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Великобритания: население, экономика, культура, политика

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N????a

A??????a ????a

I???? A??????e

Y???? A??????e

N????a ??iy?a ??n?a

E???a

A??????a ????a

AAEEEIA?EOAIEss (Great Britain), A???y, N????? E????? A??????e e N???e
E???e (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), ?????i ?
???-??? A??u, ? A????o ???? (?o???e — i-a A??????y), ???-??i?? ??e ???a
E???y, i-? Iyi, i-? O?o, I????? e ?. ??? ????. I???i ? ????? ????e
Ea-I?o e Ia-?-E?a. I??? 244,11 ?n ?2. I???? 60,1 ?i ???e (2003). N???
E??i.E?o?? ??? e ?????e: A??? E??i, A???ai, E?n, A??i, O???, A???ae,
E????, Y???a, I????, A???ue.

I???? A??????e

I?? 80% ????y — ????a, 15% — ????u, ???? (oy??u), ??oy?? e ????; ?. 5%
i???ey — ?i???u ? ??i N?????. A???? y?yth?y ????e ?????a e ????a; ????u,
????, ???? e ?????u — i???? ???a.

I????? y?e — ?????. A???? — ?????u ?????? ???????e ???, o???? ???????i
??????a, ???? a ???? ????. I???? ????? ????a e ?????? ???e e ?????o A???
??? ?? e ??e ????. I???a ??? ???? Oe????ay e TH?-A???ay A??y, ???? —
?e?u n???e O???? e Oe?????i Oy??. A??a ???ue ?????e; a ???? ????o 89,4%
????y. I?? 1/2 ????y ae?? a ???o ???o (n ????? ??a 100 o. /.). Ia ?????
??? ??????nue 8 ???o ????o ????? n ??e??i ??a 1 ?i ???e, a ???o ??????i
?. 1/3 ????y ???. N??yy ????ue ????y 245,5 ?e./?2.

Y???? A?e?????

A??????y — ??????ay ??????ay ???. Ca ????a 20 ?o a ????? y???? ?? ??a??
??oth?a ??????ey: ???? ???????e ???; ???u ????a ??? n ????? e th?????
?oe; ????i ?????a?? y???? (n ??????i ????i ?n?????? ????). A 1995 ? ???
??? ??????i ???i??a A?????iey ???? 5-a ??i a ?? (??a NOA, ss??e, A???e,
O???). AII ? ?? ????y 24500 ???? (2000). Ii ???i y?????n? ???? 1-a ??i a
A??a, y?yy? ???i ??????? ??e e ?? (??? ???y ? ??oa N???? ??y ??? ?????
???? ? ?????; a ????? ???a ??????i ?. 1/3 ?????o ???a a A??a) e ?ey.
Ae??a ??e 124 ?i o a 1996 (???? ??????y A??, O??n), ?? 89,9 ?? i3
(y??????ny 17 ????ae??, ????? — E??-A?e, A??, I?eyi). British Petroleum
e ??i-?????y ?i??y Royal Dutch/Shell ??yo a ??i ???a a ??i ???? ??a.
E????? ??ue ??ay ??? ????i ?ey ??iy?i ?????y. A ?????th?e ????ii??
?????i ???th?y ??a ???e, ?e ????o?a ??????? (12,4% ??i ??????i ??????),
a o. /. ????????? (?????? ???? e ???u ?????o ???? Rover, Ford, Jaguar,
Vauxhall, Pegeout-Talbot, Honda, Nissan, Toyota); ??????; ay??????y
??????? — ??uey a ?? ??a NOA e O???, ????y?y ?????a e ???a ???? (British
Aerospace, Harrier, Tornado, Eurofighter), ??????e «?i?n-??n », ??????
?y ?????? ??a?? Airbus Industry; ???y ??????? (12,5% ? ??i ??????); ??a
???????: ??c???i ?????y????e ???e e ???a, ?eth?y ?????? ?????? ?????ey
(A??????y — ???e a ?? ????e?? a ?? ??eia); y????? e y??????a; ??ueth??,
????? e n????ueth?? (?eth?y ??o ???????, ?e IBM e Compaq); ?????a
?????a; ???? ??e?????e (????ay ???, ??? e o. i.); ?????a ??????; ???y
???a. O????y ??????? ?? 11% ? ??i ??????. Y?: ?????? (A??????y — ????e a
?? ??????ue e???a); ????y; ??th??y; ??a ????u e ??????e. ????a ?????e
????i??e A??????e ???ey?ny ???i ???ey ???o ?????. A??????y ???? a A??a
??i ???i ???-?????i ?????i. ???? ? ???-??????ue?? ??? ???eytho ??a 2%
AAI a ?ae, a ?i ??a ??a 35% ?? ???-????????o ??o ???e???y ??????. O?????
?? ??i ?????a ??????? (????? e ??? ?????i ??i? — E????, E???). N???ay
???ue ????? ??????? — ?????y — a ??iy?a ??y ???? ???a ???ea (???a ???
?i????a ???????? ??????? — E????, ??oy?e — E???, ?????e — E?-I???n,
?iy?e — N???y E???y). E??ay ???o??y ??????? (?????? ???o ??????, ??????
e ???? ???e, ??o?a (?. 1/5 ???? y???a ?????o ????, ???????i ?????e ??e e
????? ??).

N????cy????a ?????? ???????ii, ????? ?????? ?????e ??? a ???????. A ????
?cy??a ?????ny (1994) 24,8% ????? ??? (a o. /. ?. 60% — ?ae ???, 35% —
??????a ??), ???? ???tho 45,9%, ?ae ??i 10,4%. A??ay ???ue ????i ?cy??a
— ???????. Ae ?e ???i ?????? ?? a e?? 1990-o ?. y???y? ????a ??a (??ao?i
y????a) e y??. Ie. 1/3 ??e ?iy? ?ae ????e, ??i. ???a e y??ue. A???
???????a ??? — A???ay e TH?-A???ay A??y.

25% AAI ??? ???o ??? ????? ??a. A ?i ?iy? 12% ???? ???? ???, a E??i
y?y?ny ???i ????? ???i, ????? ???? ???u. N?? ????? ??a ???o ???? ????oth
?y????ue (??a ????? ??? a E??? ?????? 50 ????? ??? ??), ?????a, ??e
?????o ????? ?????ia (?th??u, ???u, ????ua ?????? ????), ??e ????e
(??????e), ?eth?? ??e (???? n ???eth??), ????? ???, ????a ???? n ?????e
??y?, ???? n ?????? ????e. E?? E??? ???? ??i??? ???? y?yth?y I????,
E???, E????, Y???a. A ???a ?iy? 7% ???????i ????y, a ????e ?o? ????o 8
?? ?e. E??i — ????? ??????e ??? ??. C?????th ?n? AAI ?? ?????a ? ????
??n?? ??? e ??????o.

Ae???y ???a — ?? ?????.

N????a ??iy?a ???aa

I?? A??e ???e ??u ?????y ???????e A???y ? ??????e ??a ??? ? ??? ?? ?
????th n NOA. A 1940-1970-a ?. ???? ??????ue ??e ?a ????? ???e. E?????ay
??ey ????a ?????th e ??a A??e ???e ??u ??????i ?????i ?????e ????? e
???a??u. I? ??????? ??????a I. Oyo?? ?????i ???ey?e ?????ai?? ???a ??
???????i, ?yo ?? ? ??????eth ?????o ?????th?o ????. ss?yy? ??i ? ???o
?a?a AN n ???a ?i ????ey, A??????y ???? ???iy???th ???? ? ????th e ???
???i A??u, a ??oae ???e ????oy? ? NOA. O?????e ????? ?????? ? ???yao ??
??????o O. Aey? ???e ? ???????th ?eth?, ?oy e y?? ??iy?y ???a ??e ???.

I?????e ???? — Ae?ue ???ey ???? (?????y ? a ???? ?? ???ey Aa ?????, a ?
???th ??????a, ??? a ?? ? ??? ??? ???? ethiy).

E???a

E???a ???e A??????e a ???? ???ey?ny ????e A??e, n ?????i ???o ????? ????
O????, Oy?? e N???e E???e, a ??a, ?? e a ???e ???e, ??o??e ?ny?? ??i,
???u ??? ???yie A????e E???.

O???????a ????y a ???? A??????e ????e ??a 1945 ??. I???a i??????? ????e
y?o ????e i?? ????ue ?????? E???ey, a ??i e E???, a ??? ???e ?i-???? a
1960-o ??o. «A??» ?? ?? ??e ??? e ???? ????e ? ????eo ?e-??i, ???a ????
??. A????a ????u ??? ?????? ??i ?a???? ???, e y?ay ??? ? ????a ? E???
N?? e E?? ??ae ??a ???? ??? ? ????e E???.

E?? y?o ????e, a ??a ??a ??????i ????y a ??? ???yo ???? ??a ????y A??e
I??? A??, ?????? ???? ????e a ??i ????. I???a ???? ????e ??i ????a ??iy
?????y. ??????i ??i ??y? ??? ???ey ???eth e ????a ????a a ???. N?????
N?? ? ????o, ??????? a 1946 ??, i???ea?o ????a ???e ????a, ?i, a ?ith
???ue, ????i ???? ????ey ?????i ??a, a ???? ??????i. E? e ? ??? ????
???o, ?????? ??? e ????e ???? e ???? ????y, ????e ?? ??ue ????, ???? a
60-o 70-o ??o 20-? ??.

O???? ??a ?????y N?????i E????? a A??????th ??e y????a ? ???ath??y ??i
??? n ??e ?????? ???? e ???e ? ???ath?ony ??i. A??????a y?o ???? e ??e
???? A??????e ? ??? ???ey? ???y?? N????? E?????.

A A??????e — ???a ??????iey.

A ????a ?ny???y ?????a a A??????e ??i ??i ? ???? ?????? ?????e a
???????e ???? a? ?????e ? ??, ??a ??o???a ?? ??aey?y o ???. I?iy?a ???e,
???eyth?o ?????o ???ey ???e, ????ey?ny ? ??i ???i ??? a ??????e ????a
????ey ?????i, ???????.

E????ay ????y ????ey? ??e ???, ???e ?????iy?ny ? ?a a?u ?????y, ??a
????????, ?oy a ????a ??y ????????a ??e ?a ?? ???atho n ?????? i ???
?????a e a ??????o. I???????e ???? ? ?yoa???ueth ???o ????e ??? ????i e
?????i ?????y ????ey?ny ???? ???? i????ey. I?????th ???u ?????y a A??e
??i ???ue ?????? ???????? ???a. I??? «???????ey» ???u ????iey ???y
?????i i??, ?i a ??? ???o C???e A??u. A ????a ?ny???y ?ey?a ?????a ?
???? ?????y ?a ??a ????, ?i ?y?? n ??????ueth ?i ??i????y. A ??iy?a ??y
?????i ????? 80% ???o e 90% ?????o ???? ??????a. *??? ???ey ? ???atho 4%
??o ???? ? ?????a.

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