.

Социально-экономическое развитие Ботсваны

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 557
Скачать документ

Nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aionaaiu

Ieai ?aoa?aoa

Aaaaeaiea

1. Iauea naaaeaiey

2. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea

3. Nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

?anioaeeea Aionaaia, ainoaea?noai a THaeiie Ao?eea. A?aie/eo ia thaa n
THA?, ia caiaaea e naaa?a n Iaieaeae, ia naaa?i-ainoiea n Caiaeae, ia
ainoiea n Ceiaaaaa, ia eiaao auoiaea e ii?th. Aaia?aoe/anee 70%
oa??eoi?ee no?aiu caieiaao ionouiy Eaeaoa?e Aei ia?aoaiey iacaaeneiinoe
a 1966 – a?eoaineee i?ioaeoi?ao Aa/oaiaeaiae. Aoiaeeo a Niae?oaeanoai,
aicaeaaeyaiia Aaeeeia?eoaieae. Noieeoeae no?aiu e e?oiiaeoei ai?iaeii
yaeyaony Aaai?iia.

Aionaaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naioth onoie/eaoth aeaiie?aoe/aneoth
?anioaeeeo a Ao?eea n iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoaiie.. Aeaaie ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa yaeyaony i?aceaeaio. Aunoay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiiiaeaoiiio ia?eaiaioo – Iaoeeiiaeueiiio nia?aieth.
I?aceaeaio ecae?aaony Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai.

Aaaeiay eieiiey Aionaaia i?aa?aoeeanue a i?ioeaaoathuaa ainoaea?noai
aeaaiaea?y aeaoi oaeoi?ai: iaia?oaeaieth a iaae?ao aeiacia e oiaeiio
?oeiaiaenoao no?aiie. N?aaeiaaiaeiaie aeioiae ia aeooo ianaeaiey
ninoaaeyao ieiei 3,8 oun. aeiee. NOA, iaeiaei 47% ianaeaiey iaoiaeeony
ia o?iaia aaaeiinoe.

Yeiiiieea no?aiu i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth auea iniiaaia ia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aei 1970-o aiaeia, eiaaea Aionaaia noaea yenii?o??ii
aeiacia e ae?oaeo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Auno?ue ?ino aeiaciie aeiau/e
iicaieee Aionaaia aeinoe/ue aunieiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a 1966—1997
(n?aaeiee aiaeiaie ?ino 9,2%), iinea /aai ia yeiiiieeo no?aiu iiaeeye
Aceaoneee oeiainiaue e?ecen.

1. Iauea naaaeaiey

Oa??eoi?ey Aionaaiu ninoaaeyao 581730ei?, ec ieo ieiuaaeue nooe 566730
ei?. 70% Aionaaiu ?aniieiaeaii ia oa??eoi?ee iaoe?iie iieiaie aannoi/iie
aiaaeeiu Eaeaoa?e. Aunoay oi/ea— a oieiao Oeiaeeei (1489 i). Eeeiao
naaa?iuo ?aeiiia Aionaaiu o?iie/aneee, a oeaio?aeueiuo e thaeiuo –
noao?iie/aneee n eiioeiaioaeueiui iooaieii.

Aaeieieno?aoeaii oa??eoi?ey Aionaaiu aeaeeony ia 9 ie?oaia:

1. Oeaio?aeueiue ie?oa;

2. Aaice;

3. Eaaeaaaaee;

4. Eaaoeaia;

5. Eaaiaia;

6. Naaa?i-ainoi/iue ie?oa;

7. Naaa?i-caiaaeiue ie?oa;

8. THai-ainoi/iue ie?oa;

9. THaeiue ie?oa.

Ianaeaiea Aionaaiu ninoaaeyao ieiei 2 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Ec ieo: onaaia
66,8%, eaeaiaa 14,8%, iaeaaaea 1,7%, aa?a?i 1,4%, nai (aooiaiu) 1,3%,
ao?eeaia?u 1,3%, ae?oaea 12,7%. Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey— 3,2 /aeiaae ia
ei?. A ai?iaeao i?iaeeaaao 53,6% ianaeaiey no?aiu. N?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie o ioae/ei 51,6 eao, o aeaiuei 49,6 eao.
Ioeoeeaeueiuie ycueaie no?aiu yaeythony aiaeeeneee e onaaia.

Aionaaia yaeyaony aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeeie n iiiaiia?oeeiie
nenoaiie. Aeaaie ainoaea?noaa, aeaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aa?oiaiui
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei yaeyaony i?aceaeaio. I?aceaeaio ecae?aaony n?ieii ia
iyoue eao aieueoeinoaii Iaoeeiiaeueiie annaiaeae.

2. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea

Aei 1970-o aiaeia yeiiiieea Aionaaiu i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth auea
iniiaaia ia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. A 1970 aiaeo Aionaaia noaea yenii?o??ii
aeiacia e ae?oaeo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Auno?ue ?ino aeiaciie aeiau/e
iicaieee Aionaaia aeinoe/ue aunieiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a 1966—1997.
Ia aeaiiue iiiaio eioeyoeey ninoaaeyao ieiei 10%. A Aionaaia
n?aaieoaeueii ?acaeoa eio?ano?oeoo?a – oi?ioea aei?iae, nenoaia
eiiioieeaoeee, iaeiaei a no?aia eiaaony iaoaaoea oaoie/aneeo iaaueia
n?aaee ?aai/ae neeu.

AII ninoaaeyao 10 991000 000 aeieea?ia NOA. Ioeoeeaeueiue o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu ninoaaeyao ieiei 23,8%, iaeiaei ?aaeueiue— aeeaea e 40%.

Oeiainu e e?aaeeo. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea – ioea (BWP), ninoiyuay ec 100
oaaa. Ioea auea aaaaeaia a ea/anoaa aaethou Aionaaiu a 1976 aiaeo,
caiaiea a aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee thaeiiao?eeaineee ?yiae, iaeiaei
thaeiiao?eeaineee ?aiae oaeaea iaoiaeeony a ioeoeeaeueiii ia?auaiee. A
ia?auaiea auee aaaaeaiu iiiaou iiieiaeii 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 ooaaa e 1 ioea
e aaieiiou iiieiaeii 1, 2, 5, 10 e 20 ioe.

Naeueneia oicyenoai. Ia anae oa??eoi?ee no?aiu ieiei 0,7% caieiatho
iaoioiua caiee. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia naeueneiai oicyenoaa – /anoay canooa.
Ac?aueaathony oaeea ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u eae ni?ai, eoeo?oca, i?ini,
aeaio, aiaiaua e ae?oaea eoeueoo?u. A 2007 aiaeo auei i?iecaaaeaii 33
000 o ni?ai e 12 000 o eoeo?ocu, iaeiaei i?iecaiaenoai ni?ai e ca?ia
iaania/eaaao eeoue 10% aeey iio?aaeaiey. Iniiaiie eiii?o ca?ia eae?o ec
Ceiaaaaa e THA?. A no?aia aeaenoaoao ?yae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?ia?aii,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiaeaea?aeeo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa. Oaeaea yaeyaony
cia/eiui naeoi?ii yeiiiieeeaeeaioiiaiaenoai — iyniay i?iaeoeoeey,
aieueoay /anoue eioi?ie i?iaeathony a THA? e Caiaaeioth Aa?iio.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aionaaia yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeoueo a ie?a
i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeiacia, caieiay ia?aia ianoi a ie?a ii noieiinoe
aeiauouo aeiacia. Aeiau/a aeiacia ia/aeanue a 1971 aiaeo a
nio?oaeie/anoaa n eiiiaieae De Beers. Oaeaea i?iecaiaeyony
iaaeii-ieeaeaaua ?oaeu, oaieue, niaea, eiathony caianu ieaoeiu, cieioa e
na?aa?a.

A Aionaaia eiaaony iaaieueoie, ii ?acaeaathueeny i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
naeoi?, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao 4% io AAI. A oa/aiea. I?iecaiaenoai a
iniiaiii niaoeeaeece?oaony ia auionea oaenoeey, iaieoeia, oeie/aneeo
aauanoa, iaoaeeia, ieanoeeia e yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaeoeoeee.

Yia?aaoeea. N 1990-o yia?ainenoaia Aionaaiu aeeth/aia a aaeeioth
yia?ainenoaio THaa Ao?eee. Aieueoay /anoue iio?aaeyaiie yeaeo?iyia?aee
eiii?oe?oaony ec THaeii-ao?eeaineie ?anioaeeee. Iniiaioth /anoue
yeaeo?iyia?aee, i?iecaiaeeiie a no?aia, au?aaaouaaao eiiiaiey Botswana
Power Corporation, eioi?ay auea iniiaaia a 1970 aiaeo. Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie
OYN a no?aia ?aniieiaeaiu a Ii?oiiea (iiuiinoue 123 IAo) e a
Naeaae-Ieeaa (60 IAo). Eniieuecothony oaeaea nieia/iua aaoa?ae.

O?ainii?o e eiiioieeaoeee. I?ioyae?iiinoue aeaeaciuo aei?ia ninoaaeyao
888 ei. Iniiaiie aeaeaciie aaoeie a Aionaaia aeeeiie 641ei yaeyaony
aei?iaa, eaeouay ec thaeiiao?eeaineiai Eaeioaoia aei Aoeaaaei a
Ceiaaaaa, niaaeeiythuay Eiaaoea, Aaai?iia e O?ainenoaoi. Iniiaiui
iia?aoi?ii aeaeaciuo aei?ia yaeyaony eiiiaiey Botswana Railways. Iauay
i?ioyae?iiinoue aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia ninoaaeyao 24 455ei, ec eioi?uo
33% n oa??aeui iie?uoeai. A 2007 aiaeo a no?aia auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 82
056 aaoiiaoei, 74 387 a?ociaeeia e aaoiaonia. Ii ninoiyieth ia 2007 aiae
a no?aia 92 ay?iii?oa e ace?oiuo ieiuaaeie, ec eioi?uo 10 n
ace?oii-iinaaei/iie iieinie n oa??aeui iie?uoeai. Ainoaea?noaaiiay
eiiiaiey Air Botswana inouanoaeyao ?aaoey?iua ?aenu ec O?ainenoaoia,
Aaai?iia, Iaoia e Naeaae-Ieeaa. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ay?iii?ou iaoiaeyony a
Aaai?iia (ioe?uo a eii. 1980-o), Eanaia e Iaoia. I?iecaiaeyony
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?aenu a Eioaiianao?a, Iaaaaia e Oa?a?a. Ia?aaic
iannaaee?ia yoie eiiiaieae a aiae ninoaaeyao 96iei.
iannaaee?i-eeeiiao?ia, a?ocia 300 oun. oiiii-eeeiiao?ia.

Ia 1000 aeeoaeae no?aiu i?eoiaeeony 758 nioiauo e 78 noaoeeiia?iuo
oaeaoiiia, 49 ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, 43 iieueciaaoaey naoe
Eioa?iao.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. Iauai yenii?oa i?aauoaao eiii?o: a 2006 yenii?o (a
aeiee. NOA) ninoaaee 2,94 ieeeea?aeia, eiii?o – 2,26 ieeeea?aeia. Eiii?o
(2005): 3247000 aeieea?ia NOA (iaoeiiia iai?oaeiaaiea e aiia?aou 16,3%,
ieoaiea, iaieoee e oaaae 13,7%, ieia?aeueiia oiieeai 13,3%, o?ainii?oiia
iai?oaeiaaiea 12,5%, oeie/aneay e ?aceiiaay i?iaeoeoeey 11,9%). Iniiaiua
eiii?o??u: no?aiu THaeiiao?eeaineiai oaiiaeaiiiai nithca 85,1%, no?aiu
Aa?iiu 6,5%, Ceiaaaaa 1,5%. Yenii?o (2005): 4395000 aeieea?ia NOA
(aeiacu 75,1%, iaaeii-ieeaeaaua ?oaeu 10,3%, oaenoeeue 5,0%, iyniay
i?iaeoeoeey 1,7%). Iniiaiua yenii?o??u: no?aiu Aa?iiu 77,0% (ec eioi?uo
Aaeeeia?eoaiey 75,7%), no?aiu THaeiiao?eeaineiai oaiiaeaiiiai nithca
9,0%, Ceiaaaaa 4,1%.

Oo?eci. Eiaeono?ey oo?ecia ?acaeaaaony auno?uie oaiiaie. Eiino?aiiuo
oo?enoia aeaeoo ?aciiia?acea e e?anioa i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia,
naiiauoiinoue eoeueoo?u ianoiuo ia?iaeia, iaee/ea caeacieeia aeey
nii?oeaiie ioiou. N?aaee oo?enoia iaeaieaa iiioey?iu iaoeeiiaeueiua
ia?ee e caiiaaaeieee no?aiu, ionouiy Eaeaoa?e e oieiu Oeiaeeei. Aeioiaeu
io oo?ecia a 2007 aiaeoninoaaeee 537iei aeieea?ia NOA. A 2007 aiaeo
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeaia?oaiaio NOA ioeaiee aeaiue i?aauaaiey a Aaai?iia
ia 129 aeieea?ia NOA, a Eanaia— 125 aeieea?ia NOA, a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao—
50 aeieea?ia NOA.

3. Nioeeaeueii – eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea

Ia?aciaaiea. A?aiioiinoue ianaeaiey (2005) ninoaaeyao 78,6%. Ia?aua
oeieu aa?iiaeneiai oeia a no?aia nicaeaaaeenue Eiiaeiineei ienneiia?neei
iauanoaii a ia/aea XIX aaea. Ia/aeueioth oeieo iinauatho ieiei 97%
aeaoae (iaieo iieia). Ia?aua /aou?a aiaea iao/aiea aaae?ony ia ycuea
onaaia, caoai— ia aiaeeeneii. Ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea aeeeony naiue eao,
n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea i?ioiaeeo a aeaa yoaia— o?e e aeaa aiaea.
Ieaie?oaony aaanoe iaycaoaeueiia 10-eaoiaa ia?aciaaiea. I?aaeoaeuenoai
no?aiu iaania/eaaao aanieaoiia ia?aciaaiea ia o?iaia ia/aeueiiai e
ia?aiai yoaia n?aaeiaai ia?aciaaiey. A 2005 aiaeo ia ?acaeoea nenoaiu
ia?aciaaiey auei iai?aaeyei 25,9% athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee. A nenoaio
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey aoiaeyo Oieaa?neoao Aionaaiu a Aaai?iia, a oaeaea
Aionaaineee eieeaaeae naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Cae?aaiio?aiaiea. A Aionaaia aunie ?ene caaieaaaiey eioaeoeeiiiuie e
o?iie/aneeie aieaciyie, iaoaaoea /enoie ieoueaaie aiaeu (iinoiyiiue
aeinooi e iae eiatho ieiei 70% ianaeaiey) i?eaiaeeo e aniuoeai
eeoa/ii-eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaiee. Na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie cae?aaiio?aiaiey
yaeyaony NIEAe. Ii o?iaith aai ?ani?ino?aiaiey Aionaaia caieiaao aoi?ia
(iinea Naaceeaiaea) ianoi a ie?a. Niaeanii ioeaiea 2007 aiaea 23,9%
ac?ineiai ianaeaiey (15-49 eao) ca?aaeaii AE*/NIEAeii, aaeaaiaeii io
NIEAea oie?aao 26 oun. /aeiaae. A Aionaaia aeaenoaoao ?yae
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo aieueieoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiua aieueieoeu
?acaeaeaiu ia o?e o?iaiy a caaeneiinoe io oyaeanoe aieacie. O?e naiuo
e?oiiuo aieueieoeu ?aniieiaeaiu a Aaai?iia, O?ainenoaoia e Eiaaoea.
Iauea ?anoiaeu ia cae?aaiio?aiaiea a 2006 aiaeo ninoaaeee 7,2% io AAI.

N?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Eiinoeoooeey no?aiu cae?aieyao naiaiaeo
neiaa, e i?aaeoaeuenoai Aionaaiu i?eaea?aeeaaaony yoiai i?eioeeia, oioy
iiiiceoeey eiiaaea cayaeyao, /oi eo yoe?iia a?aiy ia ?aaeei ia?aie/aii.
Ainoaea?noaaiiia oaeaaeaeaiea ca?iaeeeinue ioiineoaeueii iicaeii n
caioneii a 2000 aiaeo oaeaeaiaea Botswana Television (BTV), a no?aia
oaeaea aeaenoaoao /anoiue oaeaaeceiiiue eaiae Gaborone Television,
i?eiaaeeaaeauee eiiiaiee GBC (Gaborone Broadcasting Company). Aeaenoaoao
ainoaea?noaaiiia iiainoiia aaaionoai Botswana Press Agency
(Bopa).Aaaeiuie NIE yaeythony ?aaeeinoaioeee— ainoaea?noaaiiia Radio
Botswana e /anoiua Yarona FM, Gabz FM, Duma FM. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie
aacaoaie yaeythony Daily News, Botswana Guardian, Botswana Gazette,
Mmegi/The Reporter, Sunday Standard, The Midweek Sun, The Voice.

?aeeaey. I?eaeeceoaeueii 20% ianaeaiey ia eniiaaaeotho ieeaeie ?aeeaee.
I?eaeeceoaeueii 70% ianaeaiey no?aiu— o?enoeaia, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiu aiaeeeaia, iaoiaeenou e i?eaa?aeaioeu Iauaaeei?iiie
eiiaa?aaoeeiiaeueiie oea?eae THaeiie Ao?eee. Niaeanii ia?aiene 2001
aiaea eneai a Aionaaia eniiaaaeotho ieiei 5000 /aeiaae— i?aeiouanoaaiii
auoiaeoeaa ec THaeiie Acee, 3000 eniiaaaeotho eiaeoeci, ieiei 700—
?aeeaeth aaoae. 6% ianaeaiey i?aeoeeoao aaaeeii— ianoiua o?aaeeoeeiiiua
aa?iaaiey.

Caeeth/aiea

I?ei?eoaoiuie iai?aaeaieyie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
yaeythony niaeaenoaea /anoiiio naeoi?o e aeeaa?neoeeaoeey yeiiiieee
(nicaeaiea iiauo io?aneae ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe). A Aaai?iia
aaeaaiaeii i?iaiaeeony iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaay y?ia?ea. Aionaaia
aoiaeeo a iaiiiai/eneaiioth a?oiio ao?eeaineeo no?ai, aiinyueo aeeaae a
oiiae Anaie?iiai aaiea.

N oeaeueth ?acaeoey aeiaciaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?aia i?eaeaeaao
iaaieueoea ai?ii?oaeiua eiino?aiiua eiiiaiee. Ii iiaieth aiaeeoeeia,
Aionaaia caieiaao 3-a ianoi a ie?a (onooiay Aano?aeee e Eaiaaea) ii
o?iaith ?enea, n eioi?ui noaeeeaaaony ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. N 17
ieoya?y 1966 aiaea no?aia yaeyaony /eaiii I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeei?iiuo
Iaoeee. Aionaaia oaeaea yaeyaony /eaiii Ao?eeaineiai nithca e Anaie?iie
oi?aiaie i?aaiecaoeee, THaeiiao?eeaineiai oaiiaeaiiiai nithca,
I?aoa?aioeeaeueiie oi?aiaie ciiu “Ainoi/iay e THaeiay Ao?eea”,
Ao?eeaineiai aaiea ?acaeoey, Niae?oaeanoaa iaoeee, A?oiiu 77, Niiauanoaa
?acaeoey THaa Ao?eee (NAAeE), iiaeienaea Eiiaaioeeth III ii ii?neiio
i?aao.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

1. http://ru.wikipedia.org

2. http://www.travel.ru

3. http://slovari.yandex.ru

4. http://africana.ru/lands/Botsvana/all.htm

5. http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc/strany_mira/BOTSVANA.htm

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019