.

Ямайка – страна туризма

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 597
Скачать документ

ssiaeea, ainoaea?noai a Aano-Eiaeee, ia iaeiieiaiiii ino?iaa a Ea?eaneii
ii?a. Aoiaeeo a ninoaa a?eoaineiai Niae?oaeanoaa. I?ioyaeaiiinoue n
caiaaea ia ainoie ie. 225 ei., n naaa?a ia tha – io 35 aei 82 ei.,
i?ioyaeaiiinoue aa?aaiaie eeiee 1022 ei. Iauay ieiuaaeue – 10 991 ea.
ei.

ssiaeea. Noieeoea – Eeianoii. Ianaeaiea – 2713 oun. /aeiaae (2004).
Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey – 243 /aeiaaea ia 1 ea. ei. Niioiioaiea ai?iaeneiai
e naeueneiai ianaeaiey – 58% e 42%. Ieiuaaeue: 10 991 ea. ei. Naiay
aunieay oi/ea – ai?a Aeo-Iaoioei (2256 i iaae o.i.). Ainoaea?noaaiiue
ycue: aiaeeeneee. Iniiaiay ?aeeaey: i?ioanoaioeci.
Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea: 3 a?aonoaa e 14 i?eoiaeia.
Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea: yiaeeneee aeieea? = 100 oeaioai. Iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?acaeiee: Aeaiue iacaaeneiinoe – ia?aue iiiaaeaeueiee aaaonoa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeii: «Anaauoiee aeaaineiaeyao iaoo caieth».

I?e?iaea

I?eia?ii aeaa o?aoe i. ssiaeea caieiaao ecaanoiyeiaia ieaoi aunioie
aieaa 900 i iaae o.i. A aai caiaaeiie /anoe iaoiaeeony ciaiaieoay
ea?noiaay eioeiaeia Eieieo-Eaio?e ieiuaaeueth ie. 1300 ea. ei,
i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie eiiieaen oieiia aunioie 120–150 i, ?acaeaeaiiuo
oceeie aeieeiaie. Aeey yoiai ?aeiia oa?aeoa?iu ea?noiaua ai?iiee e
iiaecaiiua aiaeioiee. Ianoaie iaaieueoea ?aee i?i?acatho a ecaanoiyeao
aeeaiieniua ouaeuey. Ia ainoiea ieaoi iiaeieiathony aeaa ai?iuo o?aaoa:
A?aiae-?eaeae e Aeo-Iaoioein (Aieoaua ai?u). A ai?ao Aeo-Iaoioein
iaoiaeeony auni/aeoay aa?oeia no?aiu (2256 i). Aaeieue naaa?iiai
iiaa?aaeuey oyiaony oceay ?aaieia n ieyaeaie, neiaeaiiuie iaeeica?ienoui
aaeui ianeii e caueuaiiuie io aiei ei?aeeiauie ?eoaie; yoe ianoa
iniaaiii i?eaeaeaoaeueiu aeey oo?enoia. E thaeiiio e caiaaeiiio
iiaa?aaeueyi i?eo?i/aiu aeethaeaeueiua ieciaiiinoe. THaeiue aa?aa
aeiaieueii ec?acaiiue. Ia ssiaeea ian/eouaaaony aieaa 100 ?ae e ?o/ueaa,
ii noaeioiaeia a ieciaueyo oieueei ?. Aeye-?eaa?. Aa?aee e iaaieueoea
noaea iiaoo iiaeieiaoueny ii iae ia ?annoiyiea 48 ei.

Eeeiao ssiaeee o?iie/aneee iannaoiue. Iaeiaei a i?aaeaeao ino?iaa
iaaethaeathony iaaieueoea ?acee/ey, iaoneiaeaiiua iniaaiiinoyie
?aeueaoa. Oaiia?aoo?u caaenyo io aaniethoiie auniou ianoiinoe e aa
iieiaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e ainiiaenoaothuei naaa?i-ainoi/iui iannaoai. A
?aeiia Eeianoiia n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a ethey 27? N, a oaa?aey – 24? N,
oiaaea eae a ianoa/ea Ai?aeii-Oeee a ai?ao Aeo-Iaoioein – 4? e 7? N
niioaaonoaaiii. N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay ii?ia inaaeeia 1900 ii, ii ia
ioiineoaeueii nooii thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea auiaaeaao anaai 635 ii, a a
ai?ao Aeaeii-E?io ia naaa?i-ainoiea ino?iaa – aei 7600 ii. *aoei
au?aaeai nacii aeiaeaeae, aeeyueeny n iay ii ieoya?ue.

?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?. Eana ia ssiaeea caieiatho i?eia?ii 194
oun. aa, o.a. 1/5 iauae ieiuaaee ino?iaa. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ei?aiiuo
eaniuo niiauanoa oie/oiaeaia, iaeiaei a o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo ianoao aua
nio?aieeenue aeaanoaaiiua ae?aainoie ec naeaoaiee e?oiiieenoiie, a?eee
(yaaiiaiai aea?aaa) e aeaeueaa?aee. Ia ssiaeea ano?a/athony iaoe?iua
ca?inee aaiaoea e eaiiaoaaiai aea?aaa, a ianoaie eiathony iinaaeee
ea?eaneie niniu e yaeaeeioa. Ia caiaaea e thai-caiaaea, a ?aeiiao, ia
caiyouo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie ieaioaoeeyie, ?ani?ino?aiaia
?anoeoaeueiinoue naaaiiiaiai oeia ec ceaeia n ioaeaeueii noiyueie
aea?aaueyie. Iaeaieaa iau/ii aeey ssiaeee oeiieiaia aea?aai (oeaeaa),
aeinoeaathuaa a aunioo 30 i. Anaai ia ino?iaa ?anoao aieaa 3000 aeaeia
oeaaoeiauo ?anoaiee, a oii /enea 200 aeaeia i?oeaeae. Ia thaeiii
iiaa?aaeuea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu iaia?iaua ca?inee.

Ianoiay oaoia a oiaea inaiaiey ino?iaa /aeiaaeii neeueii iino?aaeaea,
oioy caeanue aua nio?aieeenue eaiaioeiu e e?ieiaeeeu, ianeieueei aeaeia
ciae, yua?eoeu eaoaiu, a oaeaea aieaa 20 aeaeia eaoo/eo iuoae. Iaeiaei
aieueoeinoai oa?aeoa?iuo aeeaioiuo caaacaii ia ssiaeeo ec ae?oaeo no?ai,
a oii /enea iaiaonou e iaeiu ec Eiaeee. Neaaeony ssiaeea aiaaoie oaoiie
ioeoe, ian/eouaathuae 256 aeaeia, i?e/ai 25 aeaeia e 21 iiaeaeae
iaeoatho oieueei ia yoii ino?iaa.

Ianaeaiea

Ianaeaiea ssiaeee, ii ioeaiea ia etheue 2004, ninoaaeei 2 iei. 713 oun.
130 /aeiaae; ieioiinoue ianaeaiey aeinoeaea 243 /aeiaaea ia 1 ea. ei.
N?aaeiee aic?ano aeeoaeae ssiaeee 26,8 eao: 28,2% iieiaea 14 eao, 65% a
aic?anoa io 14 aei 64 eao e 6,9% noa?oa 65 eao. Oaiiu i?e?inoa ianaeaiey
ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo aeanyoeeaoee inoaaaeenue n?aaieoaeueii
aunieeie, ii ?iaeaeaaiinoue iinoaiaiii nieceeanue e ninoaaeea a 2004 a
?an/aoa ia 1000 /aeiaae 16,94. O?iaaiue nia?oiinoe 5,4 ia 1000 /aeiaae,
ieaaeai/aneay nia?oiinoue 12,81 ia 1000 iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. N 1950-o
iaaethaeaaony iinoiyiiay yiea?aoeey (4,92 ia 1000 /aeiaae a 2004). A
oeaeii, ?aaeueiue i?e?ino ianaeaiey ssiaeee a 2004 ioeaieaaeny a 0,66%.
N?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ninoaaeea 74,04 aiaea aeey ioae/ei
e 78,21 aiaea aeey aeaiuei.

Na. 55% ianaeaiey ssiaeee i?iaeeaaao a ai?iaeao. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua
ianaeaiiua ioieou ?aniieiaeaiu ia iiaa?aaeuea no?aiu: ia thaa – Eeianoii
(noieeoea, aeaaiue ii?o e oi?aiaue oeaio? n ianaeaieai na. 800 oun.
/aeiaae, aeeth/ay i?eai?iaeu), Niaieo-Oaoi (aei 1872 – noieeoea ssiaeee,
na. 111 oun. aeeoaeae), Ii?oii? (ie. 100 oun. aeeoaeae), Iae-Iai (ie. 46
oun. aeeoaeae), Iaiaeaaeee (oeaio? aeiau/e aieneoia), ia naaa?a –
Iiioaai-Aae (na. 82 oun. aeeoaeae).

Aieueoeinoai aeeoaeae eiaao ao?eeaineia i?ienoiaeaeaiea (na. 76%); ie.
15% – niaoaiiia ao?i-aa?iiaeneia; 1,3% – iioiiee auoiaeoeaa ec Eiaeee;
0,2% – eeoaeoeu; 0,2%-aa?iiaeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey (aiaeeeneiai,
e?eaiaeneiai e ae?.). Ioeoeeaeueiue ycue – aiaeeeneee, ii ?ani?ino?aiai
e ianoiue aiaei-e?aieueneee ycue iaooa. A ?aeeaeiciii ioiioaiee na. 61%
aa?othueo i?eiaaeeaaeao e ?acee/iui i?ioanoaioneei eiioanneyi («Oea?eae
Aiaa», aaioenoai, aiaeeeaiai, aaeaaioenoai naaeueiiai aeiy,
iyoeaeanyoieeai, iaoiaeenoai, naeaeaoaeyi Eaaiau e ae?.), 4%-eaoieeee,
35% eniiaaaeotho eiua ?aeeaeiciua eoeueou (neie?aoe/aneea, ?anoaoa?e, a
oaeaea iaiueoeinoaa aaoaeoia, ionoeueiai, eoaeaenoia e ae?.).

Aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe

Ec i?e?iaeiuo aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae naiua ecaanoiua – yoi ieyaee
Iiioaai-Aae e ii?neea naaeu n ono?e/iuie aaieaie.

Ec eoeueoo?iuo aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae ?aeiiaiaeoaony iinaoeoue a
Niaieo-Oaoi iaii?eae ?iaeie, Ei?ieaaneee aeii (auaoay aoaa?iaoi?neay
?aceaeaioeey) e niai? Na. Aeaoa?eiu (XVII a.).

ssiaeea e ?aaae – iiiyoey ia?acaeaeeiua. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?ie ssiaeee –
Aia Ia?ee. Aia Ia?ee aeea e ii aeeaao ia ssiaeea. Aai aeaoe
i?iaeieaeatho eniieiyoue ?aaae, a i?aaei?eei/eaay aeaia eniieuecoao aai
eiy eae oi?aiaoth ia?eo. Anoanoaaiii, ia ino?iaa anoue e Iocae ei?iey
?aaae Aiaa Ia?eay. Noaiu ieeaaiu aacaoaie n ?aii?oaaeaie i o?eoioaeueiuo
aano?ieyo, oioia?aoeyie Aiaa ia oooaieueiii iiea, a iaieieo n Ieeii
Aeaeaaa?ii e oaaoaiu cieiouie e ieaoeiiauie aeeneaie. Auaieia io ioee ia
oaiaie eooia n nieiauaeeiaeeie – iieooaiea ia Aiaa, aai e?iaaoue, aai
?oaaoa e aeoa?a – e ie/aai aieaa.

Iocae Aiaa Ia?eay n/eoaaony iaeiie ec iinauaaiuo oo?enoaie
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae. Ia ssiaeea e?oaeue aiae i?iaiaeyony
iocueaeueiua, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua, eoeueoo?iua e nii?oeaiua ia?ii?eyoey.
Oanoeaaee ?yaae Nainieyo e ?yaae Naioano – naiua e?oiiua ia ssiaeea e
i?iaiaeyony a ia?a?uaii a iaaeaeth a ethea / aaaonoa. Anee ioi?aaeoueny
e aiaeiiaaeai ?aee Aeaii, iiaeii oaeaeaoue ciaiaieooth Aeieeio
Iaii?ioieeia e iiciaeiieoueny n 200 eo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie. A eieeaeoeeth
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaea?ae aoiaeyo ?aaiou ooaeiaeieeia ssiaeee n 1920-o aa.
aei nia?aiaiiinoe, aeeth/ay aieueooth yeniiceoeeth neoeueioo? Yaeiu
Iaiee.

No?aia ia Caaeai?eao – yoi ionouiiia ieaoi a oeaio?a caiaaeiie /anoe
ssiaeee. Ianoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaa?iiiaeaeaiea ouny/ oieiia
eiie/aneie oi?iu, ?acaeaeaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie e?oouie ia?aaaie. Ia
iaaeeoay /aeiaaeii /anoue nooe eeoeo aeeeeie aeeaioiuie – ?ae aeey
i?ieoieiaia, ethaeoaeae i?e?iaeu e niaeaieiaia (ianoiinoue ooueaia
iaua?aie, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo ia eco/aii). O?iiu i?ioiaeyo ii e?ooui
neeiiai, ecaanoiui oieueei auaoei ?aaai, oae /oi aeaeaaoueny caeanue
iiaeii oieueei n iiiiuueth ia/aoa.

E?ieiaeeeiaue I?oae, iaoiaeyueeny iaaeaeo ioaaniuie ooanaie ia
thai-caiaaeiii iiaa?aaeuea ssiaeee, aeinoaoi/ii oaeaeai io ianaeaiiuo
/anoae no?aiu. Naeaiea i?eiinoeeinue ia aa?aao aieoaiai caeeaa, caaeieie
aeai?aie oie?athuaany a aethiu, a aai aeaaiay oeeoea i?eii?ioaia
iaianaiiui aao?ii ianeii. Ian/aiua Ioiaee ?aniieiaeaiu ieiei 20 ieeue io
iiaa?aaeuey, ioaiaauaay o ieaaia ianeieueei oooia nooe. Ianoi yoi
i?ae?anii aeey iiaeaiaeiiai ieaaaiey, iu?yiey e eoiaiey aieuoii.

Ieyaeai Nie?iaeu iacuaatho /aou?a aoooi/ee, i?ioyaeaiiinoueth a
ianeieueei ieeue e thao io Noa?a Aao Aye ia thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea ssiaeee.
Io?iae ai? ioaeaeytho ?iiaioe/anee oaaeeiaiiua ian/aiua, oeaaoa ei?aeeia
ieyaee. Aiaeiua nii?oniaiu ia auaatho caeanue, oioy aiei aeinoaoi/ii
aeey caiyoee na?oeiaii. Iiaeii aeaaea oaeaeaoue ii?neeo /a?aiao,
auoiaeyueo ia aa?aa aeey oiai, /oiau ioeiaeeoue yeoea. Caeanue oaeaea
auaatho iaoea oo?enou, eioi?ua eaeoo noa?uie ?uaaoeeeie o?iiaie.

Eooiy

Io i?inoie e ino?ie aei naiie ecuneaiiie! Iieiay yecioeee, eooiy ssiaeee
niiniaia niaianoeoue a iaeiii aethaea ino?ioo, neaaeinoue, i?yiinoue e
oiieinoue a?iiaoa

Aeey eiina?aaoi?ia anoue i?ae?aniua ?anoi?aiu aa?iiaeneie eooie.
Iii?iaoeoa ianoiua yecioe/aneea o?oeou: i?aiee (aea?eae aiaeueneia e
iaiaea?eia), oaee (aea?eae a?aeio?ooa e iaiaea?eia) e ieiaeu oeaaiiai
aea?aaa.

N/eoaaony, /oi aeiii?iuaiiay eooiy ssiaeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie y?eee
eiiaeiia?ao o?aaeeoeee i?eaioiaeaiey ieue eiaeaeoeaa A?aaaeia,
eniaioeaa, ao?eeaioeaa, eiaeeeoeaa, aeeoaeae N?aaeiaai Ainoiea, Eeoay e
A?eoaineeo ino?iaia. Oeie/iue caao?ae ia ssiaeea – «aeee» – ?anoouee ia
aea?aaa o?oeo, eioi?ue aac anyeeo i?ee?an iaiiieiaao aeon ye/ieoeu a
i?eaioiaeaiiii aeaea. Aeiai eaaei ia?aeonuaatho oi?ioi i?ei?aaeaiiui
iyniui eee iaiuiui ie?iaii. Ai a?aiy iniiaiiai i?eaia ieue iiaeatho
eiceyoeio eee naeieio, iau/ii n i?ei?aaie ey??e e aa?ie?ii ec ?ena e
oaniee.

Oaeaea iiioey?iu ii?neea i?iaeoeou, ia?eiiaaiiua e iaaea?aiiua n ia?oeai
e eoeii. Naiia ?ani?ino?aiaiiia aethaei ia ssiaeea yoi «aeaea?e» –
niaoeeoe/aneee yiaeneee aa?aaeth, aeaaiui-aeaaii ecia?aoaiiue aaaeuie
?aaaie. *aai ia ssiaeea iacuaatho ethaie ai?y/ee, caaa?aiiue iaieoie, e
ii iiaeao auoue ec o?aa n ?iiii, iieieii, i?ei?aaaie e aeaaea ?uaie.
Iianaeoanue ianoiaa ia?eooaiu, aucuaathueo aaeethoeeiaoeee, /oi iiaeao
iiaeaoue aianoi oiai, niinianoaothuaai ieuaaa?aieth iaieoea, /oi au
iii?ineee aeey naay.

Neaeaeaeon – yoi ethaeiue inaaaeathuee iaieoie. Ii i?eaioaaeeaaaony ec
eaaeyiie e?ioee e ne?iia. Oaeaea iuetho eieiniaue nie i?yii ec i?aoa.
Naiuie iiioey?iuie aeeiaieueiuie iaieoeaie yaeythony ieai e ?ii.
ssiaeneee eioa «Aeth Iaoioei» n/eoaaony naiui a?iiaoiui eioa a ie?a, ii
ec-ca iaeaiuo i?aaee ?ac?aoeoaeueiie e eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiie iieeoeee ia
ana i?iaeaaaaiia, /oi iacuaaaony iiaeeeiiui, yaeyaony oaeiaui.

Yeiiiieea

Iniiao yeiiiieee ssiaeee ninoaaeyao noa?a oneoa, aeathuay a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aieueooth /anoue AAI. Iaeaieueoea aeioiaeu no?aia i?eiinyo oo?eci,
aeaiaaeiua ia?aaiaeu ec-ca ?oaaaea e aieneoiai-aethieieaaay io?aneue.
Aeiaaeueiia caiaaeeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iinea 2001 iiaeaenoaiaaei e
ia ssiaeeo, ii a 2003 iieiaeaiea ianeieueei oeo/oeeinue, ino?ia iinaoeei
?aei?aeiia /enei oo?enoia. Iaeiaei oicyenoai ssiaeee no?aaeaao io ?yaea
aeieain?i/iuo i?iaeai: aunieeo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, aieueoiai oi?aiaiai
aeaoeoeeoa, aunieiai o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu (16% a 2003) e ?anoouaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa, eioi?ue ii/oe a 1,5 ?aca i?aauoaao AAI.
Aunieoth eioeyoeeth oaeaeinue nie?aoeoue a 2003 aei 10%.

A 2003 AAI ssiaeee ninoaaee, ii ioeaiea, 10,61 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA, o.a.
3900 aeiee. ia aeooo ianaeaiey. ?ino AAI a 2003 ninoaaee 1,9%. A
no?oeoo?a AAI oneoae ninoaaeytho 56%, i?iiuoeaiiinoue – 37%, naeueneia
oicyenoai – 2%. Ie. 20% naiae aeeaoo ieaea ioeoeeaeueiiai o?iaiy
aaaeiinoe.

ssiaeea aeaeeony ia oanoue yeiiiie/aneeo cii. A ai?iii caiaaeiii ?aeiia
au?aueaatho eiiiieth eiaeeeneoth, ec eioi?ie ecaioaaeeaatho ia?eooaio, a
a i?aaeai?ueyo Aeo-Iaoioein – eo/oea ni?oa eioa. A oeaio?aeueiuo e
caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao ecaanoiyeiaiai ieaoi ?acaeoi aeeaioiiaiaenoai, a
oaeaea au?aueaatho o?oeou e iaiue. Caeanue aea iaoiaeyony iniiaiua
ianoi?iaeaeaiey aieneoia. Naaa?iia iiaa?aaeuea ssiaeee n i?ae?aniuie
ieyaeaie neoaeeo ciiie ioaeuoa e oo?ecia. Ia thaeiuo i?ea?aaeiuo
?aaieiao nin?aaeioi/aiu e?oiiua ieaioaoeee aaiaiia e naoa?iiai
o?inoieea, iaoiaeyony caaiaeu ii i?iecaiaenoao naoa?a-nu?oea. Aioo?aiiea
?aeiiu ecaanoiyeiaiai ieaoi a oa/aiea iieoaaea ia?aaeeaaee niaae. ?aeii
aue neeueii ia?aianaeai, a ii/au aai iino?aaeaee io y?icee. Iaaeaaii
i?eiyoua i?ia?aiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aeiia oaai/aeenue oniaoiui
aic?iaeaeaieai naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iaaieueoie ?aeii Eeaoaiey ia
thai-ainoiea ino?iaa caieiaao eeaee?othuaa ianoi ii /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey e ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee. Caeanue ?aniieiaeaiu ai?iaea Eeianoii e
Niaieo-Oaoi, a eioi?uo nin?aaeioi/aiu 80% i?iiuoeaiiinoe e 25% ianaeaiey
no?aiu.

Naeueneia oicyenoai. A naeueneii oicyenoaa caiyoi na. /aoaa?oe
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu (aeeth/ay naciiiuo ?aai/eo ia
naoa?iuo ieaioaoeeyo). Ia ssiaeea au?aueaatho naoa?iue o?inoiee, aaiaiu,
eioa, oeeo?oniaua, yin, iaiue. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue ia oaaoaao,
ii cia/eoaeueiay eo /anoue ia eniieuecoaony. Aeey ino?iaa oa?aeoa?ii
ni/aoaiea e?oiiuo ieaioaoeee e eaoeooiaeee, eiio?iee?othueo aieueooth
/anoue oaiaeee, n iaeeeie e?anoueyineeie oicyenoaaie. Ia?aua i?iecaiaeyo
ia yenii?o aaiaiu, naoa?iue o?inoiee e oeeo?oniaua, aoi?ua /anoe/ii
iinoaaeytho yenii?oioth i?iaeoeoeeth (eiae?ue, aaiaiu, eiiaaea naoa?),
ii /aua i?iecaiaeyo ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie o?oeou e iaiue, aeeth/ay
ea?oioaeue, ieiaeu oeaaiiai aea?aaa e iaieie. Iinea 1972 i?aaeoaeuenoai
noaei aueoiaoue ieaioaoeee naoa?iiai o?inoieea, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea
eiino?aioeai, e nicaeaaaoue ia yoeo caieyo naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
eiiia?aoeau. AEeaioiiaiaenoai ?acaeoi neaai. AEeoaee i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiia
eiayo ?uao e iieethneia.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue. A yoie noa?a caiyoi ie. 19% o?oaeyueony. ssiaeea
iaeaaeaao caianaie aieneoia, aeina e eaiiy. Ai?iiaeiauaathuay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony n 1950-o; a 1970-o aieneou e
i?iecaiaeeiue ec ieo aethieiee aeaaaee na. iieiaeiu aeioiaeia io
yenii?oa, ii a 1980-o iinoaaee yiaeneeo aieneoia ia ie?iaie o?iaaiue
nouanoaaiii nie?aoeeenue. Io?aneue iaoiaeeony iaaieueoei /eneii ?aai/eo
?oe (iaiaa 7 oun. /aeiaae).

Aeaaiui i?aiyonoaeai a ?anoe?aiee aeiau/e aieneoia yaeyaony iaaeinoaoie
aeaoaaie yia?aee. Ii/oe any yia?aaoeea no?aiu aace?oaony ia eiii?oiie
iaooe.

?acaeoa eaaeay eiaeono?ey, a oii /enea i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey,
naoa?a, oeaiae, aoiaae e neaa?ao. Eiaaony ?yae e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo eiino?aiiui eiiiaieyi e ?aaioathueo ia eiii?oiii nu?uea.
Iie auioneatho oeie/aneea i?iaeoeou, iaoeiu, noaiee, noaeei, oeaiaio e
iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey, a oaeaea caieiathony ia?a?aaioeie aieneoia e
iaooe.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. A 2003, ii ioeaiea, iauai yenii?oa aeinoea 1335
iei. aeiee. NOA, iauai eiii?oa – 3265 iei. aeiee. NOA. ssiaeea auaiceo
aieneou e aethieiee, naoa?, aaiaiu, ?ii e ae?oaea iaieoee, eioa, yin,
ecaeaeey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaeaaeaeo e ae?.; iniiaiua ia?oia?u
– NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Eaiaaea, O?aioeey, Ii?aaaey. Aa?iaiey, Eeoae e
Ieaea?eaiaeu. Aaicyony i?iaeoeou ieoaiey e ae?oaea oiaa?u oe?ieiai
iio?aaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u, ecaeaeey e cai/anoe, oiieeai, noaiee e
o?ainii?oiia iai?oaeiaaiea, no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu; aeaaiua iinoaaueee
– NOA, O?eieaeaae e Oiaaai, Aa?iaiey, Aaianoyea, O?aioeey e ssiiiey.

A 1980-a aeaoeoeeo oi?aiaiai aaeaina iie?uaaeny aieaa /ai ia 500
iei. aeiee. a aiae ca n/ao aeioiaeia io eiio?aaaiaeie oi?aiaee
ia?eooaiie, aieaa /ai ia 100 iei. aeiee. ca n/ao oeiainiaie iiiiue NOA
e, aeaaiui ia?acii, eiino?aiiuie e?aaeeoaie, ec-ca eioi?uo no?aia eiaao
e?oiiue aiaoiee aeiea

Oeiainu. Aeioiaeiua noaouee athaeaeaoa a 2003 ninoaaeee 2,6
ie?ae. aeiee. NOA, ?anoiaeiua – 3,1 ie?ae. aeiee. Aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina 842 iei. aeiee. Cieioiaaethoiua ?aca?au 1,2 ie?ae. aeiee.,
aiaoiee aeiea – 5 ie?ae. aeiee.

Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea – yiaeneee aeieea? (iaiaiiue eo?n a 2003 ninoaaee
57,74 yiaeneeo aeieea?a ca 1 aeiee. NOA).

O?ainii?o. I?ioyaeaiiinoue aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia 18,7 oun. ei., ec
eioi?uo 13,1 oun. eiatho oaa?aeia iie?uoea. Ec 272 ei. aeaeaciuo aei?ia
207 ei. ia eniieuecothony, a 57 ei. eniieuecothony aeey ia?aaicee
aieneoia. Iniiaiua ii?ou – Eeianoii, Aeeeaaoi?-Iiiae, Aeeneiaa?e-Aye,
Iiioaai-Aye, I/i-?ein, Ii?o-Aioiiei, ?iee-Iieio, Ii?o-Yneeaaeue.
Oi?aiaue oeio ian/eouaaao 6 noaeia aiaeieciauaieai na. 1000 a?. ?aa. o.
A no?aia 35 ay?iae?iiia, a o./. 11 eiatho aei?iaeee n oaa?aeui
iie?uoeai. N?aaee ieo – iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ay?iii?ou Eeianoii e
Iiioaai-Aye.

Naycue. Ia ssiaeea ooieoeeiie?otho na. 444 oun. oaeaoiiiuo eeiee,
eiaaony 1,4 iei. iiaeeueiuo oaeaoiiia. A eiioea 1990-o ?aaioaee 23
?aaeeinoaioeee e 7 oaeaaeceiiiuo noaioeee; o ianaeaiey eiaeinue 1215
oun. ?aaeeii?eaiieeia e 460 oun. oaeaaeci?ia. A 2002 ian/eouaaeinue 600
oun. iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iao.

Iauanoai

A iniiaa yiaeneie eoeueoo?u – nianue ao?eeaineeo e aiaei-e?eaiaeneeo
o?aaeeoeee; ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea ieacaea eniaineay eoeueoo?a e
eoeueoo?a en/acioaoeo eiaeaeoeaa-oaeii. Oceay iaeaieaa caaeeoi/iay
i?ineieea ianaeaiey aieioue aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie ninoiyea ii/oe
eneeth/eoaeueii ec iioiieia aa?iiaeneeo ia?anaeaioeaa; «n?aaeiea neie»
ia?aciaaee iaoenu ao?iaa?iiaeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e iioiiee yiea?aioia
ec Acee, a «nioeeaeueiua iecu» – ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii auoiaeoeu ec
Ao?eee.

Onoiia ia?iaeiia oai?/anoai ei?aiiuo aeeoaeae ia nio?aieeinue. Oieueeei?
yiaeneeo iaa?ia ai iiiaii naycai n eoeueoo?ie Ao?eee. Ienueiaiiay
eeoa?aoo?a ia aiaeeeneii ycuea e iaooa iiyaeeanue a 18 a. Ia ia/aei 20
a. i?eoiaeeony oai?/anoai oaeeo ienaoaeae, eae O. ?aaeeai, A.Aeae. Aea
Eenna?, E. Iae-Eae. Iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ?ani?ino?aieeny aeai?
aano-eiaeneiai ?iiaia (?. Iaen, ?. Aeae, I. Aeion, Aeae. Oe?i,
I. Iaooa?nii). Aieueoia ?acaeoea iieo/ee aeai? ?anneaca (Y. Nieee e
ae?.). Iiycey O. ?iaa?ona, O. Oa?eiea, Ae. Eyiiaaeea e O. Ea?aa??e oanii
naycaia n iaoeeiiaeueiuie iioeaaie.

Eneonnoai ssiaeee ?acaeaaeinue iiae neeueiui aeeyieai eneonnoaa
ao?eeaineeo ia?iaeia, ii i?aiaeaaeathuei auei aiaeeeneia aeeyiea. A
17–18 aaeao aicaiaeeeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeiiyoaaeiua eaiaiiua
iino?ieee, a 18–19 aaeao – aea?aayiiua aeaooyoaaeiua caeaiey n aa?aiaeie
e aeaeaciuie aeaei?aoeaiuie oe?aoaieyie. Iicaeiaa noaee no?ieoueny aeiia
aa?iiaeneiai oeia. Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eneonnoaa nua?ae
Einoeooo ssiaeee, a eioi?ii a 1940-o auee ioe?uou eeannu aeeaiiene. Ec
yiaeneeo ooaeiaeieeia ecaanoiu A. Oueth, ?. Eyiiaaee, Ae. Iiooeiaa?,
E. Ii??en, A. Eoia?, A. Oionii, A. Oiia. ?ani?ino?aiaii ia?iaeiia
oai?/anoai – ?acueaa ii aea?aao e iaoaeeo.

A 1930-o ia ssiaeea aicieeei aeeyoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iaiao?eeaienoneiai
oeia – ?anoaoa?e, eioi?ia e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaao iiiai
i?eaa?aeaioeaa, a oii /enea e ca ?oaaaeii. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?iu
iaoeeoeci e ?eooaeueiia eo?aiea ia?eooaiu. N iei naycaia iiioey?iay
iocuea ?yaae (iaeaieaa ecaanoiue iaaaoe – i?ineaaeaoeeny ai anai ie?a
Aia Ia?ee). Ia ssiaeea ca?iaeeeenue e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea iocueaeueiua
noeee: nea e aeyinoiee.

Ie. 12% ianaeaiey a aic?anoa noa?oa 15 eao iaa?aiioii. Ia ssiaeea
aaaaeaii iaycaoaeueiia iao/aiea aeey aeaoae 6–15 eao; eiathony
ia/aeueiay, n?aaeiyy iauaia?aciaaoaeueiay oeiea ec 2 nooiaiae,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea, iaaeaaiae/aneea o/eeeua
(eieeaaeaee). A i?eai?iaea Eeianoiia n 1962 ioe?uo Aano-Eiaeneee
oieaa?neoao.

A noieeoea no?aiu aeaenoaotho iocae anoanoaaiiie enoi?ee, enoi?ee
ssiaeee e ae?. i?e Einoeoooa ssiaeee, eiaeaeoeaa a?aaaeia, ia?iaeiiai
eneonnoaa, o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ao?eeaineiai eneonnoaa e a?aoeee,
a?oaieiae/aneee, Iaoeeiiaeueiay ea?oeiiay aaea?ay.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey i?aaeoaeuenoai ssiaeee noaei ieacuaaoue
iiiiuue iaeiouei. Auea ?aaeeciaaia i?ia?aiia iauanoaaiiuo
aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo ?aaio, i?eiyo caeii i ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaoa,
aaaaeaii iaycaoaeueiia iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea e ?acaa?iooi
no?ieoaeuenoai ioieoeeiaeueiiai aeeeuey.

Ia ssiaeea ecaeathony aacaou e aeo?iaeu. E?oiiaeoay aaeaaeiaaiay aacaoa
«Aeaeee aeeia?» (50 oun. yec.) ecaeaaony n 1834 /anoiie eiiiaieae. I?aai
III – aaeaiaaeaeueiee «O?aiieo», i?aai EIss – aaeaiaaeaeueiee «Aien io
Aeaeaiaeea».

?ani?ino?aiaiu oaeea aeaeu nii?oa, eae eaaeay aoeaoeea, oooaie, oyaeaeay
aoeaoeea. Nii?oniaiu ssiaeee auee i?eca?aie iiiaeo Ieeiieeneeo ea? e
/aiieiiaoia ie?a.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020