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Заповедники Казахстана

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Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea 2

Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea caiiaaaeieeia Eacaonoaia 3

I?e?iaeiua ia?ee 8

I?e?iaeiua caeacieee 9

Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea i?e?iaeiuo caeacieeia:

ainoaea?noaaiiuo 12

aaaeiinoaaiiuo 17

Iniiaiua aioaieei-aaieiae/aneea caeacieee Eacaonoaia 20

Ciieiae/aneea caeacieee 20

Aioaie/aneea caeacieee 25

Caeeth/aiea 29

Aiciiaeiinoue i?aaiecaoeee iiauo caeacieeia e caiiaaaeieeia 31

I?eeiaeaiey 35

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u 38

Aaaaeaiea.

Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea neeueii eciaieea iaeee i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia
Eacaonoaia. Iniaaiii neeueiui eciaiaieyi iiaeaa?aeanue aeeaay i?e?iaea:
i?iecioei ec?aaeeaaiea ?anoeoaeueiinoe, nie?auaiea a?aaeia aeeaioiuo e
aeaaea aeaaeue iiiaeo aeaeia (iai?eia?, oea?a a I?eaaeoaouea).
Oiaiueoeeanue ieiuaaeue eania, naenaoeueieeia e eonoa?ieeia. A ?yaea
ionouiiuo e ai?iuo ianoiinoae nieceeanue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue anoanoaaiiuo
ei?iiauo oaiaeee. Iaaethaeaaony enoiuaiea iiiaiaaeiauo caiania
iiaecaiiuo aiae, aiaeaeaaiuo a eioaineaiue iai?io, caa?yciaiea ?ae e
ica? Eacaonoaia i?iiuoeaiiuie e auoiauie noieaie. I?ienoiaeeo
caa?yciaiea eaiaeoaooia i?iiuoeaiiuie aua?inaie, iueueth,
ia?aciaaaoaeny a ?acoeueoaoa ia?ooaiey oeaeinoiinoe ii/aaiiiai
iie?iaa. A ?yaea eaninoaiiuo ianneaia ?ac?ooeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?
i?eiyea ii/aaiiay y?icey. I?aeoe/anee iao ie iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa ia
eniuoaaoaai oioy au einaaiii aeeyiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea.

Io?aia oeie/iuo eaiaeoaooia iaiaoiaeeia. I/aiue aaaeii i?iaiice?iaaiea
aoaeouaai ?acaeoey i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, nio?aiaiea ioiineoaeueiiai
anoanoaaiiiai ?aaiiaaney, nouanoaothuaai a i?e?iaea, e aai
ainnoaiiaeaiea iinea ?ac?ooaiee, Aucaaiiuo ia i?iaeoiaiii
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea.

Eco/aiea yoeo aii?inia i?iaiaeeony ia aaia?aoe/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo
noaoeeiia?ao, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaith yoaeiiu iao?iiooie i?e?iaeu – a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiiaaaeieeao. Caiiaaaeieee – yoi o/anoee caiee n
oa?aeoa?iuie i?e?iaeiuie eaiaeoaooaie ee ianoaie iaeoaiey ?aaeeeo e
oeaiiuo aeeaioiuo, iaaa/ii ecuyoua ec eaeiai-eeai oicyenoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey. A iaoae no?aia iie yaeythony
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie o/?aaeaeaieyie, eioi?ua eco/atho
anoanoaaiiue oiae i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia e auyaeytho i?e?iaeiua
acaeiinayce a nio?aiaiiii yoaeiia aeeeie i?e?iaeu, ?ac?aaaouaatho iooe
?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Iniiaiie iaoiae
iao/iiai eco/aiey oeie/iuo eaiaeoaooia n?aaiaiea io?aiyaiiai o/anoea
i?e?iaeu n iiaeiaiui ninaaeiei, eioi?ue eniuoae oi eee eiia
aicaeaenoaea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Aaaeiia ianoi a
?aaioa caiiaaaeieeia caieiaao i?iiaaaiaea e iiioey?ecaoeey io?aiu
i?e?iaeu. Ana anoanoaaiiua i?ioeannu i?ioaeatho a caiiaaaeieeao aia
aeeyiey aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea: caeanue ia ?ac?aoaaony eniieueciaaiea
ethauo aeaeia ?ano?nia (i?e?iaeiuo), ia aeiioneaaony eaeea-eeai
aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey, cao?aaeaathuea oeaeinoiinoue i?e?iaeu.
Io?aiythony ana aeaeu iaeoathueo aeeaioiuo e i?iec?anoathueo caeanue
?anoaiee. Oa??eoi?ey caiiaaaeieeia cai?auaia aeey iinauaiey oo?enoaie i
ioaeuoathueie, oae eae iainoi?iaeiia aiaoaoaeuenoai iiaeao iaianoe
iaiii?aaeiue a?aae i?e?iaea. Caiiaaaeieee ioaeiu i?aaeaea anaai aeey
oiai, /oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue n?aaieoue anoanoaaiiua i?e?iaeiua
i?ioeannu n oaie, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo iiae aeeyieai aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea. A caiiaaaeieeao i?iaiaeeony yenia?eiaioaeueiay
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa ii eco/aieth aiciiaeiinoae
i?aia?aciaaiey oaoiu e oei?u, aeeeeiaoecaoeee iieaciuo aeeaioiuo;
inouanoaeyaony naieoa?ey ?oaee e iinaaeee eana, iinaa iiauo aeey aeaiiie
ianoiinoe ?anoaiee. I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea caiiaaaeieee eiatho a
ea/anoaa ?aca?aaoi?ia anoanoaaiiie oaoiu. Caeanue io?aiythony noaiiua,
ionouiiua, ai?iua, eaniua eaiaeoaoou, a oaeaea ?aaeeea e en/acathuea
aeaeu ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, ianoa ?uaiuo ia?anoeeeu, ceiiaie e
aiacaeiaee aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe. Iaeiaei eiee/anoai caiiaaaeieeia
aeaeaei ia io?aaeaao eneeth/eoaeueiiai ?aciiia?acey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee
?anioaeeee. A Eacaonoaia eo oanoue Aeno-Aeaeaaaaeu, Aeia-Aoeineee,
Aa?naeaeueian, Io?aaeueaeaeeineee, Io?coineee, Ia?eaeieueneee.

Aeno-Aeaeaaaaeu – noa?aeoee caiiaaaeiee a Eacaonoaia, eiathuee
ie?iaoth ecaanoiinoue, i?aaieciaai a 1926 aiaeo. ?aniieiaeai ia a?aieoea
*eieaioneie e Aeaeaiaoeueneie iaeanoe e caieiaao ieiuaaeue 74.7 ouny/e
aa. Nthaea aoiaeyo aeeaiieniua aunieiai?iua eaiaeoaoou naaa?i-caiaaeiuo
o?aaoia Oaeanneiai Aeaoao e O?aeueneiai o?aaoa. Ai?iua aa?oeiu
(aunioa aeinoeaaao 4000 i.) n aa/iuie niaaaie, e?ooua neeiiu ni
neaeaie e inuiyie /anoi ia eiatho ?anoeoaeueiinoe. A n?aaeiai y?ona
oa?aeoa?iu noaaeueieeneea e aeueieeneea ieceio?aaiua eoaa, a?/aaia
?aaeeieanuea. Ieaeiyy /anoue ai?iuo neeiiia aunioie 1200-2000 i.
iie?uoa ec?aaeaiiui eanii e eiaao iaeaieaa ?aciiia?acioth eoaiaoth
?anoeoaeueiinoue e aiaaoue aeeaioiue ie?. Caiiaaaeiee iieo/ee naia
iacaaiea io aeaoo ?ae: Aeno e Aeaeaaaaeu, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aannaeio ?aee
A?unue. Yoi oeie/iua ai?iua ?aee, i?ioaeathuea a aeoaieeo aeeaiieniuo
ouaeueyo. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an aucuaaao eaiueii ?aee Aeno,
ioee/athueeny ioaaniuie (aei 300-500 i.) aa?aaaie, /anoi niaa?oaiii
iai?ioiaeeiuie. Aaeieue ?onea ?aee i?ioyioeanue oceay iieina iieiaiiiai
eana ec oiiiey, aa?acu e eau. Aeaeaaaaeu i?ioaeaao a aieaa ieceeo
aa?aaao e oaeaea ieaeieaia iieiaiiuie eanaie. Ia ai?iuo neeiiao nieco
aaa?o iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythony eaiaeoaoou i?aaeai?iuo noaiae,
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania, noaaeueieeneeo e aeueieeneeo eoaia, eaaeieeia e
niaaeieeia. Eaaeaeiio ec yoeo i?e?iaeiuo eiiieaenia naienoaaiiu
niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a. A caiiaaaeieea
1200 aeaeia ?anoaiee, a oii /enea 16 aeaeia aea?aaueaa e 62 aeaea
eonoa?ieea, 42 aeaea ieaeiieoathueo, 238 aeaeia ioeoe, 9 aeaeia
i?aniueathueony. Oa?aeoa?iua iaeoaoaee a?oa?u, eica?iae, einoee, ia?aeu,
eaaaiu, niaaeiua aa?nu, iaaeaaaee, eaiaiiua eoieoeu, ai?iinoae, eanee,
eenu, aa?noee, no?ee. Iiiai/eneaiiu aa?eoou, noa?ayoieee, a?eou,
iau/iu – ai?iua eiaeaeee – oeaiu, ia?aiaea, eaeeeee, e ae?. A 1952
aiaeo a ai?ao Aeno-Aeaeaaaaeeineiai caiiaaaeieea auei auiouaii
ianeieueei ia?aeia. Ieaie oi?ioi inaieeenue ia iiaii ianoa e iaiaaoeee
oaoio caiaaeiiai Oyiue-Oaiy iiaui aeaeii oeaiiiai aeeaioiiai. Caeanue
iiiai ?aaeeeo ai?iuo ?anoaiee, n?aaee eioi?uo ano?a/athony oae aea
eaea?noaaiiua aeaeu, eae aa?aa?en, yoaae?a, aeaiee, caa?iaie, e o.ae.
I/aiue ?aaeeeie yaeythony /aniie aeeeiiiinoiue e iaeaineee eoe eioi?ue
ii aaee/eia e ea/anoao ia onooiaao iai?iaeiui ni?oai. Aeno-Aeaeaaaaeu
eiaao oeeeae iaeaiioieiae/aneeo caoi?iiaiee Ea?aaanoao e Aeaanoao ia
neeiiao o?aaoa Ea?aoao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ianeieueeeo aeanyoeao
eeeiiao?ia naaa?iaa caiiaaaeieea a aeieeia ?aee Ao?oiaeae. Caeanue a
iaaeoaieii eano iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?aae/aeoea ioia/aoee ?acee/iuo ?ua,
iiethneia, /a?aiao, ianaeiiuo, iiiaieo ?anoaiee th?neiai ia?eiaea,
iaeoaaoeo a ?aniieaaaaoainy caeanue 120 iei. eao iacaae ii?neii
aannaeia. Ieiuaaeue aeaoo niaaeiuo o/anoeia iaeaiioieiae/aneeo
caoi?iiaiee a th?neeo aeeienouo neaioeao ia aieueoay (120 aa),
iaeiaei iao/iia cia/aiea eo i/aiue aaeeei, ii iei iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue
enoi?e/aneea yoaiu yaiethoeee i?aaie/aneiai ie?a Caiee.

Aeia-Aoeineee – caiiaaaeiee ieiuaaeueth 89.5 ouny/ aa. ?aniieiaeai a
aannaeia ?ae Oaia? e Ennue a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao. E
yoiio aea caiiaaaeieeo ioiineony ionouiiue o/anoie aeieeiu ?aee Eee n
eioa?aniaeoei i?e?iaeiui iauaeoii – ian/aiiuie aa?oaiaie “Iithuea
ianee”.

I?e?iaea ai?iie /anoe caiiaaaeieea i/aiue aeeaiienia. Ia neeiiao o?aaoa
Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao oi?ioi au?aaeaiiu eaiaeoaoou i?aaeai?iuo noaiae,
eani-eoaiainoaiiiai, noaaeueieeneiai e aeueieeneiai iiynia. Aieueoie
eioa?an aucuaaao ai?iue ocae Oaeaa?a aunioie 5087 i. ?aciiia?acia
oaoia e oei?a caiiaaaeieea: ca?inee aeeeie yaeiie, aa?eeina, aiy?uoieea
niaiythony oaieiuie eanaie ec oyiue-oaiueneie aee. N auniou 2800 i.
iaae o?iaiai ii?y ia/eiathony ai?iua eoaa, ia a?aieoea eana e
noaaeueieeneeo eoaia oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ca?inee a?/e Oo?aaeneie.
Aiaei?acaeaeueiay /anoue o?aaoa Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao caiyoa eaiaeoaooaie
eaaeieeiai-niaaiauo aunieiai?ee. Caeanue iiiai e?oiiuo eaaeieeia,
niaaeieeia e no?iauo neae. aeeaioiue ie? ian/eouaaao 39 aeaeia
ieaeiieoathueo. A eo /enea neae?neea eiceu, a?oa?u, einoee, ia?aeu.
Ec oeuieeia iau/iu oyiue-oaiueneea ao?ua iaaeaaaee, aieee, eenu,
eoieoeu, eiiaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue niaaeiiai aa?na. Ec 117 aeaeia
ioeoe caiiaaaeieea iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iu aa?eoou, ai?iua
eiaeaeee-oea?u, eaieae, ae?icaeu, eaca?aaee, eaae?iaee, aeyoeu, niau,
oaoa?aaa, eaeeeee, aueth?ee, ai?eoainoee. A ionouiiie /anoe
caiiaaaeieea, a aeieeia ?aee Eee i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou n
iaeiiia?aciie iieuiii-nieyiiiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth. Iaaeaeo ai?aie
Eieeii ?aniieiaeai ciaiaieoue “Iithuee aa?oai” aunioie ieiei 150 i.,
ecaeathuee neeueiue caoe i?e aeaeaeaiee ii aai ian/aiui neeiiai.
Oa?aeoa?iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yaeythony aeaeae?aiu, a ooaayo aeieeiu
?aee Eee ano?a/athony oacaiu, iau/iua ?yaee, iiiai/eneaiiua yua?eoeu. A
caiiaaaeieea aaaeaony aieueoay ?aaioa ii auyaeaieth acaeiiioiioaiee
i?aaieciia a aunieiai?iuo e ionouiiuo oneiaeyo. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeytho iiuou ii aeeeeiaoecaoeee ia Oyiue-Oaia coa?ia e ae?oaeo
aeeaioiuo e ii ainnoaiiaeaieth oeaiiaeoeo oaieiuo eania.

Aa?naeaeueian – caiiaaaeiee a Eucue-I?aeeineie iaeanoe ia iaeiieiaiiii
ino?iaa a A?aeueneii ii?a. Ieiuaaeue aai 18.3 ouny/e aa. Ionouiiua
eaiaeoaoou ino?iaa iaeiiia?aciu: i?aiaeaaeatho iieuiii-naeyiiaay e
oia?iaay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ano?a/athony ec?aaeaiiua ca?inee
naenaoeueieeia e eo?aaiu ia ian/aiuo aa?oaiao. Oei?a ino?iaa
ian/eouaaao 165 aeaeia ?anoaiee. AEeaioiue ie? aeiaieueii aaaeai a
aeaeiaii ioiioaiee, ii eiaao cia/eoaeueioth ieioiinoue. Caeanue
iaeoatho 12 aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo (eoeai, aeaeae?ai, naeaae, ea?nae,
eena, aiee, noneee-ian/aiiee e ae?oaea) 7 aeaeia i?aniueathueony e 202
aeaea ioeoe. Nae/an a caiiaaaeieea aaaeoony iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey ii
eco/aieth iineaaenoaee iaaeaiey o?iaiy A?aeueneiai ii?y ia
?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie? I?ea?aeuey.

Eo?aaeueaeaeeineee caiiaaaeiee iaoiaeeony a noaiyo Oeaeeiia?aaeneie
iaeanoe e caieiaao i?aniia ica?i Eo?aaeueaeaeei, /anoue nieaiiai ica?a
Oyiaec n i?eiueathueie i?ea?aaeiuie o/anoeaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie a
ieciaueyo ?ae Io?u e Eoeaeooian. Ieiuaaeue caiiaaaeieea 193,5 ouny/e
aa. Ii i?aaieciaai a 1968 aiaeo a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey o/anoea ciiu
Eacaonoaia e ?aae/aeoeo aiacaeiaee ioeoeu – ?iciaiai oeaieiai.
I?aiaeaaeathuoth ieiuaaeue caiiaaaeieea (107.7 ouny/ aa.) caieiaao
iiaa?oiinoue ica? Eo?aaeueaeaeei e Oyiaec e caaiei/aiiuo iiaa?aaeee.
Caiiaaaeiee ioaaouaaao oae aea oceoth iieino oei/aeiai-eiaueueiie noaie,
i?eiueathuoth e ica?o Eo?aaeueaeaeei, e aai iiaa?aaeuea n aonouie
o?inoieeiauie ca?ineyie. Caeanue iiiai/eneaiiu aiacaeiauey
aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe, iniaaiii aonae e ooie, iiiai eaaaaeae. Ec?aaeea
ano?a/aaony ae?ioa iaueiiaaiiay, ae?ioa-e?anioea e no?aiaou – i?aaeaea
oeie/iua iaeoaoaee oeaeeiiuo caiaeue noaiae Eacaonoaia. Aiacaeeony
?aaeeay aaeay oeaiey. Ia ica?a Oyiaec iaoiaeeony naiia naaa?iia a ie?a
aiacaeiauea ?aae/aeoeo ioeoe ?iciauo oeaieiai. A o?inoieeiauo
ca?ineyo ano?a/athony eaaaiu. Oaiaec-Eo?aaeueaeaeeineea ica?a ianoa
eiioeaio?aoeee ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe ai a?aiy
aanaiieo ia?aeaoia, aeaaiaea?y /aio Eo?aaeueaeaeeineee caiiaaaeiee
i?eia?ae ie?iaoth ecaanoiinoue. Ii aeeth/ai a nienie THIANEI, eae
iniai io?aiyaiue eaiaeoaoo aieioii-ica?iuo oaiaeee.

Iao?coineee caiiaaaeiee iaoiaeeony a Eonoaiaeneie iaeanoe, caieiaao
85.6 ouny/ aa. I?aaieciaai a 1934 aiaeo a oeaeyo io?aiu Iao?coineiai
niniiaiai ai?a – iaeiiai ec naiuo thaeiuo ianneaia niniiauo eania a
Eacaonoaia, e ica? – iano aiacaeiauey aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe. Caeanue
i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou aoa?enouo ianeia n niniiaui ai?ii
Iao?coi-Ea?aaae, i?eiueathueo e eano oei/aeiauo eiaueueiuo noaiiuo
?aaiei, nieiioeiai-nieii/aeiauo iiaa?aaeee e aeaaoi?ee ica?
Na?uiieui, AEa?eieue, Aenoao, *ooeieu. A caiiaaaeieea ano?a/athony 25
aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo, 150 aeaeia ioeoe. Aeey ianoiie oaoiu
oa?aeoa?ii niaianoiia i?enoonoaea eae eaniuo, oae e noaiiuo aeaeia. E
/eneo iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo iaeoaoaeae caiiaaaeieea ioiineony i/aiue
?aaeeay aaeay oeaiey. Ia ica?ao aiacaeeony iiiaeanoai aiaeiieaaathueo
ioeoe e oaeeo ?aaeeeo, eae na?ue aonue e e?aniiaieiaue iu?ie. Ia ica?ao
Aenoao, Na?uiieui e ae?oaeo eaoii niae?aaony ia eeiueeo ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe ni anaai Naaa?iiai Eacaonoaia e ec
Caiaaeiie Neae?e, inaiueth ia ei?iaaeeo e ioaeuo eo niae?aaony nioie
ouny/. Iao/iay ?aaioa i?iaiaeeiay a Iao?coineii caiiaaaeieea, iai?aaeaia
ia ?anoe?aiea aii?inia, naycaiiuo n eco/aieai acaeiiaeaenoaey eaniie,
noaiiie e ica?iie oaoiu. Iniaia ianoi caieiatho caaea/e ainnoaiiaeaiey
niniiaiai ai?a, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eioi?iai auea oie/oiaeaia iiaea?ii
a 1964 aiaeo, ?acaeoey eana a noaiiie ciia.

Ia?eaeieueneee caiiaaaeiee ?aniieiaeai a ai?ao thaeiiai Aeoay, ia
oa??eoi?ee Ainoi/ii-Eacaonoaineie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue aai 71.4 ouny/a
aa. A ninoaa caiiaaaeieea aoiaeyo ai?ii-noaiiua ai?ii-eaniua eaiaeoaoou
Ia?eaeieueneie iaaeai?iie aiaaeeiu e ieaeieythueo aa ai?iuo o?aaoia, a
oae aea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe ica?a Ia?eaeieue.
Iniiaiua oeiu io?aiyaiuo eaiaeoaooia – ai?iua neeiiu Eo?/oineiai
o?aaoa, ica?i Ia?eaeieue n iaeeiiiie i?eica?iie ?aaieiie, ia?ana/aiiie
ianeieueeeie ai?iuie ?a/eaie, naiie e?oiiie ec eioi?uo yaeyaony ?aea
Oiiieaaea. Ai?u ia oa??eoi?ee caiiaaaeieea eiatho aaniethoiua auniou io
1485 i. (ica?i Ia?eaeieue) aei 3370 i. A ai?ao io/aoeeai au?aaeaiu
aunioiua iiyna: eoaiai-noaiiie, ai?ii-oaaaeiie, aeueieeneeo e
noaaeueieeneeo eoaia e eaaeieeiai-niaaiaie. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an aucuaaao
i?e?iaeiue eiiieaen naaoeioaieiie (eenoaaiieoea-neae?neay) e
oaiiioaieiie (aeue e ieooa) oaeae ia neeiiao Eo?/oineiai o?aaoa. A eano
iiiai eonoa?ieeia: /a?aiooa, nii?iaeeia, aiy?uoiee, oeiiaiee. Aiaaou
?aciio?aaiie ceaeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth ai?iua eoaa. Iiiaea ?anoaiey
eiatho eaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea (ia?aeee e cieioie ei?aiue).

Aiaao e ?aciiia?acai aeeaioiue ie? caiiaaaeieea. Caeanue ano?a/aaony 39
aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo, ieiei 200 aeaeia ioeoe. N?aaee ieo einoee ao?ue
iaaeaaaeue, ?unue, ?anniiaoa, aaeea-oaeaooea, oieiiie, aeoaeneee oea?
e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Iniaue eioa?an aucuaaao ai?iia ica?i Ia?eaeieue oaeoiie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eaaeeo iii ia aunioa 1485 i. iaae o?iaiai ii?y,
ieiuaaeue 544 ei2, iaeaieueoay aeoaeia ica?a 27 i. A ica?a aiaeeony
i/aiue ?aaeeay ?uaa nea-oneo/.

Oanoue caiiaaaeieeia ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia ia ioaaouaatho anaai
?aciiia?acey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee. Iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acia i?aaiecaoeey aua
ianeieueeeo. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eo neaaeoao i?aaieciaaoue a aeieeia
?aee O?ae, a ieciaueyo ?aee Oo?aae, a eani-noaiiie ciia Naaa?iiai
Eacaonoaia, a i?aaeaeao aeoai/aeoae aiaaeeiu, ia oa??eoi?ee NIA, Ea?aoa
– ia Iaiauoeaea, ia ieaoi Onoth?o, a Aeaeoiaa?neii Aeaoao, a ai?ao
Nao? e Oa?aaaioae, a ieciauey A?aieioao e Eaio a Oeaio?aeueiii
Eacaonoaia, a ai?ao Ea?aoao, a ianeao Eucueeoi e a i?aaeaeao ?yaea
ae?oaeo eaiaeoaooia Eacaonoaia.

I?e?iaeiua ia?ee

I?e?iaeiua ia?ee eae e caiiaaaeieee i?aaiecothony aeey io?aiu aeeaioiuo
eaiaeoaooia e i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey io?aiu yoeo i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia e eo
anoanoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, iaeiaei caeanue aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae yoeo eaiaeoaooia a ea/anoaa iano ianniaiai
ioaeuoa. A ioee/ea io caiiaaaeieeia ia oa??eoi?eth i?e?iaeiuo ia?eia
?ac?aoai aeinooi oo?enoia i?e oneiaee niaethaeaieyeie
i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai ?aaeeia. Aeey yoeo oeaeae auaeaeythony
niaoeeaeueii ioaaaeaiiua ?aae?eaoeeiiiua ciiu. Ia?yaeo n ieie a
i?e?iaeiuo ia?eao iainiaeythony iai?eeiniiaaiiua ?aca?aaoeee i?e?iaeu, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?uo ia ?ac?aoaaony ethaie aeae oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ia?aie/eaaaony i?enoonoaea ethaeae. Iieac aeeaioiuo
eaiaeoaooia, iaiyoieeia i?e?iaeu e ae?oaeo i?eia/aoaeueiuo iauaeoia
inouanoaeyaony ii no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiui niaoeeaeueiui iaoaoiaeiui o?iiai
e aei?iaai. I?e?iaeiua ia?ee – iiaue aeae io?aiyaiuo eaiaeoaooia a
Eacaonoaia. Iie aua ia iieo/eee aeieaeiiai ?acaeoey, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?aaiecaoeee i?e?iaeiuo ia?eia yaeyaony niaa?oaiii
i/aaeaeiie. Iiea aua ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia ooieoeeiie?oao
aaeeinoaaiiue Aayiaoeueneee i?e?iaeiue ia?e, i?aaieciaaiiue a 1977
aiaeo ia aaca Aayiaoeueneiai eanie/anoaa. Ii ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee
(Aayiaoeueneiai eanie/anoaa) Iaaeiaea?neie iaeanoe; ieiuaaeue ieiei 45
ouny/ aaeoa?ia. Ai?ii-eaniua eaiaeoaoou, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa
oa??eoi?ee i?e?iaeiiai ia?ea, ioee/athony /?acau/aeiie
aeeaiienoiinoueth e ia?aicaeaiiie e?anioie. A?aieoiua, auaao?aiiua
Aayiaoeueneea ai?u, iie?uoua niniiaui e aa?aciaui eanii, aaee/anoaaiii
aicauoathony iaae oaaeenouie iieoionouiiuie ?aaieiaie Eacaoneiai
iaeeiniii/ieea. Eo aa?oeia – ai?a Aeaao aeinoeaaao auniou 1026 i iaae
o?iaiai ii?y. “Ai?ii-eaniie iacen n?aaee ionouiiie noaie”, oae /anoi
iacuaathony Aayiaoeueneea ai?u, eioi?ua ioee/athony eneeth/eoaeueii
aeaaii?eyoiuie eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie.

Yoi ciia ianniaiai ioaeuoa e oo?ecia, eiaaoay ananithciia cia/aiea e
ecaanoiinoue. Ia oa??eoi?ee Aayiaoeueneiai i?e?iaeiiai ia?ea iiiai
cae?aaieoe, aeiiia ioaeuoa, ieiia?neeo eaaa?ae, oo?enoe/aneeo aac. Ia?e
ioee/aaony ia oieueei caei?iaui eeeiaoii, caeanue, oae aea, iaiaei
e oieeaeueiuo ii naiaio aeeaiieniiio iaeeeo i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia.
N?aaee ieo auaeaeythony ai?iua e?yaee Aayiaoeueneeo ai?, neiaeaiiua
a?aieoaiuie ii?iaeaie, e iiyoiio eiathuea iyaeea, ieaaiua i/a?oaiey.
I/aiue /anoi a?aieoiua niiee, ?ac?aoaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai auaao?eaaiey, eiatho i?e/oaeeeaua oi?iu. Ca
aiaoiaa noiaenoai n oaie eee eiuie aeeaioiuie eee i?aaeiaoaie iiiaea
neaeu iieo/eee nianoaaiiia iacaaiea, eae iai?eia?: “Aaaa-ssaa”,
“Aieoaue”, “Eaiaiiua ia?eiu”, “Eaiaiiay eioaaeeiay aieiaa”, “Aoeea” e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. Iaiaei ia oa??eoi?ee i?e?iaeiiai ia?ea e?aneauo
iaua? (Aoeoaoe) e a?ioia (Eoaoei, Ae?aaa?oe).

A iaua?ao iaaeaeo ai?iuie e?yaeaie /anoi iiaeii ano?aoeoue auoiaeu
?iaeieeia, e?aneaaeoea ica?a AEanuaae, Naauiaeueieue, Oa?aeau?
eaaeauea n?aaee ai?, iie?uouo ec?aaeaiiui niniiaui eanii. AEeaiieniua
eaiaeoaoou Aayiaoeueneeo ai? e ica? yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth
Aayiaoeueneiai i?e?iaeiiai ia?ea. A ianoiyuea a?aiy aaaeoony i?iaeoiua
?aaiou ii auaeaeaieth ia oa??eoi?ee i?e?iaeiiai Aayiaoeueneiai ia?ea
caiiaaaeiie, ?aae?eaoeeiiiie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cii.

I?e?iaeiua caeacieee

I?e?iaeiua caeacieee: a ioee/ea io caiiaaaeieeia caeanue cai?ao
iaeeaaeuaaaony oieueei ia ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaeu oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey anoanoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia (iai?eia?, ia ioioo, ?uaieianoai). A caeacieeao onoaiaaeeaatho
?aaeei, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?aie/aiea oicyenoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey /anoe i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiua naciiu
e n?iee e eeoue oieueei a oie ia?a, a eioi?ie yoi oicyenoaaiiia
eniieueciaaiea ia iaiineo a?aaea io?aiyaiui i?e?iaeiui iauaeoai. A
eaiaeoaooao, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa caeacieeia, iaoiaeyony iiae io?aiie
ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu (iai?eia?, aeeaioiue ie?,
?anoeoaeueiinoue e o.ae.). A oi aea a?aiy ia oa??eoi?ee caeacieeia
i?aaeoniio?aiu ia?ii?eyoey iai?aaeaiiua ia nio?aiaiea aeeceiai e
anoanoaaiiiio yeieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia. Yoi icia/aao /oi ?acee/iua aeaeu
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea ia aeieaeiu iaiineoue iuooeiiai
o?iia ia oieueei oai yeaiaioai i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa, eioi?ua
io?aiythony, ii e oai eioi?ua ia iaoiaeyony iiae io?aiie.

I?e?iaeiuo caeacieeia a Eacaonoaia aieaa aeanyoe. Yoe oi?iu io?aiu
i?e?iaeu, a ioee/ea io caiiaaaeieeia, a ?yaea neo/aaa ieacuaathony
aieaa i?eaieeiue, oae eae iicaieytho ia io?aiyaiie oa??eoi?ee
eniieueciaaoue aac oua?aa aeey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e i?e?iaeiuo
eaiaeoaooia aieueoeinoai aeaeia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Caeacieee
i?aaiecothony, eae i?aaeei a i?aaeaeao iaeaieaa i?eia/aoaeueiuo e
aeeaiieniuo i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, ioee/athueony iniai eioa?aniui
aaieiae/aneei no?iaieai, ?aeueaoii, ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, aeeaioiui ie?ii
e o.ae. A caaeneiinoe io iauaeoia iiaeeaaeaueo io?aia caeacieee
auaatho: ioioie/ueeie, aaieiae/aneeie, aioaie/aneeie, ciieiae/aneeie,
ica?iuie e aieioiuie eaiaeoaooaie.

Aaieiae/aneea caeacieee: i?aaiecothony a i?aaeaeao eaiaeoaooia n
?aaeeeie eee oieeaeueiuie aaieiae/aneeie ia?aciaaieyie e oi?iaie
?aeueaoa. E eo /eneo ioiinyony ianoa iaoiaeaeaiey inoaoeia eneiiaaiie
oei?u eee oaoiu, ?aaeeea aaieiae/aneea iaiaaeaiey, iaua?u e ae?oaea
o/anoee n yecioe/aneeie, aeeaioiuie oi?iaie ?aeueaoa. A i?aaeaeao
aaieiae/aneeo caeacieeia cai?auaia aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo,
ac?uaiua e no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou, ia?ooathuea oeaeinoiinoue io?aiyaiiai
iauaeoa.

Aioaie/aneea caeacieee: nicaeathony a eaiaeoaooao eania, noaiae, eoaia,
ionouiue, ai?, ica? e oae aeaeaa. Oeaeinoiinoue eo caeeth/aaony a oii
/oi a ieo iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?aaeeea yiaeaie/iua e ?aeeeoiaua aeaeu
niiauanoaa ae?aaaniie, eonoa?iie e o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. A
caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a aioaie/aneiai caeacieea a iai iiaoo auoue
cai?auaiu ana aeaeu ?oaie eana (e?iia naieoa?iuo), auian neioa,
naiieioaiea e ae?oaea aeaeu oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea,
eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e iia?aaeaeaieth eee oie/oiaeaieth io?aiyaiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Aioaie/anei-aaieiae/aneea caeacieee iauyaeythony ia oa??eoi?eyo ni
naiaia?aciuie /a?oaie aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey ?aeueaoa, ia eioi?uo
oi?ie?othony iniai oeaiiua a iao/iii ioiioaiee ?anoeoaeueiua
niiauanoaa eee ?aaeeea aeaeu ?anoaiee.

A ianoao iaeoaiey ?aaeeeo aeaeia aeeeeo aeeaioiuo e ioeoe nicaeathony
ciieiae/aneea caeacieee. Iie ia?aaeei ioaaouaatho i?e?iaeiua eiiieaenu,
?aniieiaeaiiua ia iooe iea?aoeee noaaeiuo aeeaioiuo e ia?aeaoiuo ioeoe.
A ciieiae/aneeo caeacieeao i?aaeoniio?aia iieiay io?aia oaoiu.

Aieioiua e ica?iua caeacieee – ica?a e aieioa, a eioi?uo ano?a/athony
?aeeeoiaua e ?aaeeea aeaeu ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea aiaeiaiu
i?aaenoaaeythuea iniaue eioa?an a aeae?ieiae/aneii, aeae?ioeie/aneii,
aeae?iaeieiae/aneii ioiioaieyo eee ioee/athueany aeeaiieniinoueth e
eiathuea aeaaiaea?y yoiio aieueoia iao/iia cia/aiea. Ia oa??eoi?ee yoeo
caeacieeia cai?auathony iaeei?aoeaiua ?aaiou, ia?ooathuea neiaeeaoeeny
?aaeei aiaeiaia: o?iaaiue aiaeu e oeie/aneee ninoaa aiaeu e oae
aeaeaa.

I?e?iaeiua caeacieee anao iacaaiiuo eaoaai?ee nicaeaiu ia oa??eoi?ee
Eacaonoaia. Iniaia ianoi caieiatho ioioie/uee caeacieee aaea onoaiiaeaiu
cai?aou ia ioioo ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie ia ana eee ioaeaeueiua aeaeu
aeeaioiuo. Iie i?aaiecothony ainnoaiiaeaieai eee oaaee/aieai
/eneaiiinoe ioioie/uee-i?iiuneiauo aeeaioiuo e nicaeathony, eae
i?aaeei, a i?aaeaeao ?aciiia?aciuo a i?e?iaeiii ioiioaiee
eaiaeoaooia. Yoe caeacieee a Eacaonoaia iieo/eee iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea e ea?atho ia?iiioth ?ieue a io?aia i?eia/aoaeueiuo
i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, yaeythueony n?aaeie iaeoaiey ?aaeeeo aeaeia
aeeaioiuo, ioeoe e ?anoaiee.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho eaiaeoaooiua caeacieee a eioi?uo i?aaeoniio?aia
io?aia anaai i?e?iaeiiai eiiieaena eee aieueoeinoaa i?e?iaeiuo
yeaiaioia i?eia/aoaeueiuo, oeie/iuo eaiaeoaooia. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io
caiiaaaeieeia, ia oa??eoi?ee eaiaeoaooiuo caeacieeia
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ia?aie/aiiay oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue.
Eaiaeoaooiua caeacieee – ia?niaeoeaiay oi?ia io?aiyaiuo oa??eoi?ee:
io?aia oeie/iiai eaiaeoaooa oie eee eiie i?e?iaeiie ciiu ni/aoaaony a
ieo n aiciiaeiinoueth i?iaeieaeaiey iaeioi?uo aeaeia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe (ianoaeua, naiieioaiey). Yoa oi?ia caeacieeia ia
oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia ia iieo/eea aeieaeiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Caeacieee
?acaeaeythony ii naiaio cia/aieth ia ?anioaeeeaineea e ianoiua.
?anioaeeeaineea caeacieee i?aaiecothony ia n?ie aei 10 eao eee
iinoiyiii. Ianoiua caeacieee i?aaiecothony ia iniiaa ?aoaiee ianoiie
ai?iaeneie e iaeanoiie aaeieieno?aoeee ia n?ie aei 5 eao. N?iee
i?aaiecaoeee caeacieeia iiaoo ia?eiaee/anee i?iaeeyony. Ia 1 yiaa?y
1980 aiaea a Eacaonoaia nouanoaiaaei 83 a?aiaiiuo e iinoiyiii
aeaenoaothueo caeacieeia ?aciiai iacia/aiey, ii ieiuaaee caieiathueo
ieiei 4600000 aaeoa?ia. A eo /enea 46 ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioioie/ueeo e 37
iauanoaaiiuo aioaie/aneeo e ciieiae/aneeo caeacieeia. Ana iie
?aniieaaathoy a iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuo e i?eia/aoaeueiuo eaiaeoaooao
?acee/iuo i?e?iaeiuo cii Eacaonoaia, iiyoiio a aoaeouai ia eo iniiaa
iiaoo auoue i?aaieciaaiu ainoaea?noaaiiua caiiaaaeieee e i?e?iaeiua
ia?ee. ?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii iniiaiua caeacieee Eacaonoaia.

Io?aiyaiua eaiaeoaoou ioioie/ueeo e ciieiae/aneeo caeacieeia. Aeaaiay
caaea/a yoie oi?iu io?aiu i?e?iaeu nio?aiaiea e ?anoe?aiiia
aini?iecaiaenoai aeeaioiiai ie?a io?aiyaiuo eaiaeoaooia. A ioioie/ueeo
caeacieeao onoaiaaeeaatho ii?aaeaeaiiua n?iee ioiou ia eaeea eeai aeaeu
aeeaioiuo, a inoaeueiia, iaaenaciiiia a?aiy aiaea i?iaiaeyony
ia?ii?eyoey iai?aaeaiiua ia aini?iecaiaenoai ?ano?nia oaoiu e oei?u,
iiaeei?iea aeeaioiuo, nio?aiaiea iieiaeiyea e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
ia?ii?eyoey. Caeanue aeiioneathony ?acee/iua aeaeu oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ca eneeth/aieai ioiou. Ioioie/uee caeacieee
i?aaiecothony ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie (ia iaiaa /ai ia 5-10 eao) e
caieiatho eae i?aaeei oa??eoi?eth ioee/athuothny ?aciiia?aceai
aeioieia – iano iaeoaiey aeeaioiuo, a nayce /ai ioioie/ueei
caeacieeai i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeaeiay ?ieue a io?aia oeie/iuo eaiaeoaooia
aieueoeinoaa i?e?iaeiuo cii Eacaonoaia. A Eacaonoaia ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 300 i?eieniuo ioioie/ueeo oicyenoa, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia
oa??eoi?ee anao iaeanoae. ?aniieiaeaiu iie eae i?aaeei, a i?aaeaeao
iaeaieaa oeie/iuo eaiaeoaooia oie eee eiie i?e?iaeiie ciiu
?anioaeeee, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia aaca aieueoeinoaa ec ieo
nicaeaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua caiiaaaeieee n iieiui cai?aoii oi?i
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e i?e?iaeiua ia?ee. I?eaaaeai
aeaiiua i aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacieeao Eacaonoaia.

Aeia-Aoeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee iaoiaeeony ia
thai-ainoiea Aeia-Aoeineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue 724 ouny/e aaeoa?.
Caeaciee caieiaao ainoi/ioth /anoue o?aaoa Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao ia
ainoiea 2000-4000 i. Caeanue i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou n?aaeiaai?ee e
aunieiai?ee n noaaeueieeneeie eoaaie, ia cia/eoaeueiie ieiuaaee
?aniieiaeaiu n?aaeiaai?iua eaiaeoaoou n aeueieeaie e auniei?aaieiiuie
eoaaie eani-eoaiai-noaiiiai iiyna, a oae aea i?eeaaee e i?aaeai?iua
?aaieiu n nooinoaiiuie eiiieaenaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe . A aeieeiao ?ae
ano?a/athony iaeeieenoaaiiua aa?aciai-ineiiaua eana, eonoa?ieeiaua
ca?inee eau e eioa, ?aciio?aaii-ceaeiaua eoaa. ?aciiia?acea aeioeiia
ii?aaeaeyao aiaaonoai aeeaioiiai ie?a: ?unue, ao?ue iaaeaaaeue, aiee,
eena, einoey, ai?iua aa?aiu, eiceu e ae?oaea aeeaioiua.

Aiaeaneeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a Aeaeaiaoeueneie
iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue ieiei 1 ieeeeiia aaeoa?. Aiaeaneeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee caieiaao naaa?ioth /anoue ian/aiiiai ianneaa
Iothieoeia e thaeioth /anoue ieaoi Aaeiaeaeaea. Oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaooa
caeacieea: aoa?enoua e aoa?enoi-a?yaeiaua ianee n ca?ineyie aaeiai
naenaoea, oaiu?iaeaeiua ?aaieiu n iieuiii-nieiieiaie
?anoeoaeueiinoueth, aeieeia ?aee *o n eaiai-iioiauie ooaayie e
o?inoieeiai aaeieeiauie eoaaie, a oae aea oaaeenoi-oieienoua
aeeienoua ?aaieiu thaeiie ie?aeiu ieaoi Aaeiaeaeaea. Iiaeiaiia
?aciiia?acea eaiaeoaooia ii?aaeaeyao eneeth/eoaeueiia ?aciiia?acea e
aiaaonoai ianoiie oaoiu. Iniiaiui iauaeoii i?e?iaei io?aiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony io?aia e ?anoe?aiea aini?iecaiaenoaa
ioioie/uea-i?iiuneiauo aeaeia eiiuoiuo aeeaioiuo, e iniaaiii,
iiiai/eneaiiua noaaea aeeeie aioeeiiu naeae. Oa??eoi?ey caeacieea
yaeyaony iniiaiui ceiiaueai yoeo aeaiiuo i?iiuneiauo aeeaioiuo ia thaa
Eacaonoaia. a inaiiee ia?eiae inouanoaeyaony no?iai ?aaoee?oaiue
iono?ae naeaaeia aeey caaioiaee iyna, ?iaia e oeo?. A caeacieea
io?aiythony oae aea aeaeae?aiu, eaaaiu, eenu, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aeaeu
aeeaioiuo.

Aoaea?eineee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee iaoiaeeony a O?aeueneie iaeanoe,
aai ieiuaaeue 80 ouny/ aaeoa?ia. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaoou
caeacieea – aeieeiu ?aee O?ae. N iieiiauie eaiaioiiieaauie eanaie.
Noa?e/iuie ica?aie e aieioaie, a oaeaea aeieeia ?aee Ioooi – noa?ie
i?ioiee O?aea. Aeey aeieeiiuo e ica?ii-aieioiuo eaiaeoaooia oa?aeoa?ia
aiaaoay e ?aciiia?aciay i?ieoi e eo ?aciiia?aciay oeiioaoia. Iniiaiay
caaea/a caeacieea – io?aia ioioie/uea-i?iiuneiauo aeaeia
aiaeiieaaathueo ica?iuo ioeoe e ai?iaie aee/e, canaeaiea
ioioie/uea-i?iiuneiauie aeaeaie aeeaioiuo eneonnoaaiiuo aiaeio?aieeeu
O?aei-Eoooineie i?ineoaeiie nenoaiu. Aiaeyony a caeacieea oae aea e
einoee, eaaaiu, eeneoeu, iiaeao?a, oi?ue, cayoe-?onae e ae?oaea aeaeu
aeeaioiuo. Ec ioeoe iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu na?ay ooea, eunooa, iu?ie,
aaein. Aieueoie eioa?an aucuaatho aiaaoua ?uaiua ?ano?nu ?aee O?ae.

Caeaciee Aeoa?iaiia – iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee Eie/aoaaneie iaeanoe e
caieiaao ieiuaaeue 40 ouny/ aaeoa?. ?aniieiaeai caeaciee a eaninoaiiie
ciia Naaa?iiai Eacaonoaia. Oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaoou – iaeeiniii/iee,
neiaeaiiue a?aieoaie, neeueii neiaeiua oaaeenoi-oieienoua ?aaieiu
/a?aaeothony n iaeeiniii/iuie eoaiauie e aa?aciai-ineiiauie eanaie,
caeanue aea nio?aieeenue o?aaiaiou oeie/iie eiaueueii-?aciio?aaiie
noaie ia /a?iicaiueyo. Iauaeo io?aiu e ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa –
einoee, ai?iaay aee/ue (oaoa?aaa, aeooa?e).

A?iaioaoneee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee
Oeaeeiia?aaeneie iaeanoe. Caeaciee caieiaao i?aaeai?uey e neeiiu
ieceiai?iiai ianneaa A?iaioao. Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
?aciiia?aciay ai?ii-noaiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie?
ieceiai?ee, aicauoathueony ia oiia ?aniaoaiiuo eaa?oeeoaie e
ecaanoiyeaie, ninoaaeytho 600-700 i. Nooea noaie i?aaeai?ee
niaiythony eiaueueii-?aciio?aaiuie noaiyie e ?aciio?aaii-ceaeiauie
eoaaie. A i?aaeaeao iieiaeo aeieei, ?an/eaiythueo neeiiu ai?,
ano?a/athony iaaieueoea ineiiai-aa?aciaua eana e eonoa?ieeiaua
ca?inee ec ea?aaaiu e oaaaie. Yoe eaiaeoaooiua oneiaey aeaaii?eyoiu
aeey iaeoaiey eiiuoiuo e iooiuo caa?ae, a eo /enea einoey, eica?ia,
aa?noe.

AEaeou?eoeueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee (O?aeueneay iaeanoue,
ieiuaaeue 19 ouny/ aaeoa?). Oeie/iua eaiaeoaoou – ?a/iua e ica?iua
?aceeau a ieciaueyo Eonoia – i?aaiai i?eoiea O?aea. Iiiai/eneaiiua
i?aniua ica?a ?aniieiaeaiu a iiieaeaieyo iaaeaeo ian/aiuie aoa?aie e
a?yaeaie iiae ceaeiai-iieuiiuie noaiyie. ?aciiia?aciu eoaiai-aieioiay
?anoeoaeueiinoue, aonoua o?inoieeiaua ca?inee, eaiaua eonoa?ieeiaua
ianneau. Ia ?aceeaao e iaeeiaiaeueyo aiacaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua
aiaeiieaaathuea ioeoeu – ooee, iu?ee, eoeeee. Ica?a neoaeao oae aea
ianoaie ioaeuoa ioeoe a ia?eiae aanaiia – inaiieo ia?aeaoia.
Iniiaiay caaea/a caeacieea: io?aia e aini?iecaiaenoai aiaeiieaaathueo
e aieioiuo ioeoe. No?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiay ioioa ia ieo, niaeaenoaoao
?annaeaieth e aeeeeiaoecaoeee ia ae?oaeo ica?ao e aiaeiaiao Eacaonoaia.

Eeeeneay aeaeueoa: (Aeia-Aoeineay iaeanoue, ieiuaaeue 100 oany/
aaeoa?). Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a ieciaueyo e aeaeueoa ?aee Eee.
Aeiieie?otho eaiaeoaoou ica?ii-aieioiuo ?aaiei n aonouie o?inoieeiauie
ca?ineyie e iu?aeii-ain?aeiauie eoaaie. Iiiai/eneaiiua ica?a, aieioa e
noa?eoeu ?aee Eee ?acaeaeythony aieueoei /eneii ?a/iuo o?iiie e
ian/aiuie ino?iaaie. Aeey ieo oeie/iu aonoua ooaaa-iieiaiiua eana,
ninoiyuea ec ca?ineae oiiiey oaaaiee, eonoia eau, eioa /eaeey.
Caeanue ano?a/athony aeaeae?aiu, eaaaiu, eeneoeu, caeoeu-ian/aiieee,
eaiuoiaua eiou. Aua iaaeaaii a aeaeoiaeyo THaeiiai I?eaaeeaeuey
iaeoaee oea?u. Iiiai/eneaiiua aiacaeiauey aiaeiieaaathuae e aieioiie
ioeoeu – ooie, iu?eia, eaeeeeia. A caeacieea aeeeeiaoece?othony
iiiai/eneaiiua eieiiee oeaiiiai iooiiai caa?y – iiaeao?u.

E?no-Aeaoaaaeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee. ?aniieaaaaony caeaciee a
*eieaioneie iaeanoe e caieiaao ieiuaaeue 19 ouny/ aaeoa?. ?aniieiaeaiea
caeacieea oaeiai /oi ii iaoiaeeony ia naaa?iuo neeiiao o?aaoa
Oaeaneiai Aeaoao. I?aaieciaai E?no-Aeaoaaaeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue
caeaciee a oeaeyo io?aiu e aini?iecaiaenoaa oaoienoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ai?
Caiaaeiiai Oyiue-Oaiy. Oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaoou – ai?ii-neeiiiaua e
eaniai-eoaiai-noaiiua iiey naaa?iiai neeiia. Iieuiii ?aciio?aaiua noaie
i?aaeai?ee iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythony eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie
oeiiaieea, ceaeiai-?aciio?aaiuie eoaaie. A ouaeueyo ?ae ano?a/athony
iieiaiiua eana e eoaa. E?ooua neeiiu ai? e eaiaienoua inuie eeoaiu
ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa. ?aciiia?acea iano iaeoaiee
ii?aaeaeyao aiaaonai oaoiu. Aieueoie eioa?an aucuaatho aeiaieueii
iiiai/eneaiiua eieiiee no?eia e aa?noeia. A ai?iuo eanao iaeoaao
einoey, ia neeiiao ai? /anoi ano?a/athony e?oiiua auaiaeu eaeeeeia.

Ea?aeeeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a
Ecue-I?aeeineie iaeanoe e caieiaao oa??eoi?eth ieiuaaeueth 13.3 ouny/
aaeoa?. A caeacieea i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou ae?aaiae e nia?aiaiiie
aeieeiu ?aee Nu?aea?uee. Yoi neaaianoieiaiiua ian/aiii-aeeienoua
?aaieiu, ?an/eaiaiiua oceeie ?a/iuie i?ioieaie, iaaieueoeie
ia?anuoathueie ica?aie e aieioaie. Iaaeoaieia caeaaaiea a?oioiauo aiae
iaoneaaeeaaao aiaaooth e ?aciiia?acioth eoaiai-aieioenooth e
eonoa?ieeiaoth ?anoeoaeueiinoue: ianneau ec naenaoea, a?aaaiueeia, a
oae aea aonoua o?inoieeiaua e /aeiua ca?inee. Caeanue (a Ea?aeeeineii
caeacieea) /anoi ano?a/aaony naia?a/aineee oacai. Caeaciee a iniiaiii
nicaeai a oeaeyo io?aiu e aini?iecaaaeaiey yoie oeaiiie ioeoeu e
iineaaeothueae aeeeeiaoecaoeee e ?aaeeeeiaoecaoeee aa a ?acee/iuo
eaiaeoaooiuo oneiaeyo thaeiiai Eacaonoaia e ae?oaeo ?aeeiia iaoae
no?aiu.

Ee?naeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a Oeueyiianeie
iaeanoe e caieiaao ieiuaaeue 61 ouny/a aaeoa?). Iniiaiay caaea/a
caeacieea aeeeeiaoecaoeey e ?aaeeeeiaoecaoeey aia?ia. Ia oa??eoi?ee
caeacieea, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a aeieeia O?aea i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou
?a/iuo aeieei n iieiaiiuie eanaie e iieiaiii-no?a?e/iua ica?a n
eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie, ceaeiai-?aciio?aaiuie e o?inoieeiauie eoaaie.
Caeanue (a Ee?naeianeii caeacieea) aeiaieueii iiiai/eneaiiu
aaicaeiauey aiaeiieaaathuae ioeoeu. Caeaciee yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia anoanoaaiiui ianoii iaeoaiey iaaieueoeo
eieiiee ?a/iuo aia?ia, /oi iiae/a?eeaaao aai aieueoia
ia?iaeioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea.

Eoeaineee ainoaea?noaaiiue caiiaaaeiee, ?aniieiaeai a
Oieaeu-Eo?aaineie iaeanoe e caieiaao ieiuaaeue 49.1 ouny/e aaeoa?.
Ii caoaaouaaa eaiaeoaoou ieciaueaa ?a/iuo aeieei e caaiei/aiiuo aeaeueo
Aeno e Eainu. Caiaoiia ianoi caieiatho oae aea iaeeiaoa?enoua ianee
e nieii/aeiaua iiaa?aaeuey ica?a Aaeoao. Ian/aiiua ianneau n
naenaoeiai-aeaeocaoiiauie eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie oiiieaai-eaiaua
ooaaeneea eana ?a/iuo aeieei yaeythony aeaaii?eyoiuie ianoaie iaeoaiey
aeeaioiuo. A caeacieea io?aiythony eiiuoiua e iooiua caa?e.

?aeeeoiaay /aoea – caeaciee ?anioaeeeaineiai cia/aiey. Ii ?aniieiaeai
ionouiiii ino?iaa ica?a Aeaeoeue (Aeaeoeueneee ?aeii Oieaeu-Eo?aaineie
iaeanoe) e ii ieiuaaee ?aaai 3.3 ouny/ai aaeoa?. Aieueoie iao/iue
eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao io?aia oieeaeueiie a Eacaonoaia eieiiee
aiacaeiaee ?aeeeoiaiai aeaea i?aniiaiaeiie /aeee.

Nie?iianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a
Naaa?i-Eacaonoaineie iaeanoe e caieiaao ieiuaaeue 240 ouny/ aaeoa?.
I?aiaeaaeathuea eaiaeoaoou – ieineea ?aaieiu Caiiaeii-Neae?neie
ieciaiiinoe, ?an/eaiaiiua ?a/iuie aeieeiaie, ica?iuie eaoeiaeiaie e
caiyoua nieioiuie eee ?ac?iciaiuie ianneaaie niniiaiai e
aa?aciai-ineiiaiai eana. Ica?a neoaeao aacaeiaueyie aiaeiieaaathuae
ioeoeu, a aa?aciai-ineiiauo iieyiao iaeoatho eine, einoee, ai?iaay
aee/ue.

Oa?aaaioaeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee (Ainoi/ii-Eacaonoaineay
iaeanoue, ieiuaaeue 240 ouny/ aaeoa?). Caeanue i?aaenoaaeaiiu eaiaeoaoou
ieceiai?ee o?aaoa Oa?aaaioae. I?aiaeaaeatho nooinoaiiua neeiiu e
aiaei?acaeaeu neiaeaiiua a?aieoaie, neaioeaie, /anoi ano?a/athony
ai?iua ouaeuey, ?a/iua aeieeiu n aa?aciai-ineiiauie e oiiieaauie
eanaie, a iiieaeaieyo ?aeueaoa – eoaiaua noaie, iaeeueii ii?inoua
ceaeiai-?aciio?aaiuie o?aainoiyie. A ai?ao Oa?aaaioay ano?a/athony,
aeaeae?aiu, einoee, iiii/eneaiiua eieiiee no?eia, auaiaeu eaeeeeia e
ae?oaea aeeaioiua.

Oaoini?neee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a Eaiuoieineii
?aeiia Eonoaiaeneie iaeanoe, caeaciee caieiaa ieiuaaeue 55 ouny/
aaeoa?. Caeaciee ioaaouaaa eaiaeoaoou ieaoiia?aciuo ?aaiei naaa?iie
/anoe Oo?aaeneiai ieaoi iaae oei/aeiai-eiaueueiuie noaiyie ano?a/athony
o/anoee aa?aciai-ineiiauo eania e eaoeiaeiu i?aniuo ica?. Iauaeoii
io?aiu a caeacieea yaeyaony o/anoie nooie noaie n eanaie.

Oo?aaeneee ainoaeanoaaiiue caeaciee eiao iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cai/aiea e
iaoiaeeony ii a Oo?aaeneie e Aeothaeineie iaeanoe. Oo?aaeneee caeaciee
caieiaao ieiuaaeue ieiei 348 ouny/ aaeoa?. ?aniieiaeaiea caeacieea
oaeiai /oi ii iaoiaeeony a ieciaueyo ?ae E?aec e Oo?aae. Oa??anu e
iieia ?aee Oo?aay i?aaenoaaeytho ec naay iaeeiaoa?enoua ian/aiiua
ianneau, i?eiueathuea e aa aeieeia eioeiaeiu i?aniuo e nieaiuo ica?,
ia?anuoathuea nieii/aee aoiaeyo a ninoaa caeacieea. Oe?iei
?aniino?aiiaiu a caeacieea oaeea aeaeu eiiuoiuo aeeaioiuo, eae naeaaee
e eaaaiu, iiiai caeoeaa, een. Aieueoia cia/aiea a ?aaioa caeacieea eiaao
io?aia iiiai/eneaiiuo aiacaeiaee aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe. E?iia oiai
caeaciee yaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ?aca?aaoii aieioii-ica?iuo ioeoe,
oae eae aai oa??eoi?ey ?aniieiaeaiia ia aaaeiaeoai ia?aeaoiii iooe
ioeoe n THaa ia Naaa? Aa?acee e ia?aoii.

Onoueo?noeee ainoaea?noaaiiue caeaciee ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoiee
Iaiauoeaeneie iaeanoe, caeaciee eiaao ieiuaaeue 53 ouny/e aaeoa?.
Aane?aeiyy ieineay ?aaieia ieaoi Onoth?o caiyoay
na?iiieuiii-aeth?aoiiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, iaeioi?ia ?aciiia?acea a
?anoeoaeueiinoue eaiaeoaooa aiinyo nieii/aeiaua aiaaeeiu Ea?uiaea?ue e
*eioe a ieaoi Onoth?o. Iie ieaeieaiu eoaiai-nieii/aeiaie
?anoeoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay i?iec?anoaao a ianoao auoiaeia ia
iiaa?oiinoue a?oioiauo aiae. Aiaeiiie i?eaeaeatho iiiaeo aeeaioiuo
aeaeae?aiia, iooeiiia, naeaaeia, eaaaiia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aeaeia
aeeaioiuo.

Iniiaiua aaaeiinoaaiiua caeacieee eiathueany a ?anioaeeea
Eacaonoai:

Aae?eoeueneee caeaciee ?aniieiaathueeny ia oa??eoi?ee *eieaioneie
iaeanoe a *a?aea?eineie noaie ia eaaii aa?aao Nu?aea?uee. Ieiuaaeue
caeacieea ?aaia 20 ouny/ai aaeoa?. Iniiaiua eaiaeoaoou caeacieea
ninoaaeytho aoa?enoua ianee n ca?ineyie aaeiai naenaoea, ieineea ?a/iua
?aaieiu n na?iiieuiii-nieyiiiaie e yaeaaia?iaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth.
Iauaeo io?aiu a caeacieea – oo?aaeneea eana e iieiaiiua eoaa a aeieeia
?aee n oaoiie aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe e oacaiia.

Aayiaoeueneee Caeaciee (Iaaeiaea?neay iaeanoue, ieiuaaeue 49 ouny/
aaeoa?) iaoiaeeony a aiyiaoeueneeo ai?ao ieaeieythueo i?anoiua ica?a
AEunuaae, Naauiaeuoieue e Oi?aeau?. Oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaoou caeacieea
– a?aieoiua ieceiai?uey e iaeeiniii/iua ianneau n ec?aaeaiiuie
niniiauie e aa?aciai-ineiiauie eanaie. A 1977 aiaeo ia aaca caeacieea
i?aaieciaai Aayiaoeueneee i?e?iaeiue ia?e.

Aacuiaineee caeaciee iaoiaeeony a Oeaeeiia?aaeneie iaeanoe e caieiaao
ieiuaaeue 7.9 ouny/ aaeoa?. Oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaoou caeacieea –
iaeeiniii/iee e oaaeenoi-oieienoua ?aaieiu n aa?aciaiineiiauie eanaie.
Iauaeoii io?aiu i?e?iaeu a caeacieea yaeyaony oaoia eiiuoiuo (einoee,
eine e ae?.) ec ioeoe ano?a/athony oaoa?aaa e eo?iiaoee.

Aooiaaaaneee caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony a Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoe e eiaao
ieiuaaeue 62.1 ouny/e aaeoa?. Caeaciee aeeth/aao eaiaeoaoou
I?ee?ouoneie noaiiie ?aaieiu n niniiauie eanaie ia ian/aiiuo a?eaao e
aoa?ao. Iiae io?aiie ia oa??eoi?ee caeacieea iaoiaeeony ai?iaay oaoia.

Aa?oia-Ea?aoaeueneee caeaciee iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee
Oieaeu-Eo?aaineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue 123 ouny/e aaeoa?. Caeaciee
ioaaouaaao eaiaeoaoou aeieeiu ?aee Ea?aoae a caiaaeiuo io?iaao
Aeaeoiaa?neiai Aeaoao n iieiaiiuie eanaie e niioaaonaothuae ei
ai?ii-aeieeiiie oaoiie.

Aeaeeeaiaeeineee caeaciee iaoiaeeony a Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoe e aai
ieiuaaeue 3.9 ouny/e aaeoa?. A caeacieea i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou
iieiu e oa??ane?iaaiiuo ?aaieiu aeieeiu E?ouoa n iieiaiiuie eanaie. A
caeacieea io?aiyaony oaoia aiaeiieaaathueo.

Ea?aoaoneee caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony ia oa??eoi?ee *aieaioneie iaeanoe,
ieiuaaeue Ea?aoaoneiai caeacieea ieiei 48.3 ouny/ aaeoa?. Aeey
caeacieea oeie/iu ieceiai?iua e oaaeenoi-oieienoua eaiaeoaoou n
eonoa?ieeiai-oei/aeiai-e?aniieiaueueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, a oae aea
n?aaeiaai?uey n eiaueenoi-oei/aeiauie noaiyie. Iauaeoii io?aiu a
caeacieea yaeythony ai?iua ieiaeiaua iaeeieenoaaiiua eonoa?ieeiaua eana
n i?enouae ei ai?iieanoiie oaoiie o?aaoa Ea?aoao.

Eocaai – caeaciee iaoiaeeony a Oeaeeiia?aaeneie iaeanoe e eiaao
ieiuaaeue 4.9 ouny/e aaeoa?. Ia oa??eoi?ee caeacieea Eocaai
i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou iaeeiniii/iuo ?aaiei n ec?aaeaiiuie
niniiauie eanaie ia neeiiao ai?ii-niii/iuo ianneaia. A caeacieea
io?aiyaony ai?ii-niii/iay e noaiiay oaoia.

Eaieineee caeaciee iaoiaeeony a Aeothaeineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue
4.8 ouny/e aaeoa?. Caeaciee ioaaouaaao ieceiai?iua eaiaeoaoou
Ioaiaeaea?neeo eania n eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie. Iauaeo io?aiu
caeacieea – ai?iinoaiiua aeaeu aeeaioiuo.

Eaayaeeineee caeaciee ?aniieaaaaony a Iaaeiaea?neie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue
caeacieea 0.4 ouny/e aaeoa?. Caeaciee ioaaouaaao eaiaeoaoou
I?ee?ouoneie noaie n niniiauie eanaie ia ian/aiiuo a?eaao e a?yaeao. A
caeacieea io?aiyaony ai?iaay oaoia.

Eaioi/iua ai?u (Iaaeiaea?neay iaeanoue, ieiuaaeue 151 ouny/a aaeoa?).
oa??eoi?ey caeacieea ioaaouaaao eaiaeoaoou aoa?enouo ianeia ia i?aaii
aa?aao E?ouoa. Auoyiooua ian/aiiua a?yaeu e a?eau caiyou aeeeiiuie e
oceeie (a aeaea eaio) ianneaaie niniiaiai eana. Eana eiatho aaaeiia
ii/ai- e aiaeiio?aiiia cia/aiea e yaeythony iauaeoii io?aiu aianoa n
oa?aeoa?iie oaoiie.

Aeey Ieoaeeianeiai caeacieea, ?aniieiaathuaainy a Naieiaeaoeineie
iaeanoe e caieiathuaai ieiuaaeue 0.9 ouny/ aaeoa?, oeie/iu
oaaeenoi-oieienoua eaiaeoaoou n niniiauie e aa?aciai-ineiiauie eanaie,
i?eiueathueie e caiaaeiui i?aaeai?ueyi Aeoay. A Ieoaeeianeii caeacieea
io?aiyaony eaninoaiiay oaoia.

I?aneianeee caeaciee ?aniieaaaaony a Iaaeiaea?neie iaeanoe, aai
ieiuaaeue 0.5 ouny/e aaeoa?. Eaiaeoaoo aeieeiu E?ouoa n iieiaiiuie
eani-eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie n oaoiie aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe.

Oaeaeoeineee caeaciee ieiuaaeueth 0.1 ouny/a aaeoa, iaoiaeeony a
Oieaeu-Eo?aaineie iaeanoe. Iauaeoii io?aiu a caeacieea neoaeeo ?a/iay
aeieeia a i?aaeai?ueo Aeaeoiaa?neiai Aeaoao n iieiaiiuie eanaie e
i?enouae ae i?e?a/iie oaoiie.

Caeaciee Eaaiianeea ?iue (Naaa?i-Eacaonoaineay iaeanoue,
ieiuaaeue 6.5 ouny/ aaeoa?) ioaaouaaao eaiaeoaoou aa?aciai-ineiiauo e
niniiauo eania a thaeiie /anoe Caiiaeii-Neae?neie ieciaiiinoe.

Oaaineee caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony a *eieaioneie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue
?aaia 74.6 ouny/ aaeoa?. Caeaciee ioaaouaaao n?aaeiaai?iua eaiaeoaoou
Oaaineiai o?aaoa (Caiaaeiue Oyiue-Oaiue) n aeeeeie ieiaeiauie e
oe?ieieenoaaiiuie eanaie e oa?aeoa?iie ai?ii-eaniie oaoiie.

Oeeueneee caeaciee ?aniieaaaaony a Aeothaeineie iaeanoe e eiaao
ieiuaaeue nauoa 20.8 ouny/ aaeoa?. Oeeueneee caeaciee ioaaouaaao
aeieeio ?aee Oee n iieiaiiuie eanaie, noa?e/iua ica?a n eonoa?ieeiauie
ca?ineyie e ?a/iua aoa?u. A caeacieea io?aiyaony aeeaioiue ie? anao
yoeo ?aoiiia?aciuo aeioeiia.

Ooe/uea (Iaaeiaea?neay iaeanoue ieiuaaeue 0.3 ouny/ aaeoa?). A
caeacieea ?aniino?aiaiu eaiaeoaoou eaninoaiiuo ?aaiei a i?aaeaeao
Eoeoiaeeineie noaie, aa?aciai-ineiiaua eieee n oa?aeoa?iie eaninoaiiie
oaoiie.

*aeeineee caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony a Iaaeiaea?neie iaeanoe, aai
ieiuaaeue 125 ouny/ aaeoa?. Aeey *aeeineai caeacieea oa?aeoa?iu
eaiaeoaoou ninoaaiuo eania ia aoa?enoi-a?yaeiauo ianeao.

Eana eiatho aaaeiia ii/ai- e aiaeiio?aiiia cia/aiea e aianoa n
i?enouae ei eaninoaiiie oaoiie yaeythony iauaeoii io?aiu.

Cia/eoaeueiia /enei i?eia/aoaeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia
Eacaonoaia aoiaeeo a ninoaa ciieiae/aneeo e aioaie/aneeo caeacieeia,
iaeioi?ua io?aiythony ia iauanoaaiiuo ia/aeao. Iauaa iao/iia e
i?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai eo aeayoaeueiinoueth inouanoaeyeinue aei
iaaeaaieo ii? Oeaio?aeueiui niaaoii Eacaonoaineiai iauanoaa io?aiu
i?e?iaeu. Ia ia?aia yiaa?y 1991 aiaea a ?anioaeeea ian/eouaaeinue 37
iauanoaaiiuo ciieiae/aneeo e aioaie/aneeo caeacieeia, a eo /enea
aioaieei-aaieiae/aneea caeacieee eo iauay ieiuaaeue ninoaaeyea ieiei
400 ouny/ aaeoa?.

Aioaieei-aaieiae/aneea caeacieee.

?aoiaiianeea oethae. Caeaciee ?aniieaaaaony a Aieueoaia?uineii ?aeiia
Ainoi/ii-Ecaonoaineie iaeanoe e eiaao ieiuaaeue ieiei 109 aaeoa?.
Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Aeoay. A aai ninoaa aoiaeyo
aeeaioiua ai?iioaaaeiua eaiaeoaoou Aeoaeneeo ai?, aaea i?aiaeaaeatho
eana ec eenoaaiieoeu e eaae?a. Oaeeaeoaeueii aeeaiienii ?aoiaiianeia
ica?i, eaaeauaa n?aaee ai? ia aunioa 1738 iao?ia iaae o?iaiai ii?y. Ec
ica?a auoaeaao ?aea A?anaiea (i?eoie ?aee Aa?aee). Aai?ao iiiai
?o/ueaa, iaaeathueo aiec ii neeiiai e?aneaaeoeie aiaeiiaaeaie. A iaeiie
ec ai?iuo aeieei iaoiaeyony ?aoiaiianeea e?aiienoua ieia?aeueiua
enoi/ieee. Oa?iaeueiua aiaeu eiatho oaiia?aoo?o aeioiaeyuoth aei 40
a?aaeonia ii Oeaeueneth e e aa?oo naia ia/aei n?aaee
a?aieoii-neaioeaauo ii?iae.

Ciieiae/aneea caeacieee.

Aeaao?neee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee – ?aniieiaaaony a Uaoneii ?aeiia
Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue 10 ouny/ aaeoa?. Caeaciee
iaoiaeeony n?aaee ai? Eucueoo, neiaeaiiuo a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie. Ii
neeiiai ai? ?aneeioeenue ?aaeeieanuey ec aa?aciauo e ineiiauo, a?/e.
Caeanue ano?a/athony oaeea caa?e eae a?oa?, einoey, cayoe, aa?noe,
eena, oaoa?aa, eo?iiaoea. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao io?aia eaniie
?anoeoaeueiinoe e iaeoathuaai a ai?ao ?aaeeiai aeaea aa?aia-a?oa?a.
AEeaiieniua ai?iua ianoa caeacieea iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
ioaeuoa o?oaeyueony.

Ayaocneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieaaaaony a Ayaoceii ?aeiia
Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue ieiei 26 ouny/ aaeoa?. Caeaciee
caieiaao noaiiua i?aaeai?uey caiaaeiuo io?iaia Oa?aaaaoaeneiai o?aaoa.
Ia oa??eoi?ee caeacieea ano?a/athony iiiai/eneaiiua eieiiee
no?eia-aaeaaeia, iaaieueoea noae aeaeae?aiia, iniaaiii aaaeiue eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeytho ai?iua eo?iiaoee-eaeeeee.

Aaeiaioneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee
Oeueyiianeiai ?aeiia Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoe, ieiuaaeue aai
n?aaieoaeueii ia aaeeea, iia ?aaia 1500 aaeoa?. Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a
ai?ao Eucue-Oao. Ieceiai?uey neiaeaiu a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie, ia eo
neeiiuo ?acaeou ?aaeeieanuey ec ineiiauo, aa?aciauo, niniiauo ii?iae.
Caeanue ano?a/athony a?oa?u, einoee, ai?iaay aee/ue, a oii /enea
oaoa?aa. Oeaeue caeacieea – nio?aiaiea eaniie ?anoeoaeueiinoe e oaoiu
ieceiai?ee Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia.

Aaeiaeuineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee. Iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee
Anaea?ianeiai ?aeiia E?aaaiaeeineee iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue ieiei
o?ao ouny/ aaeoa?. Aeey caeacieea oa?aeoa?iu oaaeenoi-oieienoua ?aaieiu
e iaeeiniii/iee n ?aaeeieanueyie e eonoa?ieeiauie ca?ineyie. Eana,
eiathuea ii/aicaueoiia e aiaeiio?aiiia cia/aiea, i?aaenoaaeaiu
ioaeaeueiuie aa?aciai ineiiauie eieeaie. Iniauue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho
ca?inee ec ieueoe /a?iie. AEeaioiue ie? a caeacieea i?aaenoaaeai
a?oa?aie, einoeyie, oaoa?aaaie, eo?iiaoeaie, e ae?oaeie aeaeaie
aeeaioiuo. Oeaeue nicaeaiey caeacieea – nio?aiaiea eaniie
?anoeoaeueiinoe e oaoiu iaeeiniii/ieea Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia.

Aaoiaeaeaeeineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee – ?aniieiaaaony a AEaiia?neii
?aeiia AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue ?aaia 25 ouny/ai aaeoa?.
Aeey yoiai caeacieea oa?aeoa?iu eaiaeoaoou ieceiai?uey e iaeeiniii/ieea.
Ai?u ?aniieiaeaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee, eioi?oth ioaaouaaao caeaciee,
neiaeaiu, a iniiaiie naiae ianna, a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie. Neeiiu ai?
iie?uou ?aaeeieanueai ninoiyuei i?eeiouanoaaiii ec aa?aciauo, ineiiauo
ii?iae, a oae aea a?/e. Ii aa?aaai iaaieueoeo ?o/ueaa e ?a/ae,
i?ioaeathueo ii neeiiai, ai? ?aniieiaeaiu ca?inee eau, iaeeiu,
nii?iaeeiu e iaaieueoea o/anoee ceaeiai-?aciio?aaiuo eoaia. Iaeaieaa
oeie/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie oaoiu caeacieea yaeythony a?oa?, einoey. A
aeieeiao e ia i?aaeai?iuo ?aaieiao auianaaony niaa. Ec ioeoe iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iu: ae?ioa, oaoa?aa, eo?iiaoea. Iniiaiay caaea/a
Aaoiaeaeaeeineiai caeacieea io?aia ai?iieaniie oaoiu ia nouea
Oeaio?aeueii-Eacaonoaineiai iaeeiniii/ieea e ieaoi Aaoiaeaeiea.

Ae?eanoeineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee. Caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony a
Aeiiaaeneii ?aeiia AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue ninoiaeyao 10
ouny/ aaeoa?. Any oa??eoi?ey caeacieea ?anieiaeaia a i?aaeaeao
ieceiai?ee e iaeeiniii/ieea. Ai?u caeanue a iniiaiii neiaeaiu
a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie. Neeiiu iie?uou aa?aciai-ineiiaui ?aaeeieanueai,
ano?a/aaony oae aea e oaiaoaiiay ninia. A aeieeiao ia?anuoathueo ?a/ae e
?o/ueaa ano?a/athony ca?inee eau, iaeeiu, /a?iie nii?iaeeiu. A
caeacieea aaaeaony ?aaioa ii nio?aiaieth iaeiie ec iaeaieaa e?oiiuo a
Eacaonoaia iiioeyoeee a?oa?ia.

Aoaoeeineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee. Aai ieiuaaeue ?aaia 8.5 ouny/ai
aaeoa?. A ?aniieiaaaony caeaciee a Uaoneii ?aeiia Ea?aaaiaeeineie
iaeanoe. Aoaoeeineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a ai?ao Aoaoeu e
Oaauei. Ieceiai?uey Eacaoneie neeaae/aoie no?aiu neiaeaiu a iniiaiii
aaieoiauie ii?iaeaie. A ia neeiiao ai? e a ouaeueyo ?a/ae e ?o/ueaa
ano?a/athony ?aaeeieanuey ec aa?acu, ineiu, eau, iaeeiu e iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo aeaeia aea?aaueaa e eonoa?ieeia. Ec aeeaioiiai ie?a iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iuie iaeoaeaiy ieceiai?ee yaeythony einoee, a?oa?u, caeoeu,
aa?noee, aieee, eenu, oaoa?aau, eo?iiaoee.

Aoeaiaeeineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a Yiaaeoeeueaea?neii
?aeiia Eie/aoaaneie iaeanoe, ieiuaaeue yoiai ciieiae/aneiai caeacieea
?aaia i?eaeeceoaeueii 93.5 ouny/ aaeoa?. Ia oa??eoi?ee caaecieea
i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou oaaeenoi-oieienouo ?aaiei n ino?iaiuie,
a?aieoiuie ieceiai?iuie ianneaaie. Iaoe?iua ?aaieiiua i?ino?ainoaa
caeacieea caiyou niniiauie eanaie. A iiaeeanea /anoi ano?a/athony
aa?aca, ineia, yaiaeiua eonoa?ieee. A eanao iaeoatho e?oiiua eiiuoiua
aeeaioiua iai?eia?: einue, ii?ae, einoey. Io?aia yoeo oeaiiuo aeeaioiuo
e yaeyaony iniiaiie caaea/ae caeacieea.

Ea?eaaoneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a AEaiia?neii ?aeiia
AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue caeacieea 6 ouny/ aaeoa?. Iniiaiui
oeiii eaiaeoaooia caeacieea yaeythony ieceiai?uey Ea?aaao n
i?eiueathueie oaaeenoi-oieienouie ?aaieiaie. Ieceiai?uey Ea?aaao
neiaeaiu a iniiaiii a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie e e?enoaee/aneeie
neaioeaie. Neeiiu ai? ia oa??eoi?ee caeacieea iie?uou ?ac?aaeaiiuie
niniiauie e aa?aciauie eanaie. Iaaeniii/iua iiieaeaiey caiyou
ceaeiai-?aciio?aaiuie eoaaie. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuie aeaeaie aeeaioiuo ia
oa??eoi?ee ciieiae/aneiai caeacieea yaeythony einoey, eaaai, oaoa?aa,
na?ay eo?iiaoea e aaeay eo?iiaoea. Oeaeueth caeacieea yaeyaony io?aia
yoeo e ae?oaeo aeaeia aeeaioiuo iaeoathueo ia aai oa??eoi?ee.

Ea?ea?aeeineee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee, ?aniieiaeaiiue a
Ea?ea?aeeineii ?aeiia Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoe, caieiaao ieiuaaeue
?aaioth 80 ouny/ai aaeoa?. ?aniieiaeaiea caacieea oaeiai /oi iniiaiuie
aai eaiaeoaooaie yaeythony ai?u Ea?aea?aeu e Eaio. Ai?u neiaeaiiu a
iniiaiii a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie. Ii neeiiai ai? e eo aa?oeiao
i?iec?anoatho niniiaua ?aaeeieanuey. Aa?aciaua e ineiiaua eana
caieiatho ieceiu, aeieeiu ?ae e iiiaeanoaa ?o/ueaa. Ia oa??eoi?ee
Ea?ea?aeeineiai ciieiae/aneiai caeacieea ?aniieiaeaii ai?iia ica?i
Oaeoaieoeue. A Ea?ea?aeeineeo ai?ao nio?aieeenue noaaiaua aieioa,
eioi?ua yaeythony ?aeeeoaie eaaeieeiaiai ia?eiaea. Oaoia caeacieea
i/aiue aiaaoa e ?aciiia?acia. Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie oaoiu
caeacieea yaeythony a?oa?, einoey, aaeea, eena, aa?noe, cayoe. Ec ioeoe
aeey oaoiu caeacieea iaeaieaa oeie/iu oaoa?aa, ?ya/ee, aaeay e na?ay
eo?iiaoea. Iniiaiie oeaeueth nicaeaiey caeacieea yaeyaony io?aia eana,
ai?ii-eaniie oaoiu, a oae aea nio?aiaiea noaaiauo aieio eiathueo
aaaeiia iao/iia cia/aiea.

Eoaneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony a Aaaiaeuaoeaaneii ?aeiia
Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue Eoaneiai ciieiae/aneiai caeacieea 63
ouny/e aaeoa?. Iniiaiui oeiii eaiaeoaooia caeacieea yaeythony
ieceiai?uey Eoo, neiaeaiiua a?aieoaie. Ii neeiiai ai? ?aniieiaeaiiu
niniiaua ?aaeeieanuey, eioi?ua a ouaeueyo i?eia?aoatho oa?aeoa? eania.
Ii ieceiai e aeieeiai ?o/ueaa e ?a/ae iau/ii ?anooo aa?aciaua e
ineiiaua ?aaeeieanuey. Iiiai/eneaiiu oae aea eonoa?ieee iaeeiu, /a?iie
nii?iaeeiu. Eana eiatho aaaeiia ii/aicaueoiia e aiaei?aaoee?othuea
cia/aiea. Ia oa??eoi?ee ciieiae/aneiai caeacieea, a ai?ao Eoo,
ano?a/athony a?oa?u, einoee, caeoeu, aieee, eenu, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
auaeu aeeaioiuo. Ec ioeoe caeanue ano?a/athony oaoa?aa, na?ay
eo?iiaoea, aaeay eo?iiaoea.

Ecuea?aeneee ciieiae/aneee caeaeaciee ?aniieiaeai a Aeothaaineii
?aeiia AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe. Caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony ia oa??eoi?ee 17.5
ouny/ aaeoa?. Iniiaiui oeiii eaiaeoaooia caeacieea yaeythony ai?u
Ecuea?ae, i?aaenoaaeaiiua aieueoae /anoueth a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie. Ii
neeiiai ai? i?iec?anoatho niniiaua ?aaeeieanuey, yoi naiia thaeiia
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey niniu a Eacaoneii iaeeiniii/ieea, iiyoiio io?aia aa
eiaao aieueoia iao/iia e oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea. Iieiaea neeiiu ai?
Ecuea?ae caiyou a iniiaiii iieuiueth, ceaeiauie nooeie noaiyie. A
aeieeiao iaaieueoeo ?ae e iiiai/eneaiiuo ?o/ueaa ?aniino?aiiaiu
iaaieueoea aa?aciai-ineiiaua ?aaeeieanuey, eonoa?ieeiaua ca?inee e
eoaa. Oaoia ciieiae/aneiai caeacieea i?aaenoaaeaia oaeeie aeeaioiuie
eae: a?oa?u, no?ee, eaeeeeaie, aaeie e na?ie eo?iiaoeie, a oae aea
oaoa?aaaie.

Ecueoanneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee. Ieiuaaeue caeacieea 7.7 ou/ny/
aaeoa?, iaoiaeeony ii a AEaiaa?ieineii ?aeiia AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe.
Ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea caeacieea oaeiai, /oi ii iaoiaeeony a iniiaiii ia
ieceiai?ueyo Ecueoan, neiaeaiiuo ec oaa?aeuo ii?iae, i?aeiouanoaaiii
a?aieoiauo, e i?eiueathueo e iei iaeeiniii/ieea. Ia neeiiao ai?
i?iec?anoaao naiay ?aciiia?aciay ?anoeoaeueiinoue n?aaee eioi?ie
ano?a/athony aa?aca, ineia e a?/a. E /eneo iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuo
iaeoaoaeae ai?iinoaiiuo eania ioiinyony a?oa?u, nio?aiaiea eioi?uo
yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/ caeacieea.

I?oaoneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee ?anieiaeai ia aeaeaei io
Ecueoanneiai caeacieea a AEaiaa?ieineii ?aeiia AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe.
Ieiuaaeue I?oaoneiai caeacieea 8.5 ouny/ aaeoa?. Caeaciee iaoiaeeony a
ai?ao I?oao, neiaeaiiuo a iniiaiie ianna a?aieoiauie ii?iaeaie. Neeiiu
ai? I?oao iie?uou ?aaeeieanueyie ec aa?aciauo e ineiiauo ii?iae. Ii
aeieeiai ia?anuoathueo ?o/ueaa e iaaieueoeo ?a/ae ?aniieiaeaiu
ca?inee eau, iaeeiu e nii?iaeeiu. AEeaioiue ie? caeacieea i?aaenoaaeai
a?oa?ii, einoeae, naeaie. Ec ioeoe iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho
ae?icaeu e oaoa?aaa.

Oeooaoneee ciieiae/aneee caeaciee (AEacoeeineee ?aeii, AEacaacaaineie
iaeanoe). Ieiuaaeue caeacieea iaaieueoay, iia ?aaia 5.9 ouny/ aaeoa?.
Oa??eoi?ey caeacieea eaaeeo ia neeiiao a?aieoiuo ai? Oeooao. Ii
neeiiai ai? ano?a/athony ec?aaeaiiua ?aaeeieanuey ec aa?aciauo e
ineiiauo ii?iae aea?aaueaa. A aeieeiao iiiai/eneaiiuo ?o/uea e ?ae
i?iec?anoatho ca?inee eau e oaeueieea, ceaeiai ?aciio?aaiuo eoaia.
Oaoia a caeacieea i?aaenoaaeaia iaeioi?uie aeaeaie eiiuoiuo, a oii /enea
a?oa?ii, einoeae. I?aaenoaaeoaee ia?iaouo – oaoa?aaa e eo?iiaoee (aaeua
e na?ua).

Aioaie/aneea caeacieee.

Aioaie/aneea caeacieee: nicaeathony ia eaiaeoaooao eania, noaiae, eoaia,
ionouiue, ai?, ica? e oae aeaeaa. Oeaeinoiinoue eo caeeth/aaony a oii
/oi a ieo iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?aaeeea yiaeaie/iua e ?aeeeoiaua aeaeu
niiauanoaa ae?aaaniie, eonoa?iie e o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. A
caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a aioaie/aneiai caeacieea a iai iiaoo auoue
cai?auaiu ana aeaeu ?oaie eana (e?iia naieoa?iuo), auian neioa,
naiieioaiea e ae?oaea auaeu oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea,
eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e iia?aaeaeaieth eee oie/oiaeaieth io?aiyaiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Aeaeaeeineee aioaie/aneee caeaciee iaoiaeeony a Aoaoeeineii ?aeiia
*eieaioneie iaeanoe, ieiuaaeue caeacieea iaaaeeea anaai 3 ouny/e
aaeoa?. Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a i?aaeaeao oaaeenoie eaniaie ?aaieiu, a
iaaeaeo?a/uee Nu?aea?uee e A?une. Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue caeacieea
anoanoaaiiua ca?inee oeeoaa?iie iieuie, io?aia eioi?uo e yaeyaony
iniiaiie caaea/ae Aeaeaeeineiai caeacieea.

Aiaaanneee aioaie/aneee caeciee. Iaoiaeeony caeaciee a Aiaaanneii ?aeiia
*eieaioneie iaeanoe, e aai ieiuaaeue ?aaia 3.1 ouny/e aaeoa?. Iniiaiui
aeaeii eaiaeoaooia caeacieea yaeythony i?aaeai?iua iaeeiiiua ?aaieiu
o?aaoa Ea?aoao. ?aaieiu neiaeaiiu eaiaienoi-iaeiii/iuie ii?iaeaie,
?an/eaiaiu ia?aaaie e aaeeaie. Ia oa??eoi?ee caeacieea ?aniino?aiaia
iieuiii-nieyiiaay iieoionouiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, oae aea nio?aieeenue
anoanoaaiiua ca?inee oeeoaa?iie iieuie. Io?aia eioi?ie e yaeyaony
aeaaiie caaea/ae caeacieea.

A O?aeaea?neii ?aeiia Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoe ?aniieiaeai caeaciee
Aoeao, aai ieiuaaeue nianai iaeaiueeay, anaai 112 aaeoa?.
?aniieiaeaiea caeacieea oaeaiai, /oi ii iaoiaeeony a ouaeueyo caiaaeiuo
io?iaia Oa?aaaioaeneeo ai?. Aeey caeacieea oa?aeoa?ia aiaaoay e
?aciiia?aciay eaniay e iaeeieenoaaiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue. Iniaaiii
aonoua ca?inee ia?acotho aeeeay yaeiiy, /a?aiooa, eaeeia. Iniiaiie
caaea/ae caeacieea – aa?a/ue iaeeieenoaaiiua eana o?aaoa Oa?aaaioae n
i?enouae ei oaoiie.

Aaeoaooeineee aioaie/aneee caeaciee iaoiaeeony a Aeiaaeneii ?aeiia
AEaceacaaineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue 500 aaeoa?. Iniiaiui
eaiaeoaooii i?enouei caeacieeo yaeythony inoaioeiai-iaeeiniii/iua
aicauoaiinoe Aaeoaooa, neiaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaaiii a?aieoiauie
ii?iaeaie. Ia neeiiao aicauoaiiinoe i?iec?anoatho ca?inee a?/e iiecouae.
Iaaeai?iua iiieaeaiey caiyou aa?aciai-ineiiauie ?aaeeieanueyie. A ai?ao
iaoiaeyony auoiaeu ?iaeieeia n i?aniie aiaeie. Iniiaiay oeaeue
nicaeaiey caeacieea – io?aia eaniie e eonoa?ieeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe
ai? ?acaeoie iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?aaeaeao ionouiiie ciiu.

Aa?eaian aioaie/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeaiiue a Aeaeoaaeeineii ?aeiia
Aeaeaiaoeueneie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue caeacieea 3.1 ouny/e aaeoa?.
Eaiaeoaoou caeacieea i?aaenoaaeaiiu a iniiaiii o?i/auaie Aa?ea?a,
?aniieiaeaiiiai a i?aaeaeao eani-eoaiai-noaiiie ciiu ai? Ea?aoao.
Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?anoeoaeueiinoe: eneth/eoaeueii aiaaoay eaniay oei?a:
?iue oiiiey e ynaiy, uaeeiaeoeu, ca?inee otheueiaia A?aeaa.
?anoeoaeueiinoue caeacieea eiaao aieueooth iao/ioth e oicyenoaaiioth
oeaiiinoue.

Ao?aeaea?neee aioaie/aneee caeaciee (Aoaoineee ?aeii, *eieaioneie
iaeanoe), aai ieiuaaeue 1.4 ouny/e aaeoa?. Iniiaiui oeiii eaiaeoaooia
yaeythony oaaeenoua ?aaieiu, neiaeaiiua eanaie, aiaaoi-?ac?aaeaiiuie
iieuiii-nieiieiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth. A caeacieea aa?aaeii
io?aiythony anoanoaaiiua ca?inee oeeoaa?iie iieuie, e ae?oaie
?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Aeaeaiiiooceee aioaie/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a eaia?ianeii ?aeiia
Eie/aoaaneie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue caeacieea anaai 214 aaeoa?, ec ieo
iie?uoi eanii 64 aaeoa?a. Iaeeiniii/iay aicauoaiiinoue, ia eioi?ie
?aniieiaaaony oa??eoi?ey caeacieea, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oieeaeueiue
oaieie i?e?iaeu, ?aniieiaeaiiue a aeaea eaniiai ino?iaea ia oiia
?aaieiiie noaie. ?anoeoaeueiinoue a caeacieea i?aaenoaaeaia ineiie,
aa?acie, aeoiae, noaiiie oaaieaie e ae?oaeie ae?aanoii-eonoa?ieeiauie
ii?iaeaie. Caaea/a caeacieea – nio?aiaiea ai?ii-noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe
Eacaoneie neeaae/aoie no?aiu e o?aaiaioa oeie/iuo noaiae Naaa?iiai
Eacaonoaia.

Aeieeineee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee
Oaeueiaineiai ?aeiia Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoe, aai ieiuaaeue 700 ouny/
aaeoa?. Caeaciee i?aaieciaai ia aaca Aeieeineiai aa?ieaniiaeei?aoeaiiai
eanie/anoaa n iaoe?iui aeaeiaui anni?oeiaioii enneonoaaiii iinaaeaiiuo
ae?aaanoii-eonoa?ieeiauo ii?iae. Iiuo eio?iaeoeoeee yoeo ii?iae a
oneiaeyo canooeeaiai eeeiaoa Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia eiaao aieueoia
oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea. Caeaciee nicaeai n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey
enneonoaaiiuo eaniiinaaeie e i?iaaaeaiey eaniainoaiiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio.

Caaea?ueeineee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee, ?aniieiaeai a Aoaoineii ?aeiia
Ouieaioneie iaeanoe, ieiuaaeueth 8.4 ouny/e aaeoa?. Caeaciee
?aneeioeny ia oaaeenoie ?aaieia, ioiinyuaeny e ae?aaiae aeieeia ?aee
Nu?aea?uey. Ec ?anoeoaeueiinoe i?aiaeaaeatho iaeii?iaeiua
iieuiii-niniiaua niiauanoaa, n?aaee eioi?uo cia/eoaeioth ieiuaaeue
caieiatho anoanoaaiiua ca?inee oeeoaa?iie iieuie. Caeaciee i?aaieciaai
a oeaeyo io?aiu ianaaeaeaiee yoeo oeaiiuo aeeei?anooueo eaea?noaaiiuo
?anoaiee.

A AEaiaueueneie iaeanoe, a Eo?aeaeneii ?aeiia iaoiaeeony
aeieiae/aneee caeaciee Ea?aeoioc. Ia iaaieueoie ieiuaaee caeacieea,
anaai 3072 aaeoa?a, ?aneeioeanue aeeaiieniay aeieeia ?aee Ea?aeoioc n
?aciiia?aciie ae?aaanoii-eonoa?ieeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth,
ian/eouaathuae aei 520 aeaeia: eaniay yaeiiy, aeu/a, aeeeee aeiia?aae,
ei?oac eaaeaceee, eeai Naiaiiaa. Iniaaiii oe?ia ?aniino?aiaiea iieo/eee
?aaeeieanuey eioi?ua caieiatho ieiei ni?iea iyoe i?ioeaioia ieiuaaee
caeacieea. Nio?aiaiea oieeaeueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe caiaaeiie /anoe
o?aaoa Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao yaeyaony iniiaiie caaea/ae caeacieea.

Eaaaoneee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee, AEaceacaaineay iaeanoue, AEaiaa?neee
?aeii. Aai ieiuaaeue 15 ouny/ aaeoa?. Oa?aeoa?iua eaiaeoaoou –
oaaeenoi-oieienoua ?aaieiu Naaa?iie /anoe noaie Aaoiaeaeaeu. Yoio
caeaciee aaeeinoaaiiia ia Caiea ianoi, aaea oe?ieia ?aniino?aiaiea
iieo/eee ?aeeeoiaua anoanoaaiiua ianaaeaeaiey yiaeaie/iiai eonoa?ieea
oaaieaaoaaoa O?aiea. Aieueoia iao/iia cia/aiea yoiai ?anoaiey,
eioi?ia ieaie?oaony eniieueciaaoue a oeaeyo icaeaiaiey ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ionouiiie ciia.

Ieaeia-Oo?aonoineee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee, iaoiaeyueeny ia a
Cu?ueiianeii ?aeiia Ainoi/ii-Eacaonoaineie iaeanoe e eiathuee
ieiuaaeue 2.2 ouny/ aaeoa?, caieiaao ai?ii-eaniua neeiiu Eo?/oineiai
o?aaoa, a ai?ao thaeiiai Aeoay. Oeie/iie aeey caeacieea
?anoeoaeueiinoueth yaeyaony eenoaaiiua e aeiai-ieooiaua ai?iioaaaeiua
eana. A ouaeueyo ai?iuo ?ae e ?o/ueaa ano?a/athony aonoua ca?inee
iaeeieenoaaiiuo ae?aaaniuo e eonoa?ieeiauo ii?iae. Iniaaiii
aieueooth ieiuaaeue caieiatho ca?inee aiy?uoieea e oeiiaieea. Caeaciee
nicaeai n oeaeueth io?aiu, a iniiaiii, ca?ineae aiy?uoieea e oeiiaieea.

I?eeiiai?neee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaaaony a Aieiaea?neii
?aeiia, Eie/aoaaneay iaeanoue. Ieiuaaeue caeacieea iaaaeeea 3451
aaeoa?. Aeey caeacieea oa?aeoa?iu eaiaeoaoou ieineeo ?aaiei thaa
Caiaaeii-Neae?neie ?aaieiu. Yoi ieciaiiinoe a?aie/auea n
iaeeiniii/ieeii Eacaoneie neeaae/aoie no?aiu. A naaa?iie /anoe
caeacieea iaoiaeeony a?aieoiay niiea I?eeiiay ai?a, aunioa 372 iao?a.
Iniiaiie oiiae ?anoeoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeytho oeie/iua aeey ?aaeeeo,
iuia ?aniaoaiiuo, noaiae ii?eiaieeiai-e?aniieiaueueiie e
?aciio?aaii-e?aniieiaueueiie annioeeaoeee. Ii?aaeaeueiiue eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeytho ?aaeeieanuey, ?acaeoua ia ieiuaaee 200 aaeoa?. Iniiaiay
/anoue eania – aa?aciaua oieee, n i?eianueth niniu. A eanao iaeoatho
einoey, eena, aaeea, oaoa?aa, na?ay eo?iiaoea e ae?oaea ioeoeu e
aeeaioiua.

Nieaeaoneay uaeue (O?aeaea?neee ?aeii Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoe,
ieiuaaeue, nianai iaeaiueeay, anaai 156 aaeoa?. Caeaciee caieiaao
i?aaeai?uey e io?iae o?aaoa Oa?aaaioae. A i?aaeaeao aeeaiieniiai
ai?iiai ouaeuey ano?a/athony ?aciiia?aciay iaeeieenoaaiiay e ae?aaanii
eonoa?ieeiaay ?anoeoaeueiinoue. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuie ii?iaeaie
yaeythony /a?aiooa, aeeeay yaeiiy, eaeeia, aiy?uoiee. A eano aiaeyony
ii?aeu, einoee, no?ee, eo?iiaoee, eaeeeee. No?aiaiea aiaaoie e
?aciiia?aciie ?anoeoaeueiinoe thaeiuo io?iaia o?aaoa Oa?aaaioae eiaao
aieueoia oicyenoaaiiie e iao/iia cia/aiea.

Oeio?neee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee iaoiaeyueeny a Ecueeoineii ?aeiia
*eieaioneie iaeanoe eiaao ieiuaaeue 4 ouny/e aaeoa?. ?aniieiaeai yoio
caeaciee ia oaaeenoie, iaeeiiiie ?aaieia, ia iiaa?aaeuea ?aee
Nu?aea?uee. Aeey caeacieea oa?aeoa?iu iieuiii-nieyiiaua yoaia?iaua
iieoionouie. Oa?aeoa?iay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, aeey caeacieea, ca?inee
oeeoaa?iie iieuie. Nio?aiaiea eioi?ie e yaeyaony iniiaiie i?e/eiie
nicaeaiey Oeio?neiai aeieiae/aneiai caeacieea.

Oo?aiiaiaue – aeieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieiaeaiiue a i?aaeai?ueyo
Aaeoaoa, aai ieiuaaeue anaai 48 aaeoa?. Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a ieaeiai
oa/aiee ?aee Oie?ao. A i?aaeaeao ian/aiiuo oa??an Oie?ao i?iec?anoatho
iaaieueoea ?iue oiiiey ?aaeeieenoiiai, eee oo?aiae. Yoi ?aeeeoiaia
?anoaiea aeeinoaaiiia a Naaa?iii I?eaaeoaouea anoanoaaiiia
ianaaeaeaiea ?aaeeiai aeaea oiiiey. Oo?aiaa ae?aaanoiay ii?iaea ec ?iaea
oiiieaauo, naiaenoaa eaiauo. Oiiieue-oo?aiaa ia oieueei onoie/eaay
ii?iaea aeey eani?acaaaeaiey ia ian/aiiuo e nieii/aeiauo ii/aao, ii e
oeaiiia aeaei?aoeaiia aea?aai aeey icaeaiaiey ianaeaiiuo ioieoia
?aniieiaeaiiuo a oneiaeyo ionouie. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai
auiana neioa e iiaea?ia, naiiaieueiuo au?oaie oieeaeueiay oo?aiaieneay
?iua iaoiaeeony iiae oa?icie oie/oiaeaiey. Caeaciee nicaeai n oeaeueth
nianoe io iieiiai en/aciaaiey oieeaeueioth, anoanoaaiioth ?iuo ?aaeeiai
aea?aaa.

O?oaeaea?neee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee ?aniieaaaaony a O?oaeaea?neii
?aeiia Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue caeacieea anaai eeoue 120
aaeoa? (yoi i/aiue iaei). Caeaciee iaoiaeeony a ouaeuea
thai-caiaaeiuo neeiiia Oa?aaaaoaeneeo ai?. Aeey caeacieea oa?aeoa?iu
aeieeiiua iaeeieenoaaiiua eana. Iaeaieaa ?aniino?aiaiiua /a?aiooa,
aeeeay yaeiiy, a oae aea e ae?oaea ae?aaanoii eonoa?ieeiaua aeaeu
aea?aueaa.

*aeaea?neee aeieiae/aneee caeaciee, ieiuaaeueth 2.4 ouny/e aaeoa?,
iaoiaeeony a Aeaaaaneii ?aeiia *eieaioneie iaeanoe. Caeanue
i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaeoaoou oaaeenouo eaniauo ?aaiei, ?acaeouo a
iaaeaeo?a/uee Nu?aea?uee e A?une. Iie eiaatho ec?aaeaiioth
iieuiii-nieyiiaoth ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ia oiia eioi?ie auaeaeythony
y?ei-caeaiua iyoia oeeoaa?iie iieuie. Ca?inee yoiai iieaciiai ?anoaiey
yaeythony iauaeoii io?aiu a aeaiiii caeacieea.

Iiiaea i?eia/aoaeueiua eaiaeoaoou Eacaonoaia, eioa?aniua a
anoanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneii ioiioaiee, aoiaeyo a ninoaa oa??eoi?ee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioioie/ueeo oicyenoa, aaea ioioa no?iai ia?aie/aiia a
oeaeyo nio?aiaiey ?anoe?aiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe
ioioie/uea-i?iiuneiauo caa?ae e ioeoe, ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiey ?acee/iuo
aeioaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee, a oii /enea nio?aiaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa. Anaai a Eacaonoaia 21 ainoaea?noaaiiia ioioie/uea oicyenoai
iauae ieiuaaeueth 1590.5 ouny/ aaeoa?.

E /eneo io?aiyaiuo i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia iiaeii ioianoe oae aea
oa??eoi?ee cai?aoiuo e caueoiuo eaniuo cii, ioiinyueony e eanai
ia?aie a?oiiu. A oaeaeo oicyenoaao ?ac?aoaia eneeth/eoaeueii eeoue
?oaea eana, iai?aaeaiiay ia oeo/oaiea eaniie n?aaeu e ninoiyiey
ae?aainoiaa. Eana auiieiytho aiaeiio?aiiua, ii/aicaueoiua,
naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea e icaei?iaeoaeueiua ooieoeee. E iei ioiinyony
eana caiiaaaeieeia, ii/aicaueoiua eaniua iieinu, eana caeaiuo cii
aie?oa ai?iaeia e eiaeono?eaeueiuo oeaio?ia, eo?i?oiuo ianiinoae,
eana a noaaeueieeneie ciia ai?iuo iaeanoae Eacaonoaia. Aiaeiio?aiiia
e ii/aicaueoiia cia/aiea eiatho eaniua ianneau ai?iuo o?aaoia
Naaa?iiai, caiaaeiiai e Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia Oyiue-Oaiy,
Aeaeoiaa?neiai Aeaoao, Nao?a e Oa?aaaioay a THaeiii Eacaonoaia, ii/oe
ana eaniua ianneau, a oii /enea e aa?aciai-ineiiaua eaniua eieiiee a
eani-noaiiie e ionouiii-noaiiie ciiao Naaa?iiai e Oeaio?aeueiiai
Eacaonoaia. Nthaea aea neaaeoao ioianoe naenaoeueieeiaua e i?e?a/iua
eana ionouiiie ciiu. Eana aie?oa e aioo?e ai?iaeia e i?iiuoeaiiuo
oeaio?ia, eo?i?oia auiieiytho naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneoth e
icaei?iaeoaeueioth ?ieue. Iiyoiio, a eanao ia?aie a?oiiu, caieiathueo
i?aiaeaaeathuoth /anoue iie?uoie eanii ieiuaaee Eacaonoaia (e?iia
Ai?iiai Aeoay) eaniay ?anoeoaeueiinoue iaoiaeeony iiae iniaie
caueoie. A aoaeouai ia aaca yoeo eaniuo ianneaia oaeaea aiciiaeia
i?aaiecaoeey caiiiiaaaeieeia e i?e?iaeiuo caeacieeia.

A naaa?iie /anoe Eanieeneiai ii?y a 1977 aiaeo a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey e
aini?iecaiaenoaa ?uaiuo caiania a Eanieeneii ii?a auea ooaa?aeaeaia e
i?aaieciaaia caiiaaaeiay ciia naaa?iiai Eaniey. Ciia ioaaouaaao
aeaaoi?eth naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe ii?y a a?aieoeao Eacaonoaia,
ainoi/ioth /anoue aeieeiu Aieae e aeaeueoo O?aea, /anoue aa?aaiaie
iieinu. Caeanue ?acaeou eaiaeoaoou i?eii?neeo ian/aiiuo nieii/aeiauo
?aaiei n o?inoiyeiai-nieyiiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, Ian/aiiua ino?iaa
e einu, iaaeaaii inaiaiaeeaoeany ec iiae o?iaiy ii?y, /anoue aeaeueoiauo
eaiaeoaooia Aieae e aeaeueou O?aea n i?eoieaie. Aonoua o?inoieeiaua
ca?inee nicaeatho aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aiacaeiaaiey
aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe. A yoie ii nouanoao ia?aie a Eacaonoaia
caiiaaaeiie ciia, ioaaouaathuae aiaeiua eaiaeoaoou, ?ac?aoaaony
oieueei eeoue aaaeaiea ?uaiiai oicyenoaa e ?acaeoea aiaeiiai
o?ainii?oa.

Ia 1 yiaa?y 1980 aiaea a Eacaonoaia ian/eouaaeinue 111 iniai io?aiyaiuo
i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo aeeth/aao a naie ninoaa
oeie/iua aeey aeaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo cii eaiaeoaoou. Ec oaaeeoeu ? 1
aeaeii, /oi io?aiyaiua i?e?iaeiua iauaeou caieiatho 7819.8 ouny/
aaeoa?, /oi ninoaaeyao 2.67% io anae oa??eoi?ee. Iaeiaei yoa oeeo?a ia
niioaaonoaoao aiaaoaeoei i?e?iaeiui caianai ?anioaeeee. Eacaonoai
?aniieiaaao aeinoaoi/iui eiee/anoaii i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iao/ioth e oicyenoaaiioth oeaiiinoue, e eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii acyoue iiae io?aio ainoaea?noaa.

?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nee, aic?anoathuea oaiiu eniieueciaaiey
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, i?eaiaeyo e aicieeiiaaieth iiauo e aieaa caiaoiuo
oi?i aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeo. I/aiue aaaeii
naiaa?aiaiiia i?iaiice?iaaiea, iaeo?aeecaoeey e ono?aiaiea
iineaaenoaee iaaeaaii?eyoiiuo i?ioeannia e yaeaiee. Iaiaoiaeeii
?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, o.a. o/eouaaoue
ianoiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey, i?aaeaeaeaoue iineaaenoaey aicaeaenoaey
ia i?e?iaeo, yeiiiiii e aa?aaeii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu e nio?aiyoue
oeaiiinoe nicaeaiiua i?e?iaeie. Ia?a/eneaiiua a yoie ?aaioa iauaeou
io?aiyaiie i?e?iaeu aeaeaei ia ia?aie/eaatho ia?a/aiue i?eia/aoaeueiuo
eaiaeoaooia ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia. Iiiaea nouanoaothuea i?e?iaeiua
caeacieee aiciiaeii, a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai aoaeoo ?aa?aaieciaaiiu a
caiiaaaeieee, n inouanoaeaieai a eo i?aaeaeao io?aiu anaai eiiieaena
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ia?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiu io?aiyaiua eaiaeoaoou
ii iaeanoyi: Eonoaiaeneay, Eie/aoaaneay, Ea?aaaiaeeineay iaeanoe
eiaatho n?aaieoaeueii aieueoia /enei io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia, a
Ao?ueaaneie, Aeothaeineie, Oaeaeu-Eo?aaineie iie aeiaieueii
iaiiiai/eneaiiu. A ?anioaeeea iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaaaoue iiaua io?aiyaiua
oaieee i?e?iaeu.

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee iiauo caiiaaaeieeia iiaeii iacaaoue neaaeothuea
eaiaeoaoou, oeie/iua aeey i?e?iaeiuo cii ia oa??eoi?ee Naaa?iiai e
Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia.

Ica?i Oaaeuoaiec – i?aniia ica?i n i?ea?aaeiie iieinie o?inoieeiauo
ca?ineae i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an eae ianoi iaeoaiey aiaeiieaaathueo
ioeoe. Ica?i ?aniieiaeaii a eani-noaiiie ciia ia a?aieoea
Eie/aoaaneie e Naaa?i-Eacaonoaineie iaeanoae. Ica?i Naaaaouoaiec.
Ica?i ?aniieiaeaiii ia ainoiea Eie/aoaaneie iaeanoe. ia yoii ica?a
niae?athony ia eeiueeo ouny/e ?acee/iuo ooie e na?ua aeo?aaee,
iaoiaeyuea oaaaeeua ia iiiai/eneaiiuo ino?iaao e ioiaeyo. Ai?u
A?iaioao – ieceiai?iue iannea Oeaeeiia?aaeneie iaeanoe. Caeanue
iaeoatho einoey, ii?ae, a?oa?, no?ie e ae?oaea ?aaeeea aeeaioiua.
Aa?aciai-ineiiaua ?aaeeieanuey aoiaeyo a ninoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai
caeacieea Aaaaeu?neee. A iaai iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu ?aaieiu a
aa?oiaueyo ?aee AEaiai-Na?uno. Eaiaeoaoou caeacieea ?aniieiaeaiiu ia
a?aieoea ionouiii-noaiiie e ionouiaiie cii, iiyoiio caeanue ano?a/athony
?yae ?aaeeeo aeaeia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. A i?aaeiieaaaaiue Aaeoaoneee
caiiaaaeiee iiaeao aieoe naaa?i-ainoi/iia iiaa?aaeuea ica?a Aaeoao.
Caeanue aiacaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua eieiiee aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe.
Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao eco/aiea aiaeiaia, eiathuaai iaeiia?aiaiii eae
i?anioth oae e nieaioth aiaeo. AEaia-A?eeineee ai?iiniii/iue iannea
?aniieiaeai ia nouea Ei?aeneiai iaeeiniii/ieea e ieaoi Aaoiaeaeiea
aiaao ?anoeoaeueiinoueth e iiiai/eneaiiuie aeeaioiuie. Ea?aaaoneee
ai?iiniii/iue iannea a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Eacaoneie neeaae/aoie
no?aiu, n aa?aciai-ineiiauie e niiiauie ?aaeeieanueyie, aiaao eaniie
oaoiie. Ai?iiniii/iue iannea (ia ainoiea Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoe) –
a?aieoiua ai?u, aunioie 1300 iao?ia, aicauoathony iaae
oaaeenoi-oieienouie ionouiii-noaiiuie ?aaieiaie. A ?anuaeeiao neae e
?a/iuo aeieeiao ano?a/athony aa?aciai-ineiiaua ?aaeeieanuey. A ai?ao
iaeoatho a?oa?, einoey ii?ae. Caiaaeiue Eacaonoai – no?aia noaiae,
ionouiue eioi?ua ?aciiiia?aciu a i?e?iaeiii ioiioaiee. Iiiaea
eaiaeoaoou nio?aieee oei?o e oaoio, aeeceea e anoanoaaiiiio ninoiyieth.
Nicaeaiea caiiaaaeieea aiciiaeii a ieciaueyo ?aee Oo?aae, aaea
iiiai/eneaiiu ica?a n ianoaie aiacaeiaee e eeiueee aiaeiieaaiathueo
ioeoe e aaea ano?a/athony aieueoea noaaea naeaaeia. Aieueoea aa?noee –
ian/aiiue iannea a naaa?iii i?eii?uea, aaea eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
io?aia eaiaeoaooia naaa?iuo ian/aiiuo ?aaiei. Aeieeio ?aee O?ae
iiaeao ioaaoeoue O?aeueneee caiiaaaeiee, aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?iu
oe?ieieenoaaiiua aeoaiai-aa?aciaia iieiaiii-i?e?a/iua eana. AEeaioiue
ie?: auoooieue, ?a/iie aia?, eaniay eoieoea. Aeaeueoa ?aee O?ae –
ian/aiiua ino?iaa, ?a/iua i?ioiee n ooaayie, iaaieueoea caeeau, ian/aiua
ioiaee, ica?a yaeythony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo nio?aieaoeony ia?anoeeeu
oeaiiuo i?iiuneiauo ?ua ia Eaniee. Ia?oaue Eoeooe – iieiaeie, oieueei
/oei noi?ie?iaaaoeeny eaiaeoaoo, aaea i?ienoiaeyo nia?aiaiiua
noaiiaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo eiiiiiaioia n i?enoueie eie acaeiinaycyie. Ia
naaa?iii aa?aao Eaniey ?aniieiaeaia oieienoi-nieii/aeiaay ?aaieia.
Eioa?an aucuaatho ?aeueao ai?ianeeo aoa?ia – ae?aaieo i?eii?neeo
aethi, iia?aaaiiuo aiaeaie ii?neeo o?aina?annee. Aoa?u /a?aaeothony n
aeoaieeie aanoi/iuie aiaaeeiaie, caiyouie oeie/iuie ni?iauie nieii/aeaie
ieaeieaiiuie ni/iinieyiiiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth. Aiaaeeia Ei?ioa
caeanue i?aaenoaaeaiu iniiaiua aeaeu ionouiiuo eaiaeoaooia – ian/aiuo,
nieii/aeiauo, eaiaienouo. Ai?u Aeoao – io?aia yecioe/aneeo oi?i ?aeueaoa
e naienoaaiiie yoiio e?yaeo ionouiii-noaiiie oei?u e oaoiu. Eioa?an
aucuaaao nio?aiaiea iaeiauo inoaieia auaao?eaaiey eonoa?ieeiauo a?yae e
ea?noiauo iaua?. THai-Caiaaeiue Onoth?o – caeanue nio?aieeenue
i?e?iaeiua oneiaey aeeceea e anoanoaaiiui. Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
io?aia o?aaiaioa eaiaienoi-aeiniaie ionouie n ianneaaie naenaoeueieeia.
?aniieiaeeaoeany ia nouea naaa?iie e thaeiie ionouie n i?enoueie ei
ia?aoiaeyueie /a?oaie oaoiu e oei?u. A Ainoi/iii Eacaonoaia iaeaieaa
aa?iyoiie yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey caiiaaaeieeia a ai?ao Nao?, Oa?aaaioae e
ieceiai?ueyo Ouiaunoao. Nao?neee (a i?aaeaeao n?aaeiaai?iiai o?aaoa
Nao?) – iaee/ea yecioe/aneeo oi?i ?aeueaoa. Eioa?n i?aaenoaaeytho
noaaeueieeneea eia?aceaaua eoaa, eenoaaiiua eoaa ?a/iuo aeieei. Aeiaua
eana ai?iuo neeiiia – naiue naaa?iue ?aeii ?aniino?aiaiey
oyiueoaiueneie aee. Oa?aaaaoaeneee iaiaei yiaeaie/iuo aeaeia
?anoaiee, aiaao e ?aciiia?acai aeeaioiue ie?. Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
io?aia noaaeueieeneeo eoaia, ca?ineae yaeiie Neaa?ne, ieiaeaey
Eaaeaao?a. *eiaenoeoineee (e?yae *eiaenoao) iaaunieea ai?u y?ei
auaeaeythueany ia oiia aacaiaeiuo iieuiii-nieyiiiauo ionouiue.
*aeea?-Oaiaec eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao eaia?eeiaay aiaaeeia a ieciaueyo
?aee Oo?aae, eioi?ay i?aa?auyaony oi a i?aniia, oi a nieiiiaaoia ica?i
*aeea?-Oaiaec, oi a e?oiiue iaeiiiieiaiiue nieii/ae. Aiaaeeia Iuiaoeae
– (naaa? Oo?aaeneie ieciaiiinoe) eeoaia ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa.
I?aniua aiaeu auoiaeyo ia iiaa?oiinoue a iiiai/eneaiiuo ?iaeieeao
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia iiaa?oiinoe aa?oei aeeienoi-ian/aiiuo aoa?ia,
ia?aciaaaoeony a ?acoeueoaoa aeeoioeyoeee iaeeicaieenoiai iaoa?eaea
aie?oa nii/aiiie aiaeie iiaa?oiinoe a?aieoa. ?aaieia Aea?ueeue-Oaiu?
(ieciauey Nu?aea?uee) – iniiaiay caaea/a nio?aiaiea o?aaiaioa
e?oiiaeoae a ionouiyo Eacaonoaia oaeu?iaeaeiie ?aaieiu n ca?ineyie
naenaoea e i?enouaio yoiio aeioieo oaoiie. Aeaeueoa Nu?aea?uee –
caaiei/aiiua oo?aaeneea ?aaieiu n ica?aie, i?ioieaie e iiiai/eneaiiuie
aiacaeiaueyie aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe. Iniiaiie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony
eco/aiea neiaeiuo i?ioeannia ?acaeoey aeaeueou a oneiaeyo
iiieaeaiey o?iaiy A?aea. I?e/a?aea?eineea Eucueeoiu – niaianoeiia
?acaeoea na?iiieuiii-nieeyiiauo annioeeaoeee naienoaaiiuo naaa?iui
ionouiyi e ieceio?aaiui yaeaaia?iaui iieonaaaiiai thaeiuo ionouiue.
Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho ca?inee aaeiai naenaoea. Aiaeaeneee (aoa?enoua
ianee Iothieoi, eaiaienoay ionouiy Aaoiaeaeiea e naaa?i-caiaaaeiua
neeiiu *o Eeeeneeo ai?. Oaeea eiioa?nou nio?aiytho aiaaooth e
?aciiia?acioth ?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie?. Ec aeeaioiuo iaeaieaa
oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu naeaaee, a?oa?u, aeaeae?aiu. ?anoeoaeueiue ie?
iaeaieaa y?ei i?aaenoaaeaiiu aeaeaee/iia o?aayienoia ?anoaiea
O?aoon?oa?a. Na?uno – *oeneea ica?iua ?aaieiu. Nenoaia iaoe?iuo
iaaeoaieeo aanoi/iuo aiaaeei n aonouie o?inoieeiauie ca?ineyie e
aiaaoie i?ieoioaoiie aeeoioee?oao aiaeu ?ae Na?uno e *o. Io?aia nenoaiu
ica?iuo aiaeiaiia Aaeaeanneee (nooay aeaeueoa ?aee Eee). Ieineay
aeeienoi-iani/iay ?aaieia neiaeaiiay iieinaie, ia?ana/aia nooeie
i?ioieaie ?aee. Eioa?an aucuaatho eaniua ianneau /a?iiai naenaoea
(yoao?a, aeaeocaoi). Aeaeueoa ?aee Eee – iiiai/eneaiiua ?a/iua i?ioiee,
?onea, iieiaiiua ica?a ieaeieaiiua aonouie ca?ineyie ooaay. ?anoaiey
oiiieue-oo?aiaa, eaa, eio. AEeaioiue ie? i?aaenoaaeai iyoienoui ieaiai,
eaaaiii, oacaiii, aeeeiaoece?iaaia aiaeao?a. *a?uineee eaiueii (?aea
*a?ui, eaaue i?eoie ?aee Eee) – oieeaeueiua inoaioeu, ia?aaeii-aaei/iue
?aeueao, ioaaniua neeiiu eaiueiia neiaeaiiu ecaanoiyeaie ei?aiiu.
?aeeeoiaay ynaiaaay e oo?aaiiaay ?iua a aeieeiao *a?uia. *eeee –
*a?uineia iaaeaeo?a/uea aeieeiu ?aee Eee nio?aieea o/anoee
oo?aiaiai-eioiai-eaiauie ooaayie e i?enouae ei oaoiie Aeaeieue.
Nanueeieueneia iiaa?aaeuea. Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao io?aia aeaaoi?ee yoeo
ica? n i?eiueathueie i?ea?aaeiuie ?aaieiaie.
O?inoieeiai-aaeieeiai-aae?aeiaua eoae n iiiai/eneaiiuie iaaieueoeie
ica?aie, aieioaie e i?ioieaie neoaeao aiacaeiaueyie e?oiiuo eieiiee
aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe. Aeaeoiaa?neee caiiaaaeiee i?aaiecoaony a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ai?iiai o?aaoa, i?eiueathuaai e aeieeia ?aee Aaneai.
Oeie/iuie iaeoaoaeyie aeiauo eania, noaiae e ai?iuo eoaia aunieiai?ee
yaeythony ii?ae, a?oa?, aaeieiaioiue iaaeaaaeue, niaaeiue aa?n e ae?.
aeeaioiua.

Oaeei ia?acii ia oa??eoi?ee Eaoaonoaia a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu
aiciiaeia i?aaiecaoeey ieiei 30 iiauo caiiaaaeieeia, a oae aea
i?e?iaeiuo ia?eia (iniaaiii a ai?ao Oyiue-Uaiy e Aeoay), i?e?iaeiuo
caeacieeia e iaiyoieeia i?e?iaeu.

I?e?iaea – ean, ?aee, aiaeiaiu, ai?u e aeieeiu n eo aeeaioiui e
?anoeoaeueiui ie?ii – aeinoiyiea ia?iaea, yoi oneiaey a eioi?uo aeeaao,
?aaioaao e ioaeuoaao /aeiaae. Iaaei ai?ioueny ca oi, /oi-au io?aia
i?e?iaeu noaea ii-ianoiyuaio iauaia?iaeiie caaea/ae.

I?eeiaeaiey.

Oaaeeoea 1

? Io?aiyaiua iauaeou

Eiee/anoai Ieiuaaeue,

oun.aa. Ioiioaiea e oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee, %

1 Ainoaea?noaaiiua caiiaaaeieee 6 532.7 0.19

2 Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?e?iaeiua ia?ee 1 45.0 0.0001

3 Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?e?iaeiua caeacieee 28 4533.8 1.6

a oii /enea: ?anioaeeeaineea 7 2884.3

iaeanoiua 21 1649.5

4 I?e?iaeiua caeacieee 56 1110.0 0.19

a oii /enea: aioaie/aneea 21 192.2

ciieiae/aneea 34 917.7

aioaieei-aaieiae/aneea 1 0.1

5 Ainoaea?noaaiiua ioioie/uee oicyenoaa 21 1590.5 0.6

6 Iaiyoieee i?e?iaeu 3 7.8

?anioaeeeaineea 3 7.8

ianoiua ——– ——–

Anaai: 115 7819.8 2.67

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

“Iaiyoieee i?e?iaeu Eacaonoaia” (i?eia/aoaeueiua eaiaeoaoou e eo
io?aia)”A.A.*eaa?eei Aeia-Aoa, Ecae. “Eaeia?” 1980 a.

“Io?aia i?e?iaeu a Eacaoneie NN?”, Nai?iee Aeia-Aoa, Ecae. “Eaeia?” 1976
a.

“I?e?iaea e iu” Aeia-Aoa, “Eaeia?” 1976 a. “I?eia/aoaeueiua i?e?iaeiua
eaiaeoaoou NNN? e eo io?aia”, Iineaa 1976 a.

“Caiiaaaeieee Niaaoneiai Nithca” iiae ?aaeaeoeeae i?ioanni?a Aaiieeiaa
A.A., Iineaa “Eiein” 1989 a.

“Oece/aneay aaia?aoey Eacaonoaia”, Aeia-Aoa, “Iaeoai” 1968 a.

“Aoean Eacaoneie NN?” oii 1, Iineaa, Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea aaiaeacee e
ea?oia?aoee i?e Niaaoa ieieno?ia NNN?, 1982 a.

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