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Сравнительный анализ Кузнецкого и Печорского угольных бассейнов

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss E IAOEE ?O

ANA?INNEENEEE CAI*IUE OEIAINIAI-YEIIIIE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

OEEEAE a a. A?OAIAAEUeNEA

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

II AeENOeEIEEIA: «Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey»

IA OAIO: «N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec Ia/i?neiai e Eociaoeeiai oaieueiuo
aannaeiia»

Auiieieea nooaeaioea

? ee/iiai aeaea 07OAA00576

oaeoeueoaoa: O/aoii-noaoenoe/aneee

eo?n: 1

a?oiia: ia?eoa?ey

Aa?aoeia Aeaia Ieoaeeiaia

I?iaa?ee: Eciaeeeia A.I.

A?oaiaaeuene

2008

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

1. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea io?anee

2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea Eociaoeeiai oaieueiiai aannaeia

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea Ia/i?neiai oaieueiiai aannaeia

4. ?acaeoea e ?aciauaiea oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 3

Aaaaeaiea

Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae no?oeoo?iie
ninoaaeythuae yeiiiieee ?innee, iaeiei ec eeth/aauo oaeoi?ia iaania/aiey
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe no?aiu. Iieiinoueth iaania/eaay naay
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeie ?ano?naie, ?inney yaeyaony e e?oiiui
yenii?oa?ii oiieeaa e yia?aee; iie ninoaaeytho aieaa iieiaeiu aa
yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea.

Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen aeeth/aao a naay iaooyioth, aaciaoth,
oaieueioth, neaioeaaoth, oi?oyioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue e yeaeo?iyia?aaoeeo.
[5, no?. 125]

Oaieueiay io?aneue ioiineony e /eneo aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae oiieeaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Inouanoaeyaony aeiau/a eae eaiaiiiai oae e ao?iai oaey.
Oaieueiua aacu eiatho aieueoia ?aeiiiia?acothuaa cia/aiea. Iie
i?eoyaeaatho e naaa neaaeothuea i?iecaiaenoaa: oaieiyia?aaoeeo,
oeie/aneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue e ae?oaea yia?aiaieea i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey
oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e niioonoaothueo io?aneae oa?aeoa?iu ianniaua
a?ociiioiee, /oi aucuaaao cia/eoaeueiia o?ainii?oiia no?ieoaeuenoai,
nicaeaiea yeaiaioia eio?ano?oeoo?u. [4, no?. 131-132]

A aeaiiie ?aaioa aeaaony n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaoo aaaeiaeoeo
eaiaiiioaieueiuo aannaeiia ?innee: Ia/i?neiai e Eociaoeeiai, eo
noiaenoaa e ?acee/ey, a oaeaea iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea oaieueiie io?anee.

1. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea io?anee

Oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue – aaaeiia caaii oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai
eiiieaena.

Oaieue – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aeae oiieeaa, iaania/eaathuee
?acaeoea yia?aaoeee a oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie.

?inney caieiaao o?aouea ianoi a ie?a ii aeiau/a oaey iinea Eeoay e NOA e
ia?aia ianoi ii ?acaaaeaiiui caianai oaey. Iauea aaieiae/aneea caianu
oaey ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee – 6421 ie?ae. o, eiiaeeoeeiiiua – 5334 ie?ae.
o. A oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina ?innee aeiey oaey a 50-a aiaeu
aeinoeaaea 65%, a 60-a aiaeu – 40 -50%. A 70 – 80-a aiaeu oaieueiia
oiieeai auei auoaniaii iaooaaaciaui, e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiey oaey a
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina ?innee ninoaaeyao eeoue 12 – 13% , a a
oiieeaiii aaeaina oaieiyeaeo?inoaioeee – i?eia?ii 25%. Eiathony oaee
?acee/iiai oeia: aio?aoeeou, ao?ua, eienothueany. A iaueo caianao
i?aiaeaaeatho eaiaiiua oaee – 2/3 iaueo caiania. [1, no?. 222-223]
Eaiaiiua e ao?ua oaee ioee/athony aunieie oaieioai?iie niiniaiinoueth,
ea/anoaaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, oneiaeyie caeaaaiey, aeiau/e e
eniieueciaaiey. Eaiaiiua e eienothuea oaee ioiinyony e
aunieiea/anoaaiiui e eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneiai oiieeaa
a /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee. Ao?ua oaee yaeythony ieceiea/anoaaiiui
yia?aaoe/aneei oiieeaii e i?eiaiythony eae nu?uea aeey oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. [2, no?. 66-68]

Oaieue aeiauaaaony oaooiui niiniaii e a ea?uea?ao – ioe?uoay aeiau/a
(40% iauae aeiau/e). Caianu oaey, eioi?ua iiaoo aeiauaaoueny ioe?uoui
niiniaii, i?aauoatho 200 ie?ae. oiii, iie a iniiaiii nin?aaeioi/aiu ia
ainoiea no?aiu. [1, no?. 222-223]

Aaaeiaeoeie oaieueiuie aannaeiaie yaeythony Eociaoeeee e Ia/i?neee
oaieueiua aannaeiu.

2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea Eociaoeeiai oaieueiiai aannaeia

Oaieueiue aannaei aue ioe?uo a 1721 a., oe?iei ?ac?aaaouaaaony n 1920-o
aa. Ii caianai e ea/anoao oaeae Eocaann – iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo
yenieoaoe?oaiuo eaiaiiioaieueiuo aannaeiia ie?a, aaea ia n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoie oa??eoi?ee neiioeaio?e?iaaiu iiuiua oaieueiua caeaaee n
oe?ieie aaiiie oaeae, i?eaiaeiuo aeey eieniaaiey, iieo/aiey aeeaeeiai
oiieeaa e nu?uey aeey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ii ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe Caiaaeiie Neae?e.
Aannaei auoyioo aaeieue O?ainneae?neie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie iaaeno?aee ia
800 ei. [6] Ii caianai, ea/anoao oaeae e iiuiinoe ieanoia Eocaanno
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a; a ianooaaao ?innee aeiey
Eociaoeeiai oaey ii/oe 60%. Aannaei ?aniieaaaao aieueoeie caianaie oaeae
?acee/iuo ia?ie – io ao?uo aei aio?aoeeoia. Aieueoay /anoue anao caiania
i?eoiaeeony ia oeaiiua eienothueany oaee. Ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeony 40%
anae aeiau/e. Ieiuaaeue aannaeia ieiei 26 oun. ei^2. Aaeainiaua caianu
aai ninoaaeytho 600 ie?ae. oiii; iiuiinoue ieanoia io 6-14 i., a a ?yaea
iano aeinoeaaao 20-25 i; n?aaeiyy aeoaeia ?ac?aaioee oaieueiuo ieanoia
oaooiui iaoiaeii aeinoeaaao 315 i. Aannaei eiaao aeaaii?eyoiua
ai?ii-aaieiae/aneea oneiaey ?ac?aaioee, /oi iaania/eaaao eo ieceoth
naaanoieiinoue. Oaee Eocaanna iaeaaeatho iaaunieie cieueiinoueth – 4-6%;
ieceei niaea?aeaieai na?u (io 0,3 aei 0,65 %), oinoi?a; aunieie
eaei?eeiinoueth – 8,6 eeae; oaeaeueiay oaieioa nai?aiey – 6000-8500
eeae/ea; cia/eoaeueiu ?ano?nu eienothueony oaeae, eo caianu ninoaaeytho
643 ie?ae. oiii. Aianoa n oai, aaeeea aeiey caiania, ia niioaaonoaothueo
ii naiei ia?aiao?ai ie?iaui eiiaeeoeeyi ii ai?ii-aaieiae/aneei oneiaeyi
caeaaaiey e ea/anoao (ieiei 50%). [1, no?. 222-223]

Aeiau/a oaey i?iecaiaeeony eae ioe?uoui, oae e oaooiui niiniaaie. E
iniiaiui oeaio?ai oaeaaeiau/e ioiinyony I?ieiiueaane,
Aiaea?i-Noaeaeaine, Eaieine-Eociaoeeee; iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui yaeyaony
A?oiaeianeee oaeaiiniue ?aeii, aaea nin?aaeioi/aiu ia?iiiua caianu
eienothueony e yia?aaoe/aneeo oaeae n aeaaii?eyoiuie
ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie, i?eaiaeiuie aeey ia?aaioee eae
iiaecaiiui, oae e ioe?uoui niiniaaie n aunieeie oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeie
iieacaoaeyie.

Iauay aeiau/a oaey ca 2007 aiae ninoaaeea 181,76 iei. oiii (58% io
iaua?inneeneie aeiau/e, anaai ii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ca i?ioeue aiae
aeiauoi 313,4 iei. oiii oaey.), iethn e aiaeiaiio ieaio 245,2 oun. oiii.
Ieiei 40% aeiauaaaiiai oaey iio?aaeyaony a naiie Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe e
60% auaiceony a ?aeiiu Caiaaeiie Neae?e, O?aea, oeaio?a aa?iiaeneie
/anoe no?aiu e ia yenii?o (no?aiu aeeaeiaai e aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey).
Eocaann yaeyaony iniiaiui iinoaaueeii eienothueony oaeae ia
Caiaaeii-Neae?neee, Iiaieociaoeeee, *a?aiiaaoeeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneea
eiiaeiaou.

Eocaanneay yia?ainenoaia eiaao noiia?ioth iiuiinoue 4718 iAo., a aa
ninoaa aoiaeyo 8 yeaeo?inoaioeee: Oiiue-Oneineay A?YN, Aaeianeay A?YN,
THaeii-Eocaanneay A?YN, Eaia?ianeay A?YN, Iiaieaia?ianeay OYOe,
Caiaaeii-Neae?neay OYOe, Eociaoeeay OYOe.

Ia?aeeaeueii n yia?ainenoaiie ?aaioatho aeaa aeie-noaioeee: OYOe EIE e
TH?aeineay OYOe. Naoaaia oicyenoai yia?ainenoaiu eiaao i?ioyaeaiiinoue
EYI anao iai?yaeaiee 32 oun. ei e 255 iiaenoaioeee iai?yaeaieai 35 eA e
auoa, eioi?ua iauaaeeiaiu a 4 i?aaei?eyoey yeaeo?e/aneeo naoae:
Ainoi/iua, Naaa?iua, THaeiua e Oeaio?aeueiua.

Naaa? iaeanoe ia?anaeaao O?ainneae?neay aeaeaciiaei?iaeiay iaaeno?aeue,
tha – THaeiineae?neay. Eocaann eiaao i?yiia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia niiauaiea
ni anaie ?aaeiiaie no?aiu.

Oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Eocaanna i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneee eiiieaen, a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeyo
aieaa 20 ?acee/iuo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa (eiiiaiee) e ioaeaeueiuo
naiinoiyoaeueiuo oaoo e ?ac?acia. Aeaenoaothuee oiiae oaeaaeiauaathueo
i?aaei?eyoee Eocaanna i?aaenoaaeai 60 oaooaie e 36 ?ac?acaie. C 1989
aiaea ia/aeinue i?aauoaiea auauoey iiuiinoae oaeaaeiauaathueo
i?aaei?eyoee ia?aae aaiaeii, iaeiaei, anee, ia/eiay n yoiai a?aiaie,
aeiau/a oaey onoie/eai nieaeaeanue, oi n 1999 a. ioia/ai cia/eoaeueiue
i?e?ino aeiau/e. A /enei e?oiiaeoeo oaeaaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee
aoiaeyo oaeea eae IAI «OE Eocaann?ac?acoaieue», IAI «OE Eocaannoaieue»,
CAI «THaeeocaannoaieue», IAI «THaeiue Eocaann», CAI «Oaooa ?aniaaeneay»,
III «III I?ieiiueaaneoaieue» [6]

Eocaann yaeyaony oaeaea e iaoaeeo?ae/aneie aacie. Aeaaiue oeaio? /a?iie
iaoaeeo?aee – Iiaieociaoee (caaiae oa??inieaaia e aeaa caaiaea iieiiai
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai oeeeea). Eociaoeeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao
(noa?aeoee ec eiiaeiaoia iieiiai oeeeea, aaaaeaiiue a no?ie aua a 1932
aiaeo) eniieuecoao ianoiua ?oaeu Ai?iie Oi?ee, Caiaaeii-Neae?neee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao (iniiaai a 1964 aiaeo) iieo/aao nu?uea ec
Ainoi/iie Neae?e. Ia iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo eiiaeiaoao eiathony nianoaaiiua
iiuiinoe ii i?iecaiaenoao eiena. Ii anoue aua e eienioeie/aneee caaiae a
Eaia?iai – noa?aeoaa i?iecaiaenoai oaeiai ?iaea a Eocaanna.
Iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae anoue e a Iiaineae?nea.

Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey i?aaenoaaeaia oeeieiaui caaiaeii (Aaeiai),
aethieieaaui (Iiaieociaoee) e caaiaeii a Iiaineae?nea, aaea ec
aeaeueiaainoi/iuo eiioeaio?aoia i?iecaiaeyo ieiai e nieaau.

Iaoeiino?iaiea ?aeiia ianeoaeeaaao iio?aaiinoe anae Neae?e. A Eocaanna
aeaeatho iaoaeeiaieia ai?iia e iaoaeeo?ae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea, noaiee.
Ia aaca eieniaaiey oaey a Eocaanna ?acaeaaaony oeie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeo acioiua oaeia?aiey, neioaoe/aneea
e?aneoaee, iaaeeeaiaiou, ieanoiannu, oeiu (Iiaineae?ne, Iiaieociaoee,
Oiine e ae?. ai?iaea). [3, no?. 177-178]

Aaaeiaeoeie i?iiuoeaiiuie oeaio?aie Eocaanna yaeythony Iiaineae?ne,
Eaia?iai, Iiaieociaoee, Eaieine-Eociaoeeee.

Aieueoay eiioeaio?aoeey i?aaei?eyoee oaeaaeiau/e e oaeaia?a?aaioee,
/a?iie e oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, oeiee e oaeaoeiee, no?ieoaeueiie
eiaeono?ee e iaoeiino?iaiey, iauaeoia oaieiyia?aaoeee,
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai e aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa iaoneiaeea /?acau/aeii
aunieea oaoiiaaiiua iaa?ocee a ?aaeiia, /oi i?eaaei e caa?yciaieth
aoiinoa?u, ii/a, iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo aiae, ia?ooaieth eaiaeoaooa,
neiieaieth aieueoiai eiee/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo, a oii /enea e oiene/iuo
iooiaeia, eno?aaeaieth ia aieueoeo ieiuaaeyo eania, aeaa?aaeaoeee oaoiu
e oei?u, e aunieei o?iaiyi caaieaaaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey.

O?ainoi?iaoeey i?e?iaeu a ?aaeiia aeinoeaea oaeeo i?aaeaeia, /oi
iinoaaeai aii?in i i?eciaiee Eocaanna ciiie yeieiae/aneiai aaaenoaey.
Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu noaee na?ueaciui oi?iicii a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa iaeanoe.

Aeey oeo/oaiey yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue
neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey:

– eniieueciaaiea aiaeioaieueiiai oiieeaa, eioi?ia yaeyaony aeeaeeei
yeieiae/anee /enoui yia?aaoe/aneei i?aaie/aneei iiaea?i- e
ac?uaiaaciianiui; e 15 iay 2008 aiaea eaoiyy eioaeueiay CAI
«*a?ieaiaaoe» aoaeao iieiinoueth ia?aaaaeaia ia eniieueciaaiea
aiaeioaieueiiai oiieeaa (aei yoiai aue naeaeai i?iaiue caione);

– eniieueciaaiea oaooiiai iaoaia; nouanoaoao i?ia?aiia «Iaoai Eocaanna»,
a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie i?aaeiieaaaaony i?aaieciaaoue i?iiuneiaoth
aeiau/o iaoaia ec oaieueiuo ieanoia eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai iieaciiai
eneiiaaiiai;

– eniieueciaaiea au?aaioaiiiai iiaecaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa; ecaanoiu
iiiai/eneaiiua i?eia?u yooaeoeaiie e aaciianiie ooeeecaoeee oaoiiaaiiuo
iiaecaiiuo i?ino?ainoa (au?aaioie) – nicaeaiea iocaaa ai?iiai aeaea,
ioenia, oiaa?iuo aac, o?aieeeu aeieain?i/iiai ?aca?aa (aeey au?aueaaiey
a?eaia, eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee, caoi?iiaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia),
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eaai?aoi?ee e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo onoaiiaie;

– i?eiaiaiea oaoiieiaee iiaecaiiie aaceoeeaoeee oaey (oaoiieiaey
iaeiia?aiaiiie aeiau/e e ia?a?aaioee oaey ia ianoa aai caeaaaiey).

E?iia oiai, ia oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe aeaenoaoao Ainoaea?noaaiiay
yeieiae/aneay yenia?oeca – eino?oiaio ii i?aaeioa?auaieth iaii?iaoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey yeieiae/anee iianiuo iauaeoia ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo,
?aaeecoaony oaaea?aeueiay i?ia?aiia «Iooiaeu», oeaeaaay i?ia?aiia
«Icaei?iaeaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ianaeaiey Eocaanna», iaeanoiay
i?e?iaeiio?aiiay i?ia?aiia.

A iaeanoe i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iaia/aii
iiiai caaea/, n?aaee ieo:

– i?iaeieaeaiea ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a oii /enea nenoaiu ieaoaaeae ca aicaeaenoaea ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie e eiie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

– ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai yeieiae/aneiai eiio?iey ia iniiaa
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiie eii?aeeiaoeee, niaa?oainoaiaaiea aai iaoiaeia e
iiauoaiea ea/anoaa ioeaiee aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a
i?ia?aiiao e i?iaeoao oicyenoaaiiie e eiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– ?acaeoea yeieiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey, aieaa oe?ieia
aiaea/aiea iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a i?aeoe/aneoth i?e?iaeiio?aiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue. [7]

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea Ia/i?neiai oaieueiiai aannaeia

Yoi aoi?ie ii aaaeiinoe aannaei eaiaiiiai oaey, niaea?aeauee anth aaiio
oaeae, iaania/eaathueo aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey nu?ueaaie
aacu eienioeiee e yia?aaoeee. I?iiuoeaiiay ?ac?aaioea aannaeia ia/aeanue
a 1934 a. Aannaei ?aniieiaeai a Naaa?iii yeiiiie/aneii ?aeiia ia
oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee Eiie e Iaiaoeeiai aaoiiiiiiai ie?oaa
A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aannaeia iaoiaeeony
naaa?iaa iiey?iiai e?oaa.

Aieueoay /anoue caiania oaeae nin?aaeioi/aia ia Eioeineii, Ai?aaoi?neii,
Oneineii e Ai?eooeineii ianoi?iaeaeaieyo. Ieiuaaeue aannaeia ninoaaeyao
90 oun. ei^2. Aaeainiaua caianu ninoaaeytho 210 ie?ae. oiii. Aai oaee
ioee/athony aunieei ea/anoaii, eiatho oaieioai?ioth niiniaiinoue 4-7,8
oun. eeae, iaeaaeatho iaaunieie cieueiinoueth – 4-6%, aeoaeia caeaaaiey
ninoaaeyao ieiei 470 i, iiuiinoue ieanoia – io 0,7 aei 1 i,
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ia/i?neeo oaeae eienoaony. [2, no?. 66-68]
Aeaaeiinoue oaey a Ia/i?neii aannaeia eieaaeaony io 6% aei 11%;
niaea?aeaiea oinoi?a – 0,1-0,2%; oaieioa nai?aiey ai?th/ae iannu
7200-8600 eeae/ea, ?aai/aai oiieeaa 4300-6340 eeae/ea. Oaee aoioniaua,
io aeanoyueo aei iaoiauo, i?aaenoaaeaiu iieiui aaiaoe/aneei ?yaeii:
aio?aoeeou, iieoaio?aoeeou e oiuea oaee, ?acaeou ao?ua oaee. [9]

Aeiau/a oaey aaaeaony a iniiaiii iiaecaiiui niiniaii, iaaieueoie iauai
aeiau/e ea?uea?iui niiniaii aaaeaony ia THiueyaeineii ianoi?iaeaeaiee.
Iniiaiay /anoue aeiau/e i?eoiaeeony ia Eioeineia (yia?aaoe/aneea oaee),
Ai?eooeineia (eienothueany e yia?aaoe/aneea oaee), Aa?aaoi?neia
(eienothueany oaee) e THiueyaeineia (eienothueany oaee) ianoi?iaeaeaiey.
I?aeoe/anee ana oaee, aeiauaaaiua a aannaeia, iiaeaa?aathony ia?a?aaioea
(iaiaauaieth) ia iaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?eeao e onoaiiaeao. [8]

Ii eoiaai 2007 aiaea aeiau/a oaey nieceeanue ia 8,8% i?ioea o?iaiy 2006
aiaea e ninoaaeea 12,8 iei. oiii, a oii /enea aeiau/a oaey aeey
eieniaaiey nieceeanue ia 5,5%, ninoaaea 10 iei. oiii, aeiau/a
yia?aaoe/aneeo oaeae nieceeanue ia 17,5% (2,8 iei. oiii). [10]

Oaei?iaeathuea oaeoi?u, naycaiiua n ?aniieiaeaieai aannaeia ca iiey?iii
e?oaii (cia/eoaeueiay aiaeiiiniinoue oaeaiiniie oieue, aa/iay ia?ceioa,
oaeaeaiiinoue io aaaeiaeoeo i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia), iaoneiaeeaatho
iaaeaaii?eyoiua oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee aeiau/e oaey a aieueoeo
ianooaaao e naea?aeeaatho aai ?acaeoea. Iaeiaei ?ano?niue iioaioeeae
aannaeia iicaieyao iaaeaaeii e n aunieie yeiiiie/iinoueth iaania/eoue
oaaee/aiea aeiau/e oaey.

?aaeiiaeueiua ?uiee nauoa eienothueony oaeae Ia/i?neiai aannaeia
?aniieiaeaiu a iniiaiii a Naaa?iii (*a?aiiaaoeeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae AI «Naaa?noaeue»), Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii (Eaieia?aaeneee i?iiuoeaiiue
ocae), Oeaio?aeueiii, Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiii e O?aeueneii
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiao. Yia?aaoe/aneei oaeai aannaeia iieiinoueth
iaania/eaaaony Naaa?iue yeiiiie/aneee ?aeii, ia 45% ? Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue
?aeii e Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue, ia 20% ? Aieai-Ayoneee e
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeiiu.

A A?oaiaaeueneie e Aieiaiaeneie iaeanoyo e ?anioaeeea Eiie ana
yeaeo?inoaioeee (ca eneeth/aieai Oaeneineie AYN) ?aaioatho
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia oaeyo Ia/i?neiai aannaeia. E?oiiaeoae yaeyaony
Ia/i?neay A?YN.

Ia?aaicea oaey inouanoaeyaony ii Naaa?iie aeaeaciie aei?iaa, eioi?ay
ianeoaeeaaao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai ?aeiia e niaaeeiyao
aai n Oeaio?aeueiui, iaania/eaay naycue n Aa?iiaeneei Naaa?ii. [6]

Ia oa??eoi?ee Ia/i?neiai oaieueiiai aannaeia iao iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
eiiieaenia. A Ai?eooa e Eioa ?aaioatho iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua e
iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuea caaiaeu, e iniiaiui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee io?anee
ioiinyony: oaoieea e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey eaniiai e
ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaenia, ?acee/iua ieaan?aaenoaa,
iiaeoeiieee, ecia?eoaeueiua i?eai?u, i?iaeoeoeey ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee e
noaieino?iaiey, no?ieoaeueiay e aei?iaeiay oaoieea. A Ai?eooa oaeaea
aeaenoaotho aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuea i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Ia/i?neiai oaieueiiai aannaeia aeinoaoi/ii ino?ay
yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey. Eaeao eiiieaeniia ia?ooaiea caiaeue,
aeaa?aaeaoeey anoanoaaiiuo eiiiauo oaiaeee, enoiuaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia e
ia?ooaiea aeae?ieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia iiaecaiiuo e iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae,
caa?yciaiea aicaeooiiai aannaeia oaa?aeuie e aaciia?aciuie a?aaeiuie
aauanoaaie i?e i?eiaiaiee nouanoaothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia
aeiau/e, ia?a?aaioee e naeeaaiey oaa?aeiai oiieeaa. Aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo
oaeaea i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiey a i?ioeanna i?iaao?eaaiey oaoo. Eciaiaiey
ninoaaa aicaeooa naiaeyony e oiaiueoaieth niaea?aeaiey eenei?iaea e
oaaee/aieth niaea?aeaiey oaeaeeneiai aaca, acioa, a oaeaea e iiyaeaieth
a?aaeiuo aacia e iuee.

N i?ae?auaieai aeiau/e oaey, cae?uoeai e caoiieaieai oaoo oaeaea
nio?aiyaony yeieiae/aneay iianiinoue. ?aiaa iaianaiiue i?e?iaeiie n?aaea
oua?a ia en/acaao, iiyaeythony e iiaoo aicieeiooue a aoaeouai iiaua
enoi/ieee iianiinoe aeey ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e ianaeaiey a
ciia eo aeoeaiiai aeeyiey.

Aeey oeo/oaiey yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue
neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey:

– i/enoea noi/iuo oaooiuo aiae iooai eniieueciaaiey aeae?iiaoaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia ionoaeaaiey e oeeueo?iaaiey;

– niaa?oainoaiaaiey aiaeiiio?aaeaiey ai?iiaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee –
nie?auaiea iio?aaeaiey aiaeu ieoueaaiai ea/anoaa ec ?ae, ica? e
ai?iaeneiai aiaeii?iaiaea, a oaeaea ?anoe?aiea eniieueciaaiey oaooiuo e
ea?uea?iuo aiae aeey oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo e oaoie/aneeo ioaeae;

– eniieueciaaiea oaooiiai iaoaia a ea/anoaa oiieeaa e oeie/aneiai
nu?uey, a oaeaea aeey au?aaioee yeaeo?iyia?aee n iiiiuueth onoaiiaie
«Eaoa?ieeea?» (oaooa «Naaa?iay» (Ai?eooa))

E?iia oiai, a niioaaonoaee n Niaeaoaieai iaaeaeo Ieienoa?noaii io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Eiie i niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii
?aaeecaoeee Iinoaiiaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I ia?ao
ii oeo/oaieth yeieiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey ianaeaiey» auee ii?aaeaeaiu
caaea/e ii nicaeaieth nenoaiu anaiauaai iai?a?uaiiai yeieiae/aneiai
ia?aciaaiey, a oii /enea: oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu iiieoi?eiaa iauanoaaiiiai
yeieiae/aneiai niciaiey; oi?ie?iaaiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aacu a iaeanoe yeieiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey; iiauoaiea
o?iaiy iauanoaaiiiai yeieiae/aneiai niciaiey. [7]

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa oa?aeoa?enoee Eociaoeeiai e Ia/i?neiai oaieueiiai
aannaeiia iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu. Iaa aannaeia iaeaaeatho
caianaie oaeae aunieiai ea/anoaa (ieceia niaea?aeaiea na?u, oinoi?a,
iaeaaeatho iaaunieie cieueiinoueth, aunieieaei?eeiua), cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue aeiauaaaiiai oaey eienoaony. O oaieueiuo aannaeiia a iniiaiii
iaeie e oa aea iio?aaeoaee: O?ae, Naaa?i-Caiaae, Oeaio?aeueiue ?aeii, ii
eocaanneea oaee iio?aaeythony oaeaea e a Neae?e. Aannaeiu cia/eoaeueii
?acee/athony ii ieiuaaee e ii iauaiai aeiau/e oaey. A aieueoai ii
ieiuaaee Ia/i?neii oaieueiii aannaeia oaey aeiauaaaony ai?acaei iaiueoa,
/ai ia Eocaanna.

Aaeaeo oiai, /oi a Ia/i?neii oaieueiii aannaeia neiaeiua
ai?ii-aaieiae/aneea oneiaey aeiau/e naaanoieiinoue aeiauaaaiiai a iai
oaey cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai naaanoieiinoue oaey, aeiauaaaiiai a
Eociaoeeii oaieueiii aannaeia. E?iia oiai, ia ia?aaiceo eocaanneiai oaey
onoaiiaeaiu eueaioiua oa?eou, iaeiaei IAI «Naaa?noaeue» iaia?aia
aeiaeaaoueny i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai ?aoaiey ia onoaiiaeaiee eueaioiuo
oa?eoia ia ia?aaicee ia/i?neiai oaey.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Ia/i?neiai oaieueiiai aannaeia iao oaeeo i?iiuoeaiiuo
oeaio?ia eae ia Eocaanna, /oi oaeaea aeaeaao aai iaiaa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiui.

Ionoonoaea iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo oeaio?ia oaeaea aeaao iaeioi?ue iethn:
yeieiae/aneay ianoaiiaea a Ia/i?neii oaieueiii aannaeia ia oaeay
neiaeiay eae ia Eocaanna.

4. ?acaeoea e ?aciauaiea oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?innee noieo ia?aae
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aeoaieiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey. A oa/aiea ?yaea iineaaeieo
eao nieaeaeny o?iaaiue aeiau/e oaey, iaaeaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea a io?anee, ?anoao naaanoieiinoue aeiau/e. ?aceia nie?auaiea
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iineaaeiea aiaeu iaino?eei i?iaeaio
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth oaieueiie io?anee, iinoaaeei
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai oaeaaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee a e?aeia
oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea. ?aniaae NNN? i?eaae e oiio, /oi cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue ?aiaa nicaeaiiie oaieueiie aacu ieacaeanue a Oe?aeia e
Eacaonoaia. Ii/oe iieiinoueth auea ooa?yia iiuiay aaca
aunieiea/anoaaiiuo oaeae Aeiiaanna e Ea?aaaiaeu, ioioae e Eacaonoaio
oieeaeueiue ii ie?iaui ia?eai Yeeaanoocneee oaieueiue aannaei. ?inney
eeoeeanue iiiaeo caaiaeia ai?iiai iaoeiino?iaiey.

A oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
nicaeaaaea nianoaaiiue no?ieoaeueiue iioaioeeae. Nae/an ii a oeaeii
niiniaai iaania/eoue auiieiaiea iniiaiuo caaea/ ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
io?anee. Aoaeoo i?iaeieaeaiu ?acainoaea?noaeaiea aieueoeinoaa oaieueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e ia?aoiae ia aeoeeiia?ioth oi?io oicyenoaiaaiey n
ono?aiaieai eiathuaainy caeanue oi?iaeecia. A iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo
io?aneue iieo/aao ?aciinoi?iiithth no?iai naeaeoeaioth ainoaea?noaaiioth
iiaeaea?aeeo ia? ii cae?uoeth iaia?niaeoeaiuo iiuiinoae e naiaoeee
ia?aioaaaeueiuo oaieueiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Nicaeaaony iaoaieci
oeaiiia?aciaaiey, aaeaeaaoiue ?uii/iie nenoaia, ii i?aaeoniao?eaathuee
aai ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea. I?iaiaeeony ?aaioa ii iiauoaieth
ea/anoaa e iaaeaaeiinoe ai?iie oaoieee ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey iiauo
iaoa?eaeia, eiiieaeoothueo e ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee iai?iiiiai eiiieaena
?O.

Noaaeeecaoeey ni?ina ia oaieue ni neaaiau?aaeaiiie oaiaeaioeeae e ?inoo
ia iaania/eaaao ainnoaiiaeaiea iio?aaeaiey oaey (a oii /enea
eienothuaainy) ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii ?innee ia o?iaia eiioea
ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia. Yoi iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e cae?uoeth ?yaea
ia?aioaaaeueiuo e aania?niaeoeaiuo oaieueiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Aianoa n oai,
i/aaeaeii, /oi a iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo (iona/aiey yeiiiie/anee
iayooaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee) aoaeao ia?aueaaoueny i?iecaiaenoai oaey ia
oaooao e ?ac?acao n oi?ioeie ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie, aunieeie
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeie iieacaoaeyie, a oaeaea eiathueo aunieea
ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoeoeee, iaania/eaathuea i?iecaiaenoai
aunieiea/anoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e oaeiaeaoai?ythuea yeieiae/aneei
o?aaiaaieyi. [6]

Caeeth/aiea

Ia?niaeoeaiua o?iaie aeiau/e oaey a ?innee, i?aaeaea anaai,
ii?aaeaeyaony ni?inii ia iaai ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea no?aiu, iaoneiaeaiiii
o?iaiai oaoiieiae/aneie e oeaiiaie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oaey n
aeueoa?iaoeaiuie yia?ai?ano?naie a oneiaeyo ianuuaiiinoe ?uiea oiieeaii.
Caianu oaey a ?innee ia?iiiu e iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi
eiaiii ia eniieueciaaiee oaey aeieaeii iniiauaaoueny ?acaeoea
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena.

Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ecaea?aeee ?innee auoa, /ai
ca?oaaaeiua. Ia ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo iie ninoaaeytho a n?aaeiai 15,6
aeieea?ia NOA ia iaeio oiiio i?iaeoeoeee, ia ca?oaaaeiuo – ia i?aauoatho
14,5. A oi aea a?aiy ia eiino?aiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo cia/eoaeueii auoa
cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo, nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe e aii?oecaoeeth
iai?oaeiaaiey, a ?innee – ia iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, yia?aeth. [1, no?.
222-223]

?inneeneee oaieue ianiio?y niiaeao eiaoue ?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey
yia?aaoeee e ae?oaeo aaciauo io?aneae yeiiiieee no?aiu (eienioeiey
iaoaeeo?aey e ae?.) n ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oaieueiie
io?anee aei o?iaiy ii?yaeea 500 iei.o. a aiae.

Oa ia?u, eioi?ua i?eieiathony a ?aieao i?ia?aiiu ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
io?anee, o?aaotho iinoiyiiiai eiio?iey (iniaaiii n?aaenoaa
ainiiaeaea?aeee) e ei??aeoe?iaee a caaeneiinoe io eciaiythuaeny
neooaoeee a io?anee. [6]

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