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Украинское Полесье

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Oe?ieay (ii/oe noieeeiiao?iaay) iieina Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey caieiaao
naaa?ioth /anoue no?aiu. Iia auoyioeanue io naaa?i-caiaaeiuo aei
naaa?i-ainoi/iuo ?oaaaeae Oe?aeiu a i?aaeaeao cia/eoaeueiie ii ieiuaaee
Iieanneie ieciaiiinoe e caieiaao thaeioth /anoue iaoe?iie i?e?iaeiie
ciiu niaoaiiuo eania Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu.

?aeiiu Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey

Iieanneay ieciaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaia?acioth i?e?iaeioth
i?iaeioeeth ciiu niaoaiiuo eania Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu. Iia
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia o?e e?oiiuo ?aaeiia (iiaei?iaeioeee), ioee/athueany
naiaia?aciuie aaia?aoe/aneeie oneiaeyie: naaa?ioth (eaaiaa?aaeuea
I?eiyoe, iieiinoueth ?aniieiaeaiioth ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one), thaeioth
(i?aaiaa?aaeuea I?eiyoe e Aeiai?a, i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoiaeyuothny a
i?aaeaeao nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeiu) e ainoi/ioth (eaaiaa?aaeuea Aeiai?a,
naaa?iay /anoue eioi?ie eaaeeo ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one e ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, a thaeiay – Oe?aeiu). Oaeei ia?acii, Oe?aeineia Iieanuea
ioaaouaaao ii/oe iieiinoueth thaeioth iiaei?iaeioeeth (i?aaiaa?aaeuea
I?eiyoe e Aeiai?a) e thaeioth /anoue ainoi/iie iiaei?iaeioeee
(eaaiaa?aaeuea Aeiai?a).

Ii i?e?iaeiui e, a iaiueoae noaiaie, aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiui
i?eciaeai (a oii /enea aeaaoei ?aaeiiai nianoaaiiua iacaaiey) Oe?aeineia
Iieanuea ?acaeaeytho ia neaaeothuea oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea iaeanoe:
Aieuineia Iieanuea (iaeaieaa ioee/athuayny ii i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi,
aeaaiaea?y /aio ae iinayuaaony ioaeaeueiay noaouey), AEeoiie?neia
Iieanuea, Eeaaneia Iieanuea, *a?ieaianeia Iieanuea e Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neia
Iieanuea.

AEeoiie?neia Iieanuea

Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ioee/eoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie AEeoiie?neiai Iieanuey
io ae?oaeo iieanneeo iaeanoae yaeythony aieaa aunieia aeiniiao?e/aneia
iieiaeaiea, cia/eoaeueiay ?ieue e?enoaeee/aneeo ii?iae a no?iaiee
nia?aiaiiiai ?aeueaoa, oe?ieia ?acaeoea oceeo e ioiineoaeueii aeoaiei
a?acaiiuo ?a/iuo aeieei, iaee/ea aieueoeo e?nniauo ino?iaia e
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoay caaiei/aiiinoue oa??eoi?ee.

Ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii i?e?iaeiiai naiaia?acey AEeoiie?neiai Iieanuey,
caieiathuaai aieueooth /anoue AEeoiie?neie e naaa?i-ainoi/iua ?aeiiu
?iaaineie iaeanoae, yaeyaony aai iieiaeaiey a i?aaeaeao naaa?i-caiaaeiie
(iieanneie) /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa.

Aeey eeeiaoa AEeoiie?neiai Iieanuey oa?aeoa?ii i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo aieaa aeaaeiui e o?ieui eeeiaoii Aieuineiai Iieanuey e aieaa
eiioeiaioaeueiui Ainoi/iiai (Eaaiaa?aaeiiai) Iieanuey.

?aniieiaeaiea ia e?enoaeee/aneeo ii?iaeao iaeeaaeuaaao ioia/aoie ia
?aeueao, aioo?aiiea aiaeu, ii/aaiiue iie?ia e oa?aeoa? caaiea/eaaiey
oa??eoi?ee. No?iaiea iieanneie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa neiaeiia e
iaiaeii?iaeiia. Caeanue iaiaaeathony ?acee/iua ii ninoaao e aic?anoo
ai?iua ii?iaeu, ia?acothuea ioaeaeueiua ianneau. Ia e?aeiai
naaa?i-caiaaea ?ani?ino?aiaiu iaaiaoe/aneea ii?iaeu – ?iciaua,
?iciai-na?ua e na?ua inieoeeea e ee?nianeea a?aieou. Ia naaa?a e
naaa?i-ainoiea i?ioyaeaaaony iannea inaaei/ii-iaoaii?oe/aneeo ii?iae –
ia?o/neeo eaa?oeeoia e ian/aieeia. A caiaaeiie e thaeiie /anoyo
iieanneiai aeiea ?ani?ino?aiaiu ?aciiia?aciua a?aieou (aeeoiie?neea,
iiaia?aae-aieuineea, ei?inouoaaneea), ieaiaoeou e aiaenu, yaeythueany
iaeaieaa ae?aaieie ii?iaeaie Oe?aeineiai ueoa. Ainoi/ioth /anoue
iieanneiai aeiea ninoaaeytho eaa?aaei?eou, aaaa?i-ii?eou e ei?inoaineea
a?aieou.

Ia aeieaia?eeneeo e?enoaeee/aneeo ii?iaeao ino?iaaie caeaaatho eaieeiu e
inaaei/iua ioeiaeaiey iaeiaiai (ianee n e?aiiai), iaeaiaaiiaiai e
iaiaaiiaiai (ian/aieee, ianee e aeeiu) aic?anoa. Aio?iiiaaiiaua
ioeiaeaiey oaeaea eiatho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, ii ioee/athony io
ae?oaeo iaeanoae iacia/eoaeueiie iiuiinoueth (aei 10 i).

?a/iua aeieeiu AEeoiie?neiai Iieanuey aeoaiei a?acaiu a aeieaia?eeneea
ii?iaeu e ia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao eiatho oa?aeoa? aeieei i?i?uaa –
eaiueiiiiiaeiaioth oi?io n ioaaniuie neaeenouie neeiiaie aunioie aei
25-30 i. Oaeea io?acee aeieeiu eiaao Oae a Ei?inoaia, Neo/ue a
Iiaia?aae-Aieuineii, Oai?oue a Ieaanea, E?oa ai Aieiaea?ne-Aieuineii,
Eaiaiea o AEeoiie?a e ae?. ?aee AEeoiie?neiai Iieanuey ioee/athony aieaa
auno?ui oa/aieai, iaee/eai ia?aeaoia e aeaaea ii?iaia (ia ioaeaeueiuo
o/anoeao), /?oei iaicia/aiiui ?oneii, aunieei iiaeu?iii aiaeu (ai a?aiy
iaaiaeeia) e eiatho cia/eoaeueiua yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu. Yoi iaeiaiaa
caaiei/aiiay /anoue Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey, aaea e?oiiua aieioiua ianneau
?ani?ino?aiaiu eeoue ia naaa?i-caiaaea e naaa?a, a eo iauay ieiuaaeue
caieiaao aei 3% oa??eoi?ee.

I?e?iaeiua oneiaey AEeoiie?neiai Iieanuey aeaaii?eyoiu aeey ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?ieoaeueii-aeaei?aoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia,
oa?oi?iai-oayiniaie, eaniia?aaaouaathuae, aoiaaeiie, ao?ioaieueiie,
oi?oiaeiauaathuae, ieuaaie e e?aeie. A naeueneii oicyenoaa ?aaeii
niaoeeaeece?oaony ia au?aueaaiee eueia, ea?oioaey, oiaey e ?acaeoee
iyniiiei/iiai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Aaaeiaeoeie ianaeaiiuie ioieoaie yoiai
iieanneiai o/anoea yaeythony AEeoiie?, Iiaia?aae-Aieuineee, Ei?inoaiue,
Ei?inouoaa e Ia?o/.

Eeaaneia Iieanuea

Eeaaneia Iieanuea (a n?aaiaiee n AEeoiie?neei) caieiaao aieaa ieceee
aeiniiao?e/aneee o?iaaiue (aaniethoiua ioiaoee 100-180 i), a aeoaeia
?an/eaiaiey caeanue cia/eoaeueii iaiueoay e ia i?aauoaao 25-50 i.

Eeaaneia Iieanuea eaaeeo ia neeiia Oe?aeineiai ueoa e oaeoiie/aneie
aiaaeeia a iaeanoe ?acaeoey inaaei/iuo ii?iae. E?enoaeee/aneea ii?iaeu
caeanue ieaaea ia iaiaaeathony, a iinoaiaiii iia?oaeathony a ainoi/iii
iai?aaeaiee iiae inaaei/ioth oieuo. Caiaaeioth a?aieoeo Eeaaneiai
Iieanuey iau/ii i?iaiaeyo ii iaeaieaa ainoi/iui iieanneei auoiaeai ia
aeiaaioth iiaa?oiinoue e?enoaeee/aneeo ii?iae ii eeiee Ia?iaee/e –
?aaeiiuoeue – Oiaei?eia, a ainoi/ioth – ii aeieeia Aeiai?a.

Ii aaieiae/aneiio no?iaieth yoio iieanneee ?aaeii nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony
io *a?ieaianeiai Iieanuey, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a i?aaeaeao
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu, aaea e?enoaeee/aneee ooiaeaiaio
iaoiaeeony cia/eoaeueii aeoaaea. A Eeaaneii Iieanuea ionoonoaoao ?yae
ai?eciioia (aeaaiineeo e eaiaiiioaieueiuo ioeiaeaiee), ano?a/athueony ia
*a?ieaiaueia, a iacicieneea e eaeiicieneea ii?iaeu eiatho cia/eoaeueii
iaiueooth iiuiinoue. Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia nia?aiaiiua
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea oneiaey ieacuaatho iaeaiaaiiaua ioeiaeaiey (ianee
e aeeiu, iaiaaeathony a iaeioi?uo ?a/iuo aeieeiao), iiuiinoue eioi?uo
aic?anoaao io 25 i (ia caiaaea) aei 100 i e aieaa (ia ainoiea). Aieueoia
cia/aiea a no?iaiee iiaa?oiinoe, ii/aiia?aciaaiee, oi?ie?iaaiee
iiaecaiiuo aiae eiatho aio?iiiaaiiaua ioeiaeaiey n?aaeiae iiuiinoueth
20-30 i.

Aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey Eeaaneiai Iieanuey aeaaii?eyoiu aeey ?acaeoey
eioaineaiiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa: aacii?iciue ia?eiae aeeeony 160-180
aeiae, eiee/anoai inaaeeia ninoaaeyao 490-620 ii a aiae, a niaaeiue
iie?ia nio?aiyaony a n?aaeiai 95 aeiae.

Aieueooth ?ieue a ?aeueaoa a Eeaaneii Iieanuea ea?atho ?a/iua aeieeiu
Aeiai?a, I?eiyoe, Oaea, Oaoa?aaa, Caeaeaea, E?iaiy e ae?., oi?ie?othuea
ianeieueei oa??an, aeinoeaathueo cia/eoaeueiie oe?eiu. ?ani?ino?aiaiu
oaeaea yieiaua oi?iu ?aeueaoa, i?aaenoaaeaiiua aethiaie, ian/aiuie
a?yaeaie e oieiaie. A ?aeiia Auoai?iaea, Ai?iaeyiee, Aeuia?a e *a?iiauey
ano?a/athony iaaieueoea e?nniaua ino?iaa n ioee/iui oa?aeoa?ii ii/a e
?anoeoaeueiinoe. A ii/aaiiii iie?iaa Eeaaneiai Iieanuey i?aiaeaaeatho
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua, aea?iiai-eoaiaua, aieioiua e naaoei-na?ua ii/au.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe iie?uoa eanaie, eo/oa
nio?aieaoeieny a naaa?iie /anoe e a ?aeiia Eeaaa, e eoaaie,
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie ia iieiao e ia aiaei?acaeaeueiuo i?ino?ainoaao. N?aaee
aieioiuo ianneaia iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua ieceiiua, ec?aaeea
ano?a/athony ia?aoiaeiua aieioa, a aa?oiaua ionoonoaotho.

I?e?iaeiuie aiaaonoaaie Eeaaneiai Iieanuey yaeythony eana, ?aee, ii/au,
oi?o, ianie e aeeiu. Naeueneia oicyenoai caeanue niaoeeaeece?oaony ia
au?aueaaiee iai?iaeiuo e ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, eueia e ia ?acaeoee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. A thai-ainoi/iie /anoe ?aaeiia iino?iaia Eeaaneay
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeey n e?oiiui aiaeio?aieeeuai, iiaeeyaoei ia
i?e?iaeiua oneiaey cia/eoaeueiie /anoe Eeaaneiai Iieanuey.

*a?ieaianeia Iieanuea

Eeeiao *a?ieaianeiai Iieanuey oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae
oia?aiii-eiioeiaioaeueiue, ni cia/eoaeueiui oaeaaeiaieai ia i?ioyaeaiee
aiaea, aieueoie ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoueth e neaauie aao?aie, a i?i
n?aaiaieth n caiaaeiuie iieanneeie iaeanoyie aai ioee/aao cia/eoaeueiay
aiieeooaea oaiia?aoo? e iaiueoay aunioa niaaeiiai iie?iaa.

*a?ieaianeia Iieanuea i?inoe?aaony io Aeiai?a ia caiaaea aei eeiee,
i?ioiaeeoyuae io onouey ?. ?aaie (aannaei Niiaa) – Oieiu – Ei?ii –
E?ieaaaoe. Auaeaeaiea *a?ieaianeiai Iieanuey a ioaeaeueioth
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneoth iaeanoue iaoneiaeaii aai iieiaeaieai a i?aaeaeao
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu.

Ae?aaiaeoeie ioeiaeaieyie, caeaaathueie caeanue auoa ianoiuo aacenia
y?icee, yaeythony iaeaiaaiiaua e iaiaaiiaua, ieacuaathuea
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia nia?aiaiiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey ?aaeiia.
N?aaee aio?iiiaaiiauo ioeiaeaiee ?aaeiia iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu –
eaaeieeiaua, aiaeii-eaaeieeiaua e aeethaeaeueiua. Any oa??eoi?ey iaeanoe
iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao iaeneiaeueiiai ieaaeaiaiey, ii ai iiiaeo ianoao
ii?aia ?aciuoa, e iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae *a?ieaianeiai
Iieanuey yaeyaony iaee/ea cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa e?nniauo ino?iaia.

*a?ieaianeia Iieanuea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeoioeyoeaioth ieciaiiinoue n
oe?ieei ?acaeoeai y?iceiiiuo oi?i ?aeueaoa – nia?aiaiiua e ae?aaiea
?a/iua aeieeiu, oa??anu ?ae. ?a/iay naoue iaeanoe aeinoaoi/ii aonoa –
?aee eiatho iacia/eoaeueiia iaaeaiea, niieieiia oa/aiea e oi?ioi
au?aaioaiiua iaaiae?u. A aeieeiao e?oiiaeoeo ?ae (Aeiai?, Aeania, Niia e
Naei) ano?a/aaony iiiaeanoai iaeeeo iieiaiiuo ic??, a iaeaieaa e?oiiua
(Nayoia, Noeaei e ae?.) noi?ie?iaaeenue ia oa??anao. Ia *a?ieaianeii
Iieanuea ?aniieiaeaii cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aieioiuo ianneaia (iauay
ieiuaaeue oi?oyiuo aieio ninoaaeyao ii/oe 5% oa??eoi?ee) i?aeiouanoaaiii
ieceiiiai oeia.

Iaeaieueoeie aieioiuie ianneaaie *a?ieaianeiai Iieanuey yaeythony
Caiaeae (8334 aa), Ino??neee (10558 aa), Niianeee (9400 aa), Niieyiea
(4288 aa), Aei/aaee (3600 aa), Auae?a (2458 aa), Ia?enoia (2340 aa),
Ii?ai (1745 aa) e ae?.

A ii/aaiiii iie?iaa i?aiaeaaeatho aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua, cia/eoaeueiua
ieiuaaee caiyoua aieioiuie e na?uie eaniuie (iaeaieaa ieiaei?iaeiuie), a
ia e?nniauo oa??aniuo ino?iaao, n aeeceei o?iaiai a?oioiauo aiae,
ano?a/athony canieaiiua ii/au (eoaiaua niaeiaua nieii/aee e nieiioeu),
/aai iao a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo Iieanuey.

Iniaaiiinoueth i?e?iaeiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe *a?ieaianeiai Iieanuey
yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii iaiueoay ii n?aaiaieth n inoaeueiuie ?aaeiiaie
Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey eanenoinoue, ninoaaeythuay 15-18%, a iniiaiuie
eaniia?acothueie ii?iaeaie caeanue aunooiatho ninia, aeoa, aa??ca, ineia
e /??iay ieueoa.

Aaaeiaeoei i?e?iaeiui aeinoiyieai *a?ieaianeiai Iieanuey yaeythony eana,
ieiaei?iaeiua ii/au, ?aee, oi?o e no?ieoaeueiia nu?ue?. Nouanoaotho
aaieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee aeey ioe?uoey caeanue ianoi?iaeaeaiee
ai?th/eo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo (iaooe e, aiciiaeii, aaca).

Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neia Iieanuea

E?oiiua ?a/iua aeieeiu Iiaiai?iae-Naaa?neiai Iieanuey aeoaiei a?acaiu a
ei?aiiua ii?iaeu, a ia eo neeiiao ?acaeou ia?aae e aaeee. Ia iaeiauo
ioeiaeaieyo ia?aciaaeenue ea?noiaua oi?iu ?aeueaoa, i?aaenoaaeaiiua
ai?iieaie e i?iaaeaie.

Caieiathuaa ainoi/ioth /anoue Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey aai
Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neay /anoue yaeyaony ia?aoiaeiie ciiie iaaeaeo eaniie e
eaninoaiiie iaeanoyie N?aaeia?onneie aicauoaiiinoe. A aaeieieno?aoeaiii
ioiioaiee Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neia Iieanuea caieiaao naaa?i-ainoi/ioth /anoue
*a?ieaianeie e naaa?i-caiaaeiua ?aeiiu Noineie iaeanoae, a ia ainoiea
aai ianooiatho io?iae N?aaeia?onneie aicauoaiiinoe.

Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neiai Iieanuey ioee/athony io
ae?oaeo iieanneeo iaeanoae iaeaieueoae eiioeiaioaeueiinoueth ?aaieiiuo
eaniuo i?inoi?ia no?aiu. Aieioa caeanue caieiatho cia/eoaeueii iaiueoea
ieiuaaee e ia ia?aciauaatho e?oiiuo ianneaia.

Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neia Iieanuea ?aniieiaeaii ia thai-caiaaeiii neeiia
Ai?iiaaeneiai ianneaa, a aeoaeia caeaaaiey e?enoaeee/aneiai ooiaeaiaioa
caeanue eieaaeaony io 100 i (aannaei ?. Ciia) aei 500-600 i
(Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neee – 384 i, Aeooia – 512 i). A ioee/ea io ninaaeiaai
iieanneiai ?aeiia iii eiaao ae?oaia aaieiae/aneia no?iaiea,
au?aaeathuaany a ?aeueaoa, aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo e i?ioeannao
ii/aiia?aciaaiey.

Ooiaeaiaio ia?ae?uaatho iiiieeeiaeueiua iaeiiiuiua inaaei/iua ioeiaeaiey
aa?oiaai iaeaiciy, iaciciy e eaeiiciy. Iniaaiii cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee nia?aiaiiuo oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee iaeanoe ea?atho
auniei i?eiiaeiyoua iaae ianoiui aacenii y?icee, /anoi iaiaaeathueany a
?a/iuo aeieeiao iaeiaua ioeiaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeaiiua ia?aaeai e iaeii. A
ioaeaeueiuo ianoao ia iaeiauo ii?iaeao nio?aieeenue iyoia eiathueo
iacia/eoaeueioth iiuiinoue iaeaiaaiiauo ioeiaeaiee. *aua anaai iaeiaua
ii?iaeu ia?ae?uaathony iaaieueoie oieuae aio?iiiaaiiauo inaaeeia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ii?aiie, aiaeii-eaaeieeiauie, aeethaeaeueiuie,
yethaeaeueiuie ioeiaeaieyie e eanniaeaeiuie noaeeieaie.

Aaaeiuie i?e?iaeiuie aiaaonoaaie Iiaai?iae-Naaa?neiai Iieanuey yaeythony
eana, ieiaei?iaeiua ii/au e ?aee. N?aaee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiaao nu?ue? aeey ecaioiaeaiey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, a
/anoiinoe iae. Ia i?aaiaa?aaeuea Aeaniu ecaanoii ?ace?oneia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea oinoi?eoia

Aaei?onneia iieanuea

Aaei?onneia iieanuea, ninoaaiay /anoue Iieanneie ieciaiiinoe. Ia caiaaea
iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeo a I?eaoaneoth ?aaieio, ia ainoiea – a
I?eaeiai?ianeoth ieciaiiinoue, ia naaa?a – a oieienoi-?aaieiioth /anoue
Aaea?one, ia thaa – a Oe?aeineia Iieanuea. Caieiaao aieueooth /anoue
A?anoneie, Aiiaeueneie, iaaieueooth /anoue ia thaa Ieineie e e?aeiee
thai-caiaaea Iiaee?aneie iaeanoe. I?ioyae?iiinoue n caiaaea ia ainoie
aieaa 500 ei, n naaa?a ia tha ieiei 200 ei. Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea ?aeiiu
(ii A. A. Aeaiaioueaao): A?anoneia Iieanuea, Caai?iaeuea, Iicu?neia
Iieanuea, I?eiyoneia Iieanuea, Aiiaeueneia Iieanuea (niio?eoa ea?oo e
noaouea Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea). Iniiaiua oi?iu ?aeueaoa
ia?aciaaeenue a ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe aeiai?ianeiai e niaeneiai
eaaeieeia e iniaaiii oaeuo aiae, auoaeaaoeo ec-iiae ieo, e aiae
iiic??neiai eaaeieea (iinooiaee ii aeieeiai Caeueayiee, Ua?u, Aa?aceiu,
Aeiai?a e ae?oaeo). Aio?iiiaaiiaua ioeiaeaiey – aiaeii-eaaeieeiaua,
ae?aaiea e nia?aiaiiua aeethaeaeueiua e ic??iua noiane e ianee, cieiaua
ianee, e?nniaeaeiua noaeeiee. Aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee ?aeueaoa
nua?aee aeeoioeyoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue I?eiyoe e a? aeaaiuo i?eoieia,
i?ioeannu caaiea/eaaiey iiieaeaiiuo o/anoeia a aieioeaia. Ioee/aaony
aeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie aeey aeae?aaee/aneie nayce aeoaeiiuo
aiaeiiiniuo ai?eciioia n iiaa?oiinoiuie. Iiaa?oiinoue Aaea?oneiai
iieanuey – aiaeii-eaaeieeiaay e ic??ii-aeethaeaeueiay ian/aiay ieceia n
ae?aaieie iaaeiieiaiiuie oa??anaie, neaaui iaeeiiii ia thaa-ainoiea, ia
iaaieueoii o/anoea ia caiaaea (a aannaeia Caiaaeiiai Aoaa), n aeeceei e
iiaa?oiinoe o?iaiai caeaaaiey a?oioiauo aiae. Aaniethoiua auniou 100 –
150 i, a iaeaieaa iiieaeaiiie /anoe n ii/oe ieineei ?aeueaoii iaoiaeyony
aieioa (iaeaieueoea ianneau Iiaeaeoae/e, Aaeeeee Ean, Auaiiiuaineia
aieioi, Caaaeueneee iannea) e caaiei/aiiua o/anoee n ian/aiuie aethiaie,
iaaieueoeie oieiaie, ic??iuie eioeiaeiaie e ae?aaieie aa?aaiauie aaeaie
I?eiyoe e a? i?eoieia, /anoe/ii ia?a?aaioaiiuie cieiauie i?ioeannaie.
Ano?a/athony ioaeaeueiua e?aaaua eaaeieeiaua ia?aciaaiey – Iicu?neay
a?yaea, Oieieenei-A?aaeineea auniou, TH?iae/neay aicauoaiiinoue e
ae?oaea. Eeeiao o?ieue, iaonoie/eai-aeaaeiue, ia thai-ainoiea
ia?aoiaeiue e Eaninoaiiiio. N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y io -4,4 ia
caiaaea aei -7°N ia ainoiea (ieieiaeueiay -36°N), ethey – io +18 aei
19°N (iaeneiaeueiay +38°N). Aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae 193 – 208 nooie.
Inaaeeia 540 – 645 ii a aiae. Iniiaiua ?aee — I?eiyoue n a? i?eoieaie,
Aeiai? n Aa?aceiie e Niaeai, Caiaaeiue Aoa n Iooaaoeii. Iaeua oeeiiu
?one e eo oe?ieea iieiu ia?acotho aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
aeeoioeyoeee ?a/iie aiaeu a ia?eiae iieiaiaeuey e eaoieo eeaiaauo
iaaiaeeia. Ia?yaeo n e?oiiuie ic??aie (*a?aiiiia, Auaiiiuaineia, *??iia,
Nii?ianeia, Aia?iae/neia, I?aoianeia, Aaeia) iiiai iaaieueoeo ic??
(noa?eoe) a iieiao ?ae. Nicaeaiu e?oiiua aiaeio?aieeeua (Nieeai?neia,
Eieouoe, Iiaino), aonoay naoue iaeei?aoeaiuo eaiaeia. Ii/au
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua, aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua caaiei/aiiua,
aea?iiai-aieioiua, oi?oyii-aieioiua ieceiiua e aa?oiaua, iieiaiiua
aea?iiai-aeaaaua, aea?iiaua e aea?iiaua ia?aaiieii-ea?aiiaoiua. Iiae
eanii ieiei 43 % oa??eoi?ee; niniiaua e oe?ieieenoaaiii-niniiaua eana
?ani?ino?aiaiu ia aiaei?acaeaeao a iaaeiieiaiiuo oa??anao, iaaieueoea
o/anoee oe?ieieenoaaiii-aeiauo eania ?aniieiaeaiu ia naaa?iie ie?aeia
Aaea?oneiai iieanuey, oe?ieieenoaaiiua eana, i?aeiouanoaaiii aeoa?aau,
ia?aoiaeyuea ia oaeaaei?iiuo ieiaei?iaeiuo o/anoeao a ynaiaai-aeoaiaua e
ynaiaaua – ia ii?aiiuo aicauoaiiinoyo, ?aaieiao e iaaeiieiaiiuo
oa??anao, ianneau /a?iiieueoiauo e iooenoiaa??ciauo eania – ia ieceiiuo
aieioao. Ia au?oaeao aa??ciaua y ineiiaua, a iieiao ?ae aeoaiaua e
ieueoiaua eana. Eoaa caeeaiua ?aciio?aaii-ceaeiaua, inieiai-?aciio?aaiua
e ?aciio?aaiiaiaiaua e ieceiiua ceaeiai-inieiai-?acii-o?aaiua e
?aciio?aaii-inieiai-iioiaua. Ieceiiua eoaa iaeii?iaeoeoeaiu, o?aaotho
ei?aiiiai oeo/oaiey. AEeaiieniua eaiaeoaoou eniieuecothony aeey ioaeuoa.
Aeaenoaotho ciiu ioaeuoa ?anioaeeeaineiai e ianoiiai cia/aiey, eo?i?ou
Ai?aaeue, Aaeue Aa?aa, *?iee, Ica?i Aaeia. Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?oneiai
iieanuey I?eiyoneee eaiaeoaooii-aeae?ieiae/aneee caiiaaaeiee,
Oaeaoaineia caiiaaaeii-ioioie/uea oicyenoai, 12 caeacieeia.

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