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NAssUAIIAss I?E?IAeA E?UIA

1. Aaia?aoey E?uia

A?aieoeu e aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea. Aaoiiiiiay ?anioaeeea E?ui (n 1954
a. ii 1991 a. E?uineay iaeanoue) yaeyaony /anoueth Oe?aeiu.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua a?aieoeu ia naaa?a i?ioiaeyo ii Ia?aeiineiio aaeo e
Neaaoo. Ia naaa?i-ainoiea iieoino?iaa iaoiaeeony aeeeiiay ian/aiay eina
– A?aaaoneay no?aeea, e aa naaa?iay, aieaa oe?ieay iieiaeia ioiineony e
Oa?niineie iaeanoe Oe?aeiu. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiue “oaie” E?uia caieiaao
ai?iae-aa?ie Naaanoiiieue, eiathuee, ia?yaeo n Eeaaii, ?anioaeeeaineia
iiae/eiaiea e ii aieueoae /anoe aii?inia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
iainiaeaiiue io E?uineie ?anioaeeee. Noieeoea E?uia ai?iae Neioa?iiieue
(ieiei 400 oun. aeeoaeae), oeaio? aeaeiaie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie,
naycuaaao aiaaeeii ana aei?iae iieoino?iaa. ?aaiioaeaeaiiinoue E?uia io
Yeaaoi?a e Naaa?iiai iiethna, a?aie/iia iieiaeaiea ia nouea Aa?iiu e
Acee, iaanaaaea ii?aaeaeeee aai ?ieue eae ia?ae?anoea ia?iaeia e
oeeaeeecaoeee n iaiau/aeiui ?aciiia?aceai iaiyoieeia i?e?iaeu e enoi?ee,
a oaeaea nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee e eoeueoo?u.

Ieiuaaeue. 25 ouny/ eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia aeey ino?iaa eee iieoino?iaa
– yoi iiiai. Yoiai iau/ii oaaoaao aeey oeaeiai ainoaea?noaa. E?ui /ooue
iaiueoa Aaeueaee, Aeaaiee eee Aaeoe, ii caoi aieueoa, /ai Ec?aeeue,
Eei?, Eeaai, ssiaeea. Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi E?ui, eae e ana yoe
iaaieueoea no?aiu, ioee/aaony ?aciiia?aceai i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee,
ni/aoaieai ai? e ?aaiei, aeaaii?eyoai aeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa e eiaao
oaeiaiia ii?neia iiaa?aaeuea.

?aeueao. ?aaieiiue E?ui iaei ioee/aaony io noaiae ninaaeieo iaeanoae
Oe?aeiu, ii ia caiaaea iie ia?aoiaeyo a ecaanoiyeiaua onooiu Oa?oaieooa,
a ia ainoiea – a oieienoua a?yaeu Ea?/aineiai iieoino?iaa.

E?uineea ai?u i?ioyioeenue o?aiy ia?aeeaeueiuie a?yaeaie io Naaanoiiiey
aei Oaiaeinee ia 150 eeeiiao?ia. Eo naaa?iua neeiiu iieiae, a thaeiua
ia?uaenou. Aeaa ieaeiea a?yaeu ninoaaeytho E?uineia i?aaeai?uea,
?ac?acaiiia ia ioaeaeueiua ianneau aeeaiieniuie ?a/iuie aeieeiaie; a
Aeaaiay a?yaea anoaao nieioiui aa?uea?ii, aunioa eioi?iai ii/oe anthaeo
i?aauoaao ouny/o iao?ia (aunoay oi/ea a. ?iiai-Eio, 1545).

Io oieiaeiuo aao?ia a?yaea i?y/ao o naiaai thaeiiai e?ooiai ia?uaa
oceoth iieineo nooe – ciaiaieoue THaeiue aa?aa E?uia.

Eeeiao. THaeiue aa?aa E?uia io iuna Aey ia caiaaea aei ai?u Ea?a-Aeaa ia
ainoiea iacuaatho noan?aaeecaiiiii?ueai ca aeecinoue iniiaiuo /a?o aai
eeeiaoa (nieia/iiai neyiey, oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa, ?aaeeia inaaeeia),
?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a e iiaa?aaeueth N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y,
noao?iieeai. Naaa?iay, ?aaieiiay /anoue E?uia, eiaao eiioeiaioaeueiue
eeeiao oia?aiiiai iiyna.

Eaoi a E?uio iianthaeo aea?eia e nieia/iia, nooia – eeoue eiiaaea n
ei?ioeeie inaaaeathueie eeaiyie. Aai a?aieoeaie iiaeii n/eoaoue
na?aaeeio iay e eiiaoe naioya?y; inaiue aaeoao oeoeie nieia/iuie aeiyie
(aeaaea iaaeaeyie), ii e iaeeueii iio/oao aeiaeaeyie. Ceia iaei
ioee/aaony io inaie, ii a ai?ao – yoi i?inoi /oaei: nooie ii?iciue
aicaeoo, /enoue iooenoue niaa – aeanyoee ouny/ e?ui/ai auacaeatho ia
auoiaeiua a ?aeiiu Aiaa?neiai ia?aaaea e ai?u Ae-Iao?e. Aaniie
aeoaieiaiaeiia *a?iia ii?a i?ia?aaaaony o sseou e Aeooou iaaeeaiiaa, /ai
ia caiaaeiii eee ainoi/iii aa?aao E?uia. Iiyoiio ia?o e ai?aeue n eo
aoeiui oeaaoaieai iniaaiii oi?ioe ia caiaaeiii iiaa?aaeuea e a
I?aaeai?uea.

Ioiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa a E?uio ii/oe anaaaea e aacaea
iaaaeeea – a i?aaeaeao 65 – 80%, caeanue eaaei aeuoeony aeaaea a aea?o.
?aeii sseou, ii iiiaieaoiei aeaiiui, eiaao naiua ieceea a Aa?iia
iieacaoaee ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe. Oaea/aiea yecioeeie, oo?eciii a
no?aiu n aeaaeiui o?iie/aneei eeeiaoii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eiyei
aoeaaeueii iacaei?iaue oa?aeoa?, iniaaiii aeey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie
nenoaiu. Noieo iaiiiieoue, /oi aeey aa?iiaeoeaa eiaiii nooea noao?iieee
– naiue caei?iaue eeeiao.

?aaeeea ?anoaiey e aeeaioiua, iaiiaoi?eiua eaiaeoaoou, eioi?uie oae
aiaao iieoino?ia, iaoiaeyony iiae caiiaaaeiie io?aiie. Eo iauay
ieiuaaeue ninoaaeyao ieiei 700 eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia, yoi aieaa 2,5% io
oa??eoi?ee E?uia, iaeei ec naiuo aunieeo iieacaoaeae caiiaaaeiie
ianuuaiiinoe aeey Oe?aeiu e NIA. Iiiaea ec caiiaaaeiuo iauaeoia
iinauathony oo?enoaie, caeanue io aan o?aaoaony iniai aa?aaeiia
ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea.

Iiiaia iiaeaeaea e eniuoaea e?uineay caiey: Iaiaei i?ioei ii a? aei?iaai
ia?iaeia, eoeueoo?, ?aeeaee. E ana iie inoaaeyee caeanue /anoe/eo naieo
o?aaeeoeee e iau/aaa, noaiiaeaoeony iaiouaieaiui oeaeui iauae e?uineie
eoeueoo?u. Iaeiie ec iniaaiiinoae yoie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony iaee/ea o
ianaeyaoeo E?uineee iieoino?ia ia?iaeia i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo o?aaeeoeee,
iniiaaiiuo ia ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneii ii/eoaiee iaeioi?uo iauaeoia
i?e?iaeu. *oi yoi auee ca o?aaeeoeee? Eaeea iauaeou e?uineie i?e?iaeu
iaaeaeyeenue noaoonii “nayoinoe”? Nio?aieeinue ee iieeiiaiea “nayuaiiui”
ai?ai, enoi/ieeai, iaua?ai e aea?aaueyi a iaoa a?aiy? Ioaaou ia yoe e
ae?oaea aii?inu iiaeii iaeoe a aeaiiii i/a?ea.

A iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiii E?uio, aaea eniieii aaeia ie?ii oaeeaaeenue
?acee/iua eoeueoo?u e eiioannee, iaeiei ec aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia yoiai
aeia?ininaaeneiai ninouanoaiaaiey aunooiaea naia e?uineay i?e?iaea. A?
iaennyeaaiua ai?iua enoi/ieee iaeeiaeiai ooieyee aeaaeaeo iooieea ethaie
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe, ia aa?oeiao e neeiiao a? aa/iuo ai? niaianoii aaee
oicyenoai a?aee e oaoa?u, a?iyia e ?onneea, ea?aeiu e aieaa?u, a
oaa?e/aneea eana aea?eee ieuo, oaiei e e?anioo eae o?enoeaieio, oae e
ionoeueiaieio.

Niioaaonoaaiiui auei e ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e naiae aeaaiaeaoaeueieoea –
i?e?iaea. Aieaa oiai, /oi iaiaoiaeeii o iaa noa?aeenue ia a?aoue, a ca
oi, /oi a?aee, iiiaia ioaeaaaee acaiai: ai?iua enoi/ieee caae?aeenue a
eneoniua eaioaaee-oiioaiu, ia aaceaniuo o/anoeao ai? naaeaee aea?aauey,
a no?iaoth ceio a eanao iiaeea?ieeaaee aeeeeo aeeaioiuo e ioeoe.
*oanoaiaae i?aaeie nia?aiaiiiai e?ui/aieia e iaecaaeioth oeaiiinoue
ie?oaeathuae aai i?e?iaeu: ca iaiau/ioth e?anioo iiiaea ianoiinoe
iauyaeyeenue caiiaaaeiuie e iai?eeiniiaaiiuie – “nayouie”.

I?e?iaea iauaaeeiyea e?uineea ia?iaeu a i?ioeii, iiaeao iia iauaaeeiyoue
eo e nae/an. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii eeoue aieaa aeoaiei e oaaaeeoaeueii
ioiineony e I?e?iaea e iiiieoue, /oi ana iu – iauea a? aeaoe, a cia/eo,
e?iaiua a?aouey e nano?u iaaeaeo niaie.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue e au? iaeio aauue. Noaeueaa iaoae caiee caaeneo
oieueei io ian: aoaeue ou ?onneee eee oaoa?ei, oe?aeiaoe eee aa?ae –
aoaeouaa E?uia a oaieo ?oeao. A iaoa niooiia a?aiy aiein eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea eiaao neeo. E anee yoio aiein aoaeao aiai?eoue eeoue i ee/iie
auaiaea, anee ii aoaeao i?ecuaaoue e eicoiaai oeia “E?ui – aeey ?onneeo”
eee “E?ui – aeey oaoa?”, anee ii aoaeao eeaaaoaoue ia iaiiaeiiiai
ninaaea, oi caoeaaiaony yoio aiein a e?iaaaie e aanniuneaiiie a?aaeaea,
eioi?ie ieeiaaea ia aoaeao eiioea. A anee yoio aiein i?eciaao e ie?iiio
niaianoiiio o?oaeo ia iauaa aeaai, anee yoio aiein ia?anoaiao oiueaoue
ii ooaaeoei a?aiaiai e i?ineoue iiiiue o aiaaouo ninaaeae, anee yoio
aiein neaaeao: “E?ui – iao iauee aeii”, oi aini?yiao ec ?oei iao
iieoino?ia e canaaoeoueny ia a?oaee ieaiaou y?eie /enoie caacaeie.

2. E?uineay ?aeeaeiciay i?e?iaeiio?aiiay eoeueoo?a: enoiee e iniaaiiinoe

Neaaee, ou auaae eiaaea-ieaoaeue a E?uio? Ana oai anoue: ai?u anoue,
ii?a anoue, noaiue oiaea anoue. A noaie aicaeoo eae ioo, nai a?oaeue
iiaeieiaao. Acieaeaoue ia ai?o – aeaeei noaiao /aeiaaea, eioi?ue ooo ia
aue. Oae e?aneai. A ca ai?ie ii?a n iaaii aianoa aeeaoo, iaa neiea,
iaeii ae?oaiai neiaa. E?uineea ethaee i/aiue ethayo naie e?ae. Aaea au
ie aue e?uineee /aeiaae, iai?aiaiii neaaeao: eo/oa E?uia iao caiee.
Oaeia e?ae iao E?ui. AEeae oieueei, oie?aoue ia iaaei:

(Noa?ay e?uineay eaaaiaea).

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana /aua iiaeii oneuoaoue oaea i?i/ii aioaaeoea a iao
eaeneeii o?acu: “?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea”, “i?e?iaeiio?aiiay
oa??eoi?ey”, “yeieiae/aneia iuoeaiea” e o.ae. Iiiaea aeoiatho, /oi yoe
oa?ieiu e ne?uaathueeny iiae ieie niune – aayiea iaoaai a?aiaie, eiaaea
/aeiaae ia/ae aeoeaii io?aiyoue au? ia iiaeaeaaoeany aio?iiiaaiiiio
aeaaeaieth oa??eoi?ee e caiiaaaeiaaoue iauaeou i?e?iaeu. Ia naiii aea
aeaea yoi ia oae. Enoi?ey caiiaaaeiiai aeaea ooiaeeo naieie ei?iyie a
aeaeaeia i?ioeia e ian/eouaaao ia iaeii ouny/aeaoea.

I?aeoe/anee o anao ia?iaeia ie?a n iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai nouanoaiaaee
i?e?iaeiua iauaeou, eiathuea caiiaaaeiue noaoon – ai?u, ?iue, iaua?u,
?iaeieee, ica?a, ioaeaeueiua aea?aauey e eaiie. Aeinooi e yoei
oa??eoi?eyi aue no?iai ia?aie/ai, a eo i?aaeaeao cai?auaeanue ethaay
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue (?aniaoea caiee, ioioa, niae?aoaeuenoai e
o.ae.), a ai iiiaeo neo/ayo oaeea iauaeou io?aiyea niaoeeaeueiay
no?aaea, a i?aaa eioi?ie aoiaeeei eeoeoue aeecie ia?ooeoaey [5]. N yoeie
caiiaaaeiuie iauaeoaie anaaaea auei naycaii /oanoai no?aoa, i?aeeiiaiey
ia?aae neeaie i?e?iaeu, ienoe/aneiai o?aiaoa, /ai e aue ei iaania/ai
aunieee o?iaaiue caueou a aaeao. Oaeea “i?acaiiaaaeieee” aicieeaee,
anoanoaaiii, ia n oeaeyie iaiin?aaenoaaiiie io?aiu oa??eoi?ee a ea/anoaa
i?e?iaeiiai iauaeoa, – a eo iniiaa ii/oe anaaaea eaaeaea ?aeeaeiciay
iioeaaoeey. Nayuaiiua iauaeou i?e?iaeu auee naycaiu, eae i?aaeei, n
aeeciueth e aeayoaeueiinoueth ycu/aneeo aiaia e aeooia (ai?a Ieeii a
A?aoeee, ?aea Iee a Aaeioa e ae?.), n eoeueoii i?aaeeia (ai?u e ?iue n
?iaeiauie eeaaeaeuaie, ianoiinoue aie?oa iiaeeu nayoiai e o.ae.), n
aaaeiui enoi?e/aneei niauoeai (Eoeeeiai iiea, ino?ia Oi?oeoea e ae?.).
E?iia oiai, iaeioi?ua iauaeou i?e?iaeu noaiiaeeenue nayuaiiuie i?inoi
aeaaiaea?y naiae iaiaueiiaaiiie eaiaeoaooiie c?aeeuiinoe eee iaee/eth
iniaiai /oanoaa oie?ioai?aiiinoe. Oaeea ianoa eniieueciaaeenue aeey
naiiiiciaiey, ?aciuoeaiee e iaaeeoaoeee.

Iinea onoaiiaeaiey o?enoeainoaa a ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee,
ia/aeanue aeoeaiay ai?ueaa n “ycu/aneeie ia?aaeeoeaie” e iiiaea iauaeou
i?e?iaeu i?inoi oie/oiaeaeenue. N?oaeoue “nayuaiiia” aea?aai eee
?ac?ooeoue ycu/aneia eaieua i/aiue eaaei, ii i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii
oie/oiaeeoue iaiyoue ia?iaea. *aeiaae niiaeao niaieoue aa?o, ii ia
niiaeao eaaei io?a/ueny io naieo i?eau/ae. Ii ana ?aaii aoaeao
aica?auaoueny ia i?eau/iia aeey iaai ianoi iieeiiaiey e aoaeao iieeoueny
oaea ae?oaiio Aiao, ii ana ia oie aea “nayuaiiie” ai?a o oiai aea
“nayuaiiiai” aea?aaa. Oae iiiaea nayuaiiua iauaeou i?e?iaeu ycu/anoaa
noaee nayuaiiuie o o?enoeai, – iie naycuaaeenue n aeayoaeueiinoueth
o?enoeaineiai nayoiai, aeeciueth eee nia?oueth eaeiai-eeai i?aaaaeieea,
n yaeaieai /oaeiaeaenoaaiiie eeiiu. E eiaaea a iaoae no?aia ia niaio
o?enoeainoao i?eoea ae?oaay ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aeeaey – eiiioieci, iia
oae aea ia niiaea oie/oiaeeoue a ethaeneeo aeooao ii/eoaiea nayouo iano
i?e?iaeu. “Nayuaiiua” aea?aauey, aaeoiu, ica?a, iaua?u i?eieiaee noaoon
iaiyoieea i?e?iaeu, a aieueoea oa??eoi?ee – ai?u, ouaeuey, ?iue –
noaiiaeeenue caiiaaaeiuie o?i/euaie e caiiaaaeieeaie, i?eieiaynue iiae
io?aio ainoaea?noaa. Ii, eae e o ethaiai aeaea, caeanue oiaea eiathony
aeaa noi?iiu iaeiie iaaeaee. N iaeiie noi?iiu ainoaea?noai io?aiyei
iauaeo io ethaie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a n ae?oaie – aaaei
iieiue cai?ao ia aeooiaiia ii/eoaiea iauaeoa ni noi?iiu naieo a?aaeaeai
e oai naiui aeiaeeinue ieii/aoaeueiiai enei?aiaiey o ethaeae /oanoaa
nayuaiiiai a i?e?iaea. A, oai ia iaiaa, iiiaiaaeiaie iiuo iieacuaaao,
/oi oieueei o?aiaoiia ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea e ene?aiiaa iiieiaiea a?
nayoinoe aieaa /ai ouny/a io?aiiuo aeieoiaioia niiaeao iiii/ue
i?e?iaeiio?aiiiio aeaeo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeioi?uie aeayoaeyie i?e?iaeiio?aiu, a oii /enea e a
iaoai ainoaea?noaa, ia/eiatho aeoeaii ?ac?aaaouaaoueny aii?inu io?aiu
i?e?iaeiuo oa??eoi?ee n yoe/aneeo, ynoaoe/aneeo, ?aeeaeiciuo,
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneeo e eaeaaeenoe/aneeo iiceoeee, aaiaeeony iiiyoea i
?aeeaee i?e?iaeiio?aiu, i i?e?iaeiuo caiiaaaeiuo nayouiyo, ia eaeaieiaee
caiiaaaeiiai aeaea e o.ae. Nae/an o iaoeo ethaeae caiiai i?iaoaeaeaaony
aeooiaiinoue e ii?yaei/iinoue, /aeiaae ia?auaaony aci?ii e Aiao e aeia?o
– e i/aiue aaaeii noiaoue eniieueciaaoue yoio aeooaaiue iiaeuai a nayoii
aeaea io?aiu i?e?iaeu. Ii ni?aaaaeeeaiio iiaieth aee?aeoi?a Eeaaneiai
yeieiai-eoeueoo?iiai oeaio?a A. A. Ai?aeei “?aeeaeiciay iioeaaoeey
iiaeao cia/eoaeueii oe?aieoue yeieiae/aneea oneeey iauanoaaiiinoe. Aac
eaaeauaai a iniiaa yoeo oneeee /oanoaa nayuaiiiai, ana i?e?iaeiio?aiiua
iiiuoee, iniiaaiiua oieueei ia yeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ao e oai?eyo, ia
onoiyo ia?aae iaii?ii iiuiuo nee, iano?iaiiuo eniieueciaaoue i?e?iaeo
aeey naieo ia?eaioeeueiuo oeaeae. O/anoee aeeeie i?e?iaeu ioaeii
n?aaieaaoue n o?aiaie, nicaeaiiuie /aeiaaeii no?iaieyie, ineaa?iaieth
eioi?uo i?ioeaeeanue au oe?ieay iauanoaaiiinoue” [1].

E?iia oiai, A.A. Ai?aeei oeacuaaao ia aaaeiinoue i?eaea/aiey e aeaeo
ai?ueau ca nio?aiaiea i?e?iaeu “ianoiuo ?aeeaeiciuo o?aaeeoeee”, a
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo caaea/ nia?aiaiiiai i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai aeaea noaaeo
“i?iaoaeaeaiea o ethaeae /oanoaa nayuaiiiai a i?e?iaea” [2]. Iiieiatho
aaaeiinoue yoiai aii?ina e iaeioi?ua ioeoeeaeueiua eeoea. Oae, iai?eia?,
a aeieeaaea Ieieno?a eaniiai oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue io 14.05.98
ii neo/ath 200-eaoey eaniiai oicyenoaa Aaea?one, i?icao/aee oaeea neiaa:
“Aeaeeii ianoaei a?aiy, eiaaea a ?aieao o?enoeainoaa ia a?ao aic?iaeeoue
ia?iaeiua o?aaeeoeee i?e?iaeiiieeiiie/anoaa, ethaae ia oieueei e
aeeaeiaio, a e e ie?oaeathuae ?iaeiie i?e?iaea, /oiau ethaee noaee
ae?ocueyie eana”.

Ia?ae/iua i?e?iaeiio?aiiua o?aaeeoeee, naycaiiua n
?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneei ii/eoaieai iauaeoia i?e?iaeu, eniieii aaeia
nouanoaiaaee e ia E?uineii iieoino?iaa. Noieeiiaaiea e niaoaiea
?acee/iuo ia?iaeia e eoeueoo?, a oa/aiea anae enoi?ee i?ioiaeeaoaa ia
caiea Oaa?eee, iniaaiiinoe i?e?iaeu – ana yoi ieacaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea
ia oi?ie?iaaiea nianoaaiii e?uineie i?e?iaeiio?aiiie eoeueoo?u, eiathuae
?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae.

Iaeiie ec oaeeo aaaeiuo iniaaiiinoae yaeyaony ianeaaeiaaiea ycu/aneeo
eoeueoia iieeiiaiey i?e?iaea aieaa iicaeieie ?aeeaeyie – o?enoeainoaii e
eneaiii, n eniieueciaaieai yoeo eoeueoia a i?eaieaiie aeey iiaie ?aeeaee
oi?ia. Ae?aaiea, eniuoaiiua aaeaie o?aaeeoeee ca/anooth auee /oaeaeu
iiaie ?aeeaee, iiyaeyaoaeny ia aa?aaao Oaa?eee, ii ieeiaaea ia iiaee
auoue iieiinoueth oie/oiaeaiu e aianoa n ia?iaeii – iineoaeai yoeo
o?aaeeoeee – ieaaii aeeaaeenue a iiaoth eoeueoo?o.

Oae i?iecioei e a oa aeaeaeea a?aiaia, eiaaea ia auno?ioiaeiuo
aecaioeeneeo noaeao a Oaa?eeo i?eoei o?enoeainoai. O?enoeaineea
ienneiia?u au?oaaee “nayuaiiua” ?iue e aea?aauey oaa?ia, ?ac?ooaee eo
aea?oaaiieee e nayoeeeua, ii?ie ianeeueii e?anoeee ianoiuo
caieaaeaeueoeaa e neioiaiaeia. Ethaee i?eieiaee iiaoth aa?o, ii ana oae
aea ii i?eau/ea oee iieeony iiaiio Aiao ia ianoa noa?uo ycu/aneeo
nayoeeeu – e nio?aieaoeiny io oie/oiaeaiey “nayoui” aeoaai, eaiiyi e
?iaeieeai. Iinoaiaiii n ieie naycuaaeenue i?aaeaiey i aeayieyo eee
yaeaiee caeanue eaeiai-eeai o?enoeaineiai nayoiai e oiaaea neaea eee
?iaeiee noaiiaeeenue ioeoeeaeueii ii/eoaaiuie oea?eiaueth i?e?iaeiuie
iauaeoaie. I i?ienoiaeaeaiee eaeiai-eeai noa?iai aea?aaa iiaee
aiai?eoue, /oi iii iinaaeaii nayoui /aeiaaeii eee ?anoao ia aai iiaeea –
e aea?aai oae aea ii/eoaeinue eae “nayoia”.

Caeanue iiaeii i?eaanoe ianeieueei i?eia?ia. A ainueie eeeiiao?ao e thao
io Aao/ena?ay, iaaeaeo naeaie I?aaeouaeueiia (a. Eio-Aeaaa?iai) e
Aaooaiiaea (a. Iu/ee), ia eaaii aa?aao ?. Ea/e iaoiaeeony a?aiaeeiciue
neaeueiue iannea Ea/e-Eaeueai. Ecaanoiue e?uiiaaae A. O. Eiiaea?aee a
1873 a. ienae i neaea Ea/e-Eaeueaia: “Ii ?anneacai a?aeia iia iacaaia
Eaeueiiii, iioiio /oi a ae?aaiinoe caeanue nouanoaiaaei eaeia-oi eaieua
n enooeaiii oiai aea eiaie” [7]. Ae?aaiinoue Ea/e-Eaeueaineiai nayoeeeua
einaaiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony e oaeoii iaia?oaeaiey aaoi?ii (oaa?aeue 2001
a.), a *aoaa?oii a?ioa Ea/e-Eaeueaia, a ianeieueeeo iao?ao ieaea
enoi/ieea na. Aianoanee, /a?aieia eaiiie eecee-eiaeineie ea?aieee (IX-II
aa. aei i.y.). Ecaanoii, /oi caieaaeaeue/aneea ieaiaia eecee-eiaeineie
eoeueoo?u iieeiiyeenue aiaeanoao aiaeu, eioi?iio i?eiineee aea?oaaiiua
aea?u, /anoi a eaiiuo ea?aie/aneeo ai?oeao [11]. Nei?aa anaai,
iaia?oaeaiiua o enoi/ieea o?aaiaiou ea?aieee yaeyeenue inoaoeaie iaeiiai
ec oaeeo aea?oaaiiuo ai?oeia.

Nayoinoue yoiai ianoa, iniiaaiiay ia ii/eoaiee enoi/ieea aiaeu,
i?iaeieaeaeanue e iinea enei?aiaiey ycu/aneiai eoeueoa. Oae, ia iniiaa
ae?aaiaai ycu/aneiai eaieua a aeieeia ?aee Ea/e n IO ii OV aaea
nouanoaiaae i?aaineaaiue iaua?iue iiianou?ue Ea/e-Eaeueai, iinea
caaiaaaiey Oaa?eee aieneaie oo?ie-iniaiia (1475 aiae) ia Ea/e-Eaeueaia
nouanoaiaaee aeaa o?enoeaineea oea?eaooee, a iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia
e ?inneeneie eiia?ee caeanue aeaenoaiaaea eeiiaey na. Aianoanee
Oci?aoeoaeueieoeu, i?eienaiiay e Oniaineiio neeoo [3]. Ai a?aiaia
niaaoneie aeanoe eeiiaey auea eeeaeaee?iaaia, ii ianoiia ianaeaiea
i?iaeieaeaei oiaeeoue e “nayuaiiiio” enoi/ieeo ca aiaeie. A iineaaeiaa
a?aiy aiiaue ainnoaiaaeeaaaony nayoinoue yoiai ianoa. Oae, iai?eia?,
aaniie 2001 aiaea, ia i?acaeiee Ianoe, o enoi/ieea na. Aianoanee
nayuaiiee Oniaineiai iiianou?y i?iaae inayuaiea ianoaeueiuo eoee/ae.

A aeaoo eeeiiao?ia e caiaaeo io Ea/e-Eaeueaia, a aa?oiaueyo Aeeiiaie
aaeee, ia aa eaaii neeiia, noieo aieueoie aaeoi, caioaeay thaeiay
noi?iia eioi?iai iie?uoa a?oiiie caaaaei/iuo ciaeia-neiaieia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo nenoaiie iiia?a/iuo e i?iaeieueiuo iiein-auaiei. Eaiaiue
noieo o naiie oo?enoneie o?iiu, eioi?ay ianeaaeoao n?aaeiaaaeiaoth
aei?iao, aaaeouoth ec aeieeiu Ea/e a aeieeio Aaeueaaea (a ieaeiae /anoe
thaeiie noi?iiu ecaanoiyeiaie aeuau aeaeiu neaaeu io eieaniuo inae
ae?aaieo oaeaa, i?iacaeaaoeo ii yoie aei?iaa). Ciaee ia eaiia yaii
aeio?enoeaineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e, aiciiaeii, oeacuaatho ia
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aaeoia e eaeiio-oi ycu/aneiio eoeueoo. I aaaeiie
cia/eiinoe yoiai eaiiy a ?aeeaeiciie aeecie ie?anoiuo iinaeaiee, aiai?eo
e oio oaeo, /oi ianoiia ianaeaiea iieeiiyeinue aaeoio a Aeeiiaie aaeee
aua a XVIII – XIX aaeao [3].

Ae?oaie i?eia?. Niaeanii iiiaei ae?aaiaa?a/aneei aaoi?ai, ia iaeiii ec
i?ea?aaeiuo e?uineeo iunia nouanoaiaaei a?aiaeeiciia oaa?neia nayoeeeua,
iinayuaiiia aeaaiiio aiaeanoao yoiai ia?iaea – aiaeia Aeaaa. Oaa?u
i?eiineee a aea?oao naiae aiaeia ieaiiuo a?aeia, ca /oi e iieo/eee ia
iiiaea aaea eeaeii e?iaiaeaaeiiai e aeanoieiai ia?iaea. Nouanoaoao
ianeieueei iiaiee ii iiaiaeo eieaeecaoeee o?aia aiaeie Aeaau, ii /aua
anaai aai ianoii ?aniieiaeaiey n/eoatho iun Oeieaio, /oi e thao io
Naaanoiiiey. E, nei?aa anaai, yoi eiaiii oae: oaeia e?oiiia, ecaanoiia
aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeaie Oaa?eee, ycu/aneia nayoeeeua oaa?neie aiaeie Aeaau
ia iiaei en/aciooue aanneaaeii. Aaaeue ecaanoii, /oi “nayoi ianoi ionoi
ia auaaao” e yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony caeanue: ia iuna Oeieaio, ia ianoa
auaoaai ycu/aneiai eaieua ?aniieiaeai iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo e?uineeo
?aeeaeiciuo oeaio?ia – Aaeaeeaaneee Aai?aeaaneee ioaeneie iiianou?ue,
iiyaeaoeeny n ia/aea aicieeiiaaiey a E?uio o?enoeainoaa.
I?aainoaaiiinoue ycu/aneiai nayoeeeua i?aaineaaiui iiianou?ai eiooeoeaii
/oanoaiaae e A. N. Iooeei ai a?aiy naiaai iinauaiey iuna Oeieaio:

E /aio oieiaeiua niiiaiuey?

ss aa?th: caeanue aue a?iciue o?ai.

Aaea e?iae aeaaeaeouei aiaai

Aeuieeenue aea?oaii?eiioaiuey:

I?aainoaaiiinoue iaeioi?uo ycu/aneeo eoeueoia oa?aeoa?ia e aeey eneaia.
Nayoua iauaeou i?e?iaeu (?iaeieee, aea?aauey, ai?u) aeey ionoeueiaineiai
ianaeaiey Oaa?eee i?aeoe/anee anaaaea auee naycaiu n aeayoaeueiinoueth,
a /aua anaai – n caoi?iiaieai i?aaiaa?iiai nayoiai /aeiaaea. Oaeea
i?aaaaeieee, ?iaii eae e ianoi eo caoi?iiaiey iacuaaeenue o oaoa? neiaii
“acen”. Acenii iia noaoue i?aaiaa?iue ionoeueiaiei, eioi?ue i?e aeecie
niaa?oae aeia?ua aeaea, inouanoaee oaaeae a Iaeeo, aue ii/eoaai ca naith
ioae?inoue. E anee iinea nia?oe ia aai iiaeea caia/aee caeaiia naa/aiea
eee aicea iaa i?ienoiaeeei enoeaeaiea aieueiiai /aeiaaea – yoi aue
aa?iue ciae: caeanue eaaeeo nayoie /aeiaae, acen. Iiainoue ia acena
?aceaoaeanue iaiiaaiii ii anae ie?oaa e e aai iiaeea niaoeee aeaaeaeouea
enoeaeaiey io ?acee/iuo iaaeoaia, eae oaeaniuo, oae e aeooaaiuo. Acen
n/eoaeny iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo Aeeaoii e /aeiaaeii. Ianoi, aaea eaaeae
acen, iai?aaeeaaeinue, i?eaiaeeeinue a ii?yaeie e /anoi ioia/aeinue
aea?aayiiui oanoii, oaaoaiiui eineooeaie iaoa?ee, a any ie?oaa
iauyaeyeanue “nayuaiiie”, iai?eeiniiaaiiie oa??eoi?eae, aaea
cai?auaeanue anyeay oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue; caeanue cao/aee eeoue
iieeoau e i?inueau Aeeaoo.

Iaeioi?ui acenai iieeiiyeenue oae aeaaii, /oi iaeuecy auei e aniiiieoue
aue ee caeanue aeaenoaeoaeueii eoi-oi iioi?iiai. A nayce n yoei aua a
XIX aaea aaoi? i/a?ea “Acenu o oaoa?” O. A. Iiianou?eu i?aaeiieaaae, /oi
neiai “acen” – yoi enii?/aiiia a?a/aneia neiai “aein” – nayoie e
aeiaaaeye: “Auoue iiaeao, ia ianoao, aaea oaia?ue anoue acenu, au?
caaeieai aei iiyaeaiey a E?uio oaoa?, auee nayoeeeua i?aaeieo ia?iaeia,
iinayuaiiua ?aciui aiaeanoaai; oaoa?u aea iiaee oieueei i?eo?i/eoue e
oiio eee ae?oaiio ianoo ii/eoaiea nayouo, niia?acii naiei ?aeeaeiciui
iiiyoeyi” [9].

*oiau acen aeaaae neeu iiaaaeaeaoue a?aaia e aeaeaoue aeia?ua aeaea, i?e
iai /anoi niaa?oaee ia?yae iiae iacaaieai “noaa?in” (n a?a/aneiai
“e?ano”). Aeey yoiai ioaeii auei i?eneiieoueny nieiie e nayoiio iauaeoo
(aea?aao, neaea, no?iaieth) e i?eiyoue oi?io e?anoa, niieioa aianoa iiae
e ?annoaaea ?oee. Yoio iau/ae ano?a/aeny o a?aeia-ionoeueiai,
i?aaineaaiua i?aaeee eioi?uo auee auioaeaeaiu i?eiyoue eneai a 1778
aiaeo, /oiau ecaaaeaoue aunueee ca i?aaeaeu naiae ?iaeeiu, eiaaea ia
aa?aaa Acianeiai ii?y ii oeaco Aeaoa?eiu II ianeeueii auaiceeinue ana
o?enoeaineia ianaeaiea E?uia. Ianiio?y ia naith iiaoth aa?o, yoe ethaee
/oeee e iiiieee iiiaea o?enoeaineea iau/ae.

N acenaie naycaii ianeieueei o?aaeeoeee ?aeeaeiciiai ii/eoaiey iauaeoia
i?e?iaeu, yaeythueony ycu/aneeie ia?aaeeoeaie a eneaia. Oae, i?e iiaeea
i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeiai acena ?inei noa?ia aea?aai, eioi?iio iieeiiyeenue
eae aianoeeeuo aeooe i?aaaaeieea. Oaeea aea?aauey iieueciaaeenue
ia?iiiui ii/oaieai e oaaaeaieai, e yaeyeenue iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo
iieyueiny e acenii. Ii noa?ie o?aaeeoeee (eioi?ay, enoaoe, ano?a/aaony o
iiiaeo ia?iaeia ie?a, a ?aciuo eiioeao ieaiaou), iinea iieeoau e aaoayi
aea?aaa i?eaycuaaeenue eineooee caeaiie eee e?aniie iaoa?ee io iaeaaeaeu
i?ineoaey; n/eoaeinue, /oi aianoa n yoei naiaia?aciui aea?oaii?eiioaieai
aieueiiai iieeioo ana io/auea aai iaaeoae. Eineooee iaoa?ee, a oaeaea
ae?oaea iaeeea aea?u – iiiaoee, ieuo eiiaaea inoaaeyee i?yii o iiaeeu, a
anee iauaeoii iieeiiaiey aue ?iaeiee i?e iiaeea, oi aea?oaaiiua iiiaoee
eeaeaee a aiaeo.

N acenii auee naycaiu ii/eoaiey ia oieueei ioaeaeueiuo i?eiiaeeueiuo
aea?aaueaa, ii e ae?oaeo iauaeoia i?e?iaeu. Anee acen aue iioi?iiai ia
aa?oeia ai?u, oi e any ai?a noaiiaeeanue ianoii iieeiiaiey, ianoii
iaeoaiey nayuaiiiai aeooa. Iaeaieaa y?eee i?eia? oiio – ai?a Nayoay (o
oaoa? iia oae e iacuaaeanue “Acen” eee “Aca”) a ai?iii ianneaa Ea?aaeaa,
ia aa?oeia eioi?ie ii i?aaeaieth aue iioi?iiai nayoie /aeiaae. Acen iia
auoue iia?aaai a iaua?a eee o enoi/ieea – oiaaea iaua?a noaiiaeeanue
ianoii iaeiiie/anoaa (iaua?a Eu?e-Acen o Coe), a ?iaeiee iaaeaeyeny
/oaeiaeaenoaaiiuie, oeaeeoaeueiuie naienoaaie (enoi/iee
Eiciiaeaieaiianeiai iiianou?y Naaeoono oaoa?u iacuaaee Naaeuno acece e
n/eoaee, /oi ii aueao i?yii ec iiaeeu iioi?iiaiiiai ooo acena).

Ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea iauaeoii ?aeeaeiciiai ii/eoaiey o oaoa?
aunooiaee aieaa cia/eoaeueiua oai?aiey i?e?iaeu, eae, iai?eia?,
Iieiaeneia ica?i o Aaiaoi?ee. Aua a ia/aea 20 aaea o naiie aiaeu ica?a
nouanoaiaaea iiaeea acena “ioia/aiiay a?oaeie eaiiae e iaoiaeyuayny a
ieioii ninoiyiee”. Iaeiiieee iieo/aee caeanue enoeaeaiea io yca e
aiiyueony nuiae e niaa?oaee a “/oaeiaeaenoaaiiie aiaea Iieiaea” iieiia
iiiaaiea, iinea /aai “oai?eee iieeoao” [4].

Ae?oaie aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth iniia e?uineie i?e?iaeiio?aiiie eoeueoo?u
yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea iaueo o?aaeeoeee iieeiiaiey iauaeoai i?e?iaeu,
niaianoiia ii/eoaiea iaeieo e oao aea iauaeoia, eae ionoeueiaiaie, oae e
o?enoeaiaie, /oi yaeyeinue ?acoeueoaoii aeieaiai aeia?ininaaeneiai
niaeeoaeuenoaa e acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey ae?oa a ae?oaa yoeo ?aeeaee ia
oa??eoi?ee E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

Iai?eia?, oaea oiiieiaaoayny auoa ainoi/iay o?aaeeoeey i?eianaiey
aea?oau nayoiio iooai i?eaycuaaiey e aaoayi “nayuaiiiai” aea?aaa
eineooeia naiae iaeaaeaeu, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeanue n?aaee o?enoeaineiai
ianaeaiey E?uia. Iiiaea aea?aauey, ?anoouea a nayuaiiuo aeey
i?aaineaaiiai e?ui/aieia ianoao, iaaaoaiu eineooeaie iaoa?ee,
inoaaeaiiuie aiaiiieueoeaie eae iaiyoue i iinauaiee nayoiai ianoa.
Aaeeinoaaiiia nio?aieaoaany aei iaoaai a?aiaie “nayoia” aea?aai,
ii/eoaaiia o?enoeaiaie – iiiaiaaeiaay /a?aoiy o enoi/ieea na. Aianoanee
a Ea/e-Eaeueaia, ana aaoae eioi?ie iaaaoaiu o?yie/iuie eoni/eaie.

A ae?oaeo ianoao ai?iiai E?uia oae aea iiaeii ano?aoeoue iaaaoaiiua
o?yii/eaie, (a /aua eoneaie iieeyoeeaia) aea?aauey, ?aniieiaeaiiua o
ecaanoiuo, oe?iei iinauaaiuo oo?enoaie iauaeoia i?e?iaeu e enoi?ee – ia
*oooo-Eaea, a Aieueoii eaiueiia E?uia, o aiaeiiaaea Aeaeo?-Aeaeo? e ae?.
Ii ana yoi eeoue aayiea iiaeu, ia eiathuaa ie/aai iauaai n enoeiiui
aeoaieei cia/aieai noa?ie o?aaeeoeee. Iaaaoaiiua o?yii/eaie e
iieeyoeeaiii aea?aauey, ?anoouea ia a “nayoii” ianoa, ia oieueei
inei?aeytho ae?aaithth iauae?uineoth ?aeeaeicioth o?aaeeoeeth, ii oae
aea caa?yciytho i?e?iaeo e ia?ooatho a? iaecaaeioth e?anioo.

O?enoeaiaie e ionoeueiaiaie ia oieueei iaeeiaeiai eniieueciaaeenue
iaeioi?ua o?aaeeoeee, ii e niaianoii ii/eoaeenue iiiaea “nayoua” ianoa
e?uineie i?e?iaeu. Iniaaiii y?ei yoi iaaethaeaeinue ii ioiioaieth e
ai?iui enoi/ieeai. Ionoeueiaia ia oieueei aa?eee a oeaeaaioth neeo
“nayouo” enoi/ieeia, ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiuo Oaa?e/aneie aia?oeae –
Eiciiaeaieaiianeiai, Eeceeoaoneiai, enoi/ieea na. Ia?aneaau, na.
Aianoanee, na. Aiae?ay e iiiaeo ae?oaeo, ii e i?eoiaeeee ia iieaaiu e
yoei enoi/ieeai ai a?aiy o?enoeaineeo oea?eiaiuo i?acaeieeia. Ia?aaeee
auaaee neo/ae, eiaaea oaoa?u niaa?oaee iiiaaiea eee iieeeenue o
“nayoiai” enoi/ieea o?enoeai a oaeia io naiaai ioeeu.

Ecaanoiu neo/ae niaianoiiai o?enoeainei-ionoeueiaineiai iieeiiaiey i?ai,
aea?aaueyi e iaua?ai. Ia aa?oeio Ea?aaeaaa, e ai?a Nayoie iiaeieiaeenue
ia iieeoao eae i?aaineaaiua a?aee e aieaa?u, oae e oaoa?u; o
Eiciiaeaieaiianeiai iiianou?y ?inee “nayuaiiua” aea?aauey, eioi?ui
iaeeiaeiai iieeiiyeenue e ?onneea, e oaoa?neea iaeiiieee; iaua?a
Eu?e-Acen o Coe ii/eoaeanue eae ianoi io/aie/aneie aeaaee ianeieueeeo
i?aaaaeieeia eae o oaoa?, oae e o ?onneeo.

E ai?a Ae-Ei?e, aaea a n?aaeiaaaeiauea iaoiaeeeny i?aaineaaiue a?a/aneee
iiianou?ue Na. Aai?aey, aaeaaiaeii, 23 ai?aey, eiaaea o?enoeaineay
oea?eiaue i?acaeioao aeaiue yoiai nayoiai, ec Aeooou e ie?anoiuo
aea?aaaiue ia ieiuaaeeo ia?aae neaeie noaeaeenue iannu oaoa?. “Aua ia
oae aeaaii, iinea niaa?oaiey iieeoau, iiae eiio?ieai noa?eeia,
iieiaeaaeue anooiaea a aaeeiiai?noai ca iacaoaeeeaua i?ecu, a au?
?aiueoa ono?aeaaeenue e?aneaua, oaeaeua aeaeeaeoiaee” [8]. E oaeeo
i?eia?ia ie?iiai ninouanoaiaaiey aeaoo ?aeeaee e iieeiiaiey eo
iineaaeiaaoaeae iaeiei e oai aea “nayoui” ianoai a E?uio iiaeii iaeoe
aaeeeia iiiaeanoai.

A e?uineie ?aeeaeiciie i?e?iaeiio?aiiie eoeueoo?a y?ei i?ineaaeeaaaony
iaee/ea eiiieaeniinoe i?e?iaeiuo nae?aeueiuo iauaeoia. No?oeoo?a oaeiai
eiiieaena aeeth/aao a naay 2 – 3 “nayuaiiuo” iauaeoa i?e?iaeu e /aua
anaai ano?a/aaony a aeaea naiaia?aciiai “nayuaiiiai o?i/eua” –
“nayuaiiay” ai?a (neaea, iaua?a) – “nayuaiiue” enoi/iee – “nayuaiiia”
aea?aai.

Iaeaieaa y?eei i?eia?ii oaeiai eiiieaena a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aunooiaao
oaea oiiieiaaoeeny auoa Ea/e-Eaeueai, a “Oea?eiaiii a?ioa” eioi?iai,
ieiei “nayuaiiiai” enoi/ieea na. Aianoanee, ?anoao “nayuaiiia” aea?aai
/a?aoie. “Naii c?aeeua Aieueoiai a?ioa n enoi/ieeii e ?anoouei /ooue
ieaea aaeiaui aea?aaii a?yae ee eiai iiaeao inoaaeoue ?aaiiaeooiui:
iaiiiai iaeaeaony ia caiea iano, eioi?ua au n aieueoei iniiaaieai
caneoaeeaaee iacaaiea o?aia a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa: aai aioe/aneea
naiaeu aicaeaeaea naia i?e?iaea. Aua aieueoaa aia/aoeaiea ii aeieaeai
aue i?iecaiaeeoue ia iaoeo i?aaeeia, iieeiiyaoeony neaeai, aea?aaueyi,
enoi/ieeai” [10].

*aua nae?aeueiue i?e?iaeiue eiiieaen aeeth/ae a naay aeaa ninoaaeythuea:
enoi/iee-aea?aai, enoi/iee-ai?a, enoi/iee-iaua?a. E anaaaea
oeaio?aeueiui yae?ii aunooiae enoi/iee aiaeu – iniiaa aeecie a
canooeeauo E?uineeo ai?ao. O ?iaeieeia aicaiaeeeenue n?aaeiaaaeiaua
o?aiu, i?ienoiaeeee aaaeiua enoi?e/aneea niauoey, n ?iaeieeaie
naycuaaeenue i?aaeaiey i /oaeaniuo enoeaeaieyo, aicea ieo oi?iieee
nayouo ethaeae – ana yoi neoaeeei iiaiaeii e iaiaeanoaeaieth enoi/ieea.
Io ?iaeieea noaoon nayoinoe ia?aei/aauaae ia aeeceaaeauoth oi?io
?aeueaoa – ai?o, neaeo, iaua?o, aaeeo, a oae aea ia ?anoouaa ?yaeii
i?eaeiaeueiia (noa?iai aic?anoa eee iaiau/iie oi?iu) aea?aai. Ana
o?i/eua /aua anaai iieo/aei aaeeiia eiy, a neeo noaoona nayoinoe e
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe nio?aiyei naie aei?ano?niue iioaioeeae, eiaei
aunieoth noaiaiue caueou io oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ianoiui
ianaeaieai, e oai naiui yaeyeinue i?ioioeiii nia?aiaiiuo caiiaaaeiuo
o?i/eu.

Ia?ae/iua i?e?iaeiio?aiiua o?aaeeoeee, naycaiiua n ?aeeaeiciui
ioiioaieai e i?e?iaea, auee oa?aeoa?iu aeey anao ia?iaeia, ianaeyaoeo
E?uineee iieoino?ia. Ii aianoa n oai, o ?aciuo yoiieoeueoo?iuo
niiauanoa, iaeie iauaeou i?e?iaeu ii/eoaeenue aieueoa, /ai ae?oaea, /oi
ai iiiaii auei naycaii n iniaaiiinoyie eo eoeueoo?u e oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oae, o neioiaiae/aneeo oaa?neeo ieaiai iniiaiui iauaeoii iieeiiaiey a
i?e?iaea aunooiaee iaua?u e a?iou, ?aniieiaeaiiua ii iooe ia ai?iua
ianoaeua, aaea ioi?aaeyeenue eoeueou iieeiiaiey neioiaiae/aneiio
aiaeanoao, a iicaea, n ?acaeoeai caieaaeaeey, eoeueou aiaeanoaa aiaeu –
iniiau oi?ioaai o?iaeay.

Aieaa oeeaeeeciaaiiua e aunieieoeueoo?iua a?aee o ai?iuo enoi/ieeia e ia
aa?oeiao ioaeaeueiuo ai? aicaiaeeee iiiai/eneaiiua o?aiu e iiianou?e.
Nayoinoue eoeueoiaiai nii?oaeaiey iinoaiaiii ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia
enoi/iee e ai?o, eioi?ua noaiiaeeenue ii/eoaaiui oaieeii i?e?iaeu e
iieo/aee iacaaiea ii eiaie o?aia. Aieueoeinoai n?aaeiaaaeiauo a?a/aneeo
iiianou?ae eaioei a Eaoo, ii ia eo aueii ianoiiieiaeaiee ana au? aiai?yo
a?a/aneea oiiiieiu n i?enoaaeie “Ae” (io a?a/. “Aein” – nayoie):
Ae-Iao?e, Ae-Oiaei?, Ae-Ei?e, Ae-Eey, Ae-Na?an e iiiaea ae?oaea.

A ioee/ea io a?aeia, oaoa?neia ianaeaiea e?ay ioiineeinue e i?e?iaea
aieueoa eae e iaeanoe oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey, /ai e iaeanoe
aeooiaiiai. Iiyoiio e iaei o oaoa? “nayouo” ai? (ianoaeuiua oaiaeuey),
i?aeoe/anee iao “nayouo” ?iu e aea?aaueaa (ieua aeey neioa, ae?aaaniue
oaieue e o.ae.), ii auniei ii/eoaiea i?aniie aiaeu ai?iuo enoi/ieeia –
eae iniiau aeaaiuo io?aneae oicyenoaa.

O e?uineeo a?iyi – ec-ca eo iaei/eneaiiinoe e eiiiaeoiinoe i?iaeeaaiey a
i?ioeii (eneeth/eoaeueii ia oa??eoi?ee thai-ainoi/iiai E?uia) –
ano?a/aaony iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai “nayouo” iauaeoia i?e?iaeu. Yoi,
i?aaeaea anaai, ai?a No?a-Oa/ (“Nayoie e?ano”), ia neeiiao eioi?ie
?aniieaaaaony aeooiaiue oeaio? a?iyineiai ia?iaea, iiianou?ue No?a-Oa/,
a oae aea o?e enoi/ieea-oiioaia ia oa??eoi?ee iiianou?y, eioi?ua
ii/eoaeenue oeaeaaiuie e eiaee iacaaiey Enoi/iee I?aeoe/iinoe, Enoi/iee
Neeu, Enoi/iee E?aniou e Iieiaeinoe. Aei iaoaai a?aiaie oieueei a
Enoi/ieea Neeu aua aeo?/eo nayuaiiay aiaea, inoaeueiua aea aeaa iuia
aacaiaeiu.

O ea?aeiia iniai auaeaeyeinue ii/eoaiea aea?aaueaa. Au? aei iaoeo aeiae
nio?aieeanue “nayuaiiay” aeoaiaay ?iua o *oooo-Eaea – aeaaiay ea?aeineay
nayouiy. Ai a?aiy ?oaee eana ia oicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu ea?aeiu ieeiaaea
ia o?iaaee o?oeoiaua aea?aauey e eonoa?ieee (eecee, eaueio, /a?aoith,
yaeiith e ae?.) – oie/oiaeaiea ieiaeiauo ii?iae n/eoaeinue aieueoei
a?aoii. Iaiaoiaeeioth ?oaeo eana ea?aeiu eiiiaine?iaaee eneonnoaaiiuie
iinaaeeaie: iieiaeie /aeiaae ia eiae i?aaa aeaieoueny, iiea ii ia
iinaaeee aea?aai e ia eaioe?iaae ai?iue enoi/iee [6].

E?ui/aee oae aea eiaee ii/eoaaiua iauaeou i?e?iaeu, ii aei iaoeo aeiae
eiie?aoiua aeaiiua ia iniaaiiinoyo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo o?aaeeoeee yoiai
ia?iaea, i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth oie/oiaeaiiiai oaoenoaie ai a?aiy
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, e niaeaeaieth, ia aeioee. O iineoaeae
e?ui/aeneie eoeueoo?u nio?aieeenue eeoue neoaeiua aeaiiua i oii, /oi eo
i?aaeee ii/eoaee ai?o Ae-Eay (Aaeay neaea) o Aaeiai?nea (a. Ea?anoaaca?)
– ianoa eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiey e?ui/aeia.

Iieeiiaiea “nayoui” iauaeoai i?e?iaeu e naycaiiua n ieie eoeueoo?iua
o?aaeeoeee nua?aee aeaaioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee yeieiae/aneiai iuoeaiey
ianaeyaoeo E?ui ia?iaeia. Eneeth/eoaeueii aeaaiaea?y
?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneiio ii/eoaieth iaeioi?uo i?e?iaeiuo oa??eoi?ee, aei
iaoaai a?aiaie aeiaeeee ia oieueei naie yoe ianoa, ii e a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie nio?aieeny eo aei?ano?niue iioaioeeae.

Iinea onoaiiaeaiey a E?uio niaaoneie aeanoe aieueoeinoai “nayuaiiuo”
iauaeoia i?e?iaeu aioee a ninoaa oa??eoi?ee i?e?iaeii-caiiaaaeiiai
oiiaea eee aea naie iieo/eee noaoon iaiyoieea i?e?iaeu. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ii/oe ana oa??eoi?ee, ii/eoaaoeany a i?ioeii eae “nayoua” ianoa,
aeeth/aiu a ninoaa i?iaeoe?oaiiai a Ai?iii E?uio iaoeeiiaeueiiai ia?ea
“Oaa?eaea”. A /anoue ec ieo ainnoaiaaeeaaao naith aueoth neaao
i?e?iaeiuo nayouiue e i?eoyaeaaao e naaa ia iieeii aiaiiieueoeaa ni anao
oaieeia E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ai?aeei A.A. Nayoeeeua aeeeie i?e?iaeu. – Eeaa, 1998.

2. Ai?aeei A.A. Nayuaiiua ai?u. – Eeaa, 1999.

3. Aaeia?i A.A., *i?ao I. ss. “Ei?aaeue” ia Ea/a. – Neioa?iiieue:
“Oaa?ey”, 1976.

4. Aani?eineee E. E?uineea acenu // Ainoi/iue nai?iee. Ei.1. NIA, 913.

5. A?aaa? Eeiaea. Aeeeay i?e?iaea eae nayuaiiia i?ino?ainoai. – Eeaa,
1999.

6. Eiaaeaiei E. Ia?aua caiiaaaeieee // Oaa?e/aneea aaaeiiinoe, ? 47
(296), 15.12.2000.

7. Eiiaea?aee A. O. Oieaa?naeueiia iienaiea E?uia. – Ieeieaaa, 1873.

8. E?ui. Iooaaiaeeoaeue. – Neioa?iiieue, 1914.

9. Iiianou?eu O. A. Acenu o oaoa? // O?aouey o/aaiay yeneo?ney
Neioa?iiieueneie ioaeneie aeiiacee. – Neioa?iiieue, 1890.

10. Oaaeaaaa O. I. E?ui a nae?aeueiii i?ino?ainoaa. – Neioa?iiieue:
“Aecian-Eioi?i”, 2000.

11. Uaieineee A. A. E?aniua iaua?u. – Neioa?iiieue: “Oaa?ey”, 1987.

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