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Социально-экономическое развитие Анголы

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Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aiaieu

Ieai ?aoa?aoa

1. Iauea naaaeaiey

2. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea

3. Nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

Aaaaeaiea

?anioaeeea Aiaiea — ainoaea?noai a thai-caiaaeiie Ao?eea, a?aie/eo n
Iaieaeae ia thaa, Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeeie Eiiai ia naaa?i-ainoiea e
naaa?a, Caiaeae ia ainoiea, a oaeaea ?anioaeeeie Eiiai (aieeaa
Eaaeiaea), iiuaaaony n caiaaea Aoeaioe/aneei ieaaiii.

Auaoay ii?ooaaeueneay eieiiey, ?aniieaaaao cia/eoaeueiuie i?e?iaeiuie
?ano?naie, ec eioi?uo iniiaiia cia/aiea eiatho iaooue e aeiacu, a oaeaea
aeaeaciay ?oaea, oinoaou, iaaeue, cieioi, aieneou, o?ai.

Aoeaioe/aneia iiaa?aaeuea Aiaieu caiyoi i?ea?aaeiie ieciaiiinoueth,
eioi?ay e?ooui onooiii iiaeieiaaony ia ieineiai?uea, caieiathuaa aieaa
90 % oa??eoi?ee no?aiu. Oeaio?aeueioth /anoue ieineiai?uey caieiaao
iannea Aea n aunoae oi/eie no?aiu — ai?ie Iieei (2620 i). Ec iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo Aiaiea aiaaoa iaooueth, aeiacaie, aeaeaciuie ?oaeaie,
aieneoaie, oinoi?eoaie, aeinii, cieioii, ?oaeaie o?aia, iaaee, oeoaia,
ia?aaioea.

?aee, noaeathuea n caiaaeiuo neeiiia ieineiai?uey, aiaaeatho a
Aoeaioe/aneee ieaai, n naaa?iuo neeiiia — aiaaeatho a Eiiai, n
thai-ainoi/iuo — a Caiaace, n thaeiuo — oa?ythony a ianeao Eaeaoa?e. Ai
a?aiy aeeeoaeueiiai naciia aeiaeaeae ?aee neeueii ?aceeaathony, a nooie
nacii iaeatho, a ia thaa ia?anuoatho. Eana e ?aaeeieanuey caieiatho
ieiei 40 % oa??eoi?ee Aiaieu. Aeaaeiua o?iie/aneea eana nin?aaeioi/aiu
ia naaa?i-ainoiea no?aiu, inoaeueioth /anoue ieineiai?uey caieiatho
nooea eenoiiaaeiua o?iie/aneea ?aaeeieanuey e ceaeiaua naaaiiu.
?anoeoaeueiinoue i?eii?neie ieciaiiinoe niaiyaony io o?aayienouo e
eonoa?ieeiauo naaaii n aaiaaaii ia naaa?a aei aaeueae/eaauo ionouiue ia
thaa.

1. Iauea naaaeaiey

Noieeoea Aiaieu – ai?iae Eoaiaea. Ianaeaiea – 10,98 iei. /ae. (2004).
Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey – 11,7 /ae. ia 1 ea. ei (2000). Ai?iaeneia
ianaeaiea – ie. 30%, naeueneia – ie. 70% (2003). Ieiuaaeue – 1,247 iei.
ea. ei. Naiay aunieay oi/ea – ai?a Iiei (2620 i). Iniiaiua ycuee:
ii?ooaaeueneee (ioeoeeaeueiue), eeeiiai, eeiaoiaeo e oiaoiaeo. Iniiaiua
?aeeaee: o?enoeainoai e o?aaeeoeeiiiua ao?eeaineea aa?iaaiey. ?ino
ianaeaiey a no?aia ninoaaeyao ii?yaeea 2 % aaeaaiaeii. N?aaeiee o?iaaiue
oa?oeeueiinoe — 6,12 ?iaeaeaiee ia aeaiueio. A Aiaiea aeiaieueii aaeeea
ieaaeai/aneay nia?oiinoue — a n?aaeiai 180 ec 1000 oie?atho a ia?aue
aiae aeecie (1-a ianoi a ie?a). N?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie
aiaieueoeaa ninoaaeyao aeey ioae/ei — 37 eao, aeey aeaiuei — 39 eao.

Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea – 18 i?iaeioeee. Aeaiaaeiay
aaeeieoea: eaaica = 100 eaae. Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?acaeiee: Aeaiue
i?iaicaeaoaiey iacaeneiinoe.

Aiaiea yaeyaony i?aceaeaioneie ?anioaeeeie. Aeaaie ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony
I?aceaeaio. N 10 naioya?y 1979 yoio iino caieiaao Yaeoa?aeo Aeoo Naiooo.

I?aaeoaeuenoai aicaeaaeyaony aeoea-i?aceaeaioii, eioi?ue iacia/aaony
I?aceaeaioii. N 5 oaa?aey 2010 aeoea-i?aceaeaioii yaeyaony Oa?iaiaeo aea
Iueaaeaaea Aeeao aeoo Naiooo.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue — iaeiiiaeaoiue ia?eaiaio (Ia?iaeiia Nia?aiea)
a ninoaaa 220 aeaiooaoia, ecae?aaiuo ia 4 aiaea. Nieea?ii ia?eaiaioa n
10 oaa?aey 2010 yaeyaony Aioiieo Iaoeo Eanniia.

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a ia?eaiaioa (ii ?acoeueoaoai
auai?ia a naioya?a 2008):

IIEA (Ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Aiaieu) — 191 ianoi;

OIEOA (Iaoeeiiaeueiue nithc ca iieioth iacaaeneiinoue Aiaieu) — 16 iano;

I?N (ia?oey Nioeeaeueiiai Iaiiaeaiey) — 8 iano;

OIEA (Iaoeeiiaeueiue o?iio inaiaiaeaeaiey Aiaieu) — 3 ianoa

IAe (Iiaay Aeaiie?aoey) — 2 ianoa

2. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea

Yeiiiieea Aiaieu aace?oaony ia aeiau/a e yenii?oa iaooe — 85 % AAI.
Aeaaiaea?y iaooyiie ninoaaeythuae, yeiiiieea no?aiu yaeyaony naiie
auno?i?anoouae n?aaee ainoaea?noa Ao?eee thaeiaa Naoa?u. Oae, a 2008
aiaeo ?ino AAI Aiaieu ninoaaeye 15 %, a oi a?aiy eae a oeaeii no?aiu
*a?iie Ao?eee iieacaee eeoue 5%-iue ?ino. Ia aeooo ianaeaiey aaeiaue
aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo ninoaaeyao 4940$ (a Ieaa?ee — 1260, a Ceiaaaaa — 110
$), /oi yaeyaony i/aiue aunieei aeinoeaeaieai aeey yoiai ?aaeiia ie?a
(7-a ianoi a *??iie Ao?eea).

E?iia oiai, yeiiiieea Aiaieu iie?aaony ia acyoue a 2005 aiaeo ca?i o
Eeoay a ?acia?a 7 ie?ae aeiee., a oaeaea ia e?oiiua caeiu io A?aceeee,
Ii?ooaaeee, Aa?iaiee, Eniaiee e Aa?inithca.

A naeueneii oicyenoaa caiyoi nauoa 80 % ?aaioathueo, iaeiaei i?eia?ii
iieiaeia iau?ia iio?aaeyaiiai i?iaeiaieuenoaey eiii?oe?oaony.

Eoeueoeae?othony aaiaiu, naoa?iue o?inoiee, eioa, necaeue, eoeo?oca,
oeiiie, iaieiea, oaaae, iaiue. ?acaiaeeony neio.

Iiieii iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia, Aiaiea yenii?oe?oao aeiacu, eioa,
necaeue, ?uao, ean, oeiiie.

Aiaieueneea e iaieaeeneea aeiacu n/eoathony eo/oeie a ie?a, e auaiea
aeiaciianouae ii?iaeu ia e?oiiaeoai a ie?a, aiaieueneii n o/anoeai
?innee aeiaciii ?ac?aca «Eaoiea» eniuouaaea ?ino a ia/aea 2009 aiaea,
ianiio?y ia ie?iaie oeiainiaue e?ecen.

Iniiaiua ia?oia?u ii yenii?oo (66,3 ie?ae aeiee. a 2008) — Eeoae 33 %,
NOA 28,7 %, O?aioeey 6 %, THA? 4,6 %, Eaiaaea 4,1 %.

Eiii?oe?othony i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa,
iaaeeeaiaiou, i?iaeiaieuenoaea, oaenoeeue, aii?oaeaiey.

Iniiaiua ia?oia?u ii eiii?oo (17,1 ie?ae aeiee. a 2008) — Ii?ooaaeey
17,6 %, Eeoae 15,7 %, NOA 11,3 %, A?aceeey 7,6 %, THaeiay Ei?ay 6,8 %,
THA? 4,8 %

Naeueneia oicyenoai. Aeiey a AAI – 8%, caiyoi 85% ianaeaiey. (2003).
Ia?aaaouaaaony 3% ec iaoe?iuo ieiuaaeae ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue (iaeia ec
i?e/ei – iaee/ea aieueoiai /enea iei ia iieyo). ?acaeoi oiaa?iia
i?iecaiaenoai ioaieoeu. Au?aueaatho aaiaiu, eioa, eoeo?oco, iaieie
(eannaao), iaiue, naoa?iue o?inoiee, necaeue, oaaae e oeiiie. ?acaeoeth
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa i?aiyonoaoao ?ani?ino?aiaiea a 14-oe (ec 18-oe)
i?iaeioeeyo iooe oeaoea. E?oiiue ?iaaoue neio ?acaiaeyo oieueei ia thaa.
?acaeoi ?uaieianoai (aueia ii?neiai oa?y, ooioea e ae?.). A
yeiiiie/aneie ciia Aiaieu ?inneeneea noaea aaeaaiaeii aueaaeeaatho ie.
25 oun. o ?uau e ii?ai?iaeoeoia. Eaniia oicyenoai: aaaeoony caaioiaee
eana, aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aoiaae e oeaeetheicu au?aueaatho eeia?enu e
yaeaeeiou.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aeiey a AAI – 67% (2001). A 2002 aeiey ai?ii?oaeiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a AAI, aeaaiui eiiiiiaioii eioi?ie yaeyaony aeiau/a iaooe
e aeiacia, ninoaaeea 54,7%. Ii aeiau/a aeiacia Aiaiea caieiaao 4-a ianoi
a ie?a (2003). ?aaioatho i?aaei?eyoey ii i/enoea iaooe, i?iecaiaenoao
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, oaa?eee ii ia?aaioea naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
nu?uey (a o./. i?iecaiaenoai naoa?a e ia?aaioea ?uau), i?aaei?eyoey
oaaa/iie, oaenoeeueiie e oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia niaianoiii n EI?
i?aaei?eyoee i?iecaiaeeony nai?ea iioioeeeeia.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. Yenii?o cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao eiii?o. A 2003 iauai
yenii?oa ninoaaee 9,67 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA, a eiii?oa – 4,08 ie?ae. aeiee.
NOA. Iniiaiua yenii?oiua oiaa?u – aeiacu, eioa, iai/euaiiay iaooue,
iaooai?iaeoeou, i?e?iaeiue aac, ?uaa e ii?ai?iaeoeou, necaeue, no?iaaie
ean e eaniiaoa?eaeu, a oaeaea oeiiie. Iniiaiua ia?oia?u ii yenii?oo: NOA
(41%), Eeoae (13,6%), O?aioeey (7,9%), Oaeaaiue (7,5%), Aaeueaey (6,2%),
ssiiiey (4,9%), Eniaiey (4,3%) – 2002. Iniiaiua oiaa?u eiii?oa: aiaiiia
iniauaiea, eaea?noaa, iaoeiiia e yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiea,
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u, oaenoeeue, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa e cai/anoe
e iei. Iniiaiua ia?oia?u ii eiii?oo: Ii?ooaaeey (19,2%), THA? (14,7%),
NOA (13,2%), A?aceeey (7,1%), O?aioeey (6,4%) e Aaeueaey (5%) – 2002.

Yia?aaoeea. 63,6% yeaeo?iyia?aee au?aaaouaaaony ia AYN, 36,4% – ia OYN,
eniieuecothueo a ea/anoaa oiieeaa iaooai?iaeoeou. A 2003 caaa?oaii
no?ieoaeuenoai ia?aie i/a?aaee aeae?ieiiieaena Eaiaiaea, i?a?aaiiia
ec-ca aiaiiuo aeaenoaee a 1990. Eaeao ainnoaiiaeaiea iia?aaeaeaiiuo
yeaeo?inoaioeee.

O?ainii?o. O?ainii?oiay nenoaia ?ac?ooaia a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiie
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. AEaeaciiaei?iaeiay naoue (iauay i?ioyaeaiiinoue
aei?ia – 2,76 oun. ei) e 76,63 oun. ei aaoiaei?ia (2003) ioaeaeathony a
ainnoaiiaeaiee e ?aiiioa. Aeaaiua ii?ou – Eaaeiaea, Eiaeoi, Eoaiaea e
Iaiea. Oi?aiaue oeio ian/eouaaao 124 noaeia (2002). A 2003 a ?aieao
i?ia?aiiu IAIAAe («Iiaia ia?oia?noai aeey ?acaeoey Ao?eee») ?ac?aaioai
ieai ainnoaiiaeaiey ii?oa Eiaeoi. Oi?ioi ?acaeoa nenoaia aaeao?ainii?oa:
a 2003 ian/eouaaeinue 244 ay?iii?oia e aceaoii-iinaaei/iuo ieiuaaeie (32
– n oaa?aeui iie?uoeai). A 2003 ia/aoi ainnoaiiaeaiea ay?iii?oia a Aea,
Eoaiaea, Eiaeoi, Iaieaa e Oaiai. A?ociiannaaee?neea ia?aaicee
inouanoaeythony eae aioo?e no?aiu, oae e a ainoaea?noaa Ao?eee, Aa?iiu,
Ea?eaneiai aannaeia e THaeiie Aia?eee.

Oeiainu e e?aaeeo. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea – iiaay eaaica (AOA, aaaaeaia a
naioya?a 1990), ninoieo ec 100 eaae. A oaa?aea 2004 eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethou ninoaaeye: 1 USD = 80,1 AOA.

Oo?eci. No?aia iaeaaeaao oi?ioeie oneiaeyie aeey ?acaeoey oo?enoe/aneie
eiaeono?ee – ?aciiia?acea i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, aiaaoua oei?a e oaoia,
e?aneaua aiaeiiaaeu (Aethea-aea-A?aaaina ia ?.Eoeaea, a oaeaea Eaiaaaaa
e Eoaiaei ia ?.Eaaica), oneiaey aeey nii?oeaiie ?uaaeee e naiiauoiay
eoeueoo?a ianoiuo ia?iaeia. ?acaeoea oo?ecia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
oi?iiceony iaee/eai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iaiaaca?aaeaiiuo iei,
inoaaoeony iinea a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. A 1997 a Aiaiea iiauaaee 45,14
oun. eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia, a 2001 – 67,38 oun.: ec Ii?ooaaeee (12,60
oun. /ae.), O?aioeee (9,13 oun. /ae.), Aiaeee, A?aceeee, Eniaiee,
Ii?aaaee, NOA, Oeeeiiei e THA?. A 2001 no?aio iinaoeee 1726 ?inneeneeo
oo?enoia (a 1999 a. – 1365 /ae.).

Aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe: a a.Eoaiaea – iocae Aiaieu, iocae ?aanoaa e
oeaio?aeueiue iocae aii?oaeaiiuo nee, ii?ooaaeueneay e?aiinoue
Nai-Ieaaeue (17 a.), yoiia?aoe/aneee iocae a a.Eaaeiaea, iocae Aeoiaeo a
iaeiieiaiiii ai?iaeea, a oaeaea a?oaieiae/aneee e aio?iiieiae/aneee
iocae a a.Aaiaaea, iaoeeiiaeueiua ia?ee Eiia, Eaiay, Eenaia e Ieeaiaei.

Aeciaue ?aaeei. Aacaeciaue o?aiceo ia ?ac?aoaaony. Auacaeathuei
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeinoaaeoue iaaeeoeeineee na?oeoeeao i i?eaeaea i?ioea
aeaeoie eeoi?aaeee. Aaic eiino?aiiie aaethou ia ia?aie/ai (aeaeea?aoeey
iaycaoaeueia). Iaiaieaatho aa a aaieao e iaiaiiuo ioieoao, nouanoaoao
/a?iue ?uiie aaethou. Auaic iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou cai?auai. Cai?auai
oaeaea auaic i?oaeey, iaia?aaioaiiuo ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae e eonoa?iuo
ecaeaeee ec neiiiaie einoe. A iaoeeiiaeueiie eooia ni/aoathony
ao?eeaineea e ii?ooaaeueneea eoeeia?iua o?aaeeoeee. Iiioey?ai ino?ue
nion ie?e-ie?e ec aeao/aai ia?oea (iiaeaaony e eo?eoea, e?aaaoeai e
?uaa). Ieaie?oy ia?aaeaeaeaiey ii no?aia, iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue
i?acaeie/iua aeie: 1 yiaa?y, 4 oaa?aey, 8 ia?oa, 1 iay, 17 naioya?y, 3 e
11 iiya?y, 10 e 25 aeaeaa?y.

3. Nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea

Ia?aciaaiea. Ioeoeeaeueii iaycaoaeueiui yaeyaony ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea
(4 aiaea), eioi?ia aeaoe iiaoo iieo/eoue n 6-eaoiaai aic?anoa. N?aaeiaa
ia?aciaaiea (7 eao) ia/eiaaony n 10 eao e i?ioiaeeo a aeaa oeeeea ii 4 e
3 aiaea. A 2004 ia/aee ?aaioo 29 oun. iiauo oeieueiuo o/eoaeae.
Iao/athony 3 iei. oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia (2004). Oieaa?neoao ei.
A.Iaoi (a.Eoaiaea) iniiaai a 1963. Ia aa?a?iii, eiaeaia?iii,
iaaeeoeeineii, th?eaee/aneii e yeiiiie/aneii oaeoeueoaoao ?aaioatho 423
i?aiiaeaaaoaey e iao/athony 6,29 oun. nooaeaioia (2002). A 1997 a
a.Eoaaiai nicaeai Eaoiee/aneee oieaa?neoao Aiaieu. Oieaa?neoao THaeiie
Ao?eee (THA?) iin?aaenoaii Eioa?iaoa ioe?ue a Aiaiea naia cai/iia
ioaeaeaiea. ?aaioatho IEE aa?ioeiee (a.Oaiai), aaoa?eia?ee (a.Eoaaiai),
aaieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu (iaa iaoiaeyony a a.Eoaiaea). A 2002 nicaeai
Iaoeeiiaeueiue einoeooo iaooe – aaeeinoaaiiue aoc a Ao?eea,
caieiathueeny niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaeie eaae?ia aeey iaooyiiai,
aaiei?acaaaeiaaoaeueiiai e ai?ii?oaeiiai naeoi?ia yeiiiieee. A 1998
a?aiioiuie auee 42% ianaeaiey (ioae/eiu – 56%, aeaiueiu – 28%).

Cae?aaiio?aiaiea. ?ani?ino?aiaiu aaiaoeo, eeoa/ii-eioaeoeeiiiua
caaieaaaiey (aeinooi e /enoie ieoueaaie aiaea eiaao 32% ianaeaiey),
ei?ue, iaey?ey, iaieiaeo, o?eiaiiniiic («niiiay aieaciue»), ooaa?eoeac,
oenoiiaoic e ae?. Ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu neo/ae caaieaaaiey oeoii. Iniiaiua
i?iaeaiu cae?aaiio?aiaiey naycaiu n ieceei o?iaiai aeecie iiaeaaeythuaai
ianaeaiey no?aiu (45% aeaoae na?ueacii no?aaeatho io iaaeiaaeaiey).
Iiieii aunieiai o?iaiy nia?oiinoe iiai?iaeaeaiiuo, ioia/aaony aunieay
nia?oiinoue n?aaee aeaoae a aic?anoa aei 5 eao. Oieueei 27% aeaoae a
aic?anoa aei 1 aiaea aeaeathony iaiaoiaeeiua i?eaeaee. A 2001–2003 i?e
niaeaenoaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee aieaa 7 iei. aeaoae naeaeaiu
i?eaeaee io ei?e.

A 2001 ian/eouaaeinue 350 oun. aieueiuo NIEAeii e AE*-eioeoee?iaaiiuo
(5,5% ianaeaiey), oia?ee 24 oun. /ae. Ia eaaeaeua 1000 /ae. a 1997
i?eoiaeeeinue 0,08 a?a/a (iaoaaoea a?a/ae e iaaeeoeeineiai ia?niiaea
iauyniyaony a o./. ianniaui iouacaeii ec no?aiu ii?ooaaeueneeo
niaoeeaeenoia iinea iieo/aiey iacaaeneiinoe). A 2000 ?anoiaeu ia
cae?aaiio?aiaiea ninoaaeee 3,6% io AAI.

I?anna, ?aaeeiaauaiea, oaeaaeaeaiea, Eioa?iao. Ecaeathony ia
ii?ooaaeueneii ycuea aaeaaeiaaiua aacaou: «AEi?iae aee Aiaiea» (Jornal
de Angola – «Aacaoa Aiaieu» – ia?oeeii-i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay aacaoa),
«Aeea?eo aea ?aioaeeea» (Diario da Republica – «Aacaoa ?anioaeeee» –
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue aanoiee), aaeaiany/iay aacaoa «Aiae aeo
o?aaaeueyaei?» (A Voz do Trabalhador – «Aiein o?oaeyuaainy»), aacaoa
«I?ia?anno» (Progresso – «I?ia?ann»). Ecaeathony aeo?iaeu «Iaiuenaaeai»
(Mensagem – «Iineaiea») e «Iiaaia?o» (Novembro – «Iiya?ue»). Aiaieueneia
eioi?iaoeeiiiia aaaionoai AEI (Agencia Angola Press, ANGOP) aeaenoaoao n
1978. Ainoaea?noaaiiua iaoeeiiaeueiua ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea aaaeoo
ia?aaea/e n 1975. Aeaenoaoao ioeoeeaeueiue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue naeo a
Eioa?iaoa. Ian/eouaaaony 41 oun. /ae. Eioa?iao-iieueciaaoaeae (2002).

A?oeoaeoo?a e ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai. Ia?iaeiua aeeeeua o ia?iaeia,
ianaeythueo Aiaieo, iau/ii eiatho i?yiioaieueioth oi?io, ii ano?a/athony
e e?oaeua a ieaia oeaeeiu. Noaayony iie ia ea?eana ec eieueaa, iaaeouo
i?ooueyie aea?aaueaa eee iaiacaiiuo aeeiie. E?uoe ec o?aau eee nieiiu
aeaoneaoiua eee ianoeeathony a aeaea oao?a. Aeaa?e e noaiu oe?aoatho
auaeaeaiiui eee ?eniaaiiui i?iaiaioii e ?aciuie oeao?eaie ethaeae,
aeooia e aeeaioiuo. Iaeioi?ua ia?iaeu no?iyo naie oeaeeiu ia aea?aayiiuo
naayo. I?eiaoie nia?aiaiiuo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia noaee caeaiey ec
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee e noaeea.

Ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai Aiaieu aa?ao naia ia/aei caaeieai aei i.y. –
ianeaeueiua ?enoiee a Eaieiae?e aeaoe?othony 5–8 oun. aei i.y. Naiiauoiu
o?aaeeoeeiiiay neoeueioo?a (eoeueoiaua i?aaeiaou, noaooyoee ii?neeo
/oaeiaeu e oaoeoe, auiieiaiiua ec aea?aaa, eaiiy e neiiiaie einoe) o
ia?iaeia Eaaeiaeu, y?ei ?ane?aoaiiua neoeueioo?iua eiiiiceoeee o ia?iaea
yea, a oaeaea aeaineea oeao?ee, iioiaeea ia aioeeii, o /ieaa.

N?aaee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aiaieueneeo ooaeiaeieeia iiiai ianoa?ia n
ie?iauie eiaiaie – Aeeoi? Oaeoae?a (inaaaeiiei «Aeoaeen»), Aioiiei Iea,
?iaa?oi Neeaa. Aeaenoaoao Iaoeeiiaeueiue nithc aiaieueneeo ooaeiaeieeia
(UNAP). A Eoaiaea iaoiaeyony ianeieueei ea?oeiiuo aaea?ae («Aeoaeen»,
aaea?ay Nithca aiaieueneeo ooaeiaeieeia e ae?.). A 1999–2002 a Iineaa
i?ioee aunoaaee ?aaio nia?aiaiiuo ooaeiaeieeia Aiaieu – Aeaa?i Ianeae?u,
Aeeoi?a Iaioyea Oaeoae?u («Aeoi»), AEi?aea Aoiaa, O?aineoeo Aai-Aeoiaia
(«Aaia») e Oaeeneaio Aeeaoa aeoo Naioooa («Eeaea»).

Ec ?aianae e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iiuneia ?acaeoa ?acueaa ii aea?aao
(ecaioiaeaiea ?eooaeueiuo ianie e oeao?ie, eioi?uie oe?aoatho aeaa?e
aeiiia, aeiiaoithth ooaa?ue e iaaaeue), aii/a?noai (eaiioth ea?aieeo
oe?aoatho iaeieioui i?iaiaioii), a oaeaea ieaoaiea oeeiiaie e aethae ec
ae?aaaniiai aieieia n aaiiao?e/aneei oci?ii e?aniiai e /a?iiai oeaaoa.

Eeoa?aoo?a. Ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny ni aoi?ie iie. 19 a. (i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
ii?ooaaeueneii ycuea). A 1891 ecaeaia eieaa Ia?iaeiay ioae?inoue a
aiaieueneeo iineiaeoeao ianoiiai ienaoaey e oieueeei?enoa AE.Aeeaoa
Ei?aeae?o aea Iaoou. Ia?aua iiyou – AE. aea Neeaa Iae Oa??ae?a, AE.Aeeao
Ei?aeae?o aea Iaooa. E?oiiaeoea ienaoaee: Aainoeiuei Iaoi, Aeaea Ea?a,
Aioiiei AEaneioo, Aioiiei Ea?aeico, AEica Eoaiaeeii aea Aeae?a,
Ieoaaeaii Ei??aey e ae?. Iaeiei ec naiuo iieiaeuo (27 eao) e iiioey?iuo
nia?aiaiiuo ienaoaeae yaeyaony Iaeaeo aea Aeiaeaea (inaaaeiiei –
Iiaeaeaee). A 2002 auoea aai iiaay eieaa – Eia?e, aeaaooea n iyoueth
eine/eaie. A oii aea aiaeo a Ii?ooaaeee ecaeai aai iiyoe/aneee nai?iee
E?iaaaue aeo. Nia?aiaiiua iieiaeua iiyou – A?aneaio O?aineoeo
Aeiieiiaina, Eoen Eaiaeaeeiao e ae?. N 2001 Aiaiea aaeaaiaeii o/anoaoao
a Iineianeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eieaeiie aunoaaea-y?ia?ea. Ia i/a?aaeiie
aunoaaea a 2004 auee i?aaenoaaeaiu ianeieueei nioai eiea aiaieueneeo
ecaeaoaeae.

Iocuea. Eiaao ae?aaiea o?aaeeoeee, ioee/aaony yoie/aneei ?aciiia?aceai.
Iocuea nouanoaoao a ia?ac?uaiie nayce n oaioeai, aaaeiui yeaiaioii
eioi?iai yaeyaony ?eoi. I?eaeiaeueiu ia?yaeiaua oaioeu aaooea (o ia?iaea
eiiai), eaoyia («oaiaoe iaiy» o iaaiaaea), /enaea (o /ieaa) e ae?. I?e
eniieiaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiie iocuee, nii?iaiaeaeaiee ianai e oaioeaa
eniieuecothony ?acee/iua aa?aaaiu (ioeoa e ae?.) e eneeioiiu
(eennaiaeaee, ia?eiaa), aeoa?a oeiaiiao, eieieieue/eee eiiao, ee?a
ioueeeoiao, iocueaeueiue eoe iaoeoiaoiaa, 3-no?oiiay ne?eiea eaeyey,
oeaeou Iaia e ae?. Eiiiiceoi?u: Iaoaaeo AE.I., Ioeaiaa O., O. aea Neo e
ae?.

Iocuea Aiaieu aieoaea a naay oaeaea o?aaeeoeee ii?ooaaeueneie
iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?u, a a 20 a. ia iaa ieacaee aeeyiea
eaoeiiaia?eeaineea iaeiaeee e nia?aiaiiay iii-eoeueoo?a. Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iiioey?iay iocuea ?acaeaaaony n 1950-o. N 1978 a noieeoea i?ioiaeyo
e?ani/iua o. i. «ea?iaaaeu iiaaaeu». A 2002 i?iaaaeai oaea 24-e
ea?iaaae. A 1900–2000-o iieuecothony iiioey?iinoueth aunooieaiey
oaioeaaaeueiiai ainaiaey «Iiei yoo».

Oaao? e eeiaiaoia?ao. Oaao?aeeciaaiiuie oaa?eyie n 17 a.
nii?iaiaeaeaeenue oea?eiaiua i?acaeieee a ?aeeaeiciuo oeieao,
i?aaieciaaiiuo i?e iiianou?yo e o?aiao. Ia?aay iieoi?ioanneiiaeueiay
oaao?aeueiay a?oiia iiae iacaaieai «I?iaeaeainea» aicieeea a Eoaiaea a
1847. A 1960–1970-a aeoeaii ?aaioaee oaao? EOA (aaa?aaeaoo?a iacaaiey ia
ii?ooaaeueneii ycuea) e Eeoa aiaieueneiai oaao?a. Iinea i?iaicaeaoaiey
iacaaeneiinoe aieueoeinoai oaao?aeueiuo aeayoaeae (aa?iiaeoeaa) iieeioee
no?aio. Noaee nicaeaaaoueny naiiaeayoaeueiua eieeaeoeau.
Aeieoiaioaeueii-o?iieeaeueiia eeii ?acaeaaaony ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 1970-o
(11-na?eeiay eaioa ss aiaieaoe e ?aaioath, ia aeaeay nee, Aieiaey,
ia?iaeiue eiiaiaee? ?aae. E.Aeae?u e ae?.). Ia?aue ooaeiaeanoaaiiue
oeeuei – Aoaeue niaeui, oiaa?eu! – niyo ?aaeenna?ii ?.Aeoa?oe aee
Ea?aaeueth a 1977. A 2003 ia/aeenue nuaiee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oeeueia
Ionoie ai?iae (i iaoeeiiaeueiie o?aaaaeee – 27-eaoiae a?aaeaeaineie
aieia) niaianoiiai aiaieuenei-o?aioeocneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?aaeenna?u –
Ia?ey AEiao e O?ainoa Aiii.

Caeeth/aiea

Ia ia?aue acaeyae eaaeaony o?oaeii iauynieiui, ii/aio a iaeiie ec
iioaioeeaeueii naiuo aiaaouo no?ai ao?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa, aeaaeathuae
iaooueth, aeiacaie, no?aoaae/aneei nu?ueai, caianaie ae?aaaneiu, ?uau,
eiathuae ieiaei?iaeiua ii/au aeey au?aueaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo? a oia?aiiii e o?iie/aneii eeeiaoa, iaeaaeathuae ia?iiiuie
aeae?i?ano?naie ?ano?naie e o.ae. e o.i., ieiei 70% ianaeaiey aei neo
ii? aeeaao ca ii?iaii aaaeiinoe, n aeioiaeaie ia aeooo ianaeaiey
iaaeinoaoi/iuie aeaaea aeey iaania/aiey naiiai auaeeaaiey.

Aiaiea oaeaeinue, e yoi eaaeaony naiui aaaeiui, ionoiyoue naith
iacaaeneiinoue, nio?aieoue oa??eoi?eaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue, caeiaeeoue
iniiau aeaiie?aoe/aneiai i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa e iaania/eoue
iauaaeeiaiea aiaieueneiai ia?iaea a ?aoaiee caaea/e ii nicaeaieth
aaeeiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, ianiio?y ia ana aeou aa?annee, e
aii?aee anai iiiuoeai aeanoaaeeecaoeee iieiaeaiey a no?aia,
i?aaei?eiyoui ca iineaaeiea 25 eao.

Ie iaeiia?aiaiiay aa?anney aeaoo eiino?aiiuo a?iee, cae?neie ia naaa?a e
thaeiiao?eeaineie ia thaa, a 1975 aiaeo, ie ieeoiaoeey /anoe oa??eoi?ee
Aiaieu I?aoi?eae a 80-a aiaeu, ie aeanoaaeeece?othuay aeayoaeueiinoue
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie aii?oaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee OIEOA, ai aeaaa n AEiianii
Naaeiae, iieueciaaaoeiny iiaeaea?aeeie ni noi?iiu ?anenoneiai ?aaeeia
THaeiie Ao?eee e aaeieieno?aoeee NOA, ia neiieee aieth aiaieueneiai
ia?iaea.

Aianoa n oai, a oa/aiea anaai yoiai a?aiaie, aiaieueneea aeanoe
ieacuaaee iinoiyiioth iiiiuue ai?oeai Ceiaaaaa, aeiaeaoeiny
iacaaeneiinoe a 1980 aiaeo, a ?acoeueoaoa aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau;
iao?eioai Iaieaee, ai?iaoeiny n i?oaeeai a ?oeao ca caaiaaaiea
iacaaeneiinoe e iiaaaeeaoei oieueei a 1990 aiaeo; thaeiiao?eeaioeai a eo
ai?ueaa i?ioea ?aaeeia aia?oaeaea, ca ?aniaia ?aaiii?aaea e
aeaiie?aoecaoeeth ?aaeeia.

Oae iacuaaaiue eiioeeeo a ?aeiia Aaeeeeo Ica? oaeaea aeieacae, /oi
iieeoeea Aiaieu niiniaia noaoue ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii iaania/aiey
noaaeeueiinoe ai anai ?aaeiia Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie Ao?eee.

Naaiaeiy, iinea aeaaee AEiiana Naaeiae (22 oaa?aey 2002 aiaea) e
iineaaeothuaai iiaeienaiey, a ea/anoaa aeiiieiaiey e Ie?iiio Eonaeneiio
I?ioieieo, Iaii?aiaeoia i acaeiiiiieiaiee iaaeaeo Aiaieueneeie
Aii?oaeaiiuie Neeaie (OAA) e aii?oaeaiiuie oi?ie?iaaieyie OIEOA, n
ia/aeii i?iaaaeaiey iiaie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe
yeiiiieee, ano?aoeaoae iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu e?oiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
oeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee, iinea iaeia?aiey Ia?eaiaioii no?aiu
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?eioeeiia ia?aniio?a Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Caeiia
(caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea iieoi?aceaeaioneiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
?aaeeia i?aaeaiey e ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea), a oaeaea a nayce n
iauyaeaieai aiciiaeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey iiauo auai?ia oaea a 2004-2005
a.a., Aiaiea niiaea ia?aeoe e iiaie oaca ?acaeoey, eioi?oth I?aceaeaio
?A ioa?aeoa?eciaae eae “oaco onoaiiaeaiey ie?a, eiinieeaeaoeee
aeaiie?aoee, noaaeeecaoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee e aica?auaiey anai
aiaieueoeai /oanoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeinoieinoaa e iaaeaaeaeu”.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

1. Oacaiia A.I. «Enoi?ey Aiaieu a iiaia e iiaaeoaa a?aiy» I., 1999

2. http://ru.wikipedia.org

3. http://www.countries.ru/?pid=1436

4. http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc/Earth_sciences/geografiya/ANGOLA.html

5. http://polpred.com

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