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Угольная промышленность Украины

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Oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Oe?aeiu, iaania/eaathuay aeiau/o e ia?ae/ioth
ia?a?aaioeo eaiaiiiai e ao?iai oaey, yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo
io?aneae oiieeaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Eaiaiiioaieueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
nin?aaeioi/aiu ia thai-ainoiea (oe?aeineay /anoue Aeiiaoeeiai aannaeia)
e naaa?i-caiaaea (Eueaianei-Aieuineee aannaei) no?aiu. ?aeiiu aeiau/e
ao?iai oaey ?aca?inaiu ia cia/eoaeueiie ieiuaaee Oe?aeineiai ueoa –
Aeiai?ianeee ao?ioaieueiue aannaei.

Ianoi?iaeaeaiey eaiaiiiai e ao?iai oaey

Ia?aiioe?uaaoaeai eaiaiiioaieueiuo caeaaeae Aeiiaoeeiai aannaeia
n/eoaaony ecaanoiue ?onneee ?oaeiciaoaoe A. Eaionoei, iaia?oaeeaoee eo a
1721 a. a ieaeiai oa/aiee ?aee Naaa?neee Aeiiaoe. Aeiauaaoue iieaciia
eneiiaaiia caeanue ia/aee a 1795 a. aeey iaania/aiey oae?i Eoaaineiai
eeoaeiiai caaiaea. Oiaaea ia caieyo naea Aa?oiaai (iuia oa??eoi?ey a.
Eene/aine) aue iniiaai ia?aue a Aeiiaanna eaiaiiioaieueiue ?oaeiee.

A eaiaiiioaieueiue (ea?aiiiaue) ia?eiae a ainoi/iie /anoe Oe?aeiu
(iaaeaeo Aeiai?ii e Aeiiii) i?ienoiaeeei iiiai?aciaia /a?aaeiaaiea nooe
e ii?y. Cia/eoaeueiia iioneaiea oa??eoi?ee i?eaaei e caiieiaieth
aiooeoaeueiiai i?iaeaa iiuiuie (nauoa 10 ei) ioeiaeaieyie. Caeanue
nouanoaiaaei iaaeoaieia i?ea?aaeiia ii?a n caaiei/aiiie i?eeaaathuae
nooae, ia eioi?ie i?iec?anoaee ia?aiauoiua eana. Ia?iiiue iau?i eo
aeiiannu iineoaeee iniiaie iineaaeothuaai oaeaiaeiieaiey. I iiiaie?aoiii
eciaiaiee i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee (nooa – ii?a) naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
/a?aaeiaaiea nei?a ian/aieeia e ioiineoaeueii oiieeo oaieueiuo ieanoia
(eo ian/eouaaaony aieaa 200). A ea?aiiiaue ia?eiae, i?iaeieaeaaoeeny 65
iei. eao (360-295 iei. eao oiio iacaae), iaeiieeenue oaieueiua oieue
Aeiiaoeeiai e Eueaianei-Aieuineiai aannaeiia.

Ao?ioaieueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu, ia?aciaaaoeany ia i?ioyaeaiee
iaeaiaaiiaiai ia?eiaea (aeeeoaeueiinoue 41 iei. eao, 65-24 iei. eao oiio
iacaae), cia/eoaeueii iieiaea eaiaiiioaieueiuo. A yoi a?aiy ia?iaiinoe
e?enoaeee/aneie iiaa?oiinoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa auee naeaaeaiu e iie?uou
ioiineoaeueii iaeiiiuiui /aoeii inaaei/iuo ia?aciaaiee – ianeia,
ian/aieeia e aeei n ao?ioaieueiuie ieanoaie.

Enoi?e/aneea caiaoee

Aei 1802 a. eene/aineea oaieueiua eiie auee aaeeinoaaiiuie i?iiuoeaiiuie
?ac?aaioeaie ai anai Aeiiaoeeii aannaeia. Iaeaunoaai o?iaiy aeiau/e
?oaeiee aeinoea a 1840-a aiaeu, eiaaea iinoaaeye oaieue *a?iiii?neiio
ia?ioiaenoao. A 1835 a. ia Iao?iiaaeianeie oaooa a iniiaiii oo?aea aue
i?ieiaeai ia?aue ?aeueniaue iooue aeeeiie 76 i, ii eioi?iio oaieue
ioeaouaaee a aea?aayiiuo aaaiiaoeao.

Ia?aua naaaeaiey i caeaaeao eaiaiiiai oaey a ?aeiia ?aee Naaa?neee
Aeiiaoe, ecaanoiu n ia?aie iieiaeiu XVIII aaea, eiaaea yoe caiee
caaiaaaea ?inneeneay eiia?ey. Aeaaiaea?y ?aea nin?aaeioi/aiea iiiaeanoaa
ianoi?iaeaeaiee ni a?aiaiai iieo/eei iacaaiea Aeiiaoeeee oaieueiue
aannaei (eee Aeiiaann). N ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia a ?innee a 70-a aiaeu
XIX aaea ia/aeanue eioaineaiay i?iiuoeaiiay ?ac?aaioea eaiaiiiai oaey a
Aeiiaanna, ia?anoaaoay auno?uie oaiiaie. A 1880 a. auei aeiauoi 1,4 iei.
oiii, a 1900 a. – aei 11 iei. oiii, a a 1913 a – ieiei 16,9 iei. oiii.
Iaeaioia I ie?iaie aieiu a Aeiiaanna nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue aieaa 70% anae
oaeaaeiau/e ?inneeneie eiia?ee. A ia?eiae I ie?iaie aieiu e
iineaaeiaaaoae ca iae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu aeiau/a oaey cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeanue (aei 4,6 iei. oiii, 1920 a.). Ia?aae ia/aeii II ie?iaie
aieiu a Aeiiaanna aeiauaaeinue 83,7 iei. oiii oaey, /oi ninoaaeyei aieaa
iieiaeiu oaeaaeiau/e NNN?.

Iaeneiaeueiua iau?iu aeiau/e eaiaiiiai oaey (ii/oe 200 iei. oiii a aiae)
auee aeinoeaioou a Oe?aeineie NN? a 1970-a aiaeu. E iiiaioo ?aniaaea
Niaaoneiai Nithca Oe?aeia caieiaea aoi?ia ianoi a Aa?iia ii oaeaaeiau/a
iinea Iieueoe. A 1989 a. a Oe?aeia aeiauee 170,2 iei. oiii, /oi a
?an/?oa ia aeooo ianaeaiey oiaaea ninoaaeyei 3500 ea oaey (a oeaeii ii
NNN? – 2701 ea), a NOA – 3516, Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 1771 ea, O?aioeee – 294
ea, *aoineiaaeee – 7913 ea e Iieueoa – 7039 ea.

Ea?oa-noaia oaieueiuo aannaeiia Oe?aeiu

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Oe?aeia ian/eouaaaony ieiei 300 aeaenoaothueo
eaiaiiioaieueiuo oaoo (a 40% ec ieo aeiauaaaony eienothueeny oaieue).
E?iia oiai, iiaeaioiaeai e yenieoaoaoeee 41 ?aca?aiue o/anoie aeey
oaooiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa noiia?iie iiuiinoueth 92 iei. oiii eaiaiiiai
oaey a aiae (a o./. aeey eienothuaainy oaey – 16 oaoo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
iiuiinoueth 35 iei. oiii oaey).

Aeiiaoeeee aannaei.

Aeiau/a oaey a Oe?aeia (iei. oiii)Aeae
oaey196019701980199119972005Eaiaiiue154,2177,8150,999,950,360,4Ao?ue12,0
9,58,06,51,31,2

A Aeiiaannaoaeaiiniua ieiuaaee caieiatho nauoa 150 oun. ei2, /oi
ninoaaeyao ii/oe /aoaa?oue ieiuaaee no?aiu. Caeanue nin?aaeioi/aiii
ieiei 92% caiania eaiaiiiai oaey Oe?aeiu. Ec ieo i?eaeeceoaeueii 34%
i?eoiaeeony ia Aeiiaoeeee ?aaeii, a inoaeueiua ?aniieiaeaiu ia
oa??eoi?ee Eoaaineie, Aeiai?iiao?ianeie e Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoae. A
ianoi?iaeaeaieyo Aeiiaanna i?aiaeaaeaao yia?aaoe/aneee oaieue (56%),
i?aeiouanoaaiii eniieuecoaiue aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee e
oaieiniaaaeaiey ianae?iiuo ioieoia. Iniiaiua aai caianu nin?aaeioi/aiu a
Eoaaineie iaeanoe. Caianu eienothuaainy oaey, i?eiaiyaiiai aeey auieaaee
/??iuo iaoaeeia, ninoaaeyao 44% iaueo caiania. Aai ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iaoiaeyony i?aeiouanoaaiii a Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe, aaea ?aniieiaeaii
aieueoeinoai oaoo e noi?ie?iaaeenue iiuiaeoea oeaio?u oaeaaeiau/e –
Aeiiaoee, Iaeaaaea, Aiaeeaai, Oi?ac, E?aniia?iaene e ae?.

Aeiiaoeeee oaieue, aeiauaaaiue i?aeiouanoaaiii oaooiui niiniaii, eiaao
aunieoth naaanoieiinoue, eioi?ay naycaia n aeoaieei (aei 1 ei e aieaa)
caeaaaieai ieanoia e ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoie eo iiuiinoueth.
Cia/eoaeueiue o?iaaiue oece/aneie n?aaioaiiinoe ai?iiaeiauaathuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey, cae?uoea iaeioi?uo oaoo, nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea aeiau/e
oaey (ca aiaeu iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiu ii/oe ao?ia) e i/aiue o?oaeiua
oneiaey ?aaiou ai?iyeia i?eaaei e ?inoo nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe a
o?aaeeoeeiiii oaoo??neii ?aaeiia. Aeey yooaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaiaoiaeei eiiieaen ia? ninoiyueo ec ?aeiino?oeoeee e
iiaea?iecaoeee oaoo, oaaee/aiey aaciianiinoe o?oaea (a n?aaeiai iaeia
oaoo??neay aeeciue i?eoiaeeony ia 1 iei. oiii aeiauoiai oaey), iao/aiey
iioa?yaoeo ?aaioo ai?iyeia ae?oaei niaoeeaeueiinoyi e ae?.

Oaieueiua caianu Oe?aeiuIacaaiea ?aaeiiaEiee/anoai
ianoi?iaeaeaieeCaianu, iei. oiiiOaieue
eaiaiiueAeiiaoeeay30318549,0Eoaaineay28617984,2Aeiai?iiao?ianeay5513986,
1Oa?ueeianeay62081,1Eueaianeay281364,7Aieuineay1175,4Oe?aeia68954040,5Oa
ieue
ao?ueAeiai?iiao?ianeay211578,7Ee?iaia?aaeneay42801,3Oa?ueeianeay1390,0*a
?eanneay884,1Caea?iaoneay339,2AEeoiie?neay211,0Oe?aeia772904,3

Cia/eoaeueiua iau?iu oaooiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa inouanoaeyaony a iineaaeiea
aiaeu a Caiaaeiii Aeiiaanna (Aeiai?iiao?ianea iaeanoue), aaea aeaaiaea?y
ia?ainiauaieth aeaenoaothueo e nii?oaeaieth nia?aiaiiuo oaoo oaeaeinue
ianeieueei nieceoue naaanoieiinoue aeiauaaaiiai oaey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
a Aeiiaanna ?aniieiaeaii 275 oaoo, (n eienothueiny oaeai – 120,
aio?aoeeoii – 81); iiaeaioiaeaii 35 ?aca?aiuo o/anoeia aeey nii?oaeaiey
oaoo, iicaieythueo cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoue oaeaaeiau/o. Aieaa 70%
aeiiaoeeiai oaey iio?aaeyaony a Oe?aeia, a inoaeueiie yenii?oe?oaony
i?aeiouanoaaiii a ninaaeiea no?aiu.

Eueaianei-Aieuineee aannaei

Iin?eie E?enoeiiiieue ia aa?aao Caiaaeiiai Aoaa iniiaae a 1692 a.
iieueneee aaoiai E. Iioioeeee. Niaeanii iieuenei-niaaoneiio aeiaiai?o ia
eciaiaiee iineaaiaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu (1951 a.) Oe?aeineie
NN? ioioea /anoue Ethaeeineiai aiaaiaenoaa (a oii /enea E?enoeiiiieue,
ia?aeiaiiaaiiue a *a?aiiia?aae) n caeaaeaie eaiaiiiai oaey, a e Iieueoa
– /anoue iaooaiiniie Ae?iaiau/neie iaeanoe. Oae ia/aeny oe?aeineee yoai
inaiaiey Eueaianei-Aieuineiai eaiaiiioaieueiiai aannaeia e auno?ia
i?aa?auaiea *a?aiiia?aaea a oaoo??neee ai?iae.

Eueaianei-Aieuineee eaiaiiioaieueiue aannaei ia/ae inaaeaaoueny a 1950-a
aiaeu iinea “au?aaieaaiey” iieuenei-oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiie
a?aieoeu. Ii ?aniieiaeai ia naaa?a Eueaianeie e thai-caiaaea Aieuineie
iaeanoae. Ieiuaaeue aannaeia ninoaaeyao ieiei 10 oun. ei2, ioiineoaeueii
iaeiiiuiua oaieueiua ieanou caeaaatho caeanue ia aeoaeiao 300-500 i, /oi
a n?aaeiai iaania/eaaao naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ieaea aeiiaanneie.
Ianoiue oaieue eniieuecotho i?aeiouanoaaiii eae yia?aaoe/aneia oiieeai,
a oaeaea a ea/anoaa oeie/aneiai nu?uey – aeey iieo/aiey eaiaiiioaieueiie
niieu, iieoeiena e ae?.

Iau?i aeiau/e eaiaiiiai oaey a Eueaianei-Aieuineii aannaeia ninoaaeyao
ieiei 14 iei. oiii a aiae, /oi niiinoaaeii n oaeaaeiau/ae anae
?inneeneie eiia?ee iaeaioia I ie?iaie aieiu. *anoue oaey iaiaauaaony e
aeinoaaeyaony ia ?aniieiaeaiiua a caiaaeiie Oe?aeia Ao?oouineoth e
Aeia?ioai?neoth yeaeo?inoaioeee. A ?aeiiao oaeaaeiau/e nicaeaiu iiaua
ai?iaea e ?aai/ea iin?eee – *a?aiiia?aae, Iiaiaieuine, Niniiaea,
AEiaoiaaa, Ai?iye e ae?. Caianu oaey aannaeia ioiineoaeueii iaaaeeee,
/oi iaecaaaeii i?eaaae?o a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu e i?ae?auaieth
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?yaea oaoo, en/a?iaaoeo ?ano?nu. Ianiio?y ia
ioiineoaeueii iacia/eoaeueiua iau?iu aeiau/e oaey, Eueaianei-Aieuineee
aannaei ea?aao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea caiaaeiie
/anoe no?aiu e aeeceaaeaueo oa??eoi?ee.

Aeiai?ianeee aannaei

A Aeiai?ianeii aannaeia ao?ue oaieue aeiauaatho i?aeiouanoaaiii ioe?uoui
niiniaii. Caeanue nin?aaeioi/aii ieiei 200 ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ec eioi?uo
caianu ii/oe 80 o/oaiu a Ainoaea?noaaiiii aaeaina Oe?aeiu. Ao?ue oaieue,
a ioee/ea io eaiaiiiai, aeaaiaea?y iiauoaiiie aeaaeiinoe, aunieiio
niaea?aeaieth na?u e cia/eoaeueiie cieueiinoe eiaao nouanoaaiii
iaiueooth oaieiia?acothuoth niiniaiinoue. Ii i?eaiaeai aeey
a?eeaoe?iaaiey, iieoeieniaaiey, aaceoeeaoeee e ecaioiaeaiey
eneonnoaaiiiai ai?iiai ainea. Iniiaiuie oeaio?aie ao?ioaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu yaeythony ai?iaea Aaoooeii (*a?eanneay iaeanoue)
e Aeaenaiae?ey(Ee?iaia?aaeneay iaeanoue). Ao?ioaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
a ia?aie/aiiuo iau?iao ?acaeoa oaeaea a iaeioi?uo ?aeiiao AEeoiie?neie
iaeanoe. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy cia/eoaeueiua caianu ao?iai oaey (ii/oe 400
iei. oiii) auyaeaiu ca i?aaeaeaie Oe?aeineiai ueoa – ia oa??eoi?ee
Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe.

A iineaaiaiiua aiaeu a iacia/eoaeueiuo ianooaaao auea i?aaieciaaia
aeiau/a ao?iai oaey a caiaaeiuo iaeanoyo no?aiu – aeec ai?iaeia
Ciei/aaa, AEieeau (Eueaianeay iaeanoue), Eieiiue (Eaaii-O?aieianeay
iaeanoue) e a Caea?iaouea. Iaeaunoaai o?iaiy oaeaaeiau/a caeanue
aeinoeaea a 1955 a. – 981 oun. oiii (a oii /enea a Caea?iaouea 400 oun.
oiii, Eueaianeie iaeanoe – 454 oun. oiii e Eaaii-O?aieianeie – 68 oun.
oiii). A nayce n en/a?iaieai caiania e ia/aeii ?ac?aaioee
Eueaianei-Aieuineiai eaiaiiioaieueiiai aannaeia ao?ioaieueiua oaoou e
ea?uea?u Caiaiiie Oe?aeiu i?ae?aoeee naith ?aaioo.

Iaeaunoee o?iaaiue aeiau/e ao?iai oaey a Oe?aeia aeinoeaioo a 1960 a.
(12 iei. oiii). N oao ii? iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e aai iinoaiaiiiio
nieaeaieth – ca aiaeu iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiu aeiau/a ao?iai oaey
nie?aoeeanue aieaa /ai a 5 ?ac.

Ianiio?y ia nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea iau?iia aeiau/e ca iineaaeiea aiaeu,
oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Oe?aeiu eiaao cia/eoaeueiua ia?niaeoeau aeey
?acaeoey. E?eceniia ninoiyiea io?anee, naycaiiia ni cia/eoaeueiui
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa, aucaaii niaiie
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai no?iy e ioeaeaie a i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeea
no?aiu

Aeiey oaey a iauai iauaia i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa a iaae?ao Oe?aeiu
ninoaaeyao 95 %.

Oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Oe?aeiu yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaciauo io?aneae
yeiiiieee. Aa o/anoea a AAI Oe?aeiu a 1999 aiaeo ninoaaeei 5,1%. Iia
yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie ninoaaeythuae ae?oaeo aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae:
yeaeo?iyia?aaoeee e iaoaeeo?aee.

Iaeiaei a iineaaeiea aiaeu neiaeeeinue aieueoia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
/?acau/aeii aaaeiui cia/aieai oaieueiie io?anee e oaoie/aneei e
yeiiiie/aneei ninoiyieai, a eioi?ii iia iaoiaeeony.

Iniiaiua i?e/eiu e?ecena a oaeaaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, yoi:

Aieueoie eciin iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Aieaa 30 % oaoo yenieoaoe?othony aieaa
50 eao.

Iaaeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee e eiaanoeoeee;

?ino caaeieaeaiiinoae ia?aae athaeaeaoii, ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa, ii
?aa?anniui eneai

Aa?oa?ecaoeey ?an/aoia;

Iaaeeaiiua oaiiu ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee io?anee.

Neooaoeey, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue a oe?aeineie oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a
ianoiyuee iiiaio i/aiue neiaeiay e i?inoi iaiaoiaeeii ?aci?aaoue yoio
caieiooue e?oa. Eciaiaiey e iiaue iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth i?iaeai oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaiaoiaeeiu. Ia Oe?aeia anoue iaiaei oaoo, eioi?ua i?e
niioaaonoaothuai iiaeoiaea e eo ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee iiaee au ?aaioaoue
i?eaueueii.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iooae auoiaea ec e?ecena yaeyaony iiauoaiea
eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Na?ueaciaeoae i?iaeaiie yaeyaony aieueoie eciin iniiaiuo oiiaeia.
Noaiaiue eciina iniiaiuo oiiaeia ca iineaaeiea 25 eao oaaee/eeanue aei
70%, a a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo e aieueoa. Iaiaoiaeei iia?aaeathuee ?ino
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a iiaua oaoiieiaee, iiaea?iecaoeeth iniiaiuo
oiiaeia n o/aoii aeeeoaeueiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai oeeeea.

Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?ei?eoaoiinoue eiaiii i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee (aeiaeaiee
a onoaaiie oiiae i?aaei?eyoey n oeaeueth ecaea/aiey aeioiaea e iieo/aiey
i?aa ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee yoei i?aaei?eyoeai).

Oaeei ia?acii, a io?anee neiaeeeanue neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, nouanoaoao ino?ay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?yiii eiaanoe?iaaiee
i?aaei?eyoey, a n ae?oaie – ino?ue aeaoeoeeo ioa/anoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia
oeiaine?iaaiey. A oaeii neo/aa enoi/ieeii eiaanoe?iaaiey iiaoo
aunooiaoue e aunooiatho ca?oaaaeiua eiiiaiee, aaiee e ae?oaea oeiainiaua
einoeooou.

Ii anee ?ene, eioi?iio iiaeaa?aeai iaoeeiiaeueiue eiaanoi?, aunieee, oi
?ene eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a onoaoaeyaony aua ianiaa?oainoaii
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu. Nae/an iiiaea ca?oaaaeiua eiaanoi?u iuoaynue
ieieiece?iaaoue ?enee nie?aoeee aei ieieioia naia i?enoonoaea ia
Oe?aeia. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aieaa i?enoaeueiiai
aieiaiey e aii?inai, eanathueiny eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
Oe?aeia ni noi?iiu eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia.

A ia?niaeoeaa neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue iiauoaiey caeioa?aniaaiiinoe e
o/anoeth a i?ioeanna eiaanoe?iaaiey oaieueiuo i?aaei?eyoee a Oe?aeia ni
noi?iiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoi?ia.

Iaeiaei, aieueoea aeieae oaoo, ieceee o?iaaiue oaoieee aaciianiinoe,
iao?aaoee?iaaiiay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca a iaeanoe eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a io?anee, aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao e
aunieee ?ene eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeaeatho oaoou iai?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey
o/anoey eiaanoi?a a i?ioeanna a ianoiyuee iiiaio.

Eiaanoi?u i?aaeii/eoatho aeeaaeuaaoue aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiua io?anee, /ai a oauoi/iua oaieueiua oaoou.

Iaeiie ec i?e/ei yaeyaony oae aea iaaeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a oaieueiie io?anee. Naia i?eaaoecaoeey ia
i?eaaaeao aaoiiaoe/anee e ?aoaieth anao i?iaeai. Ii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
aac niaiu oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe e aac iaee/ey yooaeoeaiiai nianoaaiieea
i?aaei?eyoey, iaaiciiaeii aai oniaoiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a oneiaeyo
?uiea.

Iaiaoiaeeiui oaeoi?ii aeey i?eaea/aiey eiaanoi?a yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
i?eia?aoaiey eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee oaieueiie oaoou a i?ioeanna
i?eaaoecaoeee. Neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi i?iiuoeaiiue eiaanoi?
i?aneaaeoao oeaeue oi?aaeyoue i?iecaiaenoaii e iieo/aoue io yoiai
i?eaueue, a ia niaeoee?iaaoue aeoeeyie. Eaaeaeue eiaanoi? aeaeaao
eiio?iee?iaaoue i?aaei?eyoea, aeaaeaeueoeai eioi?iai ii yaeyaony. Iiea
eiaanoi? ia aoaeao eiio?iee?iaaoue neooaoeeth ia i?aaei?eyoee ie i eaeie
i?eaaoecaoeee n aai o/anoeai, a cia/eo i i?eaea/aiee aai eaieoaea ia
iiaeao auoue e ?a/e.

Aeey oiai /oiau noeioee?iaaoue i?eaea/aiea /anoiiai eaieoaea a
aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa ia na?ueaciii o?iaia iaiaoiaeeiu:

?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey i?aaei?eyoee, ecaaaeaiea eo io iauaeoia e
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua iiaoo ?aaioaoue naiinoiyoaeueii;

?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey aeieaia oaieueiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

?aoaiea aii?ina i eiio?ieueiii iaeaoa aeoeee;

eciaiaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu (ioiineoaeueii caeiiia
?aaeaiaioe?othueo aii?inu aeiau/e oaey);

eciaiaiea iaoiaeeee ioeaiee ?uii/iie noieiinoe oaeaaeiauaathueo
i?aaei?eyoee a i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee, eioi?ay a ianoiyuee ia io?aaeaao
niaoeeoeee oaieueiie io?anee.

nianoaaiieeo i?eaaoece?iaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia auaeaaaoueny
aeieain?i/iay eeoeaicey ia aeiau/o oaey;

eeaa?aeeciaaoue ?uiie oaey a Oe?aeia, aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue oaieueiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi naiinoiyoaeueii ?ac?aaaouaaoue e ?aaeeciauaaoue
ia?eaoeiaiaoth no?aoaaeth n o/aoii eioa?ania oe?aeineie yeiiiieee e
iaania/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe.

Iniaaiiinoe eiaanoe?iaaiey a oaieueioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue

Eiaanoi?, ?anniao?eaay aii?in ia inouanoaeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa
a ai?iiaeiauaathuae io?anee, aeieaeai o/eouaaoue aa niaoeeoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe.

Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia oneiaey eiaanoe?iaaiey, yaeyaony
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie ieoiaaiinoe i?iaeoa. Iiuo inouanoaeaiey
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?acaeouo
no?ai iieacuaaao, /oi eiaanoeoeeiiiue i?iaeo ia/eiaao ieoiaoueny
i?eia?ii /a?ac 5-10 eao.

Yoe oaeoi?u iaeeaaeuaatho iniaua o?aaiaaiey eiaanoi?a e aa?aioeyi aai
aeayoaeueiinoe ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa.

I?aaeaea anaai, yoi aa?aioee:

i?aaeinoaaeaiey eiaanoi?o anao iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ac?aoaiee (eeoeaicee),
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey inouanoaeaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa ia iieiue n?ie
aai aeaenoaey.

iaeciaiiinoe (noaaeeueiinoe) oneiaee, auaeaiiuo ?ac?aoaiee.

noaaeeueiinoe oneiaee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a oeaeii

noaaeeueiinoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

I?aai eniieueciaaiey eiaanoi?ii iieaciiai eneiiaaiiai a i?aaeaeao
ai?iiai ioaiaea aeieaeii auoue eneeth/eoaeueiui, o.a. ia iiaeao
iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeinoaaeyoueny e ae?oaei eeoeai. Oieueei oae eiaanoi?
iiaeao ianoe iieioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iineaaenoaey naiae
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aaa eiaanoi?a ia aeiau/o e
?aaeecaoeeth iieaciiai eneiiaaiiai ia aeieaeii ia?aie/eaaoueny aiana,
eeai ia?aie/eaaoueny ?acoiii eaioaie, oeaiiauie ia?aie/aieyie, eeai
eiuie niiniaaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

N oi/ee c?aiey yenieoaoaoeee oaea ?acaaaeaiiuo e aeaenoaothueo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, eiaanoi?o aeieaeiu ia?aaeaaaoueny
eneeth/eoaeueii ia?niaeoeaiua iauaeou. Ia?niaeoeaiua – yoi oa ai?iua
ioaiaeu, aaea caeaaee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo iaania/ao aai aeiau/o ia n?ie
aeaenoaey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa.

Ioaeaeueiiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaatho iauaeou, o?aaothuea ?aeoeueoeaaoeee
e ainnoaiiaeaiey (iai?eia? ii?iaeiua ioaaeu). Oaeea iauaeou o?aaotho
aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e iiyoiio iie aeieaeiu ia?aaeaaaoueny
eiaanoi?o ia iniauo oneiaeyo, aiciiaeii, i?e eo ia?aaea/a, aeieaeiu
oiaiueoaoue ?acia?u iieaou ca aeoeee ia noiio o?aaoaiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

Iaiaeiaaaeiui aniaeoii yaeyaony aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea iauaeoa
eiaanoeoeee. Ai?iiaeiauaathuay io?aneue nouanoaoao a oaniie acaeiinayce
n ia?a?aaaouaathueie, iaiaaoeoaeueiuie eiiieaenaie, a oaeaea
iio?aaeoaeyie (iaoaeeo?aey, yia?aaoeea). Eo aaia?aoe/aneay aeecinoue,
?acaeoinoue o?ainii?oiie eio?ano?oeoo?u aeeytho ia ?aoaiea ia
eiaanoe?iaaiee.

Ioaeaeueii eiaanoi? ioeaieaaao eiiieaen yeiiiie/aneeo aii?inia.
Cia/eoaeueiue eciin iai?oaeiaaiey, a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aai caiaiu
ia iiaia, aieaa nia?aiaiiia, ii?aaeaeyao o?aaiaaiey eiaanoi?a e aai
naiaiaeiiio e aaniioeeiiiio aaico ia oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu e auaico.

Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiioth i?iaeaio ninoaaeyao i?iaeaia iaieaoaaeae e eae
neaaenoaea, aa?oa?ecaoeey yeiiiieee. Oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
nouanoaoao a i/aiue oaniie acaeiinayce n yia?aaoe/aneei eiiieaenii.
I?iaeaia ?an/aoia ca yeaeo?iyia?aeth aea/ao ca niaie iaiieaoo oiieeaa
yeaeo?inoaioeeyie. /oi, a eiia/iii n/aoa, naiaeeo e ioeth naio eaeath
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii eiaanoi? caeioa?aniaai a
iaee/ee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee iieaou eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ca a?aiy aeeeoaeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey oaieueiuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie o ieo iaeiieeinue ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aeieaia e a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ia?aae athaeaeaoii. I?aaenoaaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii iioaaeueiui
no?aieaiea ainoaea?noaa ia?aeiaeeoue naie aeieae ia iiaiai nianoaaiieea,
ii iaeiaa?iyoii, /oi eiaanoi? n yoei niaeaneony. Eiaaea aeieaeiee e
e?aaeeoi? niaiaaeatho a iaeiii eeoea, aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai
i?ae?auaaony. Iiyoiio nienaiea ainoaea?noaii noa?uo aeieaia yaeyaony
eiae/iui e ni?aaaaeeeaui.

*oi eanaaony aii?oecaoeeiiiie iieeoeee, oi nouanoaothuee a Oe?aeia
ii?yaeie aii?oecaoeee nouanoaaiii oi?iiceo i?ioeann iaiiaeaiey iniiaiuo
oiiaeia. Ai?iiaeiauaathuaa iai?oaeiaaiea yenieoaoe?oaony a i/aiue
neiaeiuo oneiaeyo e eiaao e?aoeia?aiaiiue n?ie neoaeau. I?iecaiaeeoaeue
aeieaeai naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue aii?oecaoeeiiioth iieeoeeo n
o/aoii naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oaeoi?ia, /oi, a iauai-oi, niioaaonoaoao
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iiyoiio ,
niioaaonoaea iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaee aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e
iai?oaeiaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa oaeaea
aeeyao ia i?eiyoea eiaanoi?ii ?aoaiey ia eiaanoe?iaaiee.

Aua iaeei yeiiiie/aneee aii?in. Aeeythuee ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia
eiaanoe?iaaiee – yoi nicaeaiea ?aca?aiuo oiiaeia aeey ?aeoeueoeaaoeee
(ainnoaiiaeaiey) caiaeue. ?aeoeueoeaaoeey caiaeue ii ieii/aiee
eniieueciaaiey ianoi?iaeaeaiey yaeyaony iaycaiiinoueth iieueciaaoaey
iaae?aie, auoaeathuae ec i?aaa iieueciaaiey. Iiyoiio cao?aou ia
?aeoeueoeaaoeeth aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae caaa?oathuay /anoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, a ?anoiaeu ia nicaeaiea ?aca?aiuo oiiaeia
aeey ?aeoeueoeaaoeee aeieaeiu oiaiueoaoue iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth aaco, o.a.
ioiineoueny ia naaanoieiinoue.

*oi eanaaony yeieiae/aneeo noaiaea?oia i?iecaiaenoaa, oi iie oaeaea
aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiui.

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