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Таиланд как объект туризма

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. Ieiuaaeue Oaeeaiaea – 514 oun.ei.ea. Ianaeaiea – ieiei 60 iei.
/aeiaae. sscue – oaeneee Ianaeaiea Aaiaeiea – nauoa 6 iei. /aeiaae.
Aaeieieno?aoeaii no?aia ?acaeaeaia ia 73 i?iaeioeee, eaaeaeoth ec
eioi?uo aicaeaaeyao aoaa?iaoi?.

Oaeeaiae iiuaaaony aiaeaie Neaineiai caeeaa THaeii-Eeoaeneiai ii?y e
Aiaeaiaineiai ii?y. A?aie/eo n Ae?iie ,Eainii, Eaiio/eae e Iaeaeceae.
Eeeiao o?iie/aneee. Naiua aea?eea ianyoeu – ai?aeue,
iae(+30…+35N),Naiua i?eyoiua ianyoeu a Aaiaeiea(+20…+24N) – n
aeaeaa?y ii ia?o: a yoi a?aiy caeanue nooi, oaiia?aoo?a noaaeeueiay.

Iai?yaeaiea – 220A ,?acieoea ii a?aiaie n Iineaie – iethn /aou?a /ana. N
iineaaeiaai aine?anaiuey ai?aey ii iineaaeiaa aine?anaiuea naioya?y –
iethn o?e /ana.

Oaeeaiae iacuaatho no?aiie oeuaie. Oioy oeeinioey aoaeaeecia o/eo, /oi
aeeciue – yoi no?aaeaiea, a auoiae oieueei a oaeoaeaiiii ?aciuoeaiee e
iiciaiee, caeanue ia caauaatho ?aaeiaaoueny aeecie. Oaeoeu iiaoi?ytho
eae aeeciaiiue aeaaec neiai “naioe”, eioi?ia iiaeii ia?aaanoe oae:
“iieo/eoue oaeiaieuenoaea”, ”aneanoue iiaanaeeoueny”, ii aiiaua-oi yoi
noeeue “aeecie n oeuaeie”, inaieoue eioi?ue no?aieony eaaeaeue aeeoaeue
yoie no?aiu. Iaaa?iia, iiyoiio eo oeuaee auaeyaeyo aeaenoaeoaeueii ia
oi?iaeueii e ia eeoeaia?ii.

Oaeeaiae – caiey Aoaeaeu, e aoaeaeeci caeanue ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aeeaey.
95 i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey eniiaaaeotho aai thaeiue aa?eaio, inoaeueiua 5%
ninoiyo ec ionoeueiai, o?enoeai e iineaaeiaaoaeae Eiioooeey, Iaaeyaeiia
naeaeaoaeuenoai ethaae oaeoeaa e Aoaeaea – aaneiia/iia eiee/anoai
o?aiia, iino?iaiiuo aeaaea a ii/oe iaiaeoaaiuo oaieeao no?aiu, a oaeaea
ia?iiiia /enei aai ecia?aaeaiee e oeaeay a?iey iiiaoia. Ana oaeneea
aoaeaeenou ioaeneiai iiea ia/eiay n 20 eao ioauaatho oioy au ?ac a
aeecie “aeooiaioth iiaeiiinoue”, noaiiaynue iiiaoaie ia n?ie io aeaoo
iaaeaeue aei o??o ianyoeaa. Oyaiou aneacu n eeoaie eiiiaine?othony iniai
ii/?oiui noaoonii iiiaoia, Iiiaoai cai?auaii caieiaoueny
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui o?oaeii, iiyoiio iie aeeaoo oaeoe/anee ia eaeaeeaaiee
o i?i/eo a?aaeaeai. Niaeanii oeeinioee aoaeaeecia, anyeiio, eoi iiaeano
iiiaoo, yoi aeia?ia aeaei ca/o?ony a aoaeouae aeecie, Oae /oi iaa,
iiaeathuee e i?eieiathuee, a ?acoeueoaoa eaeou e aeiaieueiu ae?oa
ae?oaii.

Oaeoeu i/aiue oaaaeatho aeooia, aiyony eo ?anna?aeeoue e eae iiaoo
aui?aoeaatho o ieo ieeinoe. Ia?aae aeiiaie, a naaeao ioaeae e aeaaea
ia?aae o/?aaeaeaieyie iie noaayo “aeiiee aeooa”: oae iie caiaieaatho
yoiai aeooa io?aiyoue oa??eoi?eth, a /oia noi?iae ia niae e aue aeia?ui
i?eiinyo aio aaeo e ieoue?, oeaaou e a?iiaoiua iaei/ee.

Eae ianoiyuea aoaeaeenou, oaeoeu oaaaeatho oaeaea noa?oeo, o/eoaeae e
/anoioth nianoaaiiinoue. E iaiaueiiaaiii ii/eoatho naiaai iiia?oa e
/eaiia aai naiuee. Ana iie n/eoathony nayuaiiuie iniaaie. Aeaiue
iniiaaiey oea?noaothuae aeeianoee, aeie ?iaeaeaiey ei?iey e ei?ieaau
ioia/athony eae iaoeeiiaeueiua i?acaeieee. I?eaeai?iue yoeeao
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iiia?oa iaeuecy o?iaaoue, oi anoue e iaio iaeuecy
oece/anee i?eeanaoueny.

O oaeoeaa neeueii ?acaeoi /oanoai nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa, eioi?ia
i?iyaeyaony e ai aiaoiinoe, e a iiaaaeaiee(yoi i/aiue caiaoii a noa?a
na?aena, aaea o?oaeeony aieueoeinoai oaeoeaa). Iie oneoaeeeau, ii yoa
oneoaeeeainoue ieeiaaea ia aeioiaeeo aei naiioieaeaiey. *oi au au ei ia
iiaea?eee – iao??oeo eee naiiaa?, – aoaeueoa oaa?aiu, ?aii eee iicaeii
yoi iiyaeony ia ianoiii ?uiea. E aiana ia ?aaee aeciana, a a neeo
i?eau/ee.

?iaeeia neaineeo aeeciaoeia e aieoaiaeacuo neaineeo eioae ianeieueei ?ac
iaiyea eiaia. Ae?aaiyy enoi?ey Oaeeaiaea ieooaia oaeiie: oi/iuo
naaaeaiee i aicieeiiaaiee ia?iaea oae iao. Ii iaeioi?ui
i?aaeiieiaeaieyi, iaeii ec ieai?i nionoeeinue e Neaineiio caeeao ec
eeoaeneie i?iaeioeee Nu/oaiue. A aiae, eiaaea noaiiay I?aea iaiaea ia
?onue(1238a.), oae iniiaaee ia?aoth noieeoeo naiaai ei?ieaanoaa –
Noeioae, i?iaea?aeaaoothny anaai 150 eao. A? iiaeioeei ae?oaia oaeneia
ei?ieaanoai – Athoaey. Iii i?iaea?aeaeinue aieaa /aou??o aaeia, ca yoi
a?aiy a i?i i?aaeee 33 ei?iey, a iaeiiei?iiay noieeoea noaea iaeiei ec
naiuo aieueoeo ai?iaeia a ie?a. Eiaiii Athoaey onoaiiaeea a XVI aaea
ia?aua aeeieiiaoe/aneea e oi?aiaua ioiioaiey n aa?iiaeoeaie, aeey ia/aea
– n ii?aoiaeaie-ii?ooaaeueoeaie.

Athoaey iinoiyiii aaea aieiu ni naieie ninaaeyie: oi n aaeeeie eiia?eae
eoia?ia, oi n ei?ieaanoaii Ae?ia. A 1767 aiaeo ae?iaineia aienei niaeaei
Athoaeth aeioea. Yoi aue /??iue aeaiue oaeneie enoi?ee: ieeoi ia iia
neacaoue, aic?iaeeoueny ee niiaa iacaaeneiia ainoaea?noai. Ii 500
oaeneeo aiaiiuo aaaeaee a Eaiio/eth e oai noaee i?iaicaeaoaoue naieo
eeaea?ia ei?ieyie. Aicaaae?iiue ia i?anoie a 1782 aiaeo aaia?ae Iuey
*ae?e, iacaaiiue ?aiie I, iieiaeee ia/aei oea?noaothuae iuia aeeianoee e
iniiaae nia?aiaiioth noieeoeo Oaeeaiaea – Aaiaeie.

A XIX aaea no?aiai THai-Ainoi/iie Acee auei o?oaeii nii?ioeaeyoueny
ao?iiio i?ioeanno eieiiecaoeee. Ii, ianiio?y ia oa??eoi?eaeueiua
onooiee, Oaeeaiae, a oi a?aiy Neai, ieeiaaea ia aue ie/ueae eieiieae,
ii?aaaeuaay aua iaeii naia iacaaiea – Ioaia Oae – No?aia naiaiaeiuo.
Iacaaiea Neai, eioi?ui iaa?aaeeee no?aio ninaaee, i?ienoiaeeo io
naine?eoneiai “naeyia” – “oaiiieiaeee”. Iaeiaei a ae?oaii iaienaiee yoi
neiai icia/aao “i?ae?aniue”, “neia-cae?iue”, eaeeie ia naiii aeaea e
i?aaenoatho aci?o iooaoanoaaiieea iaecaaee iiaa?aaeuey Neaineiai caeeaa.
(Oaeeaiaeii no?aia iacuaaaony n 1949 aiaea.)

Ia iineaaeithth ?ieue a nio?aiaiee iacaaeneiinoe Oaeeaiaea nua?aea
?inney, aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n eioi?ie auee onoaiiaeaiu a 1896 a.
Iaeiaei aeia?ua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?inneae e Neaiii, oi/iaa, iaaeaeo
aeaoiy iiia?oaie ia/aeenue ca ianeieueei eao aei yoiai. A 1883 aiaeo
oeana?aae/ Ieeieae, aoaeouee ?inneeneee eiia?aoi? Ieeieae II, niaa?oae
aieueoia iooaoanoaea aie?oa naaoa. Iinea iinauaiey ssiiiee e Eiaeee ii
aeia?aeny aei Oaeeaiaea, aaea aue ano?a/ai n ei?ieaaneeie ii/anoyie
ei?ie?i ?aiie V. Iiia?oe i/aiue iii?aaeeenue ae?oa ae?oao e auno?i
iiae?oaeeeenue. Naie oaeoeu o?aeootho yoo ae?oaeao eae naeeaeaiea
Ainoiea e Caiaaea. A 1886 a. ?aia V a nii?iaiaeaeaiee i?eioea
Aaaeaee?aaoou iai?n ioaaoiue aeceo a Iaoa?ao?a. A /a?ac aeanyoue eao aai
aoi?ie e ethaeiue nui *ae?aaiien, eioi?ue aei yoiai o/eeny ianeieueei
eao a Aiaeee e aeee a naiuea n?aaeiaai aeinoaoea, nii?iaiaeaeae a
?inneth neaineiai iinea. A Iaoa?ao?aa ii aue ?aciau?i a Ceiiai aeai?oea,
a aia?oaiaioao aeey oea?noaaiiuo inia, e yoi ?aceoaeueii ioee/aeinue io
oiai, /oi ii eiae a Aiaeee. N?aco iinea i?eacaea ii aue i?aaenoaaeai
Ieeieath II e anei?a iinooiee a iaaeaneee ei?ion, eioi?ue caeii/ee a
1902 a. I?eioe auno?i inaiee ?onneee ycue, i?iieeny ?onneie eoeueoo?ie,
i/aiue ethaee niio?aoue aaeao, a iniaaiiinoe Iaoeeueaeo Eoaneineoth, e
aeaaea nai aunooiae a iaeioi?uo niaeoaeeyo, ii?ie ia?aiaeaaaynue a
aeaineoth iaeaaeaeo. A 1905 a. ii ano?aoee Aeaoa?eio Aeanieoeeoth,
aei/ue noaeuee ec oe?aeineiai ai?iaea Eooeea, e iie oaeii iiaeaieeenue.
Eiaaea a Aaiaeiea ociaee i?i a?ae, i?eioe aue eeo?i i?aaa ia i?anoie. A
1907 a. o ieo ?iaeeeny nui – i?eioe *oaa, eioi?iai o ?iaeeoaeae ioia?aee
e ainieouaaee a ei?ieaaneie naiuea. A 20-a aiaeu aeai?oeiaua eio?eae
i?eaaee e ?acaiaeo. Aeaoa?eia oaoaea a Oaioae, aaea e i?iaeeea aei
eiioea aeecie. I?eioe *oaa i?iaeee niieieioth aeeciue i?e aeai?a e oia?
a 60-a aiaeu.

Iuiaoiee iiia?o Ioieiii Aaeoeueyaeao (?aia IX) oianeaaeiaae o?ii a 1946
aiaeo. Ei?ieue a Oaeeaiaea – neiaie iaoeee e ioeoeeaeueiue aeaaa
ainoaea?noaa, a neiaieii iiaouanoaa iiia?oee yaeyaony neii. Nai ?aia IX
ecaanoai eae aanueia ?aciinoi?iiiyy ee/iinoue – ooaeiaeiee, iocueaio,
oioia?ao, iiyo, yooniai e oae aeaeaa, a aai ee/iue aeeaae a aeaei
auaiaea no?aiu ec ia?eiaea aiaiiuo aeeeoaoo? ioeaieaaaony i/aiue auniei.

Aeca. Ioaeae aec iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee iinieuenoaa Ei?ieaanoaa
Oaeeaiae a Iineaa. Caienuaaoueny ca?aiaa ia ioaeii, caeanue aeeaay
i/a?aaeue. Iiiaea oioyo iiianoue a Oaeeaiae ia ?iaeaeanoai e Oaeeaiae ia
?iaeaeanoai e Iiaue Aiae. Iiyoiio a iiya?a e aeaeaa?a i/a?aaeue
oaeaaeaaaony e aeaaea oo?aeaaaony. Ioi?ieoue aeco ianeiaeii: ioaeiu
caa?aiianii?o, aeaa oioia?aoee, aeaa aieaou, caiieiaiiua ia aiaeeeneii
ycuea.

Iau/ii n?ie ioi?ieaiey aecu a iinieuenoaa ia i?aauoaao aeaoo-o??o aeiae.
Ii nia?aaoenue a Oaeeaiae a iee naciia, iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue, /oi ana
iiia?a a ioaeyo oaea ia oieueei full-booked (caeacaiu), ii e aeco
i?eae?ony aeaeaoue iaaeaeth.

Iaaeeoeeineay no?aoiaea. Oaeoe/anee cano?aoiaaoueny iiaeii a ethaie
eiiiaiee. Aaaeii, /oiau aai iioii aeaenoaeoaeueii auieaoeee no?aoiaeo,
iineieueeo a Oaeeaiaea, eae e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?aiao, iaae iiiiuue
noieo iaae?oaai.

Aaiaeie – iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaeaii?oia. Ooaea eaoatho
naiie?ou anao e?oiiuo aaeaeiiiaiee ie?a, ii eaoatho iie ec ?aciuo
ai?iaeia. Eae i?aaeei, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua naiie?ou i?eauaatho a aeaaiue
ay?iii?o noieeoeu Aeiia-Iuaia, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony a 33 ei io Aaiaeiea.

Oaiiaeiy. Oaiiaeiy a ay?iii?oo Aaiaeiea ano?a/aao i?eacaeathuaai aac
“ae?aeiiianeeo” no?iainoae. Eae e aacaea, ?aaioatho aeaa oaiiaeaiiua
eeiee: “cae?iay” – aeey oao, eiio ia/aai aeaeea?e?iaaoue, e “e?aniay” –
aeey oao, eoi aac?o aei?iaea iiaea?ee eee oiaa?iua ia?acoeu.
Aeaeea?aoeey caiieiyaony a naiie?oa ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. Noiio aei
$10000 iiaeii aaiceoue ia aiiny a aeaeea?aoeeth.

Iniiaiay aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea a Oaeeaiaea – aao. Iaeei aao ninoaaeyao
100 naoaiaia. Aio oaea ianeieueei eao eo?n aaoa ii ioiioaieth e
aia?eeaineiio aeieea?o aiieia noaaeeai: $1 ?aaai i?eia?ii 25 aaoai.
Iaicia/aiey ia oeaiieeao auaeyaeyo i?inoi: AO.

Ioaee.

Oaeeaiae, ia?aaeeaoee aoi oo?enoe/aneie eiaeono?ee a 80-a aiaeu,
naaiaeiy iiaeao iioaanoaoueny iiiaeanoaii aiieia aeinoieiuo ioaeae. A
eaaeaeii, aeaaea iaaieueoii, ai?iaea iiaeii iaeoe ioaee,
niioaaonoaothuea ie?iaui noaiaea?oai, a oeaiu i?e yoii ieaea, /ai ia
Caiaaea. I?eia?iua oeaiu ca iiia? (a nooee) : ***** – aieaa 3500 aaoia,
**** – 2000-3500 aaoia, *** – 1000-2000 aaoia. Iiia?a, eae i?aaeei,
iaeii-aeaooianoiua, ?aaea – o??oianoiua. Oeaia oaeaea caaeneo io aeaea
ec ieia. A e?oiiuo ioaeyo /aua auaatho iiia?a o??o eaoaai?ee, a oaeaea
aia?oaiaiou noia?ethen.

Ioaee, eioi?ua ii ie?iaie eeanneoeeaoeee iu ioianee au e
aeaooca?caei/iui, a Oaeeaiaea nouanoaotho e niioaaonoaotho eaoaai?ee,
iacuaaaiie budget, o. a. “aeao?aua”. Iiia?a a oaeeo ioaeyo iiaoo aianoi
eiiaeeoeeiia?a eiaoue aaioeeyoi?, nei?aa anaai, ia aoaeao e ?anoi?aia.

E iaeiiaoe naiua aeao?aua a Aaiaeiea – naiaeiua ainoeieoeu. Ii nooe, yoi
/oi-oi a?iaea iaaieueoiai iaineiia, eioi?ue niaea?aeeony e oi?aaeyaony
iaeiie naiue?e. Caeanue i?aaeeaaatho /enoua e othoiua eiiiaoee ia
iaeiiai-aeaoo /aeiaae. Oaeianoaa, i?aaaea ieieiaeueiua, aeaaea ai?y/oth
aiaeo eiie ?ac i?eiinyo a ninoaeao. Iaeiaei caeanue inoaiaaeeaaaony
iaiaei eiino?aioeaa. I?eaeaeaao iaaa?iia ia oieueei iaiaueiiaaiiay
aeaoaaecia – 50 aaoia eee $ 2 a nooee, ii e iniaay, oeie/ii oaeneay,
aoiinoa?a yoeo aeeeeu. Ia?aae aoiaeii a ieo ii o?aaeeoeee inoaaeytho
iaoaue o aeaa?ae. Oicyaaa yoeo ainoeieoe, ec oaaaeaiey e /oaeei
o?aaeeoeeyi e aeaeoaeeai, ei?iyo eeeaioia aiieia eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiui
caao?aeii. A Aaiaeiea oaeea ainoeieoeu ioiineoaeueii aaciianiu. Niyoue
iiia? i?iua anaai iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeyioa a oaeie ioaeue.

A Aaiaeiea ioaee-iaaine??au ?anooo eae a?eau. ?acieoea iaaeaeo ia?auie
o?aiy eaoaai?eyie caeeth/aaony ia noieueei a eiioi?oa e oneoaao,
neieueei a iaee/ee aeiiieieoaeueiie ?ineioe.

Ioaeue, ianiiiaiii caia/aoaeueiia ianoi, aaea iiaeii e ia ethaeae
iiniio?aoue e naay iieacaoue. Iaeiaei Oaeeaiae – yoi no?aia oea?neiai
ioaeuoa. Aiaaoua oo?enou n Caiaaea, i?eacaeathuea a Oaeeaiae
?anneaaeoueny, a?aiaeotho oeea?iua aeaooyoaaeiua aeeeu a eo?i?oiie ciia.
A ieo iau/ii eiathony ianeieueei niaeai n ioaeaeueiuie aaiiuie, iauay
ainoeiiay. Ee/iue iiaa?, ai?ie/iay, aa?aae, aannaei, aeaoneay ieiuaaeea,
io?aia – aea i?aeoe/anee an? /oi iiaeaeaaoa. Aeeea a?aiaeoaony ia
ianyoe, ii iiaeii e ia aeaa iaaeaee – ii aeiaiai??iiinoe.

O o??oca?caei/iuo ioaeae eeeaioia anaaaea iiaeaeeaeatho oaene. Iaeioi?ua
ioaee aunieiai eeanna i?aaeinoaaeytho naiei ainoyi eeioceiu – aanieaoii.
Ai iiiaeo ainoeieoeao anoue nianoaaiiua iee?iaaoiaonu, eioi?ua
ianeieueei ?ac a aeaiue ioi?aaeythony ii ai?iaeneei e oo?enoe/aneei
ia?o?ooai.

Ieoaiea.

“Naioe” – aeoo aeecia?aaeinoiinoe e e?aeinoe auoey, e eioi?iio
no?aiyony ana oaeoeu, – i?aiaeaaeaao e a eo iiaeoiaea e aaea. Ii
aiaaonoao e ?aciiia?aceth ecuneaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aoeaioia Oaeeaiae
aeaaii au?aaeny ia iaeii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a. Iniiaa aaeu caeanue ?en
– iethn iaiue, o?oeou e i?yiinoe. Ec iyna i?aeiouanoaaiii naeieia e
aeiiaoiyy ioeoea. Ei?iiiue iiia? oaeneie eooie – ii?ai?iaeoeou: ii anoue
oaeaea e aethaea ec i?aniiaiaeiie ?uau.

A ioee/ea io ssiiiee e Eeoay, iaei/ee aeey aaeu caeanue ia a oiaeo.
E?iia oiai, oaeneay eooiy iicaieyao ioaeioiooue io iiaea, iioiio /oi an?
ca?aiaa i/euaii, iaeei ia?acaii, ?aciieioi. Oaeoeu iieuecothony eiaeeaie
e aeeeaie, eioi?uie niaoeaatho ieuo, e ieeiaaea ia iaeaeathony, anee
eiino?aiaoe ia ciaao yoeo i?e?iia. Ii i?aaeeai, nia/aea iaeaeuaaaony
?en, a oaea e iaio aeiaaaeyaony an? inoaeueiia. O?aaeeoeeiiiue iaaae a
iaoeeiiaeueiii noeea caeai/eaaaony ?eniaie eai?oeie ia eieiniaii iieiea
e acaeouie neeaeaie n o?oeoaie, a oaeei – noiii, iinea eioi?iai iiaeatho
neaaeeia e o?oeou.

Oaeneay eooiy iiaeao iieacaoueny /a?an/o? ino?ie: a? iaeuecy
i?aaenoaaeoue aac nionia e i?yiinoae. Caieaaoue aethaea iieiaeaii
oieueei aacaeeiaieueiuie iaieoeaie.

O?aaeeoeee.

A Oaeeaiaea ethaay aieiaa n/eoaaony nayuaiiie, aa?oiaiie a i?yiii e
ia?aiiniii niunea, iacaaeneii io oiai, aeinoieii eee iao iia auiieiyao
nai? i?aaeiacia/aiea. Ii oaeneiio iiaa?ueth, a aieiaa neaeeo aeoo
io?aiythuee aeeciue /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio i?eeiniooueny e /oaeie aieiaa e
aeaaea eaneiai acua?ioeoue aieinu – cia/eo ieca /oi ie i?i /oi
inei?aeoue /aeiaaea. Iaeuecy oieeiooue eiai-oi iiaie – ieaeiae, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ac?aiiie /anoueth oaea.

Aeey oaeoeaa oi?ioee oii – naea?aeaiiue oii. Ieeaeeo oaieeuey?iuo
iioeiiuaaiee ii iea/o eee iiauoaiey aieina: iiaeiaiia ia?auaiea aucuaaao
o aeeoaey Oaeeaiaea /oanoai iaeiaeinoe. Anee au /ai-oi iaaeiaieueiu,
eo/oa naea?aeaoue yiioeee e niieieii an? auynieoue. Ia aiai?eoa a?iiei –
aan i?inoi ia oneuoao! Oaeneee ycue iioiae ia oeoia iaiea eee, oi/iaa,
ia ioe/ee uaaao. Iii?iaoeoa uaaaoaoue aianoa n ieie – oaeaeeoa, eaeie
aoaeaoa eiaoue oaioanoe/aneee oniao o ia?oi??ia e ianeoaeeaathuaai
ia?niiaea.

Aeiaieueii no?iai oaeoeu ioiinyony e iaoae: a? iieaaaaony nieiaoue
ia?aae aoiaeii ia oieueei a o?ai, ii e a /anoiia aeeeeua. Anee aan
i?eaeaoatho a ainoe e aeaeeeaoii aiai?yo “iiaeaoa ia ?acoaaoueny”, an?
?aaii inoaaueoa iaoaue o ii?iaa.

Neaeaoue ne?anoea iiae (eae o ian a N?aaeiae Acee eee a Eiaeee)
aaea-ieaoaeue a aea?aaia – ii oaeneei o?aaeeoeeyi aaniethoii iaiuneeii
aeaaea aeey ioae/eiu: yoi aoaeao aini?eiyoi eae inei?aeaiea
ie?oaeathueo.

A Oaeeaiaea ana oeuaathony. Naea?aeaiiue noeeue, i?eiyoue a iiaaaeaiee,
aiana ia i?ioeai?a/eo aeooo aeecia?aaeinoiinoe.

Ai anao aea inoaeueiuo ioiioaieyo oaeoeu aiieia oa?ieiua e /oaeei
iaaeinoaoeai ethaee, ii e?aeiae ia?a aanueia oaeoe/iua. Iie i/aiue
ainoai?eeiiu, ?aaeooii ano?a/atho eiino?aioeaa, oai aieaa /oi oo?eci
i?eiineo no?aia iaiaeue aeioiae.

Aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe.

Iaiyoieee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u Oaeeaiaea ainoiaeyo e a?iiciaiio
aaeo, naeaeaoaeuenoai /aio ea?aieea ec iia?aaaiee, ia?acoeu eioi?ie au
iiaeaoa oaeaeaoue a iaoeeiiaeueiii iocaa. A ia?aua aaea iaoae y?u ia
oa??eoi?ee yoie no?aiu ?acaeaaeinue iiineia e eoia?neia eneonnoaa,
iineoaeeaoea iniiaie oaeneie eoeueoo?u, nicaeaaoea iiiai/eneaiiua o?aiu,
ianneaiua, n thaaee?ii-oiieeie aeaoaeyie noaooe Aoaeaeu. Iaoeeiiaeueiia
oaeneia eneonnoai ia/aei aeoeaii ?acaeaaoueny iiae yaeaeie aoaeaeecia n
XIII aaea: no?ieeenue naiaia?aciua o?aiu (oaeeo aieueoa ieaaea iao), a
neoeueioo?a au?aaaouaaeenue oa?aeoa?iua aeey Oaeeaiaea a?aoe/iua
auoyiooua oi?iu. A ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa Neaineiai ainoaea?noaa – a XIV –
XIX aaeao – iiyaeeenue ai?iaea n i?yiioaieueiie ieaie?iaeie, iaian?iiua
ee?ie/iuie noaiaie n coaoeaie a aeaea eenoia eeeee. Aeai?oeu e o?aiu
aiaaoi oe?aoaiu oeaaoiie iicaeeie, neiaeiie ?inienueth e ?acueaie.
Iniaaiii iiiai oaeeo o?aiia a Aaiaeiea. Nicaeaaaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey neoeueioo?u, ieanoe/aneay au?aceoaeueiinoue eioi?ie
iinoaiaiii oa?yeanue, onooiay aiaoiae aeaei?aoeaiinoe. N XIV aaea
ecaanoia noaiiay aeeaiienue – ?iniene ia oaiu aeecie Aoaeaeu a Athoaea
(XIV a.), noeaiu ec “Oina/aou” e “?aiayiu” a o?aiao Aaiaeiea (XVIII –
XIX aa.).

Caiaaeiia aeeyiea ia/aei iuouaoueny a Oaeeaiaea n eiioea XIX aaea. Ii
no?aia ia iioa?yea naiaai yecioe/aneiai oaeneiai eeoea. Iniaaiii yoi
i?e/oaeeeaia ni/aoaiea ae?aaiaai Ainoiea e nia?aiaiiiai caiaaeiiai
iaaaiieena ii?aaeaao a Aaiaeiea, aaea au?inee caeaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo
aaieia, ioenia, ainoeieoe a aeooa nia?aiaiiie “eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie”
a?oeoaeoo?u.

Iauaeoia aeey iniio?a a iaeiii oieueei Aaiaeiea aaeeeia iiiaeanoai:

A?aiae Iaean eee Aieueoie Ei?ieaaneee aeai?aoe ?aceaeaioeey ei?ieae
Neaia, ?aniieiaeai a oeaio?a ai?iaea ia aa?aao Iaiai-*ai-I?ae. A
eiiieaen A?aiae Iaeana aoiaeyo aeai?oeu *ae?e, Aeoneo, Iaoa I?anaae e
Aia?eiaea, aaea i?ioiaeeo ei?iiaoeey oaeneeo ei?ieae. Caeanue aea
iaoiaeeony ciaiaieoue o?ai Ecoi?oaeiiai Aoaeaeu, iioiae ia neaci/iue
ai?iae.

O?ai Aao Ii – iaiaueiiaaiiuo ?acia?ia oeao?a Eaaeauaai Aoaeaeu (i?e aai
ia?aoiaea a ie?aaio): 49 i a aeeeio e 12 i a aunioo, oieueei nooiie
Eaaeauaai Aoaeaeu eiatho aeeeio 5 i.

O?ai Aao A?oi – Ainoiaeyuaai nieioea ?aniieiaeai ia i?aaii aa?aao
Iaiai-*ai-I?ae a auaoae e?aiinoe Ooiiao?e, iaeei ec aeaaiuo o?aiia
ai?iaea.

Cieioay ai?a – aoaeaeeeneee o?ai ia eneonnoaaiiie ianuie aunioie 78
iao?ia, aaea a oeaio?aeueiie iaaiaea caoi?iiaiu inoaiee Aoaeaeu.

Iiianou?ue O?eieo? – ni noaooae Cieioiai Aoaeaeu ec /enoiai cieioa
aunioie 5 i e aanii 5,5 oiiiu.

Eae Ioaia – aeaaioneea ea/aee ?yaeii n A?aiae Iaeanii – aeaa ia?iiiuo
oeeiauo noieaa n ?aciie ia?aeeaaeeiie, onoaiiaeaiiua aeey a?aieineeo
ia?yaeia.

Ieaao/ee ?uiie. Aaiaeie ?aiueoa iacuaaee Aaiaoeeae Ainoiea: aeeeua
eaa?oaeu ?aciauaeenue aaeieue ?aee Iaiai-*ai-I?ae, a? i?eoieia e
eeiiaia. *enei eeiiaia (eaiaeia) aeioiaeeei aei 170. Oaia?ue eo ia aieaa
140. Any aeeciue i?ioiaeeea ia aiaea. Aei iaoeo aeiae nio?aieeny iau/ae:
?aii oo?ii ia Ieaao/ai ?uiea eae?o oi?aiaey n eiaeie, e na?aaeeia aeiy
aaca? ?anieuaaaony a ?aciua noi?iiu.

E?ieiaeeeiaay oa?ia – ianoi, aaea i?ioiaeeo yecioe/aneia oio iiae
iacaaieai “Eiaey e?ieiaeeeia ?oeaie”, a eioi?ii o/anoaotho /aeiaae,
e?ieiaeeeu e ciae. Ia oa?ia 40 ouny/ e?ieiaeeeia e iaaieueoie ciinaae,
aaea iiaeii iiniio?aoue ?o/iuo eueaia, iaacueyi, oaeaaia,
noioia?aoe?iaaoueny n ieie, iieaoaoueny ia neiiao.

Eeanne/aneea eoeueoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey – oaao?aeueiua iinoaiiaee,
aunooieaiey neioiie/aneeo i?eano?ia – a Aaiaeiea neo/athony aeiaieueii
?aaeei. Iao e ioeoeeaeueii ?aaioathueo eaceii. Eo/oaa aa/a?iaa
a?aiyi?ai?iaiaeaeaiea a noieeoea – yoi aan/eneaiiua oaanaeeoaeueiua
caaaaeaiey: ?anoi?aiu n y?eei i?aaenoaaeaieai a iaoeeiiaeueiii noeea,
aeaeac- e ieaii-aa?u, i/aiue iiioey?ii ea?aiea, ioee/iua aeeneioaee,
ii/iua eeoau e aa?ueaoa. Ia eo?i?oao ?acaea/aiey ie/ooue ia onooiatho
noiee/iui.

Iiaeii iinayoeoue aa/a? nii?oeaiui c?aeeuai, aeaai iie a Aaiaeiea oaeea
aea yecioe/iua, eae, iai?eia?, eooiy.

Ioaeuo ia ino?iaao.

Iiiaea aa?iiaeoeu i?aaeii/eoatho ioaeuoaoue ia ino?iaao aie?oa
Oaeeaiaea. Naiue ecaanoiue e e?oiiaeoee ec ino?iaia – yoi Naioe. Anee
iiniio?aoue ia Naioe n aunieie oi/ee, aeacai ioe?uaaaony aaeeeieaiiaeoee
aeae. Ino?ia – yoi Oaeeaiae a ieieaoth?a. Iiianoue ia iaai iiaeii ia
iaaieueoii naiie?oeea, aueaoathuai aaeaaeiaaii ec Aaiaeiea, eee
aeiaoaoue ia a?aiaeiaaiiii aeaeeia. Au? iyoue eao iacaae yoio ?aeneee
oaieie aue naiui iiioey?iui ianoii aeey ioaeuoa ia i/aiue aiaaoie
aa?iiaeneie iieiae?aee. Nthaea i?eacaeaee caoai, /oiau niaianoeoue
ioaeuo a o?iieeao n aiciiaeiinoueth iiaaeiaaoueny iaaei?iaeie
ia?eioeeaie. Ia ino?iaa au?anoaee iiiai/eneaiiua oo?enoneea aea?aaie, a
eioi?uo ethaee oeaeuie aeiyie eaaeaee ia aa?aao ieaaia a aeaaeaiiie
“ie?aaia”, a aa/a?ii ia/eiaeinue /oi-oi iaaiia?aceiia … E oioy
na?ue?ciuie ia?eioeeaie caeanue ieeiaaea ia oi?aiaaee, o?e aiaea iacaae
ino?ia iiiae a noa?o i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey iieeoeee. Ia ino?iaa
ieiuaaeueth 100*70 ei iiyaeeenue o?e iieeniaia. Yoi ?acii ioeaaeeei
ai?y/ea aieiau, e nae/an any ao?iay ooniaea ia?aianoeeanue ia ae?oaie
ino?ia. A ianeaaenoai inoaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua eiooaaeaee, o?inoieeiaua
aoiaaei, e eaiieiae ia aa?aao ieaaia, ?aca?inaiiua a naiuo aeeaiieniuo
ianoao. Anoue oaeaea e ioaee ia ethaie aeon.

Iiaeaiaeiui ieaaaieai ia ino?iaao oaea/aiu ana. I/aiue iiioey?iia ianoi
aeey iaaieueoiai iiaeaiaeiiai aiyaea – ?aeii ieiei oo?na Aaeeeee ioaoe.
Yoio oaeee/aneee neiaie ai?aei aicauoaaony n?aaee neae ia iaeiie ec
ieiia/iinoae ino?iaa, e aai eaaei oaeaeaoue. Ii “iiaeaiaeieeia”
o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eaeaeaao ia noieueei aiciiaeiinoue iiethaiaaoueny
?aciioeaaoiuie ?uaeaie eee noioia?aoe?iaaoueny ia oiia Aaeeeiai iooea,
neieueei aeaeaiea oaeaeaoue Aaeeeoth iaoue. Ioaeii i/aiue iinoa?aoueny,
/oiau oaeaeaoue a? n aiaeu. Neaea, ianiio?y ia nai? iacaaiea, ?iaei e
ne?iiii i?y/aony n?aaee eaiiae.

Aanue ino?ia iiooai aeia?ioiuie anoaeueoiauie aei?iaaie, ia i/aiue
oi?ioeie a?oioiauie e iie?uouie aonoie oaeeiaenoie iueueth i?in?ei/iuie
eieayie.

Ioaeuo ia ieaaia e?iia iau/iuo eoiaiee aeeth/aao ?aciiia?aciua
?acaea/aiey e nii?o. A Iaooaea iaoiaeeony naiue aieueoie aiaeiue ia?e,
aaea i/aiue iiioey?ai ia?anaeeeia (ia?aotho ia aiaea). Ionthaea iiaeii
niaa?oeoue e?oec ia ei?aeeiaua ino?iaa Ei Eaia.

1 yiaa?y – Iiaue aiae

Eiiaoe yiaa?y – ia/aei oaa?aey – Iaoa Io/a, eeoaeneee Iiaue Aiae. Ana
iaaaceiu o/?aaeaeaiey cae?uaathony ia o?e aeiy. I?ioeannee aie?oa
aoaeaeeeneeo o?aiia.

6 ai?aey – aeaiue aeeianoee *ae?o. Aaeeinoaaiiue aeaiue a aiaeo, eiaaea
ioe?uaathony aeaa?e ei?ieaaneiai iaioaiia a A?aiae Iaeana, eoaea eaeoo
ethaee n oeaaoaie e a?iiaoiuie iaei/eaie.

13 ai?aey – Niiae?ai, i?acaeiee aiaeu, o?aaeeoeeiiiue oaeneee Iiaue
Aiae. Yoi naiia aea?eia a?aiy aiaea. Ana ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu
ie?iieythony aiaeie a ciae oaaaeaiey e ii/eoaiey. A yoio aeaiue oaeoeu
ia?ucaeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa aiaeie.

5 iay – Aeaiue ei?iiaoeee iuiaoiaai iiia?oa.

7 iay – i?acaeiee Ia?aie ai?icaeu. Aeaenoai ia ieiuaaee ia?aae A?aiae
Iaeanii a Aaiaeiea.

Aeie iieiieoiey a iaa – Aenaea Io/a – e ethia – Anaeaoa Io/a.

12 aaaonoa – Aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey ei?ieaau Ne?eeeo. Iuiaoiyy ei?ieaaa
n/eoaaony naiie e?aneaie a enoi?ee Oaeeaiaea, a? aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey –
i/aiue e?aneaue i?acaeiee ii anae no?aia.

23 ieoya?y – Aeaiue *oeaeiiaei?ia. Oi?aeanoaaiiay oea?aiiiey iaiyoe
ei?iey ?aiu V Aaeeeiai.

Aeaiue iieiieoiey a iiya?a Eie E?aoiia nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaiaueiiaaiiie
oea?aiiieae. E?aoiiae – nii?oaeaiey ec aaiaiiauo eenoueaa, aoiaae e
oeaaoia – caioneatho n ianooieaieai oaiiiou ai anao aiaei?iao, n
caaeae?iiuie aioo?e e?aoiiaia naa/eaie eee iaei/eaie.

5 aeaeaa?y – Aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey ei?iey Ioieiiia Aaeoeueyaeaoa,
ainoaea?noaaiiue i?acaeiee, eae e aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey ei?ieaau.

10 aeaeaa?y – Aeaiue eiinoeoooeee.

31 aeaeaa?y – I?aaeiiaiaiaeiee i?acaeiee, auoiaeiie.

Anee ainoaea?noaaiiua i?acaeieee auiaaeatho ia auoiaeiie aeaiue, oiaaea
neaaeothuee aeaiue oaeaea n/eoaaony ia?aai/ei.

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