaea n oeeeeiiaie aicaeooiua
iannu n ieaaiia e ec A?eoeee auno?i i?ia?aaathony e ennooathony.

Oaeei ia?acii, oa?aeoa? iauae oee?eoeyoeee aoiinoa?u, iaoneiaeaiu
ieaiaoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie, e ianoiua aaia?aoe/aneea oneiaey nicaeatho
naiaia?acioth eeeiaoe/aneoth ianoaiiaeo, oi?ie?othuoth e naaa?o e thao
io yeaaoi?a, iaaeaeo 15 e 45° N oe?iou, ciio ionouiue. E yoiio
aeiaaaeyaony aeeyiea oieiaeiuo oa/aiee o?iie/aneeo oe?io (Ia?oaineia,
Aaiaaeueneia, Caiaaeii-Aano?aeeeneia, Eaia?neia e Eaeeoi?ieeneia).
Nicaeaaay oaiia?aoo?ioth eiaa?neth, i?ioeaaeiua, ianuuaiiua aeaaie
ii?neea aicaeooiua iannu, ainoi/iuo iinoiyiiuo aao?ia aa?e/aneeo
iaeneioiia i?eaiaeyo e ia?aciaaieth i?ea?aaeiuo i?ioeaaeiuo e ooiaiiuo
ionouiue n aua iaiueoei auiaaeaieai inaaeeia a aeaea aeiaeaey.

Anee au nooa iie?uaaea anth iiaa?oiinoue ieaiaou e ia auei ieaaiia e
aunieeo ai?iuo iiaeiyoee, iiyn ionouiue aue au nieioiui e a?aieoeu aai
oi/ii niaiaaeaee au n ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?aeeaeueth. Ii oae eae nooa
caieiaao iaiueoa 1/3 ieiuaaee caiiiai oa?a, ?ani?aaeaeaiea ionouiue e eo
?acia?u caaenyo io eiioeao?aoeee, aaee/eiu e ono?ienoaa iiaa?oiinoe
eiioeiaioia. Oae, iai?eia?, aceaoneea ionouie ?ani?ino?aieeenue aeaeaei
ia naaa? – aei 48° N n.o. A thaeiii iieooa?ee ec-ca ia?iiiuo aiaeiuo
i?ino?ainoa ieaaiia iauay ieiuaaeue ionouiue eiioeiaioia neeueii
ia?aie/aiia, a ?ani?ino?aiaiea eo aieaa eieaeeciaaii. Oaeei ia?acii,
aicieeiiaaiea, ?acaeoea e aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ionouiue ia
caiiii oa?a iaoneaaeeaathony neaaeothueie oaeoi?aie: aunieeie cia/aieyie
?aaeeaoeee e eceo/aiey, iaeui eiee/anoaii auiaaeathueo inaaeeia eee eo
iieiui ionoonoaeai. Iineaaeiaa, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaoneaaeeaaaony
oe?ioie ianoiinoe, oneiaeyie iauae oee?eoeyoeee aoiinoa?u, iniaaiiinoyie
i?ia?aoe/aneiai no?iaiey nooe, iaoa?eeiaui eee i?eieaaie/aneei
iieiaeaieai ianoiinoe.

3. Canooeeainoue oa??eoi?ee

Ii noaiaie a?eaeiinoe – canooeeainoe iiiaea oa??eoi?ee iaiaeeiaeiau. Yoi
aeaei iniiaaiea aeaeeoue a?eaeiua caiee ia yeno?aa?eaeiua, a?eaeiua e
iieoa?eaeiua, eee /?acau/aeii canooeeaua, canooeeaua e iieocanooeeaua.
I?e yoii e yeno?aa?eaeiui ioiinyo iaeanoe, aaea aa?iyoiinoue iinoiyiiuo
canoo – 75-100%, e a?eaeiui – 50-75% e iieoa?eaeiua – 20-40%. E
iineaaeiei ioiinyo naaaiu, iaiiu, iooou , i?a?ee, aaea i?aaie/aneay
aeeciue i?ioaeaao a i?e?iaeiie ianoaiiaea, i?e eioi?ie, e?iia
ioaeaeueiuo eao, canooa ia yaeyaony ii?aaeaeythuei oneiaeai ?acaeoey.
?aaeeea canooe n aa?iyoiinoueth 10-15% naienoaaiiu e noaiiie ciia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e a?eaeiie ciia ioiinyony ia ana iaeanoe nooe, aaea
auaatho canooe, a eeoue oa, aaea i?aaie/aneay aeeciue a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie iaoiaeeony iiae eo aeeyieai aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy.

Ii I.I. Iao?iao (1975), e ionouiyi ioiinyony oa??eoi?ee n i?aaeaeueii
canooeeaui eeeiaoii. Inaaeeia auiaaeaao iaiaa 250 ii a aiae,
enia?yaiinoue i?aauoaao inaaeee ai iiiai ?ac, caieaaeaeea aac
eneonnoaaiiiai i?ioaiey iaaiciiaeii, i?aiaeaaeaao ia?aiauaiea
aiaei?anoai?eiuo nieae e eiioeaio?aoeey eo ia iiaa?oiinoe, a ii/aa iaei
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.

Ionouiy ioee/aaony aunieeie eaoieie oaiia?aoo?aie, iaeui eiee/anoaii
aiaeiauo inaaeeia – /aua io 100 aei 200 ii, ionoonoaeai iiaa?oiinoiiai
noiea, ia?aaeei i?aiaeaaeaieai ian/aiiai noano?aoa e aieueoie ?ieueth
yieiauo i?ioeannia, canieaiiinoueth iiaecaiiuo aiae e iea?aoeeae
aiaei?anoai?eiuo nieae a ii/aa, ia?aaiiia?iii eiee/anoaii auiaaeathueo
inaaeeia, /oi ii?aaeaeyao no?oeoo?o, o?iaeaeiinoue e ei?iiaoth aieinoue
?anoaiee ionouie. Iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae ?ani?ino?aiaiey ionouiue –
ino?iaiie, eieaeueiue oa?aeoa? eo aaia?aoe/aneiai ?aniieiaeaiey. Ie ia
iaeiii iaoa?eea ionouiiua caiee ia ia?acotho nieioiie iieinu, iiaeiaii
a?eoe/aneie, ooiae?iaie, oaaaeiie eee o?iie/aneie ciiai. Yoi naycaii n
iaee/eai a i?aaeaeao ionouiiie ciiu e?oiiuo ai?iuo nii?oaeaiee n eo
aaee/aeoeie aa?oeiaie e cia/eoaeueiuo aiaeiuo i?inoi?ia. A yoii
ioiioaiee ionouie ia iieiinoueth iiae/eiythony caeiio ciiaeueiinoe.

A naaa?iii iieooa?ee ionouiiua oa??eoi?ee Ao?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa eaaeao
iaaeaeo 15° N e 30° N n.o., aaea iaoiaeeony e?oiiaeoay ionouiy ie?a –
Naoa?a. A thaeiii iieooa?ee iie ?aniieiaeaiu iaaeaeo 6 e 33° N th.o.,
ioaaouaay ionouie Eaeaoa?e, Iaiea e Ea??o, a oaeaea ionouiiua oa??eoi?ee
Niiaee e Yoeiiee. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea ionouie i?eo?i/aiu e thai-caiaaeiie
/anoe eiioeiaioa iaaeaeo 22 e 24° N n.o., aaea ?aniieiaeaiu ionouie
Niii?a, Iioaaa, oeea e ae?.

Cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee Aieueoiai Aannaeia e ionouie *eoaoa ii i?e?iaea
aeiaieueii aeecee e oneiaeyi a?eaeiie noaie. A THaeiie Aia?eea ionouie,
?aniieaaaynue iaaeaeo 5 e 30° N th.o., ia?acotho auoyioooth iieino
(aieaa 3 oun. ei) ii caiaaeiiio, Oeoiieaaineiio iiaa?aaeueth iaoa?eea.
Caeanue n naaa?a ia tha i?ioyaeaathony ionouie Na/o?a,
Iaiia-aeaeue-Oaia?oaaeue, Aoaeaia, a ca ai?iuie o?aaoaie Iaoaaiineay.
Ionouie Acee ?aniieiaeaiu iaaeaeo 15 e 48-50° N n.o e aeeth/atho oaeea
e?oiiua ionouie, eae ?oa-yeue-Oaee, Aieueoie Iaooae, Yeue-Oana ia
A?aaeeneii iieoino?iaa, Aeaooa-Eaae?, Aeaooa-Eoo, Aeaooe-Ia?ai,
?aaenoai, Oa?ai a E?aia e Aoaaienoaia; Ea?aeoiu a Oo?eiaienoaia,
Eucueeoiu a Ocaaeenoaia, Iothieoi a Eacaonoaia; Oa? a Eiaeee e Ooae a
Iaeenoaia; Aiae a Iiiaieee e Eeoaa; Oaeea-Iaeai, Aeaoaiue, Aaeoaiue,
Oeaeaeane a Eeoaa. Ionouie a Aano?aeee caieiatho ia?iiioth oa??eoi?eth
iaaeaeo 20 e 34° N th.o. e i?aaenoaaeaiu ionouiyie Aieueoay Aeeoi?ey,
Neiinii, Aeaniia e Aieueoay Ian/aiay.

Ii Iaeaeo, iauay ieiuaaeue a?eaeiuo oa??eoi?ee ninoaaeyao 48810 oun. ea.
ei, oi anoue iie caieiatho 33,6% caiiie nooe, ec eioi?uo ia aeieth
yeno?aa?eaeiuo i?eoiaeyony 4%, a?eaeiuo – 15 e iieoa?eaeiua – 14,6%.
Ieiuaaeue oeie/iuo ionouiue, ca eneeth/aieai iieoionouiue, ninoaaeyao
ieiei 28 iei. ea. ei, oi anoue ieiei 19% oa??eoi?ee caiiie nooe.

Ii aeaiiui a. Oaioea (1958), ieiuaaeue a?eaeiuo oa??eoi?ee,
eeanneoeoee?oaiuo ii oa?aeoa?o ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa, ninoaaeyao 46749
oun. ea. ei, oi anoue ieiei 32% ieiuaaee caiiie nooe. I?e yoii ia aeieth
oeie/iuo ionouiue (yeno?aa?eaeiuo e a?eaeiuo) iaaeaao ieiei 40 iei. ea.
ei, a ia aeieth iieoa?eaeiuo caiaeue – anaai eeoue 7044 oun. ea. ei a
aiae, a?eaeiua (21,4 iei. ea. ei) – n inaaeeaie io 50 aei 150 ii e
iieoa?eaeiua (21,0 iei. ea. ei) – n inaaeeaie io 150 aei 200 ii.

A 1977 a. THIANEI auea ninoaaeaia oieoeoee?iaaiiay iiaay ea?oeia a
ianooaaa 1 : 25000000 n oeaeueth ooi/iaiey e onoaiiaeaiey a?aieoe
a?eaeiuo ?aeiiia ie?a. Ia ea?oa auaeaeaiu /aou?a aeieeeiaoe/aneea ciiu.

Yeno?aa?eaeiay ciia. Inaaeeia iaiaa 100 ii; eeoaia ?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa, eneeth/ay ?anoaiey yoaia?u e eonoa?ieee aaeieue ?one
aiaeioieia. Caieaaeaeea e aeeaioiiaiaenoai (e?iia iacenia) iaaiciiaeii.
Yoa ciia – ?acei au?aaeaiiay, ionouiy n aiciiaeiuie canooaie a oa/aiea
iaeiiai aiaea eee ianeieueeeo eao iiae?yae.

A?eaeiay ciia. Inaaeeia 100-200 ii. ?ac?aaeaiiay, neoaeiay
?anoeoaeueiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay iiiaieaoieie e iaeiieaoieie
noeeoeaioaie. Iai?ioaaiia caieaaeaeea iaaiciiaeii. Ciia ei/aaiai
neioiaiaenoaa.

Iieoa?eaeiay ciia. Inaaeeia 200-400 ii. Eonoa?ieeiaua niiauanoaa n
i?a?uaenoui o?aayienoui iie?iaii. Ciia aicaeaeuaaiey aiaa?iuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? (“nooiai” caieaaeaeey) e
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Ciia iaaeinoaoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey (noaaoieaeiay). Inaaeeia 400-800 ii.
Aeeth/aao iaeioi?ua o?iie/aneea naaaiiu, n?aaeecaiiiii?neea niiauanoaa
oeia iaeaena e /aia?aee, /a?iicaiiua noaie. Ciia o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
aiaa?iiai caieaaeaeey. Aeey aaaeaiey aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai caieaaeaeey
iaiaoiaeeii i?ioaiea.

Niaeanii aeaiiui yoie ea?ou, ieiuaaeue a?eaeiuo oa??eoi?ee ninoaaeyao
ieiei 48 iei. ea. ei, /oi ?aaii 1/3 anae iiaa?oiinoe nooe, aaea aeaaa
yaeyaony ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei aeieiae/aneoth
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue a?eaeiuo caiaeue e oneiaey aeecie ianaeaiey.

4. Eeanneoeeaoeey ionouiue

Ia a?eaeiuo oa??eoi?eyo, ianiio?y ia eo eaaeoueany iaeiiia?acea, iao
oioy au 10-20 ea. ei ieiuaaee, a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo i?e?iaeiua oneiaey
auee au niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiauie. Anee aeaaea ?aeueao aaeeiue, oi ii/au
?aciua; anee iaeiioeiiay ii/aa, oi iaiaeeiaeia aiaeiue ?aaeei; anee
aaeeiue aiaeiue ?aaeei, oi ?aciay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, e o. ae.

A nayce n oai, /oi i?e?iaeiua oneiaey iaoe?iuo ionouiiuo oa??eoi?ee
caaenyo io oeaeiai eiiieaena acaeiinaycaiiuo oaeoi?ia, eeanneoeeaoeey
oeiia ionouiue e ?aeiie?iaaiea eo – aeaei neiaeiia. Iiea aua ia
nouanoaoao oieoeoee?iaaiiie e oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie ni anao oi/ae c?aiey
eeanneoeeaoeee ionouiiuo oa??eoi?ee, ninoaaeaiiie n o/aoii anaai eo
aaia?aoe/aneiai iiiaiia?acey.

A niaaoneie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a iaiaei ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo
eeanneoeeaoeee oeiia ionouiue. E niaeaeaieth, ii/oe ai anao iao aaeeiiai
iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth yoiai aii?ina. Iaeie ec ieo a iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee
noaayo eeeiaoe/aneea iieacaoaee, ae?oaea – ii/aaiiua, o?aouee –
oei?enoe/aneee ninoaa, /aoaa?oua – eeoiyaeaoe/aneea oneiaey (o.a.
oa?aeoa? ii/aia?oioia e oneiaee i?iec?anoaiey ia ieo ?anoeoaeueiinoe) e
o. ae. ?aaeei eoi ec enneaaeiaaoaeae a naiae eeanneoeeaoeee enoiaeeo ec
eiiieaena i?eciaeia i?e?iaeu ionouiue. Iaaeaeo oai ia iniiaa iaiauaiey
eiiiiiaioia i?e?iaeu iiaeii i?aaeeueii auyaeoue yeieiae/aneea
iniaaiiinoe ?aaeiia e aiieia iainiiaaiii ioeaieoue aai niaoeeoe/aneea
i?e?iaeiua oneiaey e anoanoaaiiua ?ano?nu n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey.

I.I. Iao?ia a naiae eieaa “Ionouie caiiiai oa?a” (1973) i?aaeeaaaao aeey
ionouiue ie?a ia iiiainooiai/aoie eeanneoeeaoeee aeanyoue
eeoiyaeaoe/aneeo oeiia:

* ian/aiua ia ?uoeuo ioeiaeaieyo ae?aaiaaeethaeaeueiuo ?aaiei;

* ian/aii-aaea/iua e aaea/iua ia aeine?iaaiiuo o?aoe/iuo e eeeiauo
no?oeoo?iuo ieaoi e iiaeai?iuo ?aaieiao;

* uaaienoua, aeine?iaaiiua ia o?aoe/iuo ieaoi;

* uaaienoua ia iiaeai?iuo ?aaieiao;

* eaiaienoua ia ieceiai?ueyo e iaeeiniii/ieeao;

* noaeeienoua ia neaaiea?aiiaoiuo iie?iaiuo noaeeieao;

* eanniaua ia iiaeai?iuo ?aaieiao;

* aeeienoua ia ieceiai?ueyo, neiaeaiiuo nieaiiniuie ia?aaeyie e aeeiaie
?acee/iiai aic?anoa;

* nieii/aeiaua a canieaiiuo aeai?anneyo e ii ii?neei iiaa?aaeueyie.

?aciua eeanneoeeaoeee oeiia a?eaeiuo oa??eoi?ee caiiiai oa?a e
ioaeaeueiuo eiioeiaioia eiathony e a ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a.
Aieueoeinoai ec ieo ninoaaeaia ia iniiaa eeeiaoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae.
N?aaieoaeueii iaei eeanneoeeaoeee ii ae?oaei yeaiaioai i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu
(?aeueaoo, ?anoeoaeueiinoe, aeeaioiiio ie?o, ii/aai e o. i.).

5. Iionouieaaiea e io?aia i?e?iaeu

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu ec ?aciuo oaieeia caiiiai oa?a ?acaeathony
o?aaiaeiua neaiaeu i aic?anoathuai ianooieaiee ionouie ia iaaeeouo
/aeiaaeii oa??eoi?ee. Iai?eia?, ii aeaiiui III oieueei a Naaa?iie
Aia?eea ionouiy aaeaaiaeii ioieiaao o ethaeae ieiei 100 oun. aa iieaciuo
caiaeue. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiuie i?e/eiaie yoiai aeiaieueii iianiiai yaeaiey
n/eoathony iaaeaaii?eyoiua iiaiaeiua oneiaey, oie/oiaeaiea
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa, ia?aoeeiiaeueiinoue i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey,
iaoaiecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, o?ainii?oa aac aiciauaiey oua?aa,
i?e/eiyaiiai i?e?iaea. A nayce n oneeaieai i?ioeannia iionouieaaiey
ioaeaeueiua o/aiua aiai?yo i aiciiaeiinoe iaino?aiey
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai e?ecena.

Ii aeaiiui THIANEI ca iineaaeiea 50 eao oa??eoi?ey ieiuaaeueth /ooue
iaiaa iieiaeiu THaeiie Aia?eee i?aa?auaia a aanieiaeiua ionouie. Yoi
i?iecioei a ?acoeueoaoa /?acia?iiai no?aaeeaaiey ianoaeu, oeuie/aneie
au?oaee eania, aannenoaiiiai aaaeaiey caieaaeaeey, no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia
e ae?oaeo eiaeaia?iuo nii?oaeaiee. Auno?ue ?ino ianaeaiey e oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa oaeaea i?eaiaeeo a ?yaea ?aeiiia ie?a e oneeaieth i?ioeannia
iionouieaaiey.

Nouanoaoao iiiai ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia, i?eaiaeyueo e iionouieaaieth a
a?eaeiuo ?aaeiiao caiiiai oa?a. Iaeiaei n?aaee iec auaeaeythony iauea,
ea?athuea iniaoth ?ieue a oneeaiee i?ioeannia iionouieaaiey. E iei
ioiinyony:

eno?aaeaiea ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa e ?ac?ooaiea ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa i?e
i?iiuoeaiiii, e??eaaoeeiiiii no?ieoaeuenoaa;

aeaa?aaeaoeey ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa /?acia?iui auianii;

oie/oiaeaiea ae?aaanii-eonoa?ieeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa
caaioiaee oiieeaa;

aeaoeyoeey e y?icey ii/a i?e eioaineaiii aiaa?iii caieaaeaeee;

aoi?e/iia canieaiea e caaiea/eaaiea ii/a a oneiaeyo i?ioaaiiai
caieaaeaeey;

?ac?ooaiea eaiaeoaooa a ?aeiiao ai?iuo ?ac?aaioie ca n/ao i?iiuoeaiiuo
iooiaeia, na?ina noi/iuo e ae?aiaaeiuo aiae.

N?aaee anoanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, i?eaiaeyueo e iionouieaaieth, iaeaieaa
iianiuie yaeythony:

eeeiaoe/aneea – oaaee/aiea a?eaeiinoe, nie?auaiea caiania aeaae,
aucuaaaiuo eciaiaieai iae?i- e iee?ieeeiaoa;

aeae?iaaieiae/aneea – inaaeee noaiiayony ia?aaoey?iuie, ieoaiea
iiaecaiiuo aiae – yieciaee/aneei;

ii?oiaeeiaie/aneea – aaiii?oieiae/aneea i?ioeannu noaiiayony aieaa
aeoeaiuie (y?icey, aeaoeyoeey e o. ae.);

ii/aaiiua – onuoaiea ii/a e eo canieaiea;

oeoiaaiiua – aeaa?aaeaoeey ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa;

ciiaaiiua – nie?auaiea iiioeyoeee e /eneaiiinoe aeeaioiuo.

Ai?ueaa n i?ioeannaie iionouieaaiey aaaeaony a neaaeothueo iai?aaeaieyo:

?aiiaa auyaeaiea i?ioeannia iionouieaaiey n oeaeueth eo i?aaeioa?auaiey
e eeeaeaeaoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea oneiaee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey;

nicaeaiea caueoiuo eaniuo iiein ii ie?aeiai iacenia, a?aieoeai iieae e
aaeieue eaiaeia;

nicaeaiea eaniuo ianneaia e caeaiuo “ciioia” ec ianoiuo ii?iae –
inaiioeoia a aeoaeia ionouiue aeey caueou neioa io neeueiuo aao?ia,
iaeyueo eo/ae nieioea e oe?aieaiey ei?iiaie aacu;

ainnoaiiaeaiea ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa ia oa??eoi?eyo ioe?uouo ai?iuo
?ac?aaioie, aaeieue no?ieoaeuenoaa e??eaaoeeiiiie naoe, aei?ia,
o?oaii?iaiaeia e anao iano, aaea ii oie/oiaeai;

cae?aieaiea e iaeanaiea iiaeaeaeiuo ianeia n oeaeueth caueou io ian/aiuo
caiinia e auaeoaaiey i?ioaaiuo caiaeue, eaiaeia, ianaeaiiuo ioieoia,
aeaeaciuo e oinnaeiuo aei?ia, iaooa- e aacii?iaiaeia, i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee.

Aeaaiue ?u/aa oniaoiiai ?aoaiey yoie aeiaaeueiie i?iaeaiu –
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai a iaeanoe io?aiu i?e?iaeu e ai?ueau n
iionouieaaieai. Io oiai, ianeieueei naiaa?aiaiii e aacioeaaaoaeueii
aoaeoo ?aoaoueny caaea/e ii eiio?ieth e oi?aaeaieth i?e?iaeiuie
i?ioeannaie, ai iiiaii caaeneo aeeciue Caiee e aeeciue ia Caiea.

I?iaeaia ai?ueau n iaaeaaii?eyoiuie yaeaieyie, iaaethaeaaiua a a?eaeiie
ciia, nouanoaoao aeaaii. I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi ec 45 auyaeaiiuo i?e/ei
iionouieaaiey 87% i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
/aeiaaeii aiaeu, caiee, ?anoeoaeueiinoe, aeeaioiiai ie?a e yia?aee, e
oieueei 13% ioiineony e i?e?iaeiui i?ioeannai.

Io?aia i?e?iaeu – iiiyoea i/aiue oe?ieia. Iii aeeth/aao a naay ia
oieueei ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia eiie?aoiuo ?aeiiia ionouie eee ioaeaeueiuo
aeaeia aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo a yoi iiiyoea
aoiaeyo e ia?ii?eyoey ii ?ac?aaioea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iaoiaeia
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiea ?ac?ooaiiuo /aeiaaeii yeinenoaiu,
i?iaiice?iaaiea oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia i?e inaiaiee iiauo
oa??eoi?ee, nicaeaiea oi?aaeyaiuo i?e?iaeiuo nenoai.

Ionouith ioaeii nio?aieoue ii iiiaei i?e/eiai, ai-ia?auo ii oiio, /oi aa
?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie? oieeaeai. Nio?aieoue ionouith a
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe – cia/eo inoaaeoue aa ei?aiiuo iaeoaoaeae aia
yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna, a ia?iaeiia oicyenoai aac i/aiue iiiaeo, a oii
/enea oieeaeueiuo, aeaeia nu?uey, oiieeaa. Ai-aoi?uo ii oiio, /oi
ionouiy naia ii naaa aiaaonoai, iiieii oiai, /oi ne?uoi a aa iaae?ao eee
a ieiaei?iaeee i?ioaaiie caiee. Aiaaoay ?acee/iuie i?e?iaeiuie
?ano?naie, ionouiy i/aiue i?eaeaeaoaeueia, iniaaiii ?aiiae aaniie,
eiaaea ?anoeaaoatho aa iaaeieaiaa/iua ?anoaiey, e iicaeiae inaiueth,
eiaaea ii/oe ii anthaeo a iaoae no?aia euetho oieiaeiua aeiaeaee n
aao?ii, a a ionouia noiyo oaieua nieia/iua aeie. Ionouiy i?eaeaeaoaeueia
ia oieueei aeey aaieiaia e a?oaieiaia, ii e aeey oo?enoia. Iia e
oeaeaaia, aa nooie aicaeoo, aeeeoaeueiue oaieue ia?eiae, auoiaeu
ea/aaiuo a?ycae, ai?y/eo ieia?aeueiuo enoi/ieeia iicaieytho ea/eoue
caaieaaaiey ii/ae, ?aaiaoeci, ia?aiua e iiiaea ae?oaea aieacie.

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