.

Топливно-энергетический комплекс Украины

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1358
Скачать документ

Caianu ia?ae/iuo eneiiaaiuo yia?aiiineoaeae e yia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae
aiciaiiaeyaiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee Oe?aeiu

Iniiaiie i?aaie/aneee yia?aiiineoaeue a Oe?aeia – eaiaiiue e ao?ue
oaieue. Iauea aaieiae/aneea caianu eaiaiiiai oaey ninoaaeytho 94,5%,
ao?iai – 5,5%. Ii iauei ioeaieai a iaae?ao Oe?aeiu iiaeao auoue
nin?aaeioi/aiii aei 300 ie?ae.o oaey. Anee ii aeaiiui caiaaeiuo
yenia?oia ie?iauo caiania iaooe e aaca oaaoeo ia 80-90 eao, oaey – ia
350 eao, oi caiania oaey – ia 400 eao. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
?anniao?eaaoue nia?aiaiioth oaieueioth yia?aaoeeo eae i?ei?eoaoioth, a
oaieue – eae iniiaiie yia?aaoe/aneee ?ano?n Oe?aeiu. Aaeainiaua,
aiaaaeainiaua e i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu oaey a Oe?aeia ninoaaeytho 117,3
ie?ae. o, ?acaaaeaiiua caianu ii eaoaai?eyi A + NA + N2 – 52,6 ie?ae. o,
ec ieo eienothuee oaieue – 17,7 ie?ae. o (31%), aio?aoeeou – 8,3 ie?ae.
o (11,5%). A ?ac?aaioea e iiaeaioiaea aeey inaiaiey iaoiaeyony caianu
23,6 ie?ae. o.

A «Eiioeaioeee no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee», iiaeaioiaeaiiia
Ieioaeai?iiii Oe?aeiu aua a 1995 a., ?aaeueiue aaeaaiaeiue iioaioeeae
io?anee ioeaieaaaony a 100 iei. o oaey. I?e oaieiia?aciaaoaeueiuo
naienoaao 4500–5000 eeae/ea (18,7-20,8 Iaeae/ ea) oaeea iauaiu aeiau/e
yeaeaaeaioiu 64,3-71,4 iei. oiii oneiaiiai oiieeaa (o o.i.), /oi
ninoaaeyao 21,4-23,8% iaueo iio?aaiinoae no?aiu o ia?ae/iuo OY?. Nae/an
e a ia?niaeoeaa oaieue aoaeao caieiaoue aaaeouaa ianoi a i?iecaiaenoaa
OY? Oe?aeiu. Aaeainiaua caianu oaey ia ia/aei 90-o aiaeia ninoaaeyee 47
ie?ae. o, a oii /enea eienothueo – 15, yia?aaoe/aneeo – 32 ie?ae. o.

Ia?aua ianoi?iaeaeaiey oaey a Oe?aeia a Aeiiaanna auee ioe?uoua a 1721
a. Aeiiaann a 1913 a. aeaaae nauoa o?ao /aoaa?oae iauae aeiau/e
eaiaiiiai oaey ?innee. Caianu eaiaiiiai oaey nin?aaeioi/aiiua a
Aeiiaoeeii (98% iaueo caiania) e Eueaianei-aieuineii aannaeiao (2%),
ao?iai oaey – a iniiaiii a Aeiai?ianeii aannaeia.

Aeiiaoeeee oaieueiue aannaei ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee Aeiiaoeeie,
Eoaaineie e ainoi/iie /anoe Aeiai?iiao?ianeie iaeanoae. Oaieue
Aeiiaoeeiai oaieueiiai aannaeia aeaeeony ia eaiaiiue (75-90% oaea?iaea,
oaieioai?iinoue 7000 Eeae/ea) e aio?aoeeo (90-96% oaea?iaea,
oaieioai?iinoue 8600 Eeae/ea). Oaieue Aeiiaanna oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iiauoaiiie cieueiinoueth e cia/eoaeueiui niaea?aeeiui na?u. N?aaeiaa
niaea?aeeiia cieu a oaea ninoaaeyao aei 25%, a n?aaeiaa niaea?aeeiia
na?u – 2,5%. N?aaeiyy aeoaeia aeiiaoeeeo oaoo aeinoeaaao aei 700 i,
ieiei 15% oaoo eiatho aeoaeio nauoa 1000 i. I?eaeeceoaeueii 85% oaieue
niaea?aeeony a ieanoao iiuiinoueth aei 1,2 i e oieueei 15% eiatho
aieueooth oieueio. Ieiei 65% ieanoia eiatho iaaieueoie oeeii, eioi?ue
iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue iaoaiecaoeeth, e 35% ieanoia eiatho e?ooie oeeii.

Eueaianei-Aieuineee aannaei ?aniieiaeai ia thaa Aieuineie e ia naaa?a
Eueaianeie iaeanoae. Iniiaiay /anoue caiania oaey Eueaianei-Aieuineiai
aannaeia (66%) – yoi aaciaue oaieue (aenieieaoo/ee, yia?aaoe/aneee
oaieue), ae?oaea caianu – ia?aoiaeiue oaieue io aaciaiai e aee?iiio.
AEe?iue oaieue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieei oeie/aneei iioaioeeaeii.
Cieueiinoue oaey ninoaaeyao io 5 aei 35%, niaea?aeeiia na?u – 1,5-9%,
eaoathueo aauanoa – io 40% a aeeeiiiieaiaiiii e aei 26% a aee?iii,
aeaaeiinoue niioaaonoaaiii io 5-7,6 aei 0,8-1,6%. Aoioniaue oaieue eiaao
oaeia niaea?aeeiia: oaea?iae – 81,1-85,4%, aiaei?iae – 4,5-6,1%,
eenei?iae, acio, na?a – 9,2-13,1%. Ieanou oaey caeaaatho ia aeoaeia
300–500 i, iaeneiaeueiay iiuiinoue ieanoia – 2,8 i.

Ao?ue oaieue aeiauaatho ia oa??eoi?ee I?eaeiai?ianeie aicauoaiiinoe,
I?eea?iaouey e Caea?iaouey. Iniiaiay /anoue oiieeaa aeiauaaaony a
*a?eanneie iae. (Aaoooeii), Ee?iaia?aaeneie iae. (Aeaenaiae?ey),
AEeoiie?neie (Ei?inoeoaaneia ianoi?iaeaeaiea). Oaieue caeaaaao ieanoaie
iiuiinoueth io ianeieueeeo naioeiao?ia aei 15-20 i e aieueoa, aeoaeia
caeaaaiey ieanoia io 10 aei 60 i e aieueoa.

Oaieue aannaeia iyaeia, ao?ia, aoieoiaa. Cieueiinoue oaey 15-45% e
aieueoa, aeaaeiinoue 55-60%, n?aaeiaa niaea?aeaiea na?u 2,3-3,1%,
oaea?iaea 60-70%, aiaei?iaea 5-6,5%, eenei?iaea e acioa 23-26%, niieu
15-16%, auoiae eaoo/eo aauanoa 45-70%. Aai oaieioai?iinoue aeinoeaaao
1800–1900 eeae/ea. Aieueooth iieiaeio yoiai oaey aeiauaatho a ea?uea?ao
ioe?uoui niiniaii.

Iinea 2000-ai aiaea iauai ni?ina ia ?aciiia?aciua aeaeu oaey aoaeao
ninoaaeyoue 170–172 iei.o, a oii /enea 118–120 iei.o aeey yia?aaoeee.
Oe?aeia /anoe/ii eiii?oe?oao oaieue ec Iieueoe, ?innee, Eacaonoaia.

Oe?aeia – iaeia ec iaenoa?aeoeo iaooaaeiauaathueo ainoaea?noa ie?a.
Ecaanoiua o?e iaooyiuo ?aeiia – I?eea?iaoneee, Aeiai?ianeee-Aeiiaoeeee,
I?e/a?iiii?neee. I?iiuoeaiiay ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee a
?aeiia Ai?enneaaa ia/aeanue a 1886 a. A 1908–1910 aa. a Caiaaeiie
Oe?aeia aeiauaaee ii 1,5-2 iei.o iaooe aaeaaiaeii. Yoi auei a oi a?aiy
o?aoueei iieacaoaeai a ie?a (iinea NOA e ?innee).

Aaieiai?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou ii iaooe e aaco a Oe?aeia aaaeoony ai anao
o?ao iaooaaaciiiniuo ?aaeiiao – Ainoi/iii, Caiaaeiii e THaeiii.

Ia/aeueiua iioaioeeaeueiua ?ano?nu oaeaaiaei?iaeia Oe?aeiu a ia?a?an/aoa
ia oneiaiia oiieeai ninoaaeytho 8417,8 iei.o, a oii /enea iaooe – 1325,7
(15,7%), aaciaiai eiiaeainaoa – 380,5 iei. o (4,5%), aaca naiaiaeiiai –
6435,7 (76,5%), aaca aeeaeeiai – 275,9 ie?ae. i3 (3,3%). Ii ninoiyieth
ia 01.01.97 a. ia ainoaea?noaaiiii aaeaina ian/eouaathony 296
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ec ieo 67 – iaooyiuo, 10 – aaciiaooyiuo e iaooaaaciauo,
51 – iaooa-aacieiiaeainaoiuo, 70 – aaciauo e 98 – aacieiiaeainaoiuo,
ia/aeueiua ?acaaaeaiiua aeiauaathuea caianu eioi?uo ii eaoaai?eyi A+A+N,
ninoaaeytho 3418,2 iei. o oneiaiiai oiieeaa, oi anoue ia/aeueiua ?ano?nu
oaeaaiaei?iaeia ?acaaaeaiu ia 41 %, a oii /enea ii iaooe – 33,
naiaiaeiiio aaco – 43%. Noaiaiue au?aaioaiiinoe (/anoue noiia?iie
aeiau/e a ia/aeueiuo iioaioeeaeueiuo ?ano?nao) niioaaonoaaiii 21,4 e
24,2%. Oaeei ia?acii, 6382,7 iei. o oneiaiiai oiieeaa (75,8%)
oaeaaiaeiuo ?ano?nia aua inoathony a iaae?ao Oe?aeiu, i?e yoii 5010,0
iei. o oneiaiiai oiieeaa (59%) ninoaaeytho ia?acaaaeaiiua ?ano?nu –
eaoaai?ee N2 + N3 + Ae1 + Ae2.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi 1531,9 iei. o o.o., eee 18,2% ia/aeueiuo
iioaioeeaeueiuo ?ano?nia oaeaaiaei?iaeia iaoiaeyony a a?aieoeao oaeueoia
*a?iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae, eioi?ua ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeythony
iaeieie ec iaeia?niaeoeaiaeoeo ?aeiiia aeey i?iaaaeaiey
iieneiai-?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio.

?ano?niay aaca iaooaaaciaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu iicaieyao
i?e aa yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee noaaeeece?iaaoue, a a ia?niaeoeaa
iiauneoue aeiau/o iaooe e aaca. Iaeiaei, ia/eiay n 1990 a., iauaiu
aaieiai?acaaaei/iiai ao?aiey nie?aoeeenue aieaa /ai a 7 ?ac, a i?e?ino
caiania – a 5 ?ac. Aeaoeoeeo i?e?inoa caiania e aeiau/a iaoiaeeony ia
o?iaia 50%. I?e/eiie oaeiai ninoiyiey yaeyaony, i?aaeaea anaai,
nouanoaothuay ianiaa?oaiiay nenoaia oeiaine?iaaiey, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ie io/eneaiey io ?aaeecaoeee aeiauouo iaooe e aaca ia
aaieiai?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou iai?aaeythony a iniiaiii a ainoaea?noaaiiue
athaeaeao.

Ia eniieuecothony a i?iiuoeaiiuo ioaeaeao oaoiieiaee oa?ie/aneie
ia?a?aaioee aeiiannu e iooiaeia, a oii /enea oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae caiaiu eiii?oe?iaaiiiai aaca aeinoaoi/ii
aunieee. N?iee ieoiaaiinoe a iniiaiii ia i?aauoatho 1-3 eao.

Caaea/a aeiau/e iaoaia ec oaieueiuo ieanoia – eiiieaeniay. Aeaaacaoeey
oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiay n oeaeueth iiauoaiey
aaciianiinoe oaieueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A niioaaonoaee n Ainoaea?noaaiiie
I?ia?aiiie ii i?iaeaiai ?acaaaeee, aeiau/e e eniieueciaaiey iaoaia
oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee aoaeao auiieiai ia?a?an/ao caiania aaca. Oai
aea i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua ia/aeueiiai yoaia aeiau/e, eioi?ua aeinoeaioo 387
iei. i3 ia aiae.

I?eea?iaoneee iaooaaaciiiniue ?aeii ioaaouaaao oa??eoi?eth aaeieue
naaa?i-ainoi/iuo neeiiia Ea?iao. Ia naaiaeiy a I?eea?iaouea
yenieoaoe?othony Aeoeeaneia, Ai?eneaaneia, Aeieeineia,
Naaa?ii-Aeieeineia e ?eiiyineia ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Iaooue caeaaaao ia
aeoaeia 1000–3500 i. Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeee iaooaaaciiiniue ?aeii
ioaaouaaao Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeoth aiaaeeio, oyiaony ia 650–700 ei oceie
iieinie 80–150 ei ia Eaaiaa?aaeuea Oe?aeiu. E aaaeiaeoei
ianoi?iaeaeaieyi yoiai ?aeiia ioiinyony Eaeyeianeia, I?eeoeneia,
Ea/aiianeia, Ioou?neia, ?aae/aieianeia, Aeeinei-?icaeoaaneia. Iaooue
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeiai ?aeiia eiaao aunieia ea/anoai. Iia niaea?aeeo
iiiai eaaeeo o?aeoeee, aeaao aunieee auoiae aaiceia, oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iaeui niaea?aeaieai na?u.

I?e/a?iiii?neee iaooaaaciiiniue ?aeii ioaaouaaao I?e/a?iiii?neoth
aiaaeeio, Noaiiie E?ui, Ea?/aineee iieoino?ia, a oaeaea
naaa?i-caiaaeioth /anoue aeaaoi?ee *a?iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae. Ia
Ea?/aineii iieoino?iaa aua a 1866 a. ia/aeenue ia?aua ao?iaua ?aaiou,
aucaaiiua auoiaeii iaooe e aaca ia iiaa?oiinoue

Iaeaieueoea ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe iaoiaeyony a Noineie iaeanoe.
Aieueoeinoai cia/eoaeueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe Oe?aeiu oaea en/a?iaiiu
ii/oe aei i?iaeoiiio o?iaiy. Iai?eia?, o?iaaiue iaooaaeiau/e
Eaeyeianeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey aeinoea 59% i?e i?iaeoiii a 62,2%,
Aiaaeeioeianeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey niioaaonoaaiii – 61,1 e 62,2,
I?eeoeneiai – 53,2 e 56,6, Ea/aiianeiai – 43,5 e 45,6.

Anoanoaaiiua ai?th/ea aacu iaeaeaiu a oao aea ?aeiiao, /oi e iaooue.
Aeey aeiau/e aaca nae/an a I?eea?iaoneii ?aeiia yenieoaoe?othony oaeea
iniiaiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey: ?oaeeianeia, Iia?neia, Oiaeiiae/neia,
Aeoeianeia, Eaeooniei, Eaaeiaiyinieia. Ia naaiaeiy caianu Aeaoaanueeiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiey ii/oe en/a?iaiu. Iii eniieuecoaony eae aacio?aieeeua.
Anoanoaaiiue aac I?eea?iaouey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieei niaea?aeeiui
iaoaia (aei 98%).

Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeee ?aeii ia/ae ?acaeaaoueny a 50–60-o aiaeao 20-ai
noieaoey. Iaeaieueoaa ianoi?iaeaeaiea – Oaaaeeiea, aaea aeiauoi ieiei
iieiaeiu anaai iauaia aaca Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeiai ?aeiia. Aaciaua
ianoi?iaeaeaiey yoiai ?aeiia i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoaiiaua (niaea?aeaiea
iaoaia aei 98%) n iaaieueoei eiee/anoaii oaeaeeneiai aaca (aei 3%) e
acioa (aei 10%). Aieueoeie ianoi?iaeaeaieyie aaca a yoii ?aaeiia oaeaea
yaeythony Ao?aiianeia, Nieaaeianeia, Eaae/aaneia, Nieioianeia,
Iaoaaneia, Aaeueneia, Ea/aiianeia, Ieoaeeianiei e ae?.

A I?e/a?iiii?neii iaooaaaciiiniii ?aeiia aieueoea ianoi?iaeaeaiey
anoanoaaiiiai aaca ioe?uou a E?uio: Aeaeaieieneia, Aeaaianeia,
Caaei?iyineia, Caiaaeii-Ieoya?ueneia, E?aniiiieyineia. Iauea caianu
caeanue aeinoeaatho 1254 ie?ae. i3. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey aaca auee iaeaeaiu a
naaa?iii E?uio aua a 1960 a., a iiae Acianeei ii?ai a 70-o aiaeao.
Nae/an oaeueoiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey inoathony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
?acaaaeaiiuie, ia aeoaeia ii?y iaiueoa 60 i auei auyaeaii 10
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Iaeaieueoea ianoi?iaeaeaiey ia oaeueoa thaeiie Oe?aeiu
– yoi Aieeoeeineia e Oieaeoa.

A yenieoaoaoeee iaoiaeyony 115 aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, aaeainiaua
caianu anoanoaaiiiai aaca a eioi?uo ninoaaeytho 830 ie?ae. i3. Iauea
caianu anoanoaaiiiai aaca ii eaoaai?eyi A + A + N4 ninoaaeytho nauoa
1120 ie?ae. i3.

Aieueoay /anoue aeiauouo a Oe?aeia aaca e iaooe a i?ioeii i?eoiaeeeanue
ia ao?iaua neaaaeeiu aeoaeiie 2,5-5 ei, ii nae/an ao?iaua neaaaeeiu
aeinoeaatho aeoaeiu 4-7 ei ec-ca iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?ac?aaioee aieaa
aeoaieeo cii aaciiiniuo e iaooaiiniuo ieanoia. Iauaa eiee/anoai
yenieoaoe?oaiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ninoaaeyea 208. Nae/an nauoa 57%
?acaaaeaiiuo caiania iaiaoiaeeii ioianoe e oyaeaeiaeiauaaaiui.

A niioaaonoaee n Iaoeeiiaeueiie i?ia?aiiie «Iaooue e aac Oe?aeiu aei
2010 aiaea» i?aaeiieaaaaony aeiaaaeaiea aiaeiauo iauaiia aeiau/e iaooe e
eiiaeainaoa aei 7,5 iei. o a 2010 a., ec eioi?uo 2,5 iei. o aoaeao
aeiauaaoueny ia oaeueoao *a?iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae. Aei 2010 a. iauai
aiaeiaie aeiau/e aaca ieaie?oaony oaaee/eoue aei 35,3 iei. i3, ec
eioi?uo ia oaeueoa – 6,3 ie?ae. i3. Ia/aeueiua caianu iaooe e aaca
Oe?aeiu ninoaaeytho 8,418 ie?ae. o o.o., ec eioi?uo 6,4 ie?ae. o o.o. –
aac, 1,3 ie?ae. o – iaooue, 0,4 ie?ae. o – eiiaeainao. ?acaaaeaiiua
caianu Oe?aeiu ninoaaeytho 1,4 ie?ae. o o.o., ec eioi?uo aac – 1,15
o?ei. i3, iaooue – 153 iei. o, eiiaeainao – 83 iei. o. ?acaaaeaiiua
caianu oaeaaiaeiiai nu?uey Oe?aeiu iaoiaeyony a 297 ianoi?iaeaeaieyo, ec
eioi?uo 80 – aaciaua, 94 – aacieiiaeainaoiua, 49 –
iaooa-aacieiiaeainaoiua, 9 – eiiaeainaoiua, 65 – iaooyiua.

A Oe?aeia aue aeinoeaioo ?aei?ae aeiau/e ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia IY?: 218
iei. o oaiey a 1976 a., 14,4 iei. o iaooe, a oii /enea aaciaiai
eiiaeainaoa, a 1972 a., 68,7 ie?ae. i3 anoanoaaiiiai aaca a 1975 a.

Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy naiiyia?aiiaania/aiey
Oe?aeiu eiatho caeaaee o?aiiaie ?oaeu. Oe?aeia caieiaao iaeii ec aeaeiuo
iano a Aa?iia ii aa aeiau/a. I?iaiice?oaiua caianu o?aiiaie ?oaeu a
Aeiai?iiao?ianeie iae. ninoaaeytho 40 oun. o. Iai?eia?, ?acaaaeaiiuo
caiania o?aiiaie ?oaeu oaaoeo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yaea?iiai oiieeaa n
o/aoii eiee/anoaa aeieia AYN ia 150 eao. Oe?aeineee o?ai iinea i/enoee
niaea?aeeo oieueei 0,7% 235U, oiaaea eae aoiiiua ?aaeoi?u ioa/anoaaiiuo
AYN o?aaotho 4%. A Oe?aeia ionoonoaoao caieiooue oeeee ii i?iecaiaenoao
yaea?iiai oiieeaa.

Aaeeinoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai Oe?aeiu ii aeiau/a o?aiiaie ?oaeu e
i?iecaiaenoao eiioeaio?aoa anoanoaaiiiai o?aia yaeyaony Ainoi/iue
ai?iiiaiaioeoaeueiue eiiaeiao (a. AEaeoua Aiaeu, Aeiai?iiao?ianeie
iae.). Aoaeouaa eiiaeiaoa e o?aiiaeiauaathuae io?anee Oe?aeiu a oeaeii
naycaii n aaaaeaieai a i?iiuoeaiioth yenieoaoaoeeth
Iiaieinoaioeiianieiai o?aiiaiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Ii caianai ?oaeu
niaoeeaeenou ioiinyo yoi ianoi?iaeaeaiea e ia?aie aeaaaeoeaoea ie?iauo
o?aiiauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, i?iaeoiue n?ie aai yenieoaoaoeee ioeaieaaaony
a 50 eao.

Oe?aeia caieiaao o?aouea ianoi n?aaee no?ai NIA ii caianai oi?oa: ieiei
2500 ianoi?iaeaeaiee oi?oa. Aaeainiaua caianu aicaeooii-nooiai oi?oa
ninoaaeytho 2,7 ie?ae. o. Aeaaiui ia?acii oi?oyiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
nin?aaeioi/aiu a Iieanuea, a oaeaea a *a?eanneie e Eueaianeie iaeanoyo.
N?aaeiyy oaieioai?iay niiniaiinoue oi?oa – 2300 eeae/ea. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey
ai?th/eo neaioeaa eiathony a Ee?iaia?aaeneie, Eueaianeie, *a?eanneie,
Caea?iaoneie e ae?oaeo iaeanoyo, eo iauea caianu ninoaaeytho 3,7 ie?ae.
o. A eanenouo ?aeiiao Oe?aeiu (Ea?iaou, Iieanuea, /anoe/ii eaninoaiue) a
ea/anoaa oiieeaa eniieuecotho ae?iaa, iauai iio?aaeaiey eioi?uo
ninoaaeyao nauoa 1 iei. o (a ia?a?an/aoa ia oneiaiia oiieeai).

Noaaeeecaoeey aeiau/e iaooe e aaca a iineaaeiea aiaeu auea aeinoeaiooa
ca n/ao aiaae?aiey eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?niie aacu, nie?auaiey /enea aacaeaenoaothueo ao?iauo
neaaaeei, aiaae?aiey iiauo iaoiaeia e oaoiieiaee iaooa-, aaci-,
eiiaeainaoiaeiau/e.

Ia?aueaaiea ?aca?aia aeiau/e iaooe e aaca a Oe?aeia aiciiaeii eeoue i?e
onei?aiiii aaaaeaiee a yenieoaoaoeeth iiauo oaea ioe?uouo iaooyiuo e
aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ao?aiey ia oaea ?acaaaeaiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ao?iauo neaaaeei, i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo e
ioa/anoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee, oaoiieiae/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa n
oeaeueth aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiaee oaaee/aiey iaooaaeiau/e,
?aeiino?oeoeee e oaoie/aneiai ia?ainiauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia iniiaiuo
iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo oaea aeinoeaiooa iaooaaeiau/a, aeeceay e
i?iaeoiie. Iieiaeaiea io?anee oneiaeiyaony /?acau/aeii ieceei o?iaiai
?an/aoia ca iio?aaeaiiue aac. Yoi ia iicaieyao ia oieueei aaiaeeoue a
yenieoaoaoeeth iiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey e ao?iaua neaaaeeiu, ii e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue a iaaeeaaeauai ninoiyiee nouanoaothuea iiuiinoe.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ia?niaeoeaiui yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea iaeuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. E oaeei a Oe?aeia ioianaiu aaciaua, aacieiiaeainaoiua e
iaooaaacieiiaeainaoiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey, eiathuea ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoea caianu aaca, eioi?ue yaeyaony i?e/eiie iaeuo aeaaaoia ao?iauo
neaaaeei e iacia/eoaeueiie aai aeiau/e. Iniiaiuie i?iaeaiaie,
i?aiyonoaothueie o?aaeeoeeiiiiio eniieueciaaieth iaeuo aaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, yaeythony: iaaei?acaaaeaea, iai?iiuoeaiiua caianu,
iaeua aeaaeou, neiaeiinoe n ?iceiina?aaoeeae ao?iauo neaaaeei,
ionoonoaea niioaaonoaothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey, cia/eoaeueiua ?annoiyiey
aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee iaaieueoeo iauaiia aaca e ae?.Anoanoaaiiue
iioaioeeae Oe?aeiu aeey ?acaeoey iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo e aiciaiiaeyaiuo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee (IAEY). Aeiau/a ia?ae/iuo oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo
?ano?nia (OY?) e i?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?iyia?aee a Oe?aeia aei 2010 aiaea –
yoi:1) aeae?i?ano?nu – 4,32 iei. o o.o.;2) aao?iyia?aaoeea (aei 2010 a.
– 0,8-1,0 Aao, aaeaaiaeiia i?iecaiaenoai aei 2 ie?ae. eao./);3)
nieia/iay, aaioa?iaeueiay yia?aey (aei 2010 a. aaeaaiaeiia i?iecaiaenoai
aei 11 iei. o o.o.).4) aeiaac, ooeeecaoeey iooiaeia (aaeaaiaeiia
i?iecaiaenoai aei 10 iei.o i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa).Iauee
oaoie/anee-aiciiaeiue iioaioeeae IAEY ninoaaeyao ieiei 78 iei. o o.o. a
aiae (100%), eioi?ue ii iai?aaeaieyi eniieueciaaiey ?ani?aaeaeyaony
neaaeothuei ia?acii: aao?iyia?aaoeea – 24,6 iei. o o.o. (31,4%), iaeay
aeae?iyia?aaoeea – 2,24 (2,865), nieia/iay yia?aaoeea – 4,92 (6,292),
aeiyia?aaoeea – 21,2 (27,11), eneonnoaaiiua ai?th/ea aacu e iaoai
oaooiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee –13,2 (16,88), ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey
eniieueciaaiey enoi/ieeia yia?aee (aaioa?iaeueiay yia?aaoeea,
oaieiianiniua onoaiiaee, ?eiaeiaia ianei, nie?ou, aiaeioiieeaiua
yioeuenee, oaoiiaaiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey, ?aceiiaua iooiaeu) – 12,03 iei.
o o.o. (15,38%).

Aeae?iyeaeo?iyia?aey. Iioaioeeaeueiua ?ano?nu iiuiuo AYN ninoaaeytho aei
4700 Iao. Iioaioeeaeueiua ?ano?nu (noiia?iua) iaeuo ?ae Oe?aeiu
ninoaaeytho ieiei 2400 Iao. Ia yoeo ?a/eao nouanoaotho 27 oun. i?oaeia e
aiaeio?aieeeu ianoiiai aiaeioicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, ia eioi?uo iiaoo
auoue nii?oaeaiu ieie e iee?iAAN iiuiinoueth 5-250 eao.

A 1958 a. iauay iiuiinoue ieie-AAN a Oe?aeia ninoaaeyea 65 oun.eao. I?e
ioeaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo caiania iaeuo e n?aaeieo ?ae Oe?aeiu auyaeaiiay
aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey nauoa 2300 iaeuo e n?aaeieo AYN, eioi?ua iiaoo
au?aaioaoue ca na?aaeiueiaiaeiee aiae ieiei 4 ie?ae. eao./
yeaeo?iyia?aee. Nauoa o?ao /aoaa?oae yoeo caiania i?eoiaeeony ia ?a/ee
Ea?iao.

Aao?iyia?aaoeea. ?acaeoea aao?iyia?aaoeee iaoneiaeaii iaee/eai aieueoiai
oaoie/anee aeinooiiiai iioaioeeaea yia?aee aao?a ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu.
Aeey ?aciauaiey aao?iyia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie (AYO) iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny ieiuaaee, eioi?ua ia auee caaeaenoaiaaiu a oicyenoaa,
ianoaeua e aaceaniua o/anoee ai?, iaeeiaiaeiua aeaaoi?ee eneonnoaaiiuo e
anoanoaaiiuo aiaeio?aieeeu, ica?, eeiaiia, caeeaia e ii?ae. Oae, a
caeeaa Acianeiai ii?y, Neaaoo, eioi?ue eiaao ieiuaaeue aeaaoi?ee aeecei
2700 ei2, eiaaony iioaioeeaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue ?acianoeoue aei 135 oun.
Iao iauae iiuiinoe aao?iyia?aaoe/aneeo noaioeee (AYN). Aeey nii?oaeaiey
AYN iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia i?aeoe/anee any ieiuaaeue Acianeiai ii?y,
a a *a?iii ii?a eeoue ia Iaeanneie aaiea eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue
?acianoeoue AYN onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoueth aei 20 oun. N o/aoii o/anoeia
ia nooa iauee iioaioeeae oa??eoi?ee, aaea iiaoo auoue ?aciauaiu AYN,
i?aauoaao iuiaoiaa i?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?iyia?aee a Oe?aeia.

Iaeaieueoea n?aaeiaaiaeiaua nei?inoe aao?a, i?aauoathuea 5 i/n,
iaaethaeathony a i?eii?neeo ?aeiiao, thaeiuo noaiyo e Aeiiaanna. Yoe
oa??eoi?ee, a oaeaea ai?iua ?aeiiu Ea?iao e E?uia yaeythony iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaiuie n oi/ee c?aiey eniieueciaaiey yia?aee aao?a. Ii a ai?iuo
?aeiiao – ciia aeoeaiiai aao?a – nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey aeey
eniieueciaaiey aao?iaie yia?aee. Caeanue aicaeooiua iioiee ioee/athony
neeueiie oo?aoeaioiinoueth, ?aceie niaiie nei?inoe e iai?aaeaiey aao?a.
Aeey iaaeaaeiie yenieoaoaoeee AYO, iai?eia? a Ea?iaoao, n/eoaaony
i?eaiaeiie eeoue 1-2% oa??eoi?ee.

Nieia/iay yia?aey. A Oe?aeia aiaeiaia iinooieaiea nieia/iiai eceo/aiey
ninoaaeyao 3500–5200 Iaeae/i2, /oi iaoiaeeony ia iaeiii o?iaia ni
no?aiaie, eioi?ua aeoeaii eniieuecotho nieia/iua eieeaeoi?u (NOA,
Aa?iaiey, Oaaoeey e ae?.). Iai?eia?, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue nieia/iiai
neyiey ii Eeaao n ai?aey ii ieoya?ue ninoaaeyao 130–300 //ianyoe e ia
onooiaao ae?oaei oeaio?aeueii-aa?iiaeneei ai?iaeai, aaea oe?iei
eniieuecothony nieia/iua oaoiieiaee aeey oaieiiaania/aiey.

Any oa??eoi?ey Oe?aeiu i?eaiaeia aeey ?acaeoey nieia/iiai
oaieiniaaaeaiey. Ieieiaeueiua aaee/eiu nieia/iiai eceo/aiey ai anao
ioieoao iaaethaeathony a aeaeaa?a. Naciiiue ia?eiae, eiaaea
eniieueciaaiea nieia/iie yia?aee ?aaeueii aeey Oe?aeiu, ninoaaeyao
ai?aeue-naioya?ue, aeey thaeiuo ?aeiiia – ia?o-ieoya?ue. Aiaeiaie iauai
yia?aee nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, aeinoeaathuae iiaa?oiinoe caiee a aieueoeo
ai?iaeao Oe?aeiu, eiaao cia/aiey: Neioa?iiieue – 4,99 AAeae/i2, Iaeanna
– 4,88 AAeae/i2, Aeiiaoee – 4,44 AAeae/i2, Eeaa – 4,12 AAeae/ i2, Noiiu
– 3,89 AAeae/i2, Eueaia – 3,85 AAeae/i2.

Aeioaoiieiaee, ooeeecaoeey iooiaeia. Yia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae
ii?aaeaeyaony oaeeie oaoiieiae/aneeie iai?aaeaieyie: aiay?iaiia
ca?aaeeaaiea, naeeaaiea iooiaeia AIE e ae?oaeo io?aneae, eniieueciaaiea
aa?ieoeueoo? aeey iieo/aiey nie?oiaiai oiieeaa iooai oa?iaioaoeee,
i?aia?aciaaiey aeiiannu a aaciia?aciua eee ?aaeeea aeaeu oiieeaa n
iiiiuueth oa?iioeie/aneeo oaoiieiaee, i?iecaiaenoai ec ?anoeoaeueiuo
eoeueoo? ianae e caiaieoaeae aeecaeueiiai oiieeaa.

Eiee/anoai iooiaeia ?anoeoaeueiie aeiiannu a Oe?aeia ninoaaeyao
aaeaaiaeii 40 iei. o, /oi yeaeaaeaioii 25-30 ie?ae, i3 aaca; aaeaaiaeiua
iooiaeu aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e ioeoeaaiaenoaa a Oe?aeia ninoaaeytho 32 iei.
o eee 10,3 ie?ae. i3. A Oe?aeia a eaniioaaeao iaeiieeinue nauoa 14 iei.
i3 iooiaeia, a eanao iaoiaeeony aua 7 iei. i3, i?e/ai i?ioeann
ia?aueaaiey iooiaeia i?iaeieaeaaony. A ?aaeiiao Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu
iooiaeu aea?aaiia?aaioee e caaioiaee i?aaenoaaeytho na?ueacioth
nioeeaeueioth (yeieiae/aneoth) i?iaeaio.

Aeey Oe?aeiu aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao eniieueciaaiea anoanoaaiiuo e
oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia iecei-iioaioeeaeueiie oaieiou n oaiia?aoo?ie
5-40°N ? auoa, aoi?e/iuo yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia (AY?) – n iiiiuueth
oaieiianinieo onoaiiaie (OIO). A nouanoaothueo nenoaiao
oieiaeiniaaaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee ca n/ao i?aaiecaoeee eiiaeie?iaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa oieiaea e oaieiou ii oaieiianiniie noaia aeiiieieoaeueiua
oaieiaua iiuiinoe iiaoo ninoaaeyoue ieiei 1000 Iao. Eniieueciaaiey
eiii?anneiiiuo aeaeo-?ii?iaiaeiuo OIO eeanna «aiaea-aicaeoo» a nenoaiao
ioiieaiey e aaioeeyoeee i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaoia, ianiniuo noaioeee e oaieeoe
iiaeao iaania/eoue noiia?iua oaieiaua iaa?ocee ieiei 4900 Iao.

Aaioa?iaeueiay yia?aey. Enoi/ieee aaioa?iaeueiie yia?aee ?aniieiaeaiu ii
anae oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu. Iineieueeo yoe enoi/ieee eiatho /?acau/aeii
oe?ieee niaeo? oa?aeoa?enoee, iaaiciiaeii oieoeoee?iaaoue oaoie/aneea
?aoaiey ii iauaeoai e iniauaieth, eioi?ia ia ieo iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny.

Oe?aeia eiaao cia/eoaeueiua iioaioeeaeueiua ?ano?nu aaioa?iaeueiie
yia?aee. ?aeiiaie aa aiciiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey yaeythony E?ui,
Caea?iaouea, I?eea?iaouea, Aeiiaoeeay, Caii?iaeneay, Eoaaineay,
Iieoaaneay, Oa?ueeianeay, Oa?niineay, *a?ieaianeay e ae?oaea iaeanoe. Ii
?aciui ioeaieai iioaioeeaeueiua ?ano?nu aaioa?iaeueiie oaieiou a Oe?aeia
iiaoo iaania/eoue ?iaioo aaioa?iaeueiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee (AOYN) iauae
iiuiinoueth aei 200–250 iei. eao (i?e aeoaeiao ao?aiey ao?iauo neaaaeei
aei 7 ei e ia?eiaeao ?aaiou noaioeee 50 eao) e nenoai aaioa?iaeueiiai
oaieiniaaaeaiey iauae iiuiinoueth aei 1,2-1,5 ie?ae. eao (i?e aeoaeiao
ao?aiey ao?iauo neaaaeei aei 4 ei e ia?eiaeao ?aaiou nenoai 50 eao).

N?aaee ia?niaeoeaiuo ?aeiiia iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue Caea?iaouea, E?ui,
Eueaiaueio. Oae, a Caea?iaouea ia aeoaeiao aei 6 ei oaiia?aoo?a ai?iuo
ii?iae aeinoeaatho 230–275°N (iieneiaay ao?iaay neaaaeeia Ioea/aaneay-1
iieacaea oaiia?aoo?o ai?iuo ii?iae 210°N ia aeoaeia 4200 i. A E?uio
iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuie yaeyaony Oa?oaieooneee ?aeii e Ea?/aineee
iieoino?ia.

Iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi nianoaaiiue oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae
Oe?aeiu n?aaiei n aieueoeinoaii no?ai Aa?iiu, iaeiaei yooaeoeaiinoue aai
eniieueciaaiey cia/eoaeueii ieaea n?aaeiaie?iaiai o?iaiy.

A oeaeii o?iaaiue iaania/aiiinoe Oe?aeiu nianoaaiiuie OY? ninoaaeyao
42-44%, a oii /enea oaeai ia o?iaia 80%, aacii – ia 21%, iaooueth – ia
25%.I?iaiic eciaiaiey ie?iauo oeai ia yia?aaoe/aneea oiieeaa aei 2030
aiaea

Iniiao oaieiaie yia?aaoeee Oe?aeiu ninoaaeytho 104 yia?aaoe/aneeo aeiea
iiuiinoueth 150–800 Iao, onoaiiaeaiiua ia 14 oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo,
iauae iiuiinoueth 28,7 iei eao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy 90,6% iiuiinoae,
onoaiiaeaiiuo ia OYN, oaea aeaaii io?aaioaee naie ?an/aoiue ?ano?n, a
63,9% ec yoeo iiuiinoae i?aauneee a?aieoeo i?aaeaeueiiai ?ano?na e
oece/aneiai eciina. I?iaeoiui oiieeaii aeey aieueoeinoaa yia?aaoe/aneeo
aeieia OYN (onoaiiaeaiiay iiuiinoue ieiei 25 iei eao) yaeyaony oaieue,
aeey iaiueoae /anoe OYN e anao OAOe – anoanoaaiiue aac. A iineaaeiea
aiaeu oaieiaua yeaeo?inoaioeee no?aiu aaeaaiaeii iio?aaeyee oiieeaa io
29,4 aei 30,4 iei o o.o. (anaai), a o./.: oaiey – io 15,4 aei 19,5 iei o
o. o.; anoanoaaiiiai aaca – io 13,8 aei 10,5 iei o o.o. (12,1-9,2 ie?ae.
i3); iacooa – io 0,2 aei 0,4 iei o o. o. Nie?auaiea iauaiia iio?aaeaiey
oaieiauie yeaeo?inoaioeeyie Oe?aeiu anoanoaaiiiai aaca i?iecioei
aeaaiaea?y iiauoaieth ea/anoaa oaey, eioi?ue iicaieee nouanoaaiii
nie?aoeoue (ia 20-30%) aai (aianoa n iacooii) cao?aou ia oae iacuaaaiia
iiaenaa/eaaiea, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey naeeaaiey aenieicieueiiai oaey.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee yia?aaoe/aneie iieeoeee a ainoaea?noaa
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina (OYA).
Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain no?aiu – yoi nenoaia iieacaoaeae, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ece?oao nouanoaothuea oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu (OY?) a
no?aia e eo eniieueciaaiea.

OYA Oe?aeiu oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao aeaoo enoi/ieeia -eiii?oa
yia?aiiineoaeae (43%) e eo nianoaaiiie aeiau/e. Oe?aeia yaeyaony
yia?aiaeaoeoeeoiie no?aiie, eioi?ay ia naaiaeiy eeoue ia iieiaeio
oaeiaeaoai?yao naie iio?aaiinoe a oiieeaa e yia?aee.Oe?aeia iaania/aia
caianaie oaey ia ianeieueei nioai eao, iiyoiio ii inoaaony aeaaiui
yia?aiiineoaeai no?aiu. Caianu aea ae?oaeo yia?ai?ano?nia i/aiue
ia?aie/aiu. Eae ioia/aaony a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeao,
aeiey oaey a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina Oe?aeiu ninoaaeyao 28,8 %
(ie?iaie iieacaoaeue — 28,6 %), i?e?iaeiiai aaca — 44 % (ie?iaie
iieacaoaeue – 23 %), iaooe 9,6 % (ie?iaie iieacaoaeue -37,5 %), aoiiiie
yia?aee — 13,3 % (ie?iaie iieacaoaeue – 6,5 %), aeae?iyia?aee 1,6 %,
(ie?iaie iieacaoaeue – 6,2 %). Aieueoay aeiey i?e?iaeiiai aaca a
yia?aiaaeaina Oe?aeiu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i caaeneiinoe io eiii?oa aaca,
iineieueeo naieo cia/eoaeueiuo caiania aaca no?aia ia eiaao. Naaiaeiy
Oe?aeia iio?aaeyao ieiei 76 ie?ae. eoaiiao?ia aaca a aiae. Nianoaaiiay
aeiau/a no?aiu ninoaaeyao ieiei 20 ie?ae. eoaiiao?ia. Aieueoay /anoue
eiii?oe?iaaiiiai aaca iinoaaeyaony ec Oo?eiaienoaia e ae?oaeo no?ai
N?aaeiae Acee, ae?oaay /anoue -ec ?innee. Aeaaiue iinoaauee iaooe –
?inney (75%), e?iia iaa 14% iaooe iinoaaeyao Eacaonoai e oieueei 11%
-oe?aeineea iaooaaeiauaathuea eiiiaiee. Oe?aeia caieiaao 10-a ianoi a
ie?a ii aeiau/a oaey (81,5 iei o a 2004 a.) e ainueiia ii aeieacaiiui
caianai (34153 iei o). I?e iuiaoieo oaiiao aeiau/e Oe?aeia oaaoeo oaey
ia 412 eao (aaca — ia 62 aiaea). Ie?iaua caianu oaey ninoaaeytho a
ia?a?an/aoa ia oneiaiia oiieeai ieiei 66 % iauaai iauaia ?acaaaeaiiuo
caiania yia?ai?ano?nia. Ii ninoiyieth ia ia/aei 2004 a. ie?iauo caiania
oaey, i?e?iaeiiai aaca e iaooe oaaoeo ia 204, 61 e 41 aiae
niioaaonoaaiii. Ii iauaiai eniieueciaaiey ia?ae/iuo yia?aiiineoaeae
oaieue caieiaao o?aouea ianoi iinea iaooe e i?e?iaeiiai aaca e
eniieuecoaony, i?aaeaea anaai, a aaciauo naeoi?ao yeiiiieee: aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee (a 2004 a. — aei 76 % aai iauaai
iio?aaeaiey) e a iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (ieiei 15 %).Eae
aeaeei, OYA Oe?aeiu ia niioaaonoaoao nouanoaothuei caianai a no?aia OY?
e ie?iaui oaiaeaioeeyi a eniieueciaaiee yia?aiiineoaeae. Oae a
yia?aiaaeaina aeaaiia ianoi n?aaee OY? caieiaao aac, oioy caianu oaey ia
iaeiiai /aeiaaea a ianeieueei ?ac i?aauoatho ie?iaua. Oae eae naaiaeiy
oe?iei eniieuecothony nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee naeeaaiey oaey e n?aaenoaa
i/euaiey aua?inia, oi iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee ooaa?aeaeaoue ia
yeieiae/aneii ianiioaaonoaee oaey eae oiieeaa ii n?aaiaieth n aacii.
I?eia?ii iiaeao iineoaeeoue OYA oaeeo no?ai eae Iieueoa, Eiaeey, Eeoae,
aaea o?iaaiue eniieueciaaiey oaey ninoaaeyao 66,4%, 51,2% e 67,3%
niioaaonoaaiii. Ia iaeei aeieea? i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee a Oe?aeia,
niaeanii i?iaaaeaiiiio aiaeeco ?anoiaeoaony 89 eeeia?aiiia oneiaiiai
oiieeaa. Yoi a o?e -iyoue ?ac aieueoa, /ai a ?acaeouo no?aiao. A oi aea
a?aiy caaeneiinoue no?aiu io iinoaaee oiieeaa ec ae?oaeo no?ai a
iineaaeiea aiaeu ninoaaeea 60%. Ainoaea?noai i?aeoe/anee ia oaeaeyao
aieiaiey yoie i?iaeaia. Nieaeaiea o?iaiy yia?aaoe/aneie caaeneiinoe a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue caaeneo io ia?ii?eyoee ii oiaiueoaieth aeiee iauaai
eiii?oa OY?, eioi?ia aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny ca n/ao oaaee/aiey o?iaiy
e yooaeoeaiinoe nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa OY? e ca n/ao iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey. I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec iiuoa ca?oaaaeiuo
no?ai iieacae (no?aiu AN, NOA e ae?.), /oi o?iaaiue yia?aaoe/aneie
caaeneiinoe iiaeii oiaiueoeoue iooai:

-oaaee/aiey aeiau/e e iio?aaeaiey nianoaaiiuo OY?;

-iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, o?ainii?oe?iaee e iio?aaeaiey
OY?;

-aeeaa?neoeeaoeee eiii?oa yia?aiiineoaeae;

-oi?aaeaiea yia?aaoe/aneie caaeneiinoueth iooai nicaeaiey neooaoeee
acaeiicaaeneiinoe e ae?.;

-aeeaa?neoeeaoeee aeaeia iio?aaeyaiuo OY?.

Ana yoe iai?aaeaiey nieaeaiey yia?aaoe/aneie caaeneiinoe
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n i?ioeannii oi?ie?iaaiey yia?aaoe/aneiai
aaeaina, iiyoiio ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo OY? aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny
n o/aoii nieaeaiey yia?aaoe/aneie caaeneiinoe no?aiu. N?aaee iniiaiuo
i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey OYA, eioi?ue a iineaaeiaa a?aiy aiaae?yaony a
?acaeouo no?aiao ie?a, yaeyaony ecaaaeaiea caaeneiinoe OYA io iaeiiai
aeaea yia?ai?ano?na, /oi iicaieyao nieceoue ?enee a yia?ainiaaaeaiee e
niinianoaoao oiaiueoaieth yia?aaoe/aneie caaeneiinoe oieueei io iaeiiai
OY?. O/eouaay eiathueeny ?ano?niue iioaioeeae, eaaeaeay no?aia a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ii?aaeaeyao i?ei?eoaou nianoaaiiie aeiau/e ii?aaeaeaiiuo OY?,
e ia iniiaaiee yoeo i?ei?eoaoia ?ac?aaaouaaao nianoaaiiue OYA. Oe?aeia
aeaaeaao ia?iiiui iioaioeeaeii iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo e aiciaiiaeyaiuo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee, yeiiiie/aneee aacen eioi?uo i?eaeeceoaeueii
?aaiyaony 100 iei. o. o.o., oioy aeiey eo eniieueciaaiey a
yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina no?aiu ninoaaeyao ieiei 6%. I?iaeaia ninoieo a
ionoonoaee iaoaiecia yeiiiie/aneie iioeaaoeee e eniieueciaaieth
yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee e yeiiiiee OY?, i?eaea/aieth
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo e eiaanoeoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa a noa?o yia?ainaa?aaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiea iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee. Iioaioeeae aao?iaie
yia?aee ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu ioeaieaaaony a 20-30 iei. o.o.o. e
i?ia?aiiie no?ieoaeuenoaa aao?iyeaeo?inoaioeee aei 2010 a. caieaie?iaaii
iino?ieoue AYN iiuiinoueth 2000 IAo, /oi nyeiiiieo 1,8 iei.oo.o.
Nieia/iay yia?aey, eioi?ay iinooiaao ia oa??eoi?eth no?aiu, ioeaieaaaony
a 400 iei.oo.o. aei 2010 a. ieaie?oaony nii?oaeeoue aaeeionoaiiaee
ai?y/aai aiaeiniaaaeaiey ia 0,4 iei. o. o.o. e oioiyeaeo?e/aneea
onoaiiaee iiuiinoueth 96,5 IAo, /oi iaania/eo yeiiiieth 55 oun.o o.o.
Aeae?iyia?aey iaeuo ?ae Oe?aeiu ioeaieaaaony a 12,5 ie?ae. eAo//an e
iiuiinoueth iaeuo e iee?i AYN a 2010 a. iiaeao aeinoe/ue 600 IAo. *oi
iaania/eo yeiiiieth naa?o 47 iei.oo.o. Aaioa?iaeueiay yia?aey iaae?
Oe?aeiu ioeaieaaaony a 50 iei.oo.o. e aei 2010 a. i?iaiice?oaony
eniieueciaaiea iiuiinoe aaioa?iaeueiuo nenoai aiaeiniaaaeaiey a 1170
IAo, eioi?ua iaania/ao yeiiiieth 1,5 iei. o. o.o.

E aeueoa?iaoeaiiio aaciaiio oiieeao iiaoo auoue ioianaiu oaeaea aacu,
aeiauoua n iaeuo aaciauo, aacieiiaeainaoiuo, iaooaaacieiiaeainaoiuo
caeaaeae, i?iaiiciua caianu eioi?uo ninoaaeytho 30,9 ie?ae i3 .Aeey
nouanoaaiiiai oaaee/aiey a yia?aiaaeaina Oe?aeiu iauaiia OY? ec
iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo e aiciaiiaeyaiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaaaoue iauaeou aeueoa?iaoeaiie yia?aaoeee ii iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui
oaoiieiae/aneei iai?aaeaieyi:

-aiaae?aiea iiaaoi?neeo eiino?oeoeee aao?iaa?aaaoia aeey naoaaie e
aaoiiiiiie aao?iyia?aaoeee, i?eniiniaeaiiuo aeey naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo
aao?iauo oneiaee Oe?aeiu;

-?anoe?aiea noa?u e oaaee/aiea iauaiia eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie e
aaioa?iaeueiie yia?aee aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee e
oaieiniaaaeaiey;

-eniieueciaaiea aeae?iyia?aee iaeuo ?ae iooai aiciaiiaeaiey ?ac?ooaiiuo
e no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo iaeuo AYN, a oaeaea ooeeecaoeee yia?aee
oaoie/aneeo nenoai aiaeiniaaaeaiey;

-aiaae?aiea eiiaeie?iaaiiuo eiaaia?aoeeiiiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo nenoai a
eiiieaena n nenoaiaie aeeoioee?iaaiey yia?aee;

-no?ieoaeuenoai aeiaaciauo eiiieaenia aeey iieo/aiey aeiaaca ec inaaeea
eaiaeecaoeeiiiuo noieia ai?iaeia e iooiaeia naeueneiai e eaniiai
oicyenoaa, ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey
?acaeoey a Oe?aeia yia?aaoe/aneeo ieaioaoeee ia aaca auno?i?anooueo
?anoaiee e oaoiieiaee ia?a?aaioee aeiiannu a yia?aiiineoaee;

-nicaeaiea naoe i?aaei?eyoee ii ia?a?aaioea auoiaiai ioni?a n oeaeueth
aai oie/oiaeaiey e iieo/aiey yeaeo?e/aneie e oaieiaie yia?aee.

Ii aeey auiieiaiey anao yoeo ia?ii?eyoee iaiaoiaeeii iaaeaaeiia
oeiainiaia iaania/aiea. Aaconeiaii, yia?aiaieinoue i?iecaiaenoaa,
eciioaiiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa, ionoonoaea yooaeoeaiuo
yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee oneiaeiytho iieiaeaiea aeae a
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii eiiieaena. *?acia?iay yia?aiaieinoue eeth/aauo
yenii?oiuo io?aneae, i?aaeaea anaai, oaeeo eae iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
oeie/aneay, i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aieueoay /anoue aaethoiuo iinooieaiee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu eaeao ia ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia iieaoo
eiii?oiuo yia?ai?ano?nia.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iooae, ia eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii ni?iaeoe?iaaoue
?acaeoea yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu, yaeyaony yia?ainaa?aaeaiea.
Yia?aiyooaeoeaiinoue e yia?ainaa?aaeaiea – i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey
yia?aaoe/aneie iieeoeee aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a. Yoi iaoneiaeaii
en/a?iaieai iaaiciaiiaeiuo OY?, ionoonoaeai ?aaeueiie aeueoa?iaoeau eo
caiaiu, i?enoonoaeai ?eneia i?e eo i?iecaiaenoaa e o?ainii?oe?iaea. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy yoe oaeoi?u i?eia?aoatho ana aieueoaa cia/aiea a nayce
n iauae ianoaaeeueiinoueth a ?aaeiiao aeiau/e OY?, iai?yaeaieai ia
oiieeaii-?ano?niuo ?uieao e iaaeaaii?eyoiuie i?iaiicaie, eanathueieny
aeaeueiaeoaai oaaee/aiey oeai ia yia?ai?ano?nu.

Iiuo ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a e nianoaaiiue iiuo Oe?aeiu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey e i?iaaaeaiea oeaeaono?aieaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee. Oieueei ainoaea?noai iooai acaaoaiiie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
aeaeie oeaiiaie, oa?eoiie e iaeiaiaie iieeoeee iiaeao iaania/eoue
aeaaniiniaiinoue oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia yia?ainaa?aaeaiey.

Iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie oaeie iieeoeee aeieaeiu noaoue:

-i?ei?eoao iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey OY? iaae ?inoii
iauaiia eo aeiau/e e i?iecaiaenoaa oaieiaie e yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee;

-niioaaonoaea iieeoeee iauei ?uii/iui i?aia?aciaaieyi a no?aia;

-i?ei?eoaoiinoue iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe caei?iauey /aeiaaea,
nioeeaeueii-auoiauo oneiaee aai aeecie, io?aiu ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie
n?aaeu i?e aeiau/a, i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?a?aaioea, o?ainii?oe?iaea e
eniieueciaaiee OY? eee yia?aee;

-inouanoaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a noa?a
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey;

-iaiaoiaeeiinoue yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee yia?ainaa?aaeaiey,
noeioee?iaaiea eniieueciaaiey aiciaiiaeiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee;

-iaycaoaeueiinoue o/aoa OY?, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony e iio?aaeythony;

-nenoaiiue iiaeoiae a yia?ainaa?aaeaiee;

-?aaeecaoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiie, ia?aciaaoaeueiie e
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a noa?a yia?ainaa?aaeaiey.

O/eouaay ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua ia iniiaa i?iaiiciuo aeaiiuo i?iaeoa
yia?aaoe/aneie no?aoaaee Oe?aeiu aei 2030 aiaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae,
/oi a no?aia ca n/ao yia?ainaa?aaeaiey aei 2020 aiaea iiaeii aeinoe/ue
yeiiiiee yia?aiiineoaeae a iauai iauaia ii?yaeea 470iei. oo.o., /oi
niioaaonoaoao oiaiueoaieth cao?ao ia eo eiii?o ieiei 38 ie?ae. aeie.
*enoay yeiiiiey iiaeao ninoaaeoue a 2020 aiaeo ieiei 15 ie?ae. aeie.,
niioaaonoaaiii yia?aiaieinoue AAI oiaiueoeony aieaa /ai a 4,8 ?aca.

Ae?oaea i?aeiouanoaa yia?ainaa?aaeaiey ninoiyo a oiaiueoaiee oaoiiaaiiie
iaa?ocee ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo: oiaiueoaiea iauaiia aua?inia NI2 a
2020 aiaeo iiaeao aeinoe/ue 207 iei. o, /oi cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeo oneiaey
aeecie ianaeaiey no?aiu. E?iia oiai, yia?ainaa?aaeaiea a yia?aaoeea
iicaieeo nyeiiiieoue a 2020 aiaeo ieiei 323 ie?ae. eAo yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Ii aeaiiui Aineiieoaoa ii yia?ainaa?aaeaieth, a 2004 aiaeo a Oe?aeia
aeaaiaea?y yia?ainaa?aaeaieth anaai auei nyeiiiieaii 6,06 iei.oiii
oneiaiiai oiieeaa (o.o.). Iauay noieiinoue nyeiiiieaiiuo yia?ai?ano?nia
– 1602,44 iei. a?i.

O/eouaay aiciiaeiinoe no?aiu ioiineoaeueii ia?aueaaiey nianoaaiiie
aeiau/e OY? e ia?aueaaiey iiuiinoae OYA e nouanoaothuee cia/eoaeueiue
iioaioeeae yia?ainaa?aaeaiey, iniaia aieiaiea aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny
ia?ii?eyoeyi ii aiaae?aieth yia?aiyooaeoeaiinoe e yia?ainaa?aaeaiey. I?e
yoii aeaaiui iaoaieciii i?aaeinoa?aaeaiey aiciiaeiiai oaaee/aiey
naaanoieiinoe aaeiaie aeiau/e yia?aiiineoaeae aeieaeii auoue
oaoiieiae/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea io?anee ca n/ao aiaae?aiey eiiiaaoeee.

Ii neiaai i?aaenaaeaoaey iauanoaa «Iiaay yia?aey» Aaea?ey Ai?iaeea,
Oe?aeia ia neaaeoao caoeeeeeaaoueny oieueei ia ia?aaiai?ao ni no?aiaie,
eioi?ua yaeythony aeey iaa noa?uie enoi/ieeaie yia?ainiaaaeaiey, e ia
iienea iiauo aiaoieo enoi/ieeia, a oaeaeyoue cia/eoaeueii aieueoa
aieiaiey i?iaeaiai yia?ainaa?aaeaiey. Aaaeue yoiio iai?aaeaieth a
Oe?aeia aeaenoaeoaeueii oaeaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/ii aieiaiey, naeoi?
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey iaoiaeeony i?inoi a eaoano?ioe/aneii ninoiyiee. Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iiiaea i?aaenoaaeoaee na?ueaciuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
eiiiaiee ecuyaeee aeaeaiea i?eeoe a Oe?aeio. Iioaioeeae io?anee
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey i/aiue aaeee, e a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy Oe?aeia noaiao
ianoii ai?ueau iaaeaeo eiaanoi?aie ca aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue ia aa
oa??eoi?ee, aaaeue aa eiaanoeoeeiiiay i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue no?aieoaeueii
?anoao, a oa, eoi i?eoae ia?aui e ia?aui cae?aieeny ia ?uiea
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey, aaconeiaii, aoaeoo eiaoue i?aeiouanoaa.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020