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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea 2

1. Ianaeaiea 3

1.1 Aeaiia?aoey 3

1.2 Yoie/aneee ninoaa e ycuee 4

1.3 O?iaaiue aeecie 5

2. Iauanoai 6

2.1 Iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai 6

2.2 Ia?ac aeecie 6

2.3 Nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea 7

2.4 Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea 7

2.5 Ianoi aeaiuei a yiiineii iauanoaa 9

2.6 I?anooiiinoue 11

3. Eoeueoo?a 12

3.1 ?aeeaey 12

3.2 Iau/ae e i?acaeieee 12

3.3 Nii?o 13

Caeeth/aiea 15

Eeoa?aoo?a 16

Aaaaeaiea

ssii?iey (yi. Ieiiiii, Ieoiii, ioeoeeae. yi. Ieiiiii-eiieo,
Ieoiii-eiieo) — ino?iaiia ainoaea?noai a Ainoi/iie Acee. ssiiiey
yaeyaony /eaiii III, Aieueoie ainuei??ee e AOYN. Yoa auniei?acaeoay
no?aia, ii iauaio AAI caieiathuay o?aouea ianoi a ie?a i?? NOA e Eeoay,
yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeeaeaeoeo e cia/eoaeueiaeoeo ninaaeae ?innee.

ssiiiey a neeo naiaai ?aniieiaeaiey e caaanu io/oaeaeaiiinoe, niyoie ia
oae aeaaii, iaeaaeaao aanueia naiaia?aciie eoeueoo?ie e o?aaeeoeeyie. Ai
iiiaii ssiiiey a niciaiee aa?iiaeoea inoaaony iaaeinooiiui e caaaaei/iui
ie?ii, n iaiiiyoiie aeey aa/ii niaoauaai caiaaeiiai ie?a
nica?oeaoaeueiie oeeinioeae. Aieueoeinoao caiaaeiuo aaoi?ia naienoaaiia
noauaeoeaiinoue a ioeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie ineoieiaee yiiioeaa. I?e
?anniio?aiee ?acee/iuo aa noi?ii iie ia anaaaea o/eouaatho
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u, eo aeeyiea ia aeooiaioth aeeciue
yiiioeaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, yiiineia iauanoai aanueia ioee/ii io aa?iiaeneiai. A
nayce n yoei oeaeaniia?acii ?anniio?aoue aai aeaiia?aoe/aneee ninoaa,
eoeueoo?iua iniaaiiinoe, ?aeeaeiciue ninoaa, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth
noa?o, a oaeaea oa eoeueoo?iua iniaaiiinoe e enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee,
eioi?ua ieacaee aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea nia?aiaiiiai yiiineiai iauanoaa
e i?eaeaee aio yoo iaiiaoi?eioth ainoi/ioth niaoeeoeeo, eioi?ay oae
caai?aaeeaaao aa?iiaeoeaa.

1. Ianaeaiea

1.1 Aeaiia?aoey

A ssiiiee i?iaeeaaao 127,33 iei. /aeiaae (2004), ec ieo ia aeaaiii
ino?iaa Oiinth – 101 iei., ia i.Ethnth – 13,4 iei., ia i.Neeieo – 4,2
iei. e ia i.Oieeaeaei – 5,7 iei. /aeiaae.

N 1950 i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiay iea?aoeey ec naeueneie ianoiinoe. Oae,
anee a ia/aea 1950-o aiaeia a aea?aaiyo e iaeuo ai?iaeao /eneaiiinoueth
iaiaa 5000 aeeoaeae i?iaeeaaee a iauae neiaeiinoe 20,7 iei. /aeiaae, oi
e 1996 – anaai 2,1 iei., oiaaea eae a ai?iaeao n /eneaiiinoueth
ianaeaiey nauoa 500 oun. – 11,2 iei. a 1950 (13,5% anaai ianaeaiey) e
32,4 iei. a 1996 (25,8%). Ii iauae /eneaiiinoe ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey (97
iei.) ssiiiey a 1995 caieiaea oanoia ianoi a ie?a.

A 1950 ?iaeaeaaiinoue ninoaaeyea 25,1‰, a nia?oiinoue – 10,9‰. E 2004
yoe iieacaoaee nieceeenue aei 9.56 e 8,75‰ niioaaonoaaiii. Ieaaeai/aneay
nia?oiinoue ca oio aea ia?eiae oiaea aei 3,28. Iaeeaeaaiay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie 77,74 aiaea aeey ioae/ei e 84,51 – aeey
aeaiuei (2004).

Iioa?e, iiianaiiua ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia, ninoaaeee ieiei 1,6 iei.
iiaeaoeo e 309 oun. ?aiaiuo e i?iiaaoeo aac aanoe. Aieaa 1 iei. aeaiuei
inoaeenue a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu iacaioaeieie. Aeaoneee aoi, ia/aaoeeny
n?aco ii ieii/aiee aieiu, caaa?oeeny eeoue e 1951.

Ianaeaiea ssiiiee auno?i noa?aao, iaaeaaii noaa naiui iiaeeeui a ie?a,
aia?aua iaiaiaa ii n?aaeiaio aic?anoo aeeoaeae Eoaeee. Ii aeaiiui
yiiineiai ieienoa?noaa ii aaeieieno?aoeaiui aeaeai, aeiey a?aaeaeai
noa?oa 65 eao a ssiiiee aeinoeaea a ieioaoai aiaeo 21 i?ioeaioa – a
Eoaeee yoio iieacaoaeue ?aaai 20 i?ioeaioai.

I?e iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey 127, 76 iei., 26.82 iei. /aeiaae n?aaee
aeeoaeae ssiiiee ninoaaeytho iiaeeeua ethaee. Yoi ia 3.7 i?ioeaioa
aieueoa, /ai a 2000 aiaeo.

Noa?aiea ianaeaiey ioia/aii ai anao 47 i?aoaeoo?ao No?aiu ainoiaeyuaai
nieioea. Iaeaieaa aaeeea aeiey iaineiia?ia a i?aoaeoo?a Aeeoa ia naaa?a
i. Oiinth – 28.1 i?ioeaioa. Iaiueoa anaai noa?eeia aeeaao a ninaaeiae n
Oieei i?aoaeoo?a Naeoaia – 16.9 i?ioeaioa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii yiiineea aeaiia?aou oeene?otho oaaee/aiea /enea iaeeiieeo
ioae/ei e aeaiuei ai anao aic?anoiuo a?oiiao io 20 aei 64 eao.

Ii iiaieth yenia?oia, noieue nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u yiiineiai
iauanoaa noaaeo i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aaeeeaeueii
?aoi?ie?iaaoue iaineiiioth nenoaio e i?ia?aiiu iaaeeoeeineiai
no?aoiaaiey, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeiaine?othony ca n/ao aeioiaeia
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu.

1.2 Yoie/aneee ninoaa e ycuee

Ianaeaiea ssiiiee eneeth/eoaeueii iaeii?iaeii a ?aniaii, yoie/aneii,
ycueiaii e ?aeeaeiciii ioiioaieyo. Oai ia iaiaa a no?aia eiaaony ieiei
600 oun. ei?aeoeaa, oioy iiiaea ec ieo ?iaeeeenue e au?inee ia ino?iaao,
aiai?yo ia yiiineii ycuea e ii?ie iinyo yiiineea eiaia. Ae?oaia
iaiueoeinoai, – yoa, eee ao?aeoiei, iioiiee n?aaeiaaaeiaie eanou, /eaiu
eioi?ie caieiaeenue caaiai neioa, auaeaeeie eiae, auee ioni?ueeaie,
neiii?ioaie e n/eoaeenue «ethaeueie iiaeeuo i?ioannee». A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ian/eouaaaony ieiei 3 iei. ao?aeoiei.

Oioy yiiioeu aini?eieiatho naay eae «/enooth» ?ano e ia no?aiyony
anneieee?iaaoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, eo iaoeey neiaeeeanue
ec ?aciuo iioieia ia?anaeaioeaa. N/eoaaony, /oi ae?aaiaeoei ia?iaeii,
ianaeyaoei ino?iaa, auee aeiu. Ia ino?iaao Ethnth e Neeieo e ia thaa
Oiinth iie niaoeaaeenue n aano?iiaceeneeie ieaiaiaie, a ia Oieeaeaei – n
auoiaeoeaie n ainoi/iiai iiaa?aaeuey iaoa?eeiaie Acee. A na?aaeeia I
ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. ia ssiiineeo i-aao iiyaeeenue o.i. i?ioiyiiineea
ieaiaia. ?acaeoea eoeueoo? yoeo ieaiai i?ienoiaeeei aieioue aei 5 a.
i.y. a oaniii acaeiiaeaenoaee n aano?iiaceenei-aeineeie ieaiaiaie.

A 6–7 aa. ia?iae, ianaeyaoee ssiiineea i-aa, aini?eiye iaeioi?ua
yeaiaiou eeoaeneie e ei?aeneie eoeueoo?, a e 8 a. ia thaa Ethnth
caeii/eeanue anneieeyoeey aano?iiaceeoeaa. A yoi aea a?aiy ia/aeinue
canaeaiea naaa?iie iieiaeiu i.Oiinth, a ianoiia aeineia ianaeaiea
io/anoe niaoaeinue n i?eoaeueoeaie, a io/anoe auei auoaniaii a aieaa
naaa?iua ?aeiiu, ia i.Oieeaeaei.

Oioy ssiiiey ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay no?aia, a yiiineii ycuea
auaeaeytho o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu aeeaeaeoia – naaa?i-ainoi/iay,
thai-caiaaeiay e oeaio?aeueiay – e iiiaeanoai aiai?ia. Iniaiyeii noieo
aeeaeaeo ?thethnoeaa. A iniiaa eeoa?aoo?iiai noaiaea?oiiai ycuea eaaeeo
aiai? iaeiiai ec oeaio?aeueiuo aeeaeaeoia – ai?iaea Oieei e ?aaieiu
Eaioi. Aeaaiaea?y oaeaaeaeaieth oieeeneee aeeaeaeo eiaao oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea. ssiiineee ycue, eae e eeoaeneee, iino?iai ia
ea?iaeeoe/aneie iniiaa, ienueiaiiinoue caeinoaiaaia a 5–6 aa. a Eeoaa. A
10 a. auea nicaeaia nianoaaiiay neiaiaay acaoea – eaia, ninoiyuay ec
aeaoo oiiaoe/aneeo ?aciiaeaeiinoae – oe?aaaia e eaoaeaia. Iau/ii ei?ie
neia caienuaathony ea?iaeeoaie, a i?e iiiiue eaia – neoaeaaiua aeaaieu,
ieii/aiey ciaiaiaoaeueiuo aeaaieia e a?aiiaoe/aneea /anoeoeu. Neiaa,
aeey eioi?uo iao eeoaeneeo ea?iaeeoia, ia ienueia au?aaeathony oaeaea n
eniieueciaaieai eaia. sscue iinoiyiii iiiieiyaony aieueoei eiee/anoaii
eiino?aiiuo neia, aeaaiui ia?acii aiaeeeneeo.

1.3 O?iaaiue aeecie

E 1996 i?aeoe/anee ai anao yiiineeo aeiiao eiaeenue oieiaeeeueieee,
noe?aeueiua iaoeiu, iueaninu e oeaaoiua oaeaaeci?u, 90% naiae aeaaeaee
iee?iaieiiauie ia/aie e 75% – aeaeaiiaaieoioiiaie, iaeia aaoiiaoeia
i?eoiaeeeanue i?eia?ii ia naiue ec eaaeaeuo aeanyoe naiae, e iaeii
ieaieii – ia eaaeaeua aeaa ec aeanyoe naiae. Oaaee/eeanue ieiuaaeue
aeeeiai oiiaea, iiyaeeenue aieaa i?inoi?iua aeiia, eo/oa iaania/aiiua
nia?aiaiiuie eiiioiaeueiuie oaeianoaaie.

Oai ia iaiaa eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony neaaui caaiii
yeiiiieee. Oae, nenoaiu eaiaeecaoeee a iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo ssiiiee aeaaea
a aieueoeo ai?iaeao inoathony i?eieoeaiuie. Ia ioaa/aao nia?aiaiiui
o?aaiaaieyi e naoue aei?ia, yoi eanaaony ia oieueei e?oiiuo
ia?aa?oaeaiiuo o?ainii?oii ai?iaeia, ii e aieaa iaeeeo ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia. Caa?yciaiea aicaeooiiai aannaeia e aiaeiie n?aaeu – na?ueaciay
i?iaeaia aeey no?aiu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaeaeo aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee
ianaeaiey e yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea ec-ca ioiineoaeueii
iaaeeaiiiai inouanoaeaiey i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo i?ia?aii.

2. Iauanoai

2.1 Iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai

ssiiineia iauanoai ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue /aoei
au?aaeaiiui ?anneiaieai ia eeannu. Ia?aae Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiie
nouanoaiaaee aeai?yineea naiuee n ianeaaeoaiuie oeooeaie e ianeieueei
i/aiue aiaaouo naiae, eiio?iee?iaaaoeo e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua neiaeeeaou.
A ai?iaeao aeeyoaeueiuie oeao?aie auee aeaaeaeueoeu iaaaceiia e ae?oaea
iacaaeneiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, a a naeueneie ianoiinoe ainiiaenoaothuaa
iieiaeaiea caieiaee iiiaueee. Iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ana oeooeu, ca
eneeth/aieai i?eiaaeeaaeaueo eiia?aoi?neie naiuea, auee oi?acaeiaiu. A
?acoeueoaoa e?aoa i?iiuoeaiiuo neiaeeeaoia eo auaoea aeaaeaeueoeu
iioa?yee enoi/ieee naiaai aeaaiiieo/ey, a aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia eeoeea
iiiaueeia aieueoae /anoe eo caieaaeaaeaiee, ia?aoaaeoeo e a?aiaeaoi?ai e
ae?oaei e?anoueyiai a aeaea iaeeeo iaaeaeia.

2.2 Ia?ac aeecie

Aieueoeinoai yiiioeaa aini?eieiatho naay eae n?aaeiee eeann. Iie ia
aiaaou, ii e ia aaaeiu. A n?aaeiai yiiineea naiuee ioeeaaeuaatho 13%
naieo aeioiaeia, /oiau aeaoue ia?aciaaiea aeaoyi e iaania/eoue
noa?inoue. A 1996 naiuey ni n?aaeiei aeinoaoeii eiaea aiaeiaie aeioiae a
30 oun. aeiee. ssiiioeu i?aaeii/eoatho aeeoue a ioaeaeueiii
iaeiinaiaeiii aeiia n naaeii, iaeiaei a Oieei i?eia?anoe oaeie aeii aeey
n?aaeiae naiuee ia?aaeueii. N?aaeiee ?acia? aeeeeua a no?aia – 92 ea. i,
ii aai ieiuaaeue nouanoaaiii ?acee/aaony a ai?iaeao e naeueneie
ianoiinoe.

Naiuey n?aaeiaai aeinoaoea, eae i?aaeei, o?aoeo 23% naiaai aeioiaea ia
i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, ii 10% – ia o?ainii?o e ioaeuo, ii 6% – ia iaeaaeaeo
e auoiaoth oaoieeo e 7% – ia aeeeuea. Naiaeiue athaeaeao iaoiaeeony a
?oeao aeaiu, eioi?ay aeaeaao aoeueooth /anoue iieoiie e ioaa/aao ca
ia?aciaaiea aeaoae.

Naaiaeiy iieiaeua ethaee ana /aua aeaiyony ii ethaae. Oai ia iaiaa
?iaeeoaee aei neo ii? i?inyo ae?ocae eee nineoaeeaoeaa iiaeuneaoue
ia?oeth aeey naieo aeaoae. A yoii neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo iaiai oioia?aoeyie
e ono?aeaaaony ano?a/a noi?ii. Eiaaea naiai? ninoiyeny, aeiaiaa?eaathony
i eiie?aoiuo aeaoao, e, anee ana i?ioiaeeo oaea/ii, a iacia/aiiue n?ie
i?ienoiaeeo a?aeini/aoaiea. Oaeei niiniaii caeeth/aaony aei iieiaeiu
anao a?aeia.

2.3 Nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea

Eaaeaeue yiiiaoe ioaa/ai nenoaiie iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey,
aeaenoaothuae a ?aieao iaeiie ec o?ao i?ia?aii, inouanoaeyaiuo eeai
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eeai i?aaiecaoeeyie cae?aaiio?aiaiey. ?aaioathuea
?aaoey?ii ieaoyo no?aoiaua aciinu aieioue aei aeinoeaeaiey 70-eaoiaai
aic?anoa. Aieueiua iiea/eaatho eeoue iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue noieiinoe
iaaeeoeeineeo oneoa, iniiaiua cao?aou eiaeaony ia no?aoiaoth eiiiaieth.

Iaineiiiue aic?ano aeey iiiaeo inoaaeyao 55 eao. A 60 eao iaineiia?u
iiaoo iieo/aoue nioeeaeueiua iiniaey. O eiiiaiee eiathony nianoaaiiua
iaineiiiua i?ia?aiiu, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea auaea/o auoiaeiiai iiniaey e
aaeaaiaeiie iainee a ?acia?a iaiaa iieiaeiu i?aaeiaai aiaeiaiai
ca?aaioea. ssiiioeu ethayo o?oaeeoueny e, iieo/ea iaineth, aeaeaei ia
anaaaea ioi?aaeythony ia ioaeuo. Iau/ii oe?iu ia?aaiaeyo nio?oaeieeia
iaineiiiiai aic?anoa ia ?aaioo a oeeeaeu ia aieaa ieceea aeieaeiinoe eee
a ea/anoaa niaaoieeia. Iiaeeeua aeaiueiu iiaeatho a ioenao /ae e
oae?atho iiiauaiey. Oaeay i?aeoeea yeiiiieo n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi,
a iaineiia?ai iaania/eaaao i?eaaaeo e iainee.

ssiiioeu eiatho i?aai ia e?aoeia?aiaiiua auieaou ii aac?aaioeoea e
aeieaia?aiaiiua – ii iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe a ?acia?a ieiei 60% ca?aaioiie
ieaou. Ii caeiio ei iieaaaaony aaeaaiaeiue ioione
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a iyoue aeiae iethn iaeei aeaiue ca eaaeaeue
aiae neoaeau.

2.4 Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea

Ii caeiio eaaeaeue ?aaaiie iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai iieo/eoue oanoeeaoiaa
ia?aciaaiea a ia/aeueiie oeiea e o?aoeaoiaa – a n?aaeiae oeiea ia?aie
nooiaie. O/aaiue aiae a ssiiiee ia/eiaaony 1 ai?aey e caeai/eaaaony a
ia?oa. Ii ninoieo ec o?ao naiano?ia, ?acaeaeaiiuo 40-aeiaaiuie
eaieeoeaie a ethea-aaaonoa e ceiieie – a eiioea aeaeaa?y. Oeieueieee
iinauatho caiyoey a n?aaeiai 240 aeiae a aiaeo, aeeth/ay noaaioo. A 1996
a ssiiiee ec aieaa 1,5 iei. auioneieeia n?aaeiae oeieu ia?aie nooiaie
99% i?iaeieaeeee iao/aiea a n?aaeiae oeiea aoi?ie nooiaie. Iineieueeo
aoaeouaa o/aieea ii ieii/aiee n?aaeiae oeieu caaeneo io ioeaiee aai
niiniaiinoae i?e iinooieaiee a i?anoeaeioth oeieo aoi?ie nooiaie e
oieaa?neoao, aieueoeinoai o/aueony anao eeannia ianeieueei aa/a?ia a
iaaeaeth iinauatho niaoeeaeueiua iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey
«aectheo». N/eoaaony, /oi aoaeouaa aeaaiiieo/ea e nioeeaeueiay
cia/eiinoue /aeiaaea a aieueoie ia?a ii?aaeaeyaony oniaoaie ia
anooieoaeueiuo yecaiaiao a oeieo aoi?ie nooiaie, eieeaaeae e
oieaa?neoao, e i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iiae?inoie aeieaeai i?aiaeieaoue «aae
anooieoaeueiuo yecaiaiia» («aectheyi aeceaieo»). Nouanoaotho /anoiua
n?aaeiea oeieu, a eioi?uo iao/aiea ieaoiia e iao eiieo?niiai ioai?a
o/aueony. Iaeioi?ua /anoiua oieaa?neoaou, iai?eia? Ieoii Aeaeaaeo,
?aniieaaatho nianoaaiiuie ia/aeueiuie e n?aaeieie oeieaie.

I?ia?aiiu oeie anao nooiaiae ooaa?aeaeathony ieienoa?noaii ia?aciaaiey.
Aaoi?u o/aaieeia – i?eciaiiua aaoi?eoaou a naieo iaeanoyo, iaeiaei
ieienoa?noai nio?aiyao ca niaie e ?aaoey?ii eniieuecoao i?aai ia
oeaico?o o/aaiuo iiniaee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ssiiiee aeaenoaotho aieaa 400 oieaa?neoaoia.
Ae?aaiaeoee ec ieo – Oieeeneee (iniiaai a 1877), a i?ioeii Ia?aue
Eiia?aoi?neee oieaa?neoao, yaeyaony naiui aaoi?eoaoiui aunoei o/aaiui
caaaaeaieai ssiiiee. Ca iei neaaeotho oieaa?neoaou a Eeioi (ioe?uo a
1895), Nyiaeaa (1907), Naiii?i (1918).

A 1996 ec 1,555 iei. auioneieeia n?aaeiae oeieu aoi?ie nooiaie 460 oun.
iinooieee a eieeaaeaee (95% ec ieo – /anoiua) e 579 oun. – a
oieaa?neoaou n /aou?aoeaoiei eo?nii iao/aiey. Ec ieo 20% auee i?eiyou a
ainoaea?noaaiiua oieaa?neoaou, inoaeueiua – a /anoiua. Aieaa 90%
nooaeaioia aeaooeaoieo ieaaeoeo e iyoeeaoieo oaoie/aneeo eieeaaeaeae –
aeaaooee, a a oieaa?neoaoao 75% nooaeaioia – thiioe. Aaeoo?eaiou, ia
i?eiyoua a aoc, iau/ii aioiayony (naiinoiyoaeueii eeai n ?aiaoeoi?ii) e
iiaoi?iui anooieoaeueiui yecaiaiai a oi aea o/aaiia caaaaeaiea.

Aeey iieiaeuo yiiioeaa o/aaa ia?aaeei ieacuaaaony no?iaui e oyaeeei
eniuoaieai, iineieueeo i?iaae i?e i?eaia a i?anoeaeioth oeieo iiaeao
naiui iaaaoeaiui ia?acii io?aceoueny ia aoaeouae ea?uea?a. Ii ieii/aiee
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie n?aaeiae oeieu iieiaeua ethaee no?aiyony
i?iaeieaeeoue ia?aciaaiea a eieeaaeaeao e oieaa?neoaoao aeey iieo/aiey
i?ioannee.

Aeey nooaeaioia, i?aiaeieaaoeo ana i?aa?aaeu e iinooieaoeo a aunoea
o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, aeeciue n?aco noaiiaeony eaa/a, iineieueeo yiiineea
oieaa?neoaou i?aaeuyaeytho ieieiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e nooaeaioai, /uea
i?ioanneiiaeueiia noaiiaeaiea aeieaeii i?iecieoe oaea ai a?aiy ?aaiou a
?aciuo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe eee ia a?aaeaeaineie neoaeaa. Nooaeaiou
aocia oaeaeytho iiiai a?aiaie na?oeiao, euaeiiio nii?oo, eeoaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Eeoaai a ssiiiee i?eaeaaony aieueoia cia/aiea, oae eae a
ieo oi?ie?othony iiiaieaoiyy ae?oaeaa e aeaeiaia nio?oaeie/anoai.
Nenoaia aunoaai ia?aciaaiey a ssiiiee /?acau/aeii yooaeoeaia n oi/ee
c?aiey iiaeaioiaee eiiiaoaioiuo eiaeaia?ia e /eiiaieeia.

2.5 Ianoi aeaiuei a yiiineii iauanoaa

Iinea ieii/aiey n?aaeiae oeieu aoi?ie nooiaie eee eieeaaeaea
aieueoeinoai aeaaooae ia?auaaony ia ?uiie o?oaea. Iaeioi?ua
ono?aeaathony ia oaa?eee, ae?oaea noaiiayony nae?aoa?yie, neoaeaueie eee
i?iaeaaoeaie. Iaieiaoaee ciatho, /oi ana iie i?i?aaioatho ianeieueei eao
aei oao ii?, iiea ia aueaeoo caioae. Iiiaea aeaiueiu, a oii /enea
o/eoaey e iaaeeoeeineea nano?u, iiaoo iaaeayoueny ia i?iaeieaeaiea
?aaiou iinea caioaeanoaa. Iau/ii ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeaiuei ninoaaeyao 57%
io ca?aaioea ioae/ei ca auiieiaiea aiaeiae/iuo iaycaiiinoae.

Iaeioi?ua aeaiueiu i?eia?aoatho eaeoth-eeai i?ioanneth, noaiiayony
iaiaaeaea?aie a ei?ii?aoeeyo, caieiatho aunieea aeieaeiinoe ia
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa e a iieeoeea. A 1986 anooiee a neeo caeii i
?aaiuo aiciiaeiinoyo i?e o?oaeiono?ienoaa, iniiaaiiue ia Eiiaaioeee III
i i?aiaeieaiee anao oi?i aeene?eieiaoeee aeaiuei. *ai e?oiiaa oe?ia, oai
auoa i?ioeaio aeaiuei, i?iaeaeioaoeony ia aeieaeiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
ioaeaeia e ae?oaeo iiae?acaeaeaiee; oaeay ea?oeia iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ia
aeey eiiiaiee, niaoeeaeece?othueony ia ?icie/iie oi?aiaea e oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aieueoeinoai aeaiuei iinea anooieaiey a a?ae ooiaeeo n ?aaiou. Iaeioi?ua
ec ieo, eiaaea aeaoe noaiiayony noa?oa, aiiaue ono?aeaathony ia ?aaioo.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaioatho iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue eeai /anoe/ii caiyou
ieiei iieiaeiu caioaeieo aeaiuei.

O?aaeeoeeiiii i?e anooieaiee a a?ae aeaia i?eieiaea oaieeeth ioaea.
Oaia?ue ieacuaaaony ?anoouaa aeaaeaiea a iieueco i?eiyoey th?eaee/aneeo
iii?aaie, eioi?ua iicaieeee au iaiei ia?oia?ai nio?aiyoue e iinea
ioi?ieaiey a?aea naie i?aaeiea oaieeee.

Naaiaeiy yiiioeu eiatho naiua ?acee/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey i a?aea: io
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai acaeyaea ia a?ae eae ia n?aaenoai onoaiiaeaiey naycae
iaaeaeo aeaoiy naiueyie aei nia?aiaiiuo eaeaaeia, iniiaaiiuo ia
?aaainoaa iieia e oaaaeaiee e ee/iinoe, aieioue aei ooaa?aeaeaiey
oeaiiinoae, noaayueo ee/ioth naiaiaeo auoa naiiai einoeoooa a?aea.

Iaeioi?ua ?iaeeoaee aei neo ii? aeaeatho ono?ieoue a?ae naieo aeaoae
naie. Nia/aea naiuee /a?ac iin?aaeieea iaiaieaathony oioia?aoeyie,
aeia?aoeyie, iiae?iaiuie enoi?eyie. Anee iaa noi?iiu niaeaniu,
iin?aaeiee i?aaiecoao ano?a/o «theii» e i?aaenoaaeyao ioae/eio e
aeaiueio ae?oa ae?oao ca o?aiacie. Oea?aiiiey theii aeaeaao iiiieaeo
ioeoeeaeueiie.

N 19 aaea, ia/aea iiaea?iecaoeee a ssiiiee, ?ani?ino?aiaia oea?aiiiey
a?aeini/aoaiey a Neioienoneii o?aia n iauyaeaieai i nithca, ia?auaiiii e
aiaeanoao o?aia, oi/ii oaeaea eae yoi auei ai a?aiaia Eiia?aoi?a.
Iaaanoa a o?aaeeoeeiiiii naaaeaaiii oai?a (ne?iioeo) iieiinoueth aaeiai
oeaaoa, io oaeeiaie aoaee e eeiiii aei aeeeiiie aa?oiae iaeaaeaeu, iiyna
iae, iineia oaae e naiaeaeee. Aaeue oeaao neiaieece?oao /enoioo e
aeaeaiea iieiaeie noi?oae aini?eiyoue oeaaoa aa iiaiai aeiia (o.a.
onaieoue iiaua i?eau/ee). AEaieo oaeaea iaeao a o?aaeeoeeiiioth
yiiineoth iaeaaeaeo (/a?iia eeiiii, eo?oeo oai?e, oe?aoaiioth ciaeii
naiaeiiai aa?aa e a?thee oaeaia).

Ana aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie noaiiayony a?aee “ii-o?enoeainee” – 61.7% io
iauaai /enea, ii yoi ia icia/aao, /oi ia?u i?eiyee o?enoeainoai, i?inoi
yoi noaei iiaeiui e aini?eieiaaony iaiaoiaeeiui aeiiieiaieai e niauoeth.
Anaai n?aaee yiiioeaa eniiaaaeotho o?enoeainoai 1% ianaeaiey. I?e
“o?enoeaineii” aai/aiee aeaieo e iaaanoa aeatho a?a/iue iaao, ia?auaynue
ia e Aiao, a e nia?aaoeiny ainoyi.

2.6 I?anooiiinoue

I?aaieciaaiiay i?anooiiinoue a ssiiiee i?aaenoaaeaia eeaiaie yeoaeca.
sseoaeca eiio?iee?otho iacaeiiiue e niiieoaeueiue aecian (eai?iue
aecian, i?inoeoooeeth) e caieiathony ?yeaoii. Iiiaea aeaau yeoaeca oanii
naycaiu n e?oiiui aecianii e iieeoeeie. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy /eneaiiinoue
yeoaeca nie?auaaony, eae e naia yiiineay yeiiiieea, ia?aaeeaathuay
e?ecen.

sseoaeca iiaeii ioee/eoue io i?i/eo yiiioeaa ii iiiai/eneaiiui
oaooe?iaeai, iaaeinoathuei iaeueoeai ia ?oeao e naiaia?aciie iaia?a
iaeaaaoueny. Auaoei yeoaeca i/aiue o?oaeii aaeaioe?iaaoueny a
caeiiiiineooiia yiiineia iauanoai. Ethaeyi n oaooe?iaeaie cai?auai aoiae
ai iiiaea aaie, eeoau e ?anoi?aiu.

Iai?aaieciaaiiay i?anooiiinoue /anoi ninoieo ec iieiaeaaeiuo oaae, ia/ii
iie caieiathony a?aaaaeaie e e?aaeaie.

Oaeenoaa a ssiiiee n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeee, ii auaatho aanueia aeanoiee,
iineieueeo iau/ii niaa?oathony aac i?eiaiaiey iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey.
Naiia ?ani?ino?aiaiiia i?oaeea oaeenoaa – iiae.

Iieeoeey a ssiiiee i?aaeii/eoaao oeaaeeaaoue iaeeea eiioeeeou, ia
aeiaiaey aeaei aei noaea. I?e a?anoa iieeoeaeneea iau/ii iieaaathony ia
noieueei ia i?oaeea (eioi?ia, oai ia iaiaa, iinyo), neieueei ia
aeaaeaiea aiaauie eneonnoaaie. O/anoeiaua einiaeoi?u noa?athony ciaoue
anao, eoi aeeaao ia eo o/anoea, ?aaoey?ii oiaeyo ii aeiiai e auyniytho,
iao ee eaeeo i?iaeai n ninaaeyie. Ae?oaeaa n o/anoeiaui einiaeoi?ii –
ii?iaeueiay i?aeoeea a nia?aiaiiie ssiiiee (iniaaiii a naeueneie
ianoiinoe e a i?eai?iaeao).

3. Eoeueoo?a

3.1 ?aeeaey

Iniiaiua ?aeeaee a ssiiiee – neioieci e aoaeaeeci; o?enoeainoai i?eoei a
no?aio a na?aaeeia 16 a., ii /enei aai i?eaa?aeaioeaa ninoaaeytho iaiaa
1% ianaeaiey. Neioieci, nianoaaiii yiiineay ?aeeaey, e aoaeaeeci,
caeinoaiaaiiue a Eeoaa, iiaoo ninouanoaiaaoue, iineieueeo cao?aaeaatho
?aciua noi?iiu aeecie /aeiaaea: neioieci «ioaa/aao» ca iuiaoithth
aeeciue, a aoaeaeeci – ca iioonoi?iiithth. A?aeini/aoaiey niaa?oatho a
iniiaiii neioienoneea nayuaiieee; oea?aiiiey ii neo/ath iioi?ii
niaa?oaaony a aoaeaeeeneii o?aia. Iaeaioia Iiaiai aiaea yiiioeu
o?aaeeoeeiiii iinauatho nayoua ianoa. 31 aeaeaa?y iinea 11 /ania aa/a?a
e iei ono?aieythony ouny/e ethaeae, /oiau aiae a i?aaenoiyuai aiaeo ia
caauee eo e iiaea?eee caei?iauea e aeinoaoie.

3.2 Iau/ae e i?acaeieee

Iiaue aiae – aeaaiue ec anao ioia/aaiuo i?acaeieeia. Ii ia?a aai
i?eaeeaeaiey ethaee niae?athony ia aa/a?eiee, iinayuaiiua «iiieiiaaieth»
i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea (aiiyieae). ?iaeaeanoai nii?iaiaeaeaaony iieoieie
?iaeaeanoaaineiai oi?oa e ea?ooae aeaoyi. 29 aeaeaa?y aieueoeinoai
i?aaei?eyoee cae?uaaaony e aiciaiiaeyao naith ?aaioo 4 yiaa?y. 31
aeaeaa?y o?aaeeoeeiiii n/eoaaony aeiai i/euaiey (ioa?ay), e ethaee a
aieueoeinoaa aeiiia nuaaeatho oa?aeeo aeeeiiie eaioe, eioi?ay
annioeee?oaony n aeieaieaoeai. A iieii/ue aieueoea eieieiea a o?aiao
auetho 108 oaea?ia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo io?aaeaao oo eee eioth
aeooaaioth aieue, ia?aaeeaaaioth ethaeueie. A ia?aue aeaiue aiaea ethaee
caiieiytho o?aiu, aaea a?inatho iiiaou e aaieiiou a aieueoea ei?ceiu
aeey iiaeayiee, iieo/ay acaiai aeaaineiaaiea aoaeaeeeneeo eee
neioienoneeo nayuaiieeia. Caaa?oaiea aiaea – iiaiae aeey iaiaia
iiaea?eaie (inyeai).

Neaaeothuee i?acaeiee – 15 yiaa?y, Aeaiue c?aeinoe, eiaaea iieiaeua
ethaee, aeinoeaoea 20-eaoiaai aic?anoa e iaeaoua, eae i?aaeei, a eeiiii,
iinauatho iauanoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey, ono?aeaaaiua a eo /anoue. Nyoeoaoi,
oioy e ia yaeyaony oi?iaeueii i?acaeieeii, ioia/aaony a aieueoeinoaa
naiae 3 eee 4 oaa?aey; /oiau ecaiaoue ceuo aeooia ?aca?anuaatho aea?aiua
aiau. 11 oaa?aey – Aeaiue iniiaaiey ainoaea?noaa. 29 ai?aey, aeaiue
?iaeaeaiey iieieiiai eiia?aoi?a Oe?ioeoi, ia?aeiaiiaai a Aeaiue caeaie e
iinayuai aanaiiaio aic?iaeaeaieth i?e?iaeu. 3 iay – Aeaiue eiinoeoooeee
e 5 iay – Aeaiue aeaoae. Ia n/eoathueeny ioeoeeaeueiui i?acaeieeii
oanoeaaeue Aii i?iaiaeeony a oa/aiea o?ao aeiae a ethea eee, a iaeioi?uo
?aeiiao, a aaaonoa. N/eoaaony, /oi aeooe oia?oeo aica?auathony a aeiia,
aaea iie iaeoaee i?e aeecie. Yoi iiyoue aea neo/ae iaiaiyoueny
iiaea?eaie (iothayi). 15 naioya?y – Aeaiue ii/eoaiey i?anoa?aeuo. 23
naioya?y – Aeaiue inaie – i?eo?i/ai ei aeith inaiiaai ?aaiiaeainoaey e
yaeyaony aeiai ii/eoaiey i?aaeeia. 10 ieoya?y ioia/aaony Aeaiue nii?oa e
3 iiya?y – Aeaiue eoeueoo?u. 23 iiya?y – Aeaiue aeaaiaea?aiey o?oaeo,
eiaaea au?aaeaaony i?eciaoaeueiinoue ca ana ei niaeayiiia; yoio aeaiue,
?aiaa ecaanoiue eae oanoeaaeue ia?auo ieiaeia, ioia/aaony i?iaiaeeiie
naiei eiia?aoi?ii oea?aiiieae, a ?aieao eioi?ie o?iaeae ?ena
i?aaeeaaaaony neioienoneei aiaeanoaai. Iaoeeiiaeueiui i?acaeieeii
yaeyaony oaeaea Aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey eiia?aoi?a Aeeoeoi – 23 aeaeaa?y.

3.3 Nii?o

ssiiioeu – no?anoiua ethaeoaee nii?oa. Noa?aeoei iaoeeiiaeueiui aeaeii
nii?oa i?eciaia ai?ueaa noii, oiiieiaiea i eioi?ie eiaaony a o?iieea 7
a. Ieoii N?ee. Aaeaaiaeii a no?aia i?iaiaeyony oanoue ni?aaiiaaiee ii
noii, a eioi?uo a ?aieao aunoae eeae (iaeo-ii ooe) i?eia?ii 50
nii?oniaiia ai?thony ca Eoaie Eiia?aoi?a. Ai?aoe, iieacaaoee eo/oea
?acoeueoaou a 15 ano?a/ao, noaiiaeony iiaaaeeoaeai. Ae?oaea
iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaeu nii?oa – eyiaei (aeae oaooiaaiey n eniieueciaaieai
aaiaoeiauo ia/ae), aecthaei, ea?aoy. N Caiaaea ia?aui i?eoae a ssiiieth
aaenaie, e n 1950 nouanoaotho aeaa i?ioanneiiaeueiua aaenaieueiua eeae,
Oeoiieaaineay e Oeaio?aeueiay, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aeeth/aao ii oanoue
eiiaiae. A 1996 ninoycaiey ii aaenaieo iinaoeee i?eia?ii 20 iei.
/aeiaae. Eaaeaeoth aanio e eaoi i?iaiaeyony iaoeeiiaeueiua aaenaieueiua
oo?ie?u n?aaee eiiaiae aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. Eaoiea ni?aaiiaaiey
auee i?aaieciaaiu aia?aua a 1915 e aanaiiea – a 1924. I?ioanneiiaeueiui
aeaeii nii?oa noae a ssiiiee oaeaea e aia?eeaineee oooaie. A nii?oeaiii
eaeaiaea?a i?aaeoniio?aiu aaeaaiaeiua ninoycaiey ii oooaieo, ?aaae,
oieeath ia o?aaa e eueaeo, aieaeaieo, aaneaoaieo e aaiaeaieo. Eiiaiaeu
oeiaine?othony eeai oieaa?neoaoaie, eeai oe?iaie, eioi?ua aiinyo aaniiue
aeeaae a iiaeaioiaeo nii?oniaiia-ieeiieeoeaa. A 1946 aue o/?aaeaeai
Iaoeeiiaeueiue nii?oeaiue oanoeaaeue. I?aaenoaaeoaee eaaeaeie i?aoaeoo?u
ano?a/athony ia ni?aaiiaaieyo eaoii (ieaaaiea, yoou), inaiueth (27
aeaeia nii?oa, aeeth/ay eaaeoth aoeaoeeo, aaenaie, ?aaae e aeiianoeeo) e
ceiie (eiiueee, euaee). Eoaie Eiia?aoi?a aeinoaaony i?aoaeoo?a, ioae/eiu
eioi?ie iaa?aee iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai i/eia, aiaeiae/iui ia?acii
aeaiueiai a?o/aaony Eoaie Eiia?ao?eoeu. Ni?aaiiaaiey i?iaiaeyony
eaaeaeue aiae ii i/a?aaee a eaeie-eeai ec 47 yiiineeo i?aoaeoo?. Iaeiei
ec niiini?ia yoeo ninoycaiee aunooiaao ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey.

Caeeth/aiea

ssiiiey a neeo naiaai ?aniieiaeaiey e caaanu io/oaeaeaiiinoe, niyoie ia
oae aeaaii, iaeaaeaao aanueia naiaia?aciie eoeueoo?ie e o?aaeeoeeyie.
Ianaeaiea ssiiiee eneeth/eoaeueii iaeii?iaeii a ?aniaii, yoie/aneii,
ycueiaii e ?aeeaeiciii ioiioaieyo. Oioy ssiiiey ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay
no?aia, a yiiineii ycuea auaeaeytho o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu aeeaeaeoia –
naaa?i-ainoi/iay, thai-caiaaeiay e oeaio?aeueiay – e iiiaeanoai aiai?ia.

ssiiineia iauanoai ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue /aoei
au?aaeaiiui ?anneiaieai ia eeannu. A nia?aiaiiie ssiiiee aieueoeinoai
yiiioeaa aini?eieiatho naay eae n?aaeiee eeann.

A ssiiiee i/aiue oi?ioi ?acaeoa nenoaia nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey;
nenoaia ia/aeueiiai e aunoaai ia?aciaaiey eiaao ?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae. Ii caeiio eaaeaeue ?aaaiie iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai iieo/eoue
oanoeeaoiaa ia?aciaaiea a ia/aeueiie oeiea e o?aoeaoiaa – a n?aaeiae
oeiea ia?aie nooiaie. Ii ieii/aiee iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie n?aaeiae oeieu
iieiaeua ethaee no?aiyony i?iaeieaeeoue ia?aciaaiea a eieeaaeaeao e
oieaa?neoaoao aeey iieo/aiey i?ioannee, ii naeaeaoue yoi iiaeii oieueei
auaea?aeaa no?iaee eiieo?n.

Iieiaeaiea aeaiueiu a nioeeoia e ioiioaiea e a?aeai nouanoaaiii
iiiaiyeinue ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey e oyaioaao e caiaaeiui
noaiaea?oai, ii aianoa n oai nio?aiyao iaoeeiiaeueiue eiei?eo.

A eoeueoo?iie aeecie iauanoaa aieueoia ianoi caieiaao ?aeeaey. Iniiaiua
?aeeaee a ssiiiee – neioieci e aoaeaeeci; o?enoeainoai aea ia iaoei
aieueoiai /enea i?eaa?aeaioeaa (iaiaa 1% ianaeaiey). Aieueoeinoai
i?acaeieeia oaeaea iineo y?ei au?aaeaiiue ?aeeaeiciue oa?aeoa?.

Nii?o oaeaea ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue a eoeueoo?iie aeecie ssiiiee. Iiieii
o?aaeeoeeiiii ethaeiuo aeaeia nii?oa: noii, eyiaei, aecthaei, ea?aoa,
aieueooth iiioey?iinoue i?eia?aee caiaaeiua aeaeu nii?oa, oaeea eae
aaenaie, oooaie, ?aaae, oieeae ia o?aaa e eueaeo, aieaeaie, aaneaoaie e
aaiaeaie.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeaenaaa E.N. Eneonnoai aeeieiiaoee: ia iiaaaeeoue, a oaaaeeoue. –
I.: Aeaoeia e E, 2006. – 284 n.

2. Aicianaineee A.TH. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci. O/aaiia iiniaea. – I.:
THIEOE-AeAIA, 2007. – 255 n.

3. Ea?iia E.A. Eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. O/aaiue ieieioi
aeey naea/e yecaiaia e ca/?oa. – I.: TH?eni?oaeaioeey, 2006. – 32 n.

4. Eocue A.I., sseiaaoe TH.A., Iaeeiaeia A.Ae. Aoaeouaa oeeaeeecaoeee e
aaioeeaeeecaoeeiiiua eciaiaiey. Oii II. – I.: EIYN, 2006. – 648 n.

5. Iaeueieeiaa A.A. Eoeueoo?a e o?aaeeoeee ia?iaeia ie?a.
Yoiiineoieiae/aneee aniaeo. – I.: Aeeaeia eoeueoo?, 2006. – 304 n.

6. Iaua?eia A.A. Ynoaoe/aneea o/aiey Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea: Eeoae. Eiaeey.
ssiiiey. Aoaeaeeci e eneonnoai XX aaea. O/aa. Iiniaea aeey aocia. – I.:
IAOI, 2005. – 185 n.

7. I?oaeieeia A.N., Ea?eia E.A., Iaenthoei I.A., Iao?the I.TH, Aeeiiaa
N.A. Ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea (oi?aaeaiea) a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao. O/aa.
iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia aocia, iao/athueony ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
«TH?eni?oaeaioeey». – I.: THIEOE-AeAIA, 2007. – 271 n.

8. Oaeaoae Y., Aiaeieacia A.A. Iieeoieiaey. O/aaiee aeey nooaeaioia
aocia. – I.: THIEOE-AeAIA, 2005. – 544 n.

9. Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aaia?aoey ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. I?aeoeeoi.
– Eino?iia: EAO, 2006. – 45 n.

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