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Роль подземных вод в формировании и разрушении залежей нефти и газа

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Eaoaae?a iauae e i?eeeaaeiie aaioeceee

?aoa?ao ii aeae?iaaieiaee ia oaio:

?ieue iiaecaiiuo aiae a oi?ie?iaaiee e ?ac?ooaiee caeaaeae iaooe e aaca

Auiieiee:

nooaeaio a?oiiu 3152

Eiiia Aeaenaiae?

I?iaa?ee:

Aeaeaiaeia ?. A.

Aeoaia, 2004

AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEA NO?OEOO?U IAOOAAACIIINIUO AANNAEIIA

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia ?acee/athony ii oneiaeyi
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, caeaaaiey e aeaeaeaiey. Aanueia /anoi aaiacen
iiaecaiiuo aiae ii?aaeaeyao eo oneiaey caeaaaiey, a oneiaey caeaaaiey
(ii?oieiaey neiieaiey aiae) ii?aaeaeytho eo oneiaey aeaeaeaiey. Iaeiaei
ia iaiaa /anoi oneiaey i?ienoiaeaeaiey, caeaaaiey e aeaeaeaiey aiae ia
caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa.

AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEA NO?OEOO?U

Iaeaieaa e?oiiay aeae?iaaieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a — aeae?iaaieiae/aneee
aannaei — neiieaiea iiaecaiiuo aiae, i?eo?i/aiiia e e?oiiui
oaeoiie/aneei yeaiaioai caiiie ei?u. E. E. Caeoeaa (1974 a.)
aeae?iaaieiae/aneea aannaeiu ?acaeaeee ia aeaa eeanna: a?oaceaineea
no?oeoo?u e aeae?iaaieiae/aneea ianneau. N?aaee a?oaceaineeo no?oeoo? ei
auaeaeaiu: 1) a?oaceaineea aannaeiu (?acee/iiai ?iaea aiaaeeiu), 2)
a?oaceaineea naiaeu (aioaeeecu e naiaeu), 3) aaea?oaceaineea aannaeiu
(aeecee e a?oaceaineei, ii ioee/athony io ieo oe?ieei ?ani?ino?aiaieai
ieanoiai-o?aueiiuo e o?aueiii-aeeeueiuo aiae), 4) aoeeaiiaaiiua
noaaannaeiu (neiieaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii iie?iai-ii?iai-o?aueiiuo aiae).
N?aaee aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo ianneaia auaeaeaiu: 1) aaeianneiu, neiaeaiiua
iaoaii?oeciaaiiuie inaaei/iuie e aoeeaiiaaiiuie ii?iaeaie, e 2)
aoeeaiiaaiiua noia?ianneau, ia?aciaaiiua iiuiuie oieuaie eaa e eo oooia,
iaeiaeaiiuo ia ae?oaea aeae?iaaieiae/aneea no?oeoo?u
(iie?iai-o?aueiii-ii?iaua aiaeu).

E?oiiui iaaeinoaoeii oeacaiiie noaiu yaeyaony ioianaiea e a?oaceaineei
anao aannaeiia iiaecaiiuo aiae, i?eo?i/aiiuo e inaaei/iui ioeiaeaieyi
?acee/iiai ?iaea aiaaeei, aac o/aoa iniaaiiinoae eo aeae?iaeeiaieee e
aaiacena iiaecaiiuo aiae. Yoi canoaaeei iaooyieeia-aeae?iaaieiaia
eneaoue iiaua iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth aii?inia aeae?iaaieiae/aneie
nenoaiaoeee.

A iaooyiie aaieiaee a ea/anoaa iniiaiuo aaeeieoe iaooaaaieiae/aneiai
?aeiie?iaaiey i?eiyou iaooaaaciiiniue aannaei e iaooaaaciiiniua
i?iaeioeey, iaeanoue. I?e auaeaeaiee iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia iniiaiuie
yaeythony oneiaey aaia?aoeee OA, a i?e auaeaeaiee i?iaeioeee e iaeanoae
— aaeeinoai oneiaee iaooaaaciiaeiieaiey. Iaeiaei e a oii e ae?oaii
neo/aa aaaeouee oaeoi? i?e iaooaaaciaaieiae/aneii ?aeiie?iaaiee —
oaeoiie/aneee. Auaeaeaiea iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia e iaooaaaciiiniuo
i?iaeioeee — yoi aeaa ?acee/iuo, ii ia eneeth/athueo ae?oa ae?oaa
i?eioeeia iaooaaaieiae/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey. Auai? iaeiiai ec yoeo
i?eioeeiia ii?aaeaeyaony eiie?aoiuie caaea/aie oie eee eiie ?aaiou. I?e
aeae?iaaieiae/aneie nenoaiaoecaoeee «aannaeiiaue» i?eioeei
i?aaeii/oeoaeai, oae eae aannaeiu ieanoiauo aiae e iaooaaaciiiniua
aannaeiu i?eo?i/aiu e iaeiei e oai aea e?oiiui, aeeeoaeueii
?acaeaathueiny io?eoeaoaeueiui yeaiaioai oaeoiie/aneeo no?oeoo?,
caiieiaiiuo inaaei/iuie ii?iaeaie. I. A. Aanniaae/ (1970 a.)
iaooaaaciiiniue aannaei iacaae iaooaaaciiiniui inaaei/iui aannaeiii, e
yoi iiiyoea auei aieaa oceei, /ai iiiyoea «inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiue aannaei»,
oae eae ia anyeee inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiue aannaei iiaeao auoue
iaooaaaciiiniui.

I.E. Noaaioa, A.O. ?iiaithe e ss.A. Oiaeaeaeoeeaa auaeaeeee /aou?a oeia
aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo aannaeiia: 1) inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiua aeai?anneiiiua
(aannaeiu a?oaceaineea e iaooaaaciiiniua), 2) inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiua
ai?ii-neeaae/aoua, 3) aeuaiai-ianneaiua (aeae?iaaieiae/aneea no?oeoo?u
ueoia) e 4) ieaaie/aneea. Aeae?iaaieiae/aneea aannaeiu eiatho ?acioth
ieiuaaeue: io ianeieueeeo ouny/ aei ianeieueeeo ieeeeiiia eaaae?aoiuo
eeeiiao?ia. Anoanoaaiii, aeae?iaaieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea e oneiaey
iaooaaaciiiniinoe ?aciuo ii ?acia?ai aannaeiia ia iaeeiaeiau. Ii
ieiuaaee aannaeiu iiae?acaeaeythony ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu (iei. ei2):1—
aeaaioneea (>1), 2— e?oiiua (0,3—1), 3—n?aaeiea (0.05-0,3), 4— iaeeea
(<0,05).A ?anniio?aiiuo eeanneoeeaoeeyo aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo no?oeoo? a ea/anoaa eeanneoeeaoeeiiiiai i?eciaea acyoa ii?oieiaey neiieaiey aiae. Iaeiaei i?e ?ac?aaioea aeae?iaaieiae/aneie oaeniiiiee neaaeoao o/anoue e ae?oaea aaaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo no?oeoo?: ii?oieiaeth neiieaiey aiae, o. a. oi?io eo iaoiaeaeaiey a eeoinoa?a, oneiaey aeaeaeaiey iiaecaiiuo iiae (aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey eee i?e?iaea yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea) e aaiaoe/aneoth i?e?iaeo iiaecaiiuo aiae.I?e anai iiiaiia?acee aaieiae/aneeo oi?i iaoiaeaeaiey iiaecaiiuo aiae a eeoinoa?a aeae?iaaieiae/aneea aannaeiu ii oneiaeyi caeaaaiey (ii?oieiaee neiieaiey aie) a i?eioeeia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa iniiaiuo oeia: aannaeiu ieanoiauo iiae e aeae?iaaieiae/aneea ianneau o?aueiiuo e aeeeueii-o?aueiiuo aiae.Aannaeiu o?aueiiuo e aeeeueii-o?aueiiuo aiae ?aniieaaathony e i?aaeaeao e?enoaeee/aneeo ueoia e ai?ii-neeaae/aouo iaeanoae. O?aueiiay aiaeiiiniinoue iaaethaeaaony e a e?enoaeee/aneii ooiaeaiaioa aannaeiia ieanoiauo aiae, iniaaiii a ae?aaiae ei?a auaao?eaaiey ooiaeaiaioa. A iie?iaiuo ioeiaeaieyo ueoia ia?aaeei ?acaeou ii?iai-ieanoiaua aiaeu. Caeaaee iaooe e aaca annioeee?othony n aannaeiaie ieanoiauo aie, iiyoiio ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iineaaeieo inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii. I?aaaea, ano?a/athony caeaaee OA e a ooiaeaiaioa oaeeo aannaeiia, a aai aa?oiae o?aueiiaaoie /anoe, iaeiaei aaiaoe/anee iie aaeeiu n ieanoiauie caeaaeaie.Iie aannaeiii ieanoiauo aiae iiieiaaony neiieaiea aiae, i?eo?i/aiiia i?aeiouanoaaiii e inaaei/iui ii?iaeai, caiieiythuei io?eoeaoaeueiua oaeoiie/aneea yeaiaiou caiiie ei?u (neiaeeecu, aiaaeeiu, i?iaeau). Aannaei ieanoiauo aiae ninoieo ec i?iieoeaaiuo aiaeiiiniuo ieanoia, iauaaeeiyaiuo a ai?eciiou, eiiieaenu e yoaaee n iaii?iuie aiaeaie, ?acaeaeaiiuo aiaeioii?aie. A aa?oiae /anoe ?ac?aca aannaei ieanoiauo aiae aai/aaony noaaannaeiii aaciaii?iuo a?oioiauo aiae. Eiaeai aannaeia neoaeao ii?iaeu ooiaeaiaioa. O?aueiiua iiaecaiiua aiaeu, i?eo?i/aiiua e aa?oiae o?aueiiaaoie /anoe ooiaeaiaioa, ii aaiaoe/aneie i?e?iaea aeecee e eiioaeoe?othuei n ieie ieanoiaui aiaeai.A iaooaaaciaie aeae?iaaieiaee oe?iei eniieuecoaony oa?iei «i?e?iaeiay aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia». I?e anao oa?ieiieiae/aneeo ?acee/eyo iiae i?e?iaeiie aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiie iiae?acoiaaaaony aiaeiiiniue ieano eee niaieoiiinoue aiaeiiiniuo (aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo) ai?eciioia eee eiiieaenia, niaea?aeaueo iaii?iua aiaeu e i?eo?i/aiiuo e ii?aaeaeaiiui aaieiae/aneei no?oeoo?ai. Oae, i?e?iaeiay aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia iiaeao auoue niaea?aeaieai ioaeaeueiiai aannaeia ieanoiauo aiae eee nenoaiu aannaeiia e?oiiiai naaiaioa caiiie ei?u. Iai?eia?, aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia I?eeanieeneie aiaaeeiu eee aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iu. A oii e ae?oaii neo/aa iiae?acoiaaathony niaieoiiinoe iaii?iuo ai?eciioia eee eiiieaenia iiaecaiiuo aiae ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaeoiie/aneeo yeaiaioia caiiie ei?u. Aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia iiaeao oa?aeoa?eciaaoue e no?aoea?aoe/aneee eioa?aae ?ac?aca. Iai?eia?, aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia iacicienei-eaeiicieneeo ioeiaeaiee I?eeanieeneie aiaaeeiu. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e?iaeiay aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia iiaeao eiaoue ?aciue iauai — io ieanoa aei na?ee ieanoia, a ii ieiuaaee — io aeae?iaaieiae/aneiai ?aeiia aei aannaeia eee a?oiiu nii?yaeaiiuo aannaeiia. Iiyoiio i?e eniieueciaaiee oa?ieia «i?e?iaeiay aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia» iaiaoiaeeia eiie?aoecaoeey iauaeoa.Ii oneiaeyi oi?ie?iaaiey aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai iioaioeeaea i?e?iaeiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iua aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea (aaiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneea) nenoaiu: aaciaii?iuo (a?oioiauo) e iaii?iuo (i?aeiouanoaaiii ieanoiauo) aiae. Ii i?e?iaea yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea aaiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneea nenoaiu iaii?iuo aiae iiae?acaeaeythony ia eioeeueo?aoeeiiiua e yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiua.A eioeeueo?aoeeiiiuo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao iaii? nicaeaaony ca n/ao eioeeueo?aoeee aoiinoa?iuo e iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae. I?e?iaea yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea aeae?inoaoe/aneay, e niioaaonoaaiii nenoaiu yoiai oeia oaeaea iacuaathony aeae?inoaoe/aneeie. Aeey oaeeo nenoai ieanoiaia aeaaeaiea ? ii?aaeaeyaony oi?ioeie picscalex1000100090000032901000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500 0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000 0000050000000c02000240061200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff c6ffffff00060000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050001c00 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a60019405 010000002c791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c 007740000000ac090aa01643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400 0000f001000008000000320a6001b6040100000067791c000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0 ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a6001e20202000000 486708000000320a60016a000100000070671c000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c007740000000ac090aa31643c8771f43c87720c0ca770000 3000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a60019a01010000003d670a00 000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc020000 00cc0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a010000000000000000fcf312002942 c877040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000 aaea I — iueaciiao?e/aneee iaii?;a — ieioiinoue aeeaeeinoe; g — onei?aiea neeu oyaeanoe.A yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiuo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao iaii? a aiaeiiiniuo ieanoao nicaeaaony ca n/ao oeeueo?aoeeiiiiai oaeaeaiey aeeaeeinoe ec iaeieo ieanoia (eee eo /anoae) a ae?oaea ieanou (eee eo /anoe) aac iiiieiaiey caiania ec aiaoieo iaeanoae ieoaiey. Yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu iiae?acaeaeythony ia yeeceiiiua eeoi-noaoe/aneea (aainoaoe/aneea), aaiaeeiaie/aneea e oa?iiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneea (oa?iiaeae?aoaoeeiiiua).A yeeceiiiuo eeoinoaoe/aneeo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao iaii? nicaeaaony aneaaenoaea auaeeiaiey aiae ec oieioiythueony inaaeeia e ii?iae a eieeaeoi?u e /anoe/ii ca n/ao oieioiaiey naieo eieeaeoi?ia n auaeeiaieai aiae ec iaeieo /anoae a ae?oaea. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeanna oieioiaiey ia?acoaony ecauoi/iia eiee/anoai aeeaeeinoe Qeca. I?e?auaiea aeaaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii picscalex1000100090000039201000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500 0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000 0000050000000c02400240091200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff a6ffffff00090000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000060001c00 0000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320ae0018008 0100000030791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400 0000f001000008000000320a80011d06010000002f791c000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0 ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8001a50701000000 567908000000320a8001840301000000517908000000320a800124010100000070791c00 0000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f00100000900 0000320ae001860403000000e8e7e1651c000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000002 0402001053796d626f6c00774000000024090aef1643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000 040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8001c7060100000062e71c000000 fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00774000000020090ab7 1643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000 320a80015402010000003de708000000320a80013a000100000044e70a00000026060f00 0a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222 53797374656d000000000a0021008a010000000000000000fcf312002942c87704000000 2d01000004000000f0010100030000000000, aaea ??—i?e?auaiea aeaaeaiey; a — eiyooeoeeaio naeeiaaiinoe aeeaeeinoe; V0 — iauee iauai aeeaeeinoe a aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaia.Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a yeeceiiiie eeoinoaoe/aneie aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaia picscalex1000100090000037d01000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500 0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000 0000050000000c024002200b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff a6ffffffe00a0000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000060001c00 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a8001fd09 01000000677908000000320a8001950801000000707908000000320a80014b0401000000 487908000000320a80016a000100000070791c000000fb0220ff00000000000090010100 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca770000 3000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae0012d0102000000fdeb1c00 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f00101000800 0000320a800161090100000029eb08000000320a8001b5030100000028eb1c000000fb02 80fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0077400000008b090a781643 c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a 8001ab070100000044eb08000000320a80018806010000002beb08000000320a80017f02 010000003deb1c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c 007740000000db080af31643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d0100000400 0000f001010008000000320a80015f050100000067eb0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff 0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d 000000000a0021008a0100000000010000009cf312002942c877040000002d0101000400 0000f0010000030000000000.Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai aeeaeeinoe ioaeeiaaony ec cii iaeneiaeueiie iiuiinoe inaaeeia, o. a. ec iaeaieaa iia?oaeaiiuo /anoae aiaaeei. Nenoaiu yoe cae?uoua: eeai niiauaiey n caiiie iiaa?oiinoueth nianai iao, eeai iaii? nicaeaaony a ciiao ?aca?ocee. Aneaaenoaea yoiai a yeeceiiiuo eeoinoaoe/aneeo nenoaiao ieanoiaia aeaaeaiea, eae i?aaeei, auoa oneiaiiai aeae?inoaoe/aneiai. E yoi i?aauoaiea oai aieueoa, /ai aieueoa noaiaiue cae?uoinoe nenoaiu.A yeeceiiiuo aaiaeeiaie/aneeo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao enoi/ieeii aeae?inoaoe/aneie yia?aee yaeyaony aaiaeeiaie/aneia aeaaeaiea; oaeoiie/aneia naeaoea i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth aunieie ieanoiaie yia?aee. Oaeea nenoaiu ano?a/athony i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeanoyo eioaineaiie neeaae/aoinoe e iiauoaiiie naenie/iinoe. A neeaae/aouo iaeanoyo e i?aaeai?iuo i?iaeaao ieanoiaia aeaaeaiea /anoi i?aauoaao oneiaiia aeae?inoaoe/aneia a 1,8—2 ?aca.A yeeceiiiuo oa?iiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao i?e?iaea yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea iaoneiaeaia aunaiaiaeaeaieai aeeaeeinoe a i?ioeanna oa?ie/aneie aeaaeae?aoaoeee ieia?aeia.I?e?iaeiua "aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo aannaeiia ?acee/athony e ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth iiaecaiiuo aiae: eioeeueo?aoeeiiiua i?e?iaeiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu niaea?aeao eioeeueo?aoeeiiiua aiaeiua ?anoai?u, eeoinoaoe/aneea yeeceiiiua — naaeeiaioiaaiiua (oaeanniaaiiua) aiaeiua ?anoai?u i?aeiouanoaaiii ii?neiai aaiacena, a oa?iiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo e aaiaeeiaie/aneeo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue ia/eiatho ea?aoue eeoiaaiiua e aic?iaeaeaiiua aiaeiua ?anoai?u.IAOOAAACIIINIUE AANNAEI EAE *ANOUe AANNAEIA IEANOIAUO AIAeA aannaeiao ieanoiauo aiae iaaethaeaaony neiaeiia ni/aoaiea ?acee/iuo aaiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo nenoai n aaiaoe/anee ?aciuie eeannaie iiaecaiiuo aiae. Eaaeaeue aannaei ieanoiauo aiae aai/aaony aaiaeae?iaeeiaie/aneie nenoaiie aaciaii?iuo (a?oioiauo) aiae. Aeoaaea ii ?ac?aco aannaeia ieanoiauo aiae aeiaieueii /anoi caeaaatho aaciaii?iua ieanoiaua aiaeu (ni naiaiaeiui ca?eaeii iiaecaiiuo aiae). Iaeiiaoe, n?aaee iaii?iuo aiae i?ineaaeeaaaony neiaeiia ni/aoaiea eioeeueo?aoeeiiiuo e yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiuo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai. Aiieia aeiionoeii, /oi aeaaea a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai e oiai aea aeae?iaaieiae/aneiai ai?eciioa eee eiiieaena ai aioo?aiieo /anoyo aannaeia ?acaeoa yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiay aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia, a a ia?aieaieyo aannaeia — eioeeueo?aoeeiiiay. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia oae i?inoi ia?aie/eoue aiaeiiaii?ioth nenoaio iaooaaaciiiniiai aannaeia a aeae?iaaieiae/aneii aannaeia — aannaeia ieanoiauo aiae.E.I. A?iae e aai iineaaeiaaoaee n/eoaee, /oi iaooaaaciiiniue aannaei yaeyaony /anoueth a?oaceaineiai aannaeia. Iie eneeth/aee ec iaai e?aaaua ciiu aannaeia e i?aaeaea anaai iaeanoe eioeeueo?aoeeiiiiai ieoaiey e i?eeaaathuea ciiu «aeoeaiiai aiaeiiaiaia», aaea oneiaey aeey nio?aiaiey OA iaaeaaii?eyoiu. Eiooeoeaii /oanoaoy eneeth/eoaeueioth ?ieue iiaecaiiuo aiae a iioiaaiaca iaooe e aaca, E.I. A?iae oai ia iaiaa ia niia ii?aaeaeeoue aiaeiiaii?ioth nenoaio iaooaaaciiiniiai aannaeia — e oiio a?aiaie naaaeaiee i i?e?iaeiuo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao auei yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey ?aoaiey yoiai neiaeiiai aii?ina.Iaaeinoaoeii eioi?iaoeee iiaeii iauynieoue e iiyaeaiea aiineaaenoaee aioo?aiia i?ioeai?a/eaiai iiiyoey «iaooaaaciiiniue a?oaceaineee aannaei». A eeanne/aneii iiieiaiee a?oaceaineee aannaei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen aiaeiiiniuo ieanoia, neaaathueo ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?iaeau (aiaaeeiu, neiaeeecu e o.ae.) n aiaoiae iaeanoueth ieoaiey. Aeey oaeeo aannaeiia oa?aeoa?iu aiaeu eioeeueo?aoeeiiiiai aaiacena, a i?e?iaea aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai iioaioeeaea — aeae?inoaoe/aneay. Ii ia?a ?acao?eaaiey ieaeieo yoaaeae iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia ana /aua noaee ane?uaaoue yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu n eiuie i?e?iaeie aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai iioaioeeaea e aaiacenii iiaecaiiuo aiae (eeoinoaoe/aneea, aaiaeeiaie/aneea e oa?iiaeae?aoaoeeiiiua yeeceiiiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu). ?yae aeae?iaaieiaia oaeea aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu noaee ioiineoue oaeaea e a?oaceaineei aannaeiai, oai naiui nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ea iiiyoea «a?oaceaineee aannaei».Oae eae e aannaeiu ieanoiauo aiae e iaooaaaciiiniua aannaeiu i?eo?i/aiu e inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiui aannaeiai, iineaaeiea yaeythony aeey ieo ?iaeiaui iiiyoeai. Aeey iaooaaaciiiniiai aannaeia iniiaiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie neoaeeo iioiaaiac iaooe e aaca — aaia?aoeey OA, oi?ie?iaaiea e eiina?aaoeey eo caeaaeae. I?aeoe/anee ana inaaei/iua oieue niaea?aeao ?annayiiia IA, eioi?ia a aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo aaia?e?oao OA. Yoe aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey nio?aiythony oai, aaea inaaei/iua ii?iaeu oi?ioi eciee?iaaiu io aicaeaenoaey iiaa?oiinoiuo oaeoi?ia, eia/a aiai?y, a ciia ?ani?ino?aiaiey yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiuo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai. I/aaeaeii, oi?ie?othueeny inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiue aannaei aoaeao iieiinoueth niioaaonoaiaaoue iaooaaaciiiniiio n yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiie aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiie. Anee i?ioeann inaaeeiiaeiieaiey i?a?aai e inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiue aannaei auaaaeai ia aeiaaioth iiaa?oiinoue, oi a e?aaauo aai /anoyo e a iie?iaiuo ioeiaeaieyo ia/ioo oi?ie?iaaoueny eioeeueo?aoeeiiiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu, eioi?ua iaaeaaii?eyoiu aeey iioiaaiaca iaooe e aaca. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a?aieoeaie iaooaaaciiiniiai aannaeia neaaeoao n/eoaoue a?aieoeo iaaeaeo yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiuie e eioeeueo?aoeeiiiuie ?aaeeiaie a i?aaeaeao aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai aannaeia.Iaeiaei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iieo/aiu aeaiiua, /oi e e aiaeiiaii?iui nenoaiai n eioeeueo?aoeeiiiui ?aaeeiii iiaoo auoue i?eo?i/aiu caeaaee OA. /oi iicaieyao ?anoe?eoue iauai iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia a i?aaeaeao ieanoiauo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai.AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEAss NOAAeEEIINOUe ?ACAEOEss IAOOAAACIIINIUO AANNAEIIAAannaei ieanoiauo aiae n yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiie aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiie ia?aiia/aeueii ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny a i?aaeaeao aannaeia naaeeiaioaoeee. Ia yoii yoaia a?aieoeu aannaeia ieanoiauo aiae n yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiie aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiie e iaooaaaciiiniiai aannaeia. niaiaaeatho. I yiioe ia?a?uaia a inaaeeiiaeiieaiee i?e ianooieaiee eiioeiaioaeueiiai ?aaeeia a e?aaauo /anoyo e a aa?oieo ai?eciioao inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiiai aannaeia ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny eioeeueo?aoeeiiiay aiaeiiaii?iay nenoaia. A iaaieueoeo ii ieiuaaee e iaeiiiuiuo inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiuo aannaeiao eioeeueo?aoeeiiiue ?aaeei aeinoaoi/ii auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia anth ieiuaaeue e aeoaeio aannaeia ieanoiauo aiae, a e?oiiuo aannaeiao yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiue ?aaeei nio?aiyaony aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy.Aeoaeia e nei?inoue i?iieeiiaaiey eioeeueo?aoeeiiiuo aiae a iaae?a inaaei/ii-ii?iaeiiai aannaeia ii?aaeaeythony oaoeeaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie ieanoia-eieeaeoi?ia, aeiniiao?e/aneei iieiaeaieai iaeanoae eioeeueo?aoeeiiiiai ieoaiey, noaiaiueth oaeoiie/aneie ia?ooaiiinoe neaaathueo aannaei ii?iae e ae?oaeie aaieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie. Aeoaieei ?acaaaei/iui ao?aieai ai aioo?aiieo /anoyo ii/oe anao iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee onoaiiaeaiu ae?aaiea naaeeiaioiaaiiua aiaeu n oie eee eiie aeieae eeoiaaiiuo aiae, a naie aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu iaoiaeyony ia yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiuo yoaiao ?acaeoey. Aeiaaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue ?acaeoey aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo no?oeoo? inaaei/iuo aannaeiia io yenoeeueo?aoeeiiiuo e eioeeueo?aoeeiiiui nenoaiai iaecaaaeia aeey ethauo oaeoiie/aneeo yeaiaioia caiiie ei?u. ?acee/ia eeoue eioaineaiinoue i?ioeanna: /ai e?oiiaa e aeoaaea inaaei/iue aannaei, oai aeeeoaeueiaa i?ioeann ia?ano?ieee aai aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiu.A iai?aaeaiiii ?acaeoee aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiu iaooaaaciiiniiai aannaeia auaeaeytho o?e yoaia.Ia?aue yoai — ca?iaeaeaiea aeae?iaaieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u. Ia?iiiia aaioeie/aneia ?aciiia?acea aeoaeiiuo iiaecaiiuo aiae a inaaei/iuo ii?iaeao caeeaaeuaaaony a aannaeia inaaeeiiaeiieaiey ia noaaeee naaeeiaioiaaiaca, a eo aeaeueiaeoee iaeee ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie eeoiaaiaca ii?iae. Oae, aiaeu, caoi?iiyaiua aianoa n inaaeeaie a i?aniiaiaeiuo aannaeiao, eae i?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ecothony iaaunieie ieia?aeecaoeeae. Iaiai?io, aeey niea?iaeiuo aannaeiia oa?aeoa?iu aunieiieia?aeeciaaiiua ?anoai?u. Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo iniaaiiinoyie aaioeie/aneiai iaeeea aeoaeiiuo iiaecaiiuo aiae e ii?iae a i?ioeanna eeoiaaiaca i?ineaaeeaaaony ai anao eeoiaaiaoe/aneeo ciiao. Iiyoiio i?iaeoeoii eeoiaaiaca yaeythony ia oieueei iaooue e aac, ii e aeoaeiiua iiaecaiiua aiaeu. Ia noaaeee naaeeiaioiaaiaca aua a aeiiiuo eeao ia/eiaaony i?aia?aciaaiea naaeeiaioaoeeiiiuo aiae, eeia, IA e yiea?aoeey i?iaeoeoia eo i?aia?aciaaiey.Aoi?ie yoai — aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac, iea?aoeey oetheaeia e oi?ie?iaaiea caeaaeae OA. Anee a aeiiiuo eeao niaea?aeaiea aiaeu aeinoeaaao 90%, oi a iaoaii?oe/aneeo neaioeao iii nieaeaaony aei 1%. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ioeannu eeoiaaiaca naycaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii n oaeaeaieai oetheaeiie oacu — aiaeu, iaooe e aaca. Iienoeia aeiieiaioie eeoiaaiaca yaeyaony aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aeeaeeie e oaa?aeie oac. A i?ioeanna yoie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oaa?aeay (ii?iaeu) e oetheaeiay (aiaea, iaooue, aac) oacu iinoiyiii eciaiythony, aicaeaenoaoy ae?oa ia ae?oaa.Aoi?ie yoai ?aniaaeaaony ia o?e iiaeyoaia. Ia ia?aii iiaeyoaia i?ienoiaeeo yiea?aoeey naaeeiaioaoeeiiiuo aiae (ia noaaeee aeeaaaiaca a eioa?aaea aeoaei aei 600—800 i inaaeie oa?yao aei 75% aiaeu) e aaia?aoeey aeiaaiiuo aacia — oi?ie?othony ianoi?iaeaeaiey aeiaaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo aacia. Aoi?ie iiaeyoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony «?iaeaeaieai» eeoiaaiiuo, i?aaiiaaiiuo, aic?iaeaeaiiuo aiae e aiae ioaeaoey, aaia?aoeeae aee?iuo aacia e iaooae, oi?ie?iaaieai i?aeiouanoaaiii iaooyiuo e aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Aoi?ie iiaeyoai i?eo?i/ai e aeoaeiai 1—6 ei e oaiia?aoo?iiio eioa?aaeo 85 — 125° N. A yoeo oneiaeyo iaaooathuea aeeienoua ieia?aeu i?aa?auathony a iaiaaooathuea, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony aunaiaiaeaeaieai aiaeu a iauaia 14—15% io iauaai iauaia ii?iaeu. Ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aeoaeiiuo iiaecaiiuo aiae e e eiaa?nee a aeae?ioeie/aneii ?ac?aca iiaecaiiie aeae?inoa?u. Ia o?aoueai iiaeyoaia oi?ie?othony i?aeiouanoaaiii eeoiaaiiua e aic?iaeaeaiiua aiaeu, ii iauai aiiaue ia?aciaaaoeony aiae iacia/eoaeai. Ec OA aaia?e?oaony i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoai, e oi?ie?othony iaoaiiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey ieaeiae aaciaie ciiu.?anniio?aiiua iiaeyoaiu aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac naycaiu ni noaaeeyie eeoiaaiaca: ia?aue iiaeyoai i?eoiaeeony ia noaaeee aeeaaaiaca, ?aiiaai e n?aaeiaai i?ioieaoaaaiaca, aoi?ie — ia noaaeee iicaeiaai i?ioieaoaaaiaca e iacieaoaaaiaca, o?aoee — ia noaaeee iicaeiaai iacieaoaaaiaca e aiieaoaaaiaca.O?aoee yoai — eioeeueo?aoeeiiiia ?acaeoea aeae?iaaieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u, ia?aoi?ie?iaaiea e ?ac?ooaiea caeaaeae OA.AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEA ENNEAAeIAAIEss A IAOOAAACIIIENEIAUO OeAEssOIAOIAeU AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEIAI II?IAIAAIEssI?e iiaeaioiaea aeey aeae?iaaieiae/aneiai ii?iaiaaiey neaaaeeia iniiaiie iauaeo enneaaeiaaiee iiaecaiiuo aiae iaooaaaciiiniuo ?aeiiia — aeieaeia auoue ianaaeaia eieiiiie, eioa?aaeu, iiaeeaaeauea ii?iaiaaieth, ia?oi?e?iaaiu. Caoai nieaeaieai a eieiiia o?iaiy aeeaeeinoe, caiieiythuae na ia?aae ia?oi?aoeeae aei onouey, aucuaatho i?eoie ieanoiauo oetheaeia. Neaaaeeia n/eoaaony iiaeaioiaeaiiie e enneaaeiaaieyi, anee oaoie/aneea aiaeu i?ecaaieiie ciiu e eieiiiu caiaiaiu ieanoiauie. Aeey iauaeoeaiie ioeaiee aiaeeca oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aaio ii iiaeaioiaea neaaaeeiu e enneaaeiaaieyi, oeacaoue iauai ioea/aiiie aeeaeeinoe, eciaiaiea ieioiinoe, i?aaenoaaeoue naaaeaiey i ainnoaiiaeaiee o?iaiy aiaeu, oeacaoue ia?eiae iaoiaeaeaiey neaaaeeiu a iieia iinea inaiaiey.O?iaaiue aiaeu a neaaaeeiao caia?ytho io iiaa?oiinoe caiee, ieineinoe ?ioi?a eee aa?oa oeaioea eiiaeoeoi?a. I?e aunieeo aaciauo oaeoi?ao iaiaoiaeeii i?eaanoe aeaiiua ii aaciianuuaiiinoe aiae a nayce n aiciiaeiui auaeaeaieai naiaiaeiie aaciaie oacu a aeaea iocu?ueeia.Ieioiinoue ieanoiauo aiae aoiaeeo ai iiiaea oi?ioeu i?e aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo ?an/aoao. Iniaaiii aieueoia cia/aiea ieioiinoue eiaao i?e ?an/aoao i?eaaaeaiiiai aeaaeaiey e onoaiiaeaiee aeae?iaeeiaie/aneie ninoaaeythuae ia?aiaaea iaii?ia. A i?aeoeea aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo ?aaio ieioiinoue aiaeu onoaiaaeeaatho a iieaauo oneiaeyo a?aiiao?aie, a aieaa oi/ii a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo — ieeiiiao?aie. Aanueia aaaeii oeacaoue oaiia?aoo?o aiaeu, i?e eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyeanue ieioiinoue. I?eaeeaeaiii ieioiinoue iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii ieia?aeecaoeee iiaeu.Ioai? aeoaeiiuo i?ia aiaeu caieiaao aaaeiia ianoi i?e aeae?iaaieiae/aneii ii?iaiaaiee. Eco/aiea aaciianuuaiiinoe iiaecaiiuo aiae a ieanoiauo oneiaeyo aiciiaeii eeoue iin?aaenoaii ioai?a i?ia niaoeeaeueiuie aeoaeiiuie i?iaiioai?ieeai. Iineaaeiea aa?iaoe/ii cae?uaathony ia ioaeiie aeoaeia a iiiaio ioai?a i?ia, o.a. i?e aeaaeaiee, aeeceii e ieanoiaiio. Ia aeiaaiie iiaa?oiinoe aac auaeaeyaony a naiaiaeioth oaco e ia?aaiaeeony a niaoeeaeueiua aieinoe. Aeey aieaa aeoaieie aeaaacaoeee, iniaaiii i?e iaeie aaciianuuaiiinoe, i?iaiioai?iee iiaeia?aaatho. Iaeiaei yoio niinia iaeiyooaeoeaai i?e aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee a aiaea eeneuo aacia (na?iaiaei?iaea, oaeaeeneiou), iniiaiay /anoue eioi?uo inoaaony a ?anoai?aiiii ninoiyiee a aiaea aeoaeiiie i?iau. Yoe iaaeinoaoee iau/iiai iaoiaea ioai?a aeoaeiiuo i?ia ono?aiytho i?eiaiaieai ae?oaeo iaoiaeee e niaoeeaeueiuo i?eai?ia. A eaia?ao iineaaeieo ii?aaeaeyaiue eeneue eiiiiiaio ieanoiauo aiae oeie/anee naycuaaaony ianuuaiiuie ?anoai?aie oaeaeeneiai eaaeiey (aeey na?iaiaei?iaea) e aeae?ieneaeii aa?ey (aeey oaeaeeneiai aaca).Ia?yaeo n iaoiaeii ioai?a aeoaeiiuo i?ia, iau/ii i?eiaiyaiuo i?e aunieie aaciianuuaiiinoe ieanoiauo aiae, nouanoaotho e ae?oaea iaoiaeu ecaea/aiey ?anoai?aiiuo aacia ec neaaiaaciianuuaiiuo aiae. A yoeo neo/ayo i?eiaiytho oa?iiaeaaacaoi?u ?acee/iie eiino?oeoeee.Ioai? i?ia ia oeie/aneee aiaeec iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii i?iecaiaeeoue aeoaeiiuie i?iaiioai?ieeaie eeai n onouey neaaaeeiu a oneiaeyo eioaineaiiai naiieceeaa.Ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u a neaaaeeiao /aua anaai i?iaiaeyo ?oooiuie iaeneiaeueiuie oa?iiiao?aie, auaea?aeeaaaiuie 30 iei. ?aaea i?eiaiytho yeaeo?e/aneea oa?iiiao?u. Iaeiaei aeiaieueii /anoi aaniethoiua aaee/eiu oaiia?aoo?, caia?aiiua yeaeo?e/aneeie oa?iiiao?aie a aieueoii aeeaiaciia aeoaei (2—5 ei), caiaoii ?anoiaeyony n ?acoeueoaoaie caia?ia ?oooiuie iaeneiaeueiuie oa?iiiao?aie: ?anoiaeaeaiey a eioa?aaea oeacaiiuo aeoaei aeinoeaatho 10—20° N. Aaioa?ie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a neaaaeeiao i?aaeoniao?eaatho aeinoeaeaiea a ieo oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo eieiiiie, caiieiaiiie aiaeie eee aeeienoui ?anoai?ii, e ii?iaeaie caeieiiiiai i?ino?ainoaa. Oaeia ?aaiiaanea onoaiaaeeaaaony ca 10—20 aeiae.Ayceinoue ieanoiauo aiae ii?aaeaeytho a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo. Aeey eoiai iaiaoiaeeii ioia?aoue niaoeeaeueiua aeoaeiiua i?iau ieanoiauo aiae n oeacaieai eo oaiia?aoo?u, ieia?aeecaoeee, ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey, niaea?aeaiey a ieo ?anoai?aiiuo aacia e eo ninoaaa.IAOIAeU IA?AAIOEE IAOA?EAEIA AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEO ENNEAAeIAAIEEIa?aaioea oaeoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ii caia?ai o?iaie aiaeu a neaaaeeia (eee iaii?a a neo/aa ia?aeeaathueo neaaaeei) i?aaeoniao?eaaao iino?iaiea a?aoeea caaeneiinoe ia?anoaiey o?iaiy io a?aiaie. E?eaay ainnoaiiaeaiee o?iaiy iiaeao eiaoue e?ooie /aoeee ia?aaea, iinea /aai iia noaiiaeony ia?aeeaeueiie ine a?aiaie, eee iaaeeaiii auiieaaeeaaaony.. I?e auno?ii ainnoaiiaeai ie noaoe/aneiai o?iaiy aeinoaoi/ii naeaeaoue iaaieueoia /enei caia?ia, /oiau oaaaeeoueny a noaoe/aneii aai iieiaeaiee. I?e iaaeeaiiii onoaiiaeaiee o?iaiy a?aiy iaaethaeaiey oaaee/eaaaony. Aeaiiua ia aaniethoiuo ioiaoeao noaoe/aneeo o?iaiae iiaecaiiuo iiae eco/aaiiai ?aeiia yaeythony iniiaie aeey iino?iaiey noai eciiueac.Ia?aaioeo oaeoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ii aaciianuuaiiinoe ieanoiauo aiae i?iaiaeyo ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo n iiiiuueth i?iaiioai?ieeia aeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiey. Iieuecoynue niioaaonoaothueie oi?ioeaie, eiyooeoeeaioaie e iiiia?aiiaie e ae?oaeo aaoi?ia, iaiaoiaeeii ia?an/eoaoue iauai aaca ia nooia ninoiyiea, ii?iaeueiua oneiaey e ia 1 e ieanoiaie iiaeu. Eeoue iinea yoiai iiaeii iia?e?iaaoue yoeie aeaiiuie aeey niiinoaaeaiey aaciianuuaiiinoe ?acee/iuo i?ia aiaeu ae?oa n ae?oaii e aeey ?an/aoia oi?oainoe ?anoai?aiiuo aacia.Iaeaieaa i?inoie niinia ii?aaeaeaiey oi?oainoe, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai i?e ieceii aeaaeaiee ianuuaiey (aei 5 IIa), iniiaai ia caeiia Aai?e: picscalex1000100090000030501000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500 0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000 0000050000000c02600260051200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff a6ffffff20050000060200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000070001c00 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a80016004 01000000707908000000320a8001dc02010000006b7908000000320a8001160001000000 56791c000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001 000008000000320ae001ab030100000070791c000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c0077400000000d0a0a641643c8771f43c87720c0ca770000 3000040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8001a001010000003d790a00 000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc020000 00cc0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a010000000001000000fcf312002942 c877040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000, aaea V — iauai aaca e 1 e ieanoiaie aieu, i?eaaaeaiiue e oaiia?aoo?a- 40 N e aoiinoa?iiio aeaaeaieth; kp — eiyooeoeeaio ?anoai?eiinoe aaca e aiaea i?e ieanoiauo oneiaeyo; ? — oi?oainoue ?anoai?aiiiai aaca. I?e neiaeiii ninoaaa ?anoai?aiiuo aacia ii?aaeaeytho ia?oeeaeueioth oi?oainoue eaaeaeiai ec aacia, a iauoth oi?oainoue iaoiaeyo eae noiio ia?oeeaeueiuo oi?oainoae.Anee aeaaeaiea ianuuaiey auoa i?aaeaea i?eiaieiinoe caeiia Aai?e, oi?oainoue aaca ii?aaeaeytho (n o/aoii oaiia?aoo?u e ieia?aeecaoeee) ia iniiaa a?aoeea. I?e neiaeiii ninoaaa ?anoai?aiiuo aacia neaaeoao iieueciaaoueny ?an/aoaie oi?oainoe, iniiaaiiuie ia oaciaii ?aaiiaanee neiaeiuo nenoai. Aaaeiue yeaiaio nenoaiaoecaoeee aeaiiuo ii aaciianuuaiiinoe iiaecaiiuo aiae — ninoaaeaiea ?acee/iuo a?aoeeia e ea?o. I?e aieueoii eiee/anoaa aeaiiuo ninoaa aacia iaiinyo ia a?aoee-o?aoaieueiee. Aeey auyaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai aeae?iaaieiae/aneiai eiiieaena no?iyo a?aoeee-i?ioeee ninoaaa aacia eee ea?ou ninoaaa ?anoai?aiiuo aacia. Aaaeiui ia?aiao?ii ieanoiauo aiae yaeyaony aeaaeaiea ianuuaiey (oi?oainoe) aacia. Aeaiiua ii oi?oainoe aacia iaiauathony ia a?aoeeao, iaaeyaeii iieacuaathueo niioiioaiea aeaaeaiey ianuuaiey e aeae?inoaoe/aneiai (ieanoiaiai) aeaaeaiey. Oae aea no?iyony ea?ou oi?oainoe aacia eee ea?ou eiyooeoeeaioa ianuuaiiinoe picscalex1000100090000032901000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500 0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000 0000050000000c024002a0041200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff a6ffffff60040000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000060001c00 0000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320ae001f403 01000000e27908000000320ae001480101000000e3791c000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0 ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80011d0301000000 f0791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f001 010008000000320a80016a000100000070791c000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca770000 3000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80013002010000002f790a00 000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc020000 00cc0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a010000000000000000fcf312002942 c877040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000 (?a — aeaaeaiea ianuuaiey aaca, ?a — aeae?inoaoe/aneia aeaaeaiea).Nenoaiaoecaoeey e ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia eco/aiey oeie/aneiai ninoaaa iiaecaiiuo aiae eiaao oeaeueth onoaiiaeoue acaeiinaycue oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aiaeu n eeoieiai-oaoeeaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie aiaeiaiauathueo ii?iae, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeie oneiaeyie ?aaeiia e caeaaeaie OA. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua niiniau nenoaiaoecaoeee e ia?aaioee oeie/aneeo aiaeecia aiaeu yoi iino?iaiea aeae?ioeie/aneeo a?aoeeia e ninoaaeaiea aeae?ioeie/aneeo i?ioeeae e ea?o. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho ea?ou eciaiaiey iauae ieia?aeecaoeee, a oaeaea niaea?aeaiey ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia, oaeeo, eae oei?, a?ii, eiae, noeueoao-eii e ae?.Ia i?aeoeea aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iaooaaaciiiniuo ?aeiiia nenoaiaoecaoeeth, aiaeec e ia?aaioeo ?acoeueoaoia aaioa?ie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee i?iecaiaeyo i?aaeaea anaai ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi:iino?iaiea a?aoeeia eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u n aeoaeiie ii enneaaeiaaiiui neaaaeeiai;ninoaaeaiea aaioa?ie/aneeo i?ioeeae, ia eioi?uo ioia?aaeaii ?ani?aaeaeaiea ecioa?i ia ?acee/iuo aeoaeiao;ninoaaeaiea ea?o eee noai ecioa?i iiaa?oiinoe ?acee/iuo ai?eciioia;ninoaaeaiea ea?o ecioa?i ii n?acai ia ?acee/iuo aeoaeiao;iino?iaiea iaiauaiiiai a?aoeea eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u n aeoaeiie aeey ?aeiia a oeaeii.?IEUe IIAeCAIIUO AIAe A OI?IE?IAAIEE E ?AC?OOAIEE CAEAAEAE IAOOE E AACAAaaeouay ?ieue iiaecaiiuo aiae a i?ioeannao iea?aoeee OA e oi?ie?iaaiey eo caeaaeae i?eciaaony aieueoeinoaii enneaaeiaaoaeae. Aua a ia?auo ?aaioao I. Iaiia (1913 a.), Aeae. ?y/a (1921, 1923 aa.) e ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae auee eceiaeaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ia?aciaaiee caeaaeae OA a ?acoeueoaoa auaeaeaiey aacia ec iiaecaiiuo aiae e anieuaaiey eaiaeae iaooe. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy eco/aieai aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae iaooe e aaca caieiaeenue iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee. Iaeaieaa iieii eco/aiu aii?inu iea?aoeee e aeae?iaaieiae/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae aaca.ONEIAEss IEA?AOeEE IAOOE E AACA A AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEO NO?OEOO?AOEco/aieai aii?inia iea?aoeee oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia e iaooe caieiaeenue iiiaea niaaoneea e ca?oaaaeiua enneaaeiaaoaee. Ecaanoiu ?acee/iua eeanneoeeaoeee i?ioeannia iea?aoeee iaooe e aaca. Auaeaeytho iea?aoeeth aa?oeeaeueioth e eaoa?aeueioth, eee ieanoiaith, ia?ae/ioth e aoi?e/ioth. Iiae ia?ae/iie iea?aoeeae iiieiatho ia?aiauaiea iaooe e aaca ec iaooaaaciiaoa?eineeo (i?aeiouanoaaiii ec neaaii?iieoeaaiuo, oiieiaeenia?niuo ii?iae a i?eeaaathuea eieeaeoi?u, a iiae aoi?e/iie — ia?aiauaiea iaooe e aaca ii eieeaeoi?neei ieanoai n iineaaeothuei ia?aciaaieai eo caeaaeae.I?iaeaia ia?ae/iie iea?aoeee (yiea?aoeee] OA ec iaooaaaciiaoa?eineeo. i?aeiouanoaaiii aeeienouo oieu, yaeyaony iaeaieaa neiaeiie a iauae i?iaeaia aaiacena OA e oi?ie?iaaiey neiieaiee. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee iea?aoeeth OA naycuaatho n iiaecaiiuie aiaeaie. ?aaeueiinoue aiaeiie oi?iu iea?aoeee OA noaiiaeony iniaaiii yniie anee o/anoue, /oi iaooue, aac e aeoaeiiua iiaecaiiua aiaeu — iaecaaaeiua i?iaeoeou eeoiaaiaca, iauaai i?ioeanna, i?e eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie (oetheaeiie) oac.Caeanue aaaeii eiaoue a aeaeo aeaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa: ia?aia ia eaaeaeie noaaeee eeoiaaiaca aaia?e?oaony ii?aaeaeaiiay annioeeaoeey OA e oi?ie?othony (?iaeaeathony) ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia iiaecaiiua aiaeu; aoi?ia a i?ioeanna eeoiaaiaca yiea?aoeey iaooe, aaca e aiaeu i?ioaeaao neio?iiii, ia /oi oeacuaaao iaeiioeiiinoue eciaiaiey ii?enoinoe aeei e ian/aii-aeaa?eoiauo ii?iae e niaea?aeaiey a ieo aeooiieaeia n aeoaeiie.I?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui auaeaeeoue o?e e?oiiuo yoaia aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac.Ia?aue yoai i?eo?i/ai e noaaeee aeeaaaiaca e ?aiiaai i?ioieaoaaaiaca e eioa?aaeo aeoaei aei 1200 1500 i. Ia yoii yoaia aaia?e?othony aeioeie/aneea aacu, a ec inaaeeia oaeaeythony aiaeu, oianeaaeiaaiiua io aannaeia naaeeiaioaoeee, n aeoaeiie aic?anoaao ?ieue oece/anee e oeie/anee naycaiiuo aiae. Niaianoii n ioaeeiaaiuie aiaeaie a aiaei?anoai??iiii ninoiyiee yiea?e?otho cia/eoaeueiua iauaiu oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia Iaeiaei aeaaiaea?y iaeie aaciaieinoe aiae e eioaineaiie aaia?aoeee aacia aiciiaeia eo naiaiaeiay iea?aoeey.Aoi?ie yoai i?eoiaeeony ia eioa?aae iicaeiaai i?ioieaoaaaiaya e iacieaoaaaiaca, eiaaea aaia?e?othony aee?iua aacu e iaooe e oaeaeythony oece/anee e oeie/anee naycaiiua aiaeu. Iiauoaiiay e aunieay oaiia?aoo?a, aieueoia aioo?eii?iaia aeaaeaiea E iniaua naienoaa yoeo aiae niinianoaotho auiino aieueoeo iann aeeaeeeo OA, aee?iuo e nooeo aacia a aeaea aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia. E?iia enoeiiuo ?anoai?ia aaaeioth ?ieue a yiea?aoeee OA ia yoii yoaia ea?atho aacieiiaeainaoiua ?anoai?u, yioeuenee iaooe a aiaea.O?aoee yoai aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac i?eoiaeeony ia noaaeee iicaeiaai iayieaoaaaiaca e aii-eaoaaaiaca, eiaaea eaeao aaia?aoeey nooiai iaoaiiaiai aaca, a ec ii?iae oaeaeythony oeie/aneea naycaiiua aiaeu; a ninoaaa aacia n aeoaeiie aic?anoaao aeiey oaeaeeneiou. Iaee/ea i?aniuo eeoiaaiiuo aiae, aunieeo oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeaiey niinianoaoao auiino OA a aeaea enoeiiuo aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia Iaeiaei iauai eeoiaaiiuo aiae iacia/eoaeai, e ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue aaca yiea?e?oao a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee.Iea?aoeee OA a aiaei?anoai?aiiii ninoiyiee. Aiciiaeiinoue aiaeiie yiea?aoeee oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia ii?aaeaeyaony eo oi?ioae ?anoai?eiinoueth. Yenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaeai oe?ieee aeeaiacii eciaiaiey ?anoai?eiinoe i?e?iaeiuo aacia a caaeneiinoe io ieia?aeecaoeee, oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeaiey. Oae, ?anoai?eiinoue iaoaia e aeenoeeee?iaaiiie iiaea eciaiyaony io 0,05 i3/i3 i?e aeaaeaiee 1 IIa e ioeaaie oaiia?aoo?a aei 50,3 i3/i3 i?e aeaaeaiee 188,8 IIa e 280° N e aei 135.2 i3/i3 i?e 354° N e oii aea aeaaeaiee. Ieia?aeecaoeey cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao ?anoai?eiinoue oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia: i?e 250°N, aeaaeaiee 107,8 IIa e ieia?aeecaoeee 280 a/e ?anoai?eiinoue iaoaia nieaeaaony aei 6.5 i3/i3.Oaeoe/aneay aaciianuuaiiinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia eciaiyaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Oi?ioi eco/aia aaciianuuaiiinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae aei aeoaei 3 — 4 ei, aaea iia iau/ii ninoaaeyao 1—5 i3/i3 ?aaea aieaa. N aeoaeiie aic?anoatho oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaaee/eaaaony aayiaieinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae. Ieia?aeecaoeey nieaeaao ?anoai?eiinoue aacia, iaeiaei n aeoaei 3 — 4 ei e iaiaa iiyaeythony iaeiieia?aeeciaaiiua uaei/iua aiaeu, /oi ?acei neacuaaaony ia aaciaieinoe aiae. Iniaaiii aunieie aaciianuuaiiinoueth oa?aeoa?ecothony iiaecaiiua aiaeu cii AAIAe n ieceie ieia?aeecaoeeae. Aeaeii, /oi n ?inoii aeaaeaiey ?anoai?eiinoue oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao noaiiaeony oieeaeueiie.Aeaiiua i aunieie aaciianuuaiiinoe aiae aeoaieeo cii iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia iieo/aiu e ca?oaaaeiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie. Oae, aaciianuuaiiinoue aiae a nea. 1 ieiuaaee Yaeia-Aeaeeaa?, i?iao?aiiie ia iiaa?aaeuea Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa (NOA), ia aeoaeia 3800 i ninoaaeea 9,3 i3/i3. I?e enneaaeiaaiee aeoaeiiie i?iau aiaeu ec iaooaiiniiai ai?eciioa ia iiaa?aaeuea Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa onoaiiaeaia aaciianuuaiiinoue iiae a 27 i3/i3. Iaeiiaoe, ec neaaaeeiu, i?iao?aiiie ia aeoaeio 6000 i aeec Aaoii-?oaea a Eoeceaia (NOA), iieo/ai i?eoie aiaeu n aaciianuuaieinoueth 92,8 i3/i3.Cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea ?anoai?eiinoe OA a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao n ?inoii aeaaeaiee aanueia aaaeii aeey iauyniaiey i?ioeannia yiea?aoeee OA, oae eae aeaaiui aaaioii ia?ae/iie iea?aoeee yaeythony ii?iaua ?anoai?u iaoa?eineeo ii?iae. Ii ii?iaua ?anoai?u eniuouaatho ia aeae?inoaoe/aneia, a ai?iia aeaaeaiea. Aeaaiaea?e aunieiio ii?iaiio aeaaeaieth aaciaieinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae noaiiaeony cia/eoaeueiie oaea ia iaeuo aeoaeiao e nouanoaaiii aic?anoaao a ciia iacieaoaaaiaca. Iiauoaieth aioo?eii?iaiai aeaaeaiey niinianoaotho i?ioeannu eeoiaaiaca, aaia?aoeey aeeaeeeo e aaciia?aciuo OA, aieaa auno?ue ?ino ai?iiai aeaaeaiey ii n?aaiaieth n iooieii ii?iauo aiae Aunieia ii?iaia aeaaeaiea i?eaiaeeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iiaeiuaieth ii?iauie eiaeaie ia?iiiuo iauaiia OA, e n ae?oaie - e iee?i?ac?uaai ai?iuo ii?iae, e ia?aciaaieth nenoaiu iee?i- e iae?io?auei, ii eioi?ui oetheae (iaooue, aac, aiaea) no?oeii iea?e?oao a eieeaeoi?.Ia?yaeo n aunieei ii?iaui aeaaeaieai nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia auiin OA ec iaoa?eineeo oieu ieacuaatho oeie/anee e oece/anee naycaiiua aiaeu, ia?aoiaeyuea a naiaiaeioth oaco a i?ioeanna eeoiaaiaca. Naycaiiay aiaea i?e auoiaea ec iiey aicaeaenoaey iiaa?oiinoiuo nee oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiauoaiiuie aa?anneaiinoueth e ?anoai?ythuae niiniaiinoueth. No?oeoo?a ioaeeiaaiie aiaeu, ioee/aynue io oie, eioi?ay auea ae naienoaaiia a naycaiiii ninoiyiee, a oi aea a?aiy ioee/aaony io no?oeoo?u naiaiaeiie aiaeu. A oaeii ninoiyiee ioaeeiaaiay aiaea iaoiaeeony i?e oeeueo?aoeee ii eaieeey?iie (noaeaieeey?iie) nenoaia oieioiythueony aeeienouo ii?iae. Aeey ioeaiee ?iee niecaiiie aiaeu a yiea?aoeee OA ?anniio?aia ?anoai?ythuay niiniaiinoue aiaeu a nayce n eciaiaieai aa iiey?iinoe. Eae ecaanoii, a iaeanoe ieceie oaiia?aoo?u (10 — 400N) aiaea yaeyaony iiioey?iui ?anoai?eoaeai n i/aiue aunieie aeeyeaeo?e/aneie iinoiyiiie. A iaeanoe aunieeo oaiia?aoo? iiey?iinoue aiaeu iaaaeeea. Oae, i?e oaiia?aoo?a 280 —300° N aeeyeaeo?e/aneay iinoiyiiay aiaeu <20.Nieaeaiea iiey?iinoe aiaeu n ?inoii oaiia?aoo?u niinianoaoao ?anoai?eiinoe iaiiey?iuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. Iiaa?oiinoiua neeu ieia?aeueiuo /anoeoe, eae e oaiia?aoo?a, ii aua aieaa eioaineaii nieaeatho iiey?iinoue naycaiiie aiaeu, oai naiui nouanoaaiii iiauoatho ?anoai?eiinoue OA. Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iaua aiaeu niiniaiu ?anoai?youe ia?iiiua iauaiu aeeaeeeo e aaciia?aciuo OA e oai naiui iaania/eaaoue eo auiin ec iaoa?eineeo ii?iae. Oae eae i?ioeannu aaia?aoeee e yiea?aoeee OA ia?ac?uaiu, aeey aeeaeeeo eiiiiiaioia aaaeii niaiaaeaiea ciiu eioaineaiiai iaooaia?aciaaiey n ciiie auoiaea a naiaiaeioth oaco aieueoeo iauaiia oeie/anee e oece/anee naycaiiuo aiae.?anoai?eiinoue OA a aiaea n ?inoii ieia?aeecaoeee nieaeaaony ii/oe ia ii?yaeie. Ii naycaiiua aiaeu iaei ieia?aeeciaaiiua, e ieia?aeecaoeey eo oai iaiueoa, /ai i?i/iaa naycue aiaea — ii?iaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a i?ioeanna eeoiaaiaca i?ia?anneaii nieaeaaony ieia?aeecaoeey ii?iauo aiae e aic?anoaao eo niiniaiinoue ?anoe?youe OA.N ?inoii oaiia?aoo?u iiauoaaony ?anoai?eiinoue OA. Ii ?ieue oaiia?aoo?u i?iyaeyaony ia oieueei a iiauoaiee ?anoai?eiinoe OA, ii e a nieaeaiee aaeni?aoeeiiiie aieinoe ii?iae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e 374° N acaeiiay ?anoai?eiinoue OA e aiaeu noaiiaeony iaia?aie/aiiie: ia?acoaony iaeii?iaeiue aiaeiaaciiaooyiie ?anoai? — oetheaeu iaoiaeeony a iaaee?eoe/aneii eee aeeceii e iaio ninoiyiee. Nouanoaaiiia iiauoaiea ?anoai?eiinoe OA n ?inoii aeaaeaiey e i?e nieaeaiee iiey?iinoe aiaeu aeaeaao ?aaeueiui aeiiouaiea, /oi ninoiyiea acaeiiie ?anoai?eiinoe a nenoaia ii?iaay aiaea OA ianooiaao i?e aieaa ieceie oaiia?aoo?a e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo aeoaeiao. Ana yoi iicaieyao i/aiue auniei ioeaieaaoue ?ieue aiaeiie yiea?aoeee aeeaeeeo e aaciia?aciuo OA a oe?ieii eioa?aaea aeoaei.Iea?aoeey iaooe a aeeaeeiaeenia?niii ninoiyiee. I?iaeaia iea?aoeee iaooe a aeeaeeiaeenia?niii ninoiyiee aeaaii i?eaeaeaea aieiaiea enneaaeiaaoaeae. ?anoai?eiinoue OA aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai eiioeaio?aoeee nieae i?aaie/aneeo eeneio.Iea?aoeey iaooe a aeaea aaciauo ?anoai?ia. Niiniaiinoue naeaouo aacia ?anoai?youe aeeaeeea e oaa?aeua aauanoaa onoaiiaeaia aua e i?ioeii noieaoee. Aia?aua eaeath i aiciiaeiinoe iea?aoeee iaooe e iaeiioaciii aaciaii ninoiyiee a oneiaeyo aunieeo oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeaiey auneacae Aeae. ?e/ (1927 a.). Aieueoia cia/aiea yoeo yaeaiee aeey iea?aoeee iaooe auei iieacaii A. A. Nieieiaui (1948 a.).?anoai?eiinoue iaooe a ?acee/iuo aacao nouanoaaiii ?acee/aaony. ?anoai?eiinoue iaooe a oaeaeeneii aaca cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai a iaoaia. A ?aaeueiuo aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo aiciiaeiinoue yaaeoaoeee aeeaeeeo OA ec iaooaiaoa?eineeo ii?iae naeaouie aacaie enneaaeiaaoaeyie ioeaieaaaony iaiaeiicia/ii. Iaeioi?ua aaieiae ?ieue naeaouo aacia a yiea?aoeee iaooe n/eoatho iacia/eoaeueiie. Iniiaiua aic?aaeaiey naiaeyony e oiio, /oi aeey auiina iaooe aaia?e?oaiuo eiee/anoa aaca iaaeinoaoi/ii e /oi i?e?iaeiua aacu i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoaiiaua, o.a. ia ia?aaiaeyo a aaciaoth oaco aunieieeiyuea eiiiiiaiou iaooe i?e nouanoaothueo ieanoiauo oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiee.A nayce n yoei neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue ianooaaiinoue aaciaaia?aoeee. Aunieay iaiaauaiiinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia oaeaaiaei?iaeiuie aacaie iicaieyao ioeaieaaoue ?ieue aaciauo ?anoai?ia a ea/anoaa aeaaiiai iaoaiecia yiea?aoeee iaooe. I?e yoii neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao ?anoai?aii iaiaa 10% aaca, aaia?e?oaiiai inaaei/iuie oieuaie aannaeia. I?ioeanno iaooaia?aciaaiey niioonoaoao aaia?aoeey aee?iuo aacia. Niaea?aeaiea aiiieiaia iaoaia a aeooieiiciuo ii?iaeao, aeinoeaaao 73% i?e aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee oaeaeeneiou. Ana yoi iicaieyao auniei ioeaieaaoue ?ieue aaciauo ?anoai?ia a yiea?aoeee iaooe.Aeey iiieiaiey iniaaiiinoae aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac oaeaea neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aiciiaeiinoue ?anoai?aiey aiaeu a aaca. Aeaiiua iieacuaatho, /oi a iaae?ao aeoaieeo aeai?annee ii?iaua aiaeu yiea?e?otho ec aeei a aaciia?aciii ninoiyiee. Aieaa oiai, ?aaeueii aeiionoeoue, /oi e a eieeaeoi?a aeoaieeo aeai?annee iaoiaeeony aaciaay oaca n ?anoai?aiiie aiaeie.I?e yiea?aoeee oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao aeeooocey, oae eae iia i?ioaeaao iinoiyiii i?e iaee/ee ia?aiaaea aeaaeaiey eee eiioeaio?aoeee. A ia?aiaaeu aeaaeaiey (eiioeaio?aoeee) aaca iaaeaeo iaoa?eineie oieuae e niaaeiui eieeaeoi?ii iiaoo aeinoeaaoue aieueoeo aaee/ei. Iaaeaeo oai aeaeueiinoue aeeooocee a nenoaia iaoa?eineay ii?iaea eieeaeoi? iaaaeeea. Auiieiaiiua ?an/aou iieacaee, /oi iniiaiay ianna aaciia?aciuo OA (65—70%) eo aeeienouo oieu yiea?e?oao iooai aeeooocee. Iaoaieci yoio iicaieyao iiiyoue i?e/eio nouanoaaiiiai ioee/ey aacia, ni?ae?iaaiiuo IA, io aacia iiaecaiiuo aiae.I?e o/aoa anao oi?i iea?aoeee OA yaaeoaoeey iaooe e aaca ec iaoa?eineeo oieu a eieeaeoi? i?aaenoaaeyaony a neaaeothuai aeaea. A iaoa?eineie oieua i?ienoiaeeo ?ino aioo?eii?iaiai aeaaeaiey a nayce n eeoiaaiacii — aaia?aoeeae iaooe, aaca, aunaiaiaeaeaieai oeie/anee e oece/anee naycaiiie aiaeu, ?inoii ai?iiai aeaaeaiey. ?ino aioo?eii?iaiai aeaaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e aeae?i?ac?uao ii?iae. Aia/aea aicieeatho iaeeea aieinyiua o?aueiu, eioi?ua, neeaaynue, ia?acotho aieaa e?oiiua eaiaeu. Ii yoie nenoaia ii?, iee?i- e iae?io?auei i?ienoiaeeo iea?aoeey neiaeiuo oetheaeaeueiuo nenoai: enoeiiuo, eieeieaeiuo, aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia. Neaaeu yoie iea?aoeee iiaeii iaaethaeaoue a anoanoaaiiuo iaiaaeaieyo a aeaea iiiai/eneaiiuo o?auei ai?iuo ii?iae, caea/aiiuo iaeiieaie oa??eaaiiuo ii?iae, eaeueoeeoii e ae?oaeie ieia?aeaie.Yiea?aoeey oetheaeaeueiie nenoaiu i?ienoiaeeo nooiai/aoi. Aia/aea nenoaia ia?aiauaaony ii ii?ai, eaieeey?ai e iee?io?aueiai iaoa?eineeo ii?iae. Iniiaiie oetheaeiiineoaeue — naeaoue aac e aiaea ni no?oeoo?ie, ioee/athuaeny io no?oeoo?u eae naycaiiie, oae e naiaiaeiie, a?aaeoaoeeiiiie aiaeu. Yoi — iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiay aiaea n aunieie ?anoai?ythuae niiniaiinoueth, naycaiiie n ieceie iiey?iinoueth e aieueoei aioo?eii?iaui e aioo?eeaieeey?iui aeaaeaieai. Aoi?ay nooiaiue — iea?aoeey ii ioe?uoui o?aueiai. I?e yoii aeaaeaiea a nenoaia nea/eiia?acii iaaeaao io aioo?eii?iaiai e aeaaeaieth a o?aueia, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?ooaieai oeceei-oeie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a nenoaia. O?aouey nooiaiue — iea?aoeey ii eie eaeoi?neei ieanoai. Aeaaeaiea a nenoaia nieaeaaony io aeaaeaiey a o?aueia aei aeae?inoaoe/aneiai. I?ienoiaeeo aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oac ia iaooue, oaeaaiaei?iaeiua aacu e ieanoiaoth aiaeo.?anniao?eaay iea?aoeeth OA ii eieeaeoi?ai, neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue i?aiaeaaeaiea aeaoo oi?i iea?aoeee: aiaei?anoai?aiiie (ianneaiay iea?aoeey) e no?oeiie (aeoeaiay iea?aoeey).Cia/aiea iea?aoeee aiaei?anoai?aiiuo OA, iniaaiii aacia, i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony aacaeanouiinoueth aiae e eo aunieie ?anoai?ythuae niiniaiinoueth. Aeey iaooyiuo OA aiaei?anoai?aeiay iea?aoeey a ieanoao-eieeaeoi?ao, aa?iyoii, iaiaa cia/eoaeueia, oae eae aiaeiua ?anoai?u OA a eieeaeoi?neeo ieanoao iaoiaeyony a eiuo oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo e oeceei-oeie/aneeo oneiaeyo. Oae, OA, ?anoai?aiiua a iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aiaea, e eieeaeoi?a auaeaeythony a naiaiaeioth oaco a nayce n iioa?ae aiaeie aiiiaeueiuo naienoa e nieaeaieai aeaaeaiey io aainoaoe/aneiai aei aeae?inoaoe/aneiai. Iineaaeiaa ni?aaaaeeeai e aeey iaiiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aiaeu.AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEA ONEIAEss OI?IE?IAAIEss IAOOssIUO E AACIAUO CAEAAEAEAeae?iaaieiae/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae OE a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeythony oneiaeyie ia?ae/iie iea?aoeee.N o/aoii iniaaiiinoae yiea?aoeee OA iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeia ianoaiiaee: 1) oi?ie?iaaiea caeaaeae i?ienoiaeeo iooai iiaeeecaoeee OA ieanoiauo aiae aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai; 2) a eieeaeoi? OA iinooiatho a aeaea naiinoiyoaeueiie oacu eeai oaeaaiaei?iaeiay oaca ia?acoaony a iiiaio aiaae?aiey iaeiioaciaiai ?anoai?a ec iaoa?eineie ii?iaeu a eieeaeoi?, o. a. oi?ie?iaaiea caeaaeae i?ienoiaeeo a i?ioeanna no?oeiie iea?aoeee.Oi?ie?iaaiea caeaaeae aaca, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?ienoiaeeo i?aeiouanoaaiii a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeeecaoeee aiaei?anoai?aiiiai aaca. A iiaecaiiie aeae?inoa?a ?anoai?aiu aeaaioneea eiee/anoaa i?e?iaeiuo aacia. Aac i?aoaaee/aiey iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iauai aiaei?anoai?aiiuo aacia aeae?inoa?u Caiee aeecie e iauaio aa aoiinoa?u. Aeiaaeueiua ?ano?nu i?e?iaeiuo aacia a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao inaaei/iie iaiei/ee ieaiaou ioeaieaathony a 1016—1017 i3. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi noiia?iia eiee/anoai aiaei?anoai?aiiuo aacia a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao eae aeey ioaeaeueiuo aannaeiia, oae e aeey ieaiaou a oeaeii ia 1—2 ii?yaeea aieueoa i?iaiiciuo caiania (ie?iaua i?iaiiciua caianu ai?th/eo aacia ia eiioeiaioao, a ciia oaeueoia e iaeeiaiaeiuo ii?ae ninoaaeytho 1015 i3, a ?acaaaeaiiua i?iiuoeaiiua caianu 1014 i3). Eia/a aiai?y, eiee/anoaa aiaei?anoai?aiiuo oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ethauo, a oii /enea e oieeaeueiuo ii caianai, ianoi?iaeaeaiee ai?th/eo aacia.A eieeaeoi?neea ieanou iniiaiay ianna oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia iinooiaao a ?acoeueoaoa aeeooocee ec niaaeiuo iaooaaaciaaia?e?othueo oieu, a aeaea ianuuaiiuo aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia, a ?acoeueoaoa i?i?uaa naiaiaeiiai aaca (no?oiiay iea?aoeey). Eaeea-oi iauaiu aaca aaia?e?othony a naieo eieeaeoi?neeo oieuao. Nei?inoue ianuuaiey ieanoiauo aiae oaeaaiaei?iaeiuie aacaie caaeneo io ?yaea i?e/ei: io iaiaauaiiinoe ii?iae IA, eioaineaiinoe i?ioeannia aaciaaia?aoeee, nio?aiiinoe aaca, ieia?aeecaoeee e oaiia?aoo?u iiaecaiiuo iiae, aeae?inoaoe/aneiai aeaaeaiey e o.ae. Ii aeinoeaeaiee i?aaeaea ianuuaiiinoe aiae aac ia/iao auaeaeyoueny a naiaiaeioth oaco. Oio aac, eioi?ue iinooiaao a eieeaeoi? a aeaea no?oi naiaiaeiiai aaca, a aeaeueiaeoai iea?e?oao ii eieeaeoi?o aei aeeaeaeoae eiaooee a oi?ia naiaiaeiuo no?oiiuo iioieia.Iaeiaei e i?e iinoiyiiii aaciaii oaeoi?a ieanoiaua aiaeu iiaoo ieacaoueny i?aaeaeueii ianuuaiiuie, e aac ia/iao auaeaeyoueny a naiaiaeioth oaco. Iaoaieci ianuuaiey iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeai: ainoiaeyuei aeaeaeaieai ieanoiauo aiae, iiaeuaiii oa??eoi?ee i?e yiae?iaaie/aneeo aeaeaeaieyo, aiaae?aieai ieanoiauo aiae a aeaaii?eyoioth oaiia?aoo?ioth ciio, nieaeaieai ?aaeiiaeueiiai aacena ?aca?ocee, ?inoii ieia?aeecaoeee aiae.Ec iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae aaca, i/aaeaeii, aaaeouei yaeyaony oaeoiie/aneee ?aaeei ?aaeiiia, ii?aaeaeythuee a eoiaa oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey iiaecaiiuo aiae. Oaeoiie/aneee ?aaeei nouanoaaiii aeeyao ia iioiaaiac iaooe e aaca. Oae, i?e io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiae?iaaie/aneeo aeaeaeaieyo a nayce n ?inoii oaiia?aoo?u a inaaei/iuo ii?iaeao oneeeaathony i?ioeannu aaia?aoeee OA. I?e iiaeuaia oa??eoi?ee OA ia/eiatho auaeaeyoueny a naiaiaeioth oaco e oi?ie?otho caeaaee. Yoe ciaeiia?aiaiiua aeaeaeaiey aeaenoaotho iiaeiaii ii?oith: i?e iioneaiee oa??eoi?ee (?ino aeaaeaiey e oaiia?aoo?u) oneeeaathony i?ioeannu aaia?aoeee OA, i?e iiaeuaia oa??eoi?ee OA «auoyaeaathony» a naiaiaeioth oaco. E /ai eioaineaiaa iaiyeenue /anoioa e aiieeooaea aeaeaeaiee, oai aeaeueoa caoee i?ioeannu iioiaaiaca iaooe e aaca. Oaea iaee/ea caeaaeae naiaiaeiiai aaca oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi yoe nenoaiu a oa/aiea naiaai aaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey iaiaeiie?aoii iaoiaeeeenue a ninoiyiee ia?aianuuaiey. Aianoa n oai neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia?aianuuaiiua aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu iu oeene?oai e?aeia ?aaeei. Iineaaeiaa iaoneiaeaii ia eo ionoonoaeai, a iaonoie/eainoueth oaeeo nenoai. Oi, /oi caeaaee naieie ei?iyie ooiaeyo e aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony caeiiii aaioeie/aneiai oiaeaeanoaa i?e?iaeiuo aacia aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai: aaioeie/aneiio oeio aiaei?anoai?aiiuo aacia niioaaonoaoao aiaeiae/iue oei aacia aaciauo caeaaeae.A ?acoeueoaoa iieiaeeoaeueiuo yiae?iaaie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee, ?inoa ai?iuo nii?oaeaiee e eieaeueiuo no?oeoo? ieanoiaia aeaaeaiea iiaeao cia/eoaeueii nieceoueny e aucaaoue eioaineaiia auaeaeaiea ?anoai?aiiuo aacia e naiaiaeioth oaco. Iaiaai-/aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy oa?aeoa?ecoaony iauei oneeaieai oaeoiie/aneie aeecie Caiee. Ia yoi aea a?aiy i?eoiaeeony ii/oe iianaianoiia nieaeaiea o?iaiy Ie?iaiai ieaaia ?aaeiiaeueiiai aaceno noiea iiaecaiiuo aiae inaaei/iie iaiei/ee. Ana ee i?eaaei e ?aceiio eciaiaieth oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo oneiaee aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai e auaeaeaieth cia/eoaeueiuo iauaiia aaca ec ieanoiauo aiae.A i?aaeaeueii aayiianuuaiiuo aiaeao auaeaeaiea aaca e naiaiaeioth oaco i?ienoiaeeo ii anae oieua aiaeiianuuaeiiai eieeaeoi?a, e ioaeii aicaeaenoaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo nee, /oiau ?annayiiua ii ii?ai eieeaeoi?a iocu?ueee aaca iea?e?iaaee iiae aiaeioii?ioth e?iaeth e ia?aciaaee au aeinoaoi/ii e?oiioth aiiiaaiioth ianno, niiniaioth e naiinoiyoaeueiie no?oeiie iea?aoeee. Anieuaaieth iocu?ueeia aaca ii ii?iaiio i?ino?ainoao eieeaeoi?a i?aiyonoaotho neeu noeaieaiee e iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, iineaaeiaa iniaaiii cia/eoaeueii i?e ia?aiaiiii na/aiee ii?, /oi oaeoe/anee e iaaethaeaaony. ?aiaa i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi aeey i?aiaeieaiey nee noeaieaiey e iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo nee. Iaeiaei nouanoaothueo aeae?inoaoe/aneeo ia?aiaaeia aneaaenoaea eo en/acathua iaeuo cia/aiee e oceii na/aiea ii? yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ii-aeaeeiiio, iniiaiie iaoaieci aiiiaaiecaoeee OA — oaeoiie/aneea aeaeaeaiey. I?e oaeoiie/aneeo iiaeaeaeeao ioaeaeueiua ii?u e iee?io?aueiu aoaeoo oi ?anoe?eoueny, oi naeeiaoueny, /oi i?eaiaeeo e i?ioaeeeaaieth iaooe e aaca.Iiae aeeyieai nee anieuaaiey yoi i?ioaeeeaaiea iai?aaeaii aaa?o, a ?acoeueoaoa iocu?ueee aaca iaeaieeaathony iiae iie?uoeie. I?e ia?aciaaiee e?oiiiai iocu?y aaca iiaeao ia/aoueny no?oeiay iea?aoeey aei aeeaeaeoae eiaooee.Eioaineaiinoue oaeoiie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee eneeth/eoaeueii auniea: inaaei/iua ieanou iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee, «ano?yoiaathony» a ?acoeueoaoa i?iyaeaiey yiaeiaaiiuo e yeciaaiiuo i?ioeannia. Iiae aeeyieai neeu oyaioaiey Eoiu e Nieioea caiiay ei?a aaeaaeiaaii oi iiaeieiaaony, oi iioneaaony ia eaeoth-oi aaee/eio a caaeneiinoe io ?annoiyiey aei yeaaoi?a. A?aiaeeiciinoue i?eeeaiuo yaeaiee iiaeii n?aaieoue n nia?aiaiiuie oaeoiie/aneeie aeaeaeaieyie. Aeaaiaea?y iieonooi/iiio e nooi/iiio eciaiaieth ?ane?uoinoe o?auei, ii? e iee?io?auei e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey aicieeatho ia?eiaee/aneea eieaaaiey aeaaeoia ?iaeieeia e noaoe/aneiai o?iaiy a eieiaeoeao e neaaaeeiao. A aaieiae/aneii i?ioeii i?eeeaiua yaeaiey eiaee aieueoaa cia/aiea, oae eae i?eeeau ii aiieeooaea i?aauoaee nia?aiaiiua aaeaeo aieaa aeeceiai ?aniieiaeaiey Eoiu e Caiee. Ia iaiueoaa aeeyiea ieacuaatho ieaaiu e ii?y: aeaaioneea aieiu ai a?aiy ooi?iia aoeaaeueii nio?ynatho inaaei/iua neie. Neea oaea?ia oaeiaa, /oi ooi?iu, a Aeneaeneii caeeaa ioia/athony naenie/aneeie noaioeeyie a Iineaa. Aua aieueoee yooaeo ia?acoaony io ?ac?yaeee yiaeiaaiiuo iai?yaeaiee — caieao?ynaiee, /enee eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 100 oun. a aiae, a eiiaaea e aieaa.Ia aei eiioea ynai iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae, iaiaauaiiuo na?iaiaei?iaeii. *anoue enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoaao, /oi na?iaiaei?iae a caeaaee iinooiaao ec ieanoiauo aiae. Iaeiaei na?iaiaei?iae eiaao aunieoth ?anoai?eiinoue. O?oaeii aeiionoeoue, /oi aiaeiiaii?iua nenoaiu eiaaea-eeai aeinoeaaee i?aaeaeueiiai ianuuaiee ii na?iaiaei?iaeo. I/aaeaeii, a aieueoae noaiaie i?aau oa enneaaeiaaoaee, eioi?ua iaiaauaiea caeaaeae na?iaiaei?iaeii iauyniytho ieeneaieai OA noi?ie?iaaaoeony caeaaeae, ioeoaea aiineaaenoaee na?iaiaei?iae iea?e?iaae a eiioo?iua aiaeu.Aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae iaooe a ?acoeueoaoa aa auaeaeaiey ec ieanoiauo aiae iaiaa ?ac?aaioaiu. Aa?iyoii, aeey iaooe e aee?iuo aacia iniiaiie iaoaieci yiea?aoeee — aaciaua ?anoai?u e enoeiiua aiaeiua ?anoai?u a iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aiaea. Iaeiaei yoe ?anoai?u, iiiaaeay a eieeaeoi?, ooo aea ?aniaaeathony, e aeaeaa iaooue (e eiiaeainao) ii eieeaeoi?o iea?e?oao no?oeii. Aiciiaeii, aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee caeaaeae ea?aao iaooue, iaoiaeyuayny a oiieiaeenia?niii ninoiyiee. N yoeo iiceoeee ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao ioeaiea aeaeueiinoe iea?aoeee aeeaeeeo OA i?e oi?ie?iaaiee caeaaeae. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi aaee/eiu caiania iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee oi?iith niaeanothony n iauaiaie iaoa?eineeo ii?iae a ciiao, ieiioo?aiiuo ii ioeueaeai aiaaeei. ?annoiyiey io iaeeeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee aei iaeaieaa oaeaeaiiuo o/anoeia, ioeoaea iiaea iea?e?iaaoue iaooue a caeaaeue, aeinoeaatho 20 — 25 ei: aeey e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee yoe ?annoiyiey ninoaaeytho iau/ii 50 —70 ei, ?aaeei 140 —150 ei.Aiaeec eiathueony iaoa?eaeia oeacuaaao ia nii?yaeaiiinoue yiea?aoeee, iea?aoeee e oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey caeaaeae iaooe e aaca. Yoi iaoiaeeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea e a caeiiiia?iinoyo eciaiaiey oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aacia a ?yaeo: aacu ?annayiiiai IA aacu iiaecaiiuo aiae aacu iaooaaaciauo neiieaiee. Ni?ae?iaaiiua aacu IA iaooaiaoa?eineeo ii?iae ninoiyo ec iaoaia e aai aiiieiaia, i?e/ai aeiey aiiieiaia a enoi/ieea iea?aoeee iiaeao ninoaaeyoue aieaa 50%. Ioia/aaony aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey oaeaeeneiou. Aeey aaciiaoa?eeneee ii?iae (a?eiiiaue oei IA) ninoaa ni?ae?iaaiiuo aacia i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoaiiaue, ii e a yoii neo/aa niaea?aeaiea aiiieiaia iaoaia cia/eoaeueii. Oaeoth aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth aacia iaaeaeo iaoa?eineie oieuae e eieeaeoi?ii iaania/eaaao aeeooocey aneaaenoaea ?aciie aeeoooceiiiie i?iieoeaaiinoe ii?iae aeey iaoaia e aai aiiieiaia. Nouanoaaiii ioee/athony aacu iaooaiaoa?eineeo oieu e io aacia aaciauo caeaaeae. Iaeiaei iineaaeiea eaeaioe/iu aiaei?anoai??iiui aacai, /oi oeacuaaao ia eo oi?ie?iaaiea a ?acoeueoaoa aeaaacaoeee aiae.Aacu iaooyiuo e aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony io aacia aiauathueo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoai. Aianoa n oai iaooyiua aacu aeecee ii ninoaao aacai iaooaiaoa?eineeo ii?iae. Yoi oeacuaaao ia aaaeouoth ?ieue aaciauo ?anoai?ia (no?oeiay iea?aoeey) a eo oi?ie?iaaiee, oae eae n aaciauie ?anoai?aie ec iaooaiaoa?eineeo oieu yiea?e?otho eae aee?iua aacu, oae e aeeaeeay iaooue. I?e iaaieueoie ?iee aaciauo ?anoai?ai e oi?ie?iaaiee caeaaeae OA ninoaa aacia eiioo?iuo aiae iacia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io aacia caeaaeae. E yoe ?acee/ee oai cia/eoaeueiaa, /ai aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee caeaaeae ea?aea no?oeiay yiea?aoeey ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Ii-aeaeeiiio, aieueoay /anoue iaooyiuo caeaaeae noi?ie?iaaia a ?acoeueoaoa no?oeiiai auiina iaooe (aaciaua ?anoai?u) ec iaooaaaciaaia?e?othueo oieu eee a aeaea ?anoai?ia iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aiaeu.AEAe?IAAIEIAE*ANEEA E?EOA?EE IOeAIEE IA?NIAEOEA IAOOAAACIIINIINOEE i?aaeuaeoueo ?acaeaeao auea iieacaia eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiay ?ieue iiaecaiiuo aiae ia anao yoaiao ia?aciaaiey iaooe e aaca, eo iea?aoeee, oi?ie?iaaiee e nio?aiaiey eo caeaaeae, /oi ii?aaeaeyao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo e?eoa?eaa i?e i?iaiice?iaaiee iaooaaaciiiniinoe iaae?. Aeae?iaaieiae/aneea iaooaaaciiieneiaua iieacaoaee aanueia ?aciiia?aciu, e iniaaiiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey ia ?aciuo yoaiao aaieiai?acaaaei/iiai i?ioeanna iiaoo nouanoaaiii ?acee/aoueny. Iiyoiio eco/aiea aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo e?eoa?eaa neaaeoao ia/eiaoue n eeanneoeeaoeee e auyniaiey iioeiaeueiuo (iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo) eo eiiieaenia, iaoiaeeee eniieueciaaiey iieacaoaeae i?e iieneao ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe e aaca.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao aieueoia /enei ?aciiia?aciuo noai eeanneoeeaoeee aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Iaeaieaa iieiua naiaeee enneaaeiaaiee, iinayuaiiuo aii?inai eco/aiey aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeai iaooaaaciiiniinoe. ?ac?aaioea eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo noai aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe eaeao ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi: ia?aia ana iieacaoaee ?acaeaeytho ia i?yiua e einaaiiua, i?e yoii i?eieiatho, /oi i?yiua iaeiicia/ii oeacuaatho ia iaee/ea caeaaeae iaooe e aaca, a einaaiiua oa?aeoa?ecotho aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey nio?aiaiey yoeo caeaaeae; aoi?ia — iieacaoaee a?oiie?otho ii eeannai eco/aaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia, iai?eia?, ?acee/atho iieacaoaee iauaaeae?iaaieiae/aneea, iaeaiaeae?iaaieiae/aneea, aeae?ioeie/aneea, aaciaua, aaioa?ie/aneea e ae?.; o?aouea — i?aaeoniao?eaatho auaeaeaiea niaoeeoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaee/ey iaooe e aaca, oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey, nio?aiaiey caeaaeae, oneiaee iaee/ey eiaooae e ae?.Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoaao, /oi aeey anao aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo aannaeiia ia nouanoaoao oieaa?naeueiuo aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Aannaeiu, ?acee/aynue ii iniaaiiinoyi aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey, oa?aeoa?ecothony e naiei iaai?ii aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae. ?acoeueoaou iiiaieaoieo enneaaeiaaiee a ?acee/iuo aannaeiao e aiaeec nouanoaothueo eeanneoeeaoeee iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue neaaeothuoth niaieoiiinoue aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe: iauaaeae?iaaieiae/aneea e iaeaiaeae?iaaieiae/aneea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea, aeae?ioeie/aneea (nthaea aeeth/athony A?IA e aacu), aaioa?ie/aneea e iee?iaeieiae/aneea.Iau/ii i?e ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe ii aeae?iaaieiae/aneei aeaiiui ?acee/atho ?aaeiiaeueioth, ciiaeueioth e eieaeueioth ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe iaae?. A i?ioeanna ?aaeiiaeueiie ioeaiee ?anniao?eaathony aeae?iaaieiae/aneea oneiaey iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia eee eo /anoae, a i?e ciiaeueiie — ioaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee eee cii aioo?e aannaeia. Aeaaiay caaea/a aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee i?e eieaeueiie ioeaiea iaooaaaciiiniinoe caeeth/aaony a iieo/aiee eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay i?yii eee einaaiii oeacuaaea au ia iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea caeaaeae iaooe e aaca a i?aaeaeao ?aeiiaiaeoaiie aeey ?acao?eaaiey eieaeueiie ieiuaaee (iauaeoa).Aei neo ii? i?e i?iaiice?iaaiee ia anaaaea eniieuecotho anth niaieoiiinoue aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey a iaooaaaciiieneiaie i?aeoeea. E?iia oiai, noaiaiue i?eiaieiinoe oao eee eiuo iieacaoaeae a ?acee/iuo aeae?iaaioeie/aneeo ianoaiiaeao e ?aeiiao ?acee/ia. Aeaaea a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai aannaeia, ii a ?aciuo aeae?iaaioeie/aneeo ianoaiiaeao eioi?iaoeaiinoue iaeieo e oao aea aeae?iaaioeie/aneean iieacaoaeae ?acee/ia. A nayce n yoei e iaoiaeeea ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe ii ?acoeueoaoai aeoaeiiiai aeae?iaaieiae/aneiai ii?iaiaaiey aiaeiiiniuo ai?eciioia a eiie?aoiuo aeae?iaaioeie/aneeo ianoaiiaeao eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe. Iiyoiio ?aaeiiaeueiay, ciiaeueiay e eieaeueiay ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe aeieaeia ii aiciiaeiinoe inouanoaeyoueny eiiieaenii n eniieueciaaieai anao eiathueony iieacaoaeae.Iauea aeae?iaaieiae/aneea iieacaoaeeA a?oiio iauaaeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae iau/ii aeeth/atho neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee: oei aannaeia (eee aai /anoe), aai ?acia?u e iauai inaaei/iuo ii?iae; iniaaiiinoe aiaeiiiniuo eiiieaenia, eo auaea?aeaiiinoue e eieeaeoi?neea naienoaa; iaaeaaeiinoue ?aaeiiaeueiuo aiaeioii?ia; oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii ieiuaaee e ?ac?aco aeae?ioeie/aneeo, aaciauo e oaiia?aoo?iuo ia?aiao?ia; iieiaeaiea ?aaeiia eee eieaeueiiai o/anoea a i?aaeaeao aannaeia e ae?.Ia?niaeoeau iaooaaaciiiniinoe aannaeiia aic?anoatho n oaaee/aieai ieiuaaee aannaeia e iauaia neaaathueo aannaei inaaei/iuo oieu. Iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea iaooaiiniinoe aannaeia aeinoaoi/iay aeoaeia (aieaa 1—2 ei) iia?oaeaiey inaaei/iuo ii?iae. A caaeneiinoe io oeia IA e aic?anoa ii?iae, oaiia?aoo?iuo oneiaee yoa aeoaeia iiaeao aa?uee?iaaoue. Ieieiaeueiay a?aieoea iia?oaeaiey ii?iae aeey ia?aciaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee nieaeaaony — a n?aaeiai 300 — 800 i e aeaaea iaiueoa. Aeae?iaaieiae/aneea aannaeiu iaaieueoeo ?acia?ia (1—5 oun. ei2 e iaiaa), anee aeaaea iie e caiieiaiu iiuiie inaaei/iie oieuae, oa?aeoa?ecothony iaiueoeie ia?niaeoeaaie iaooaaaciiiniinoe, oae eae a ieo iau/ii iaaeinoaoi/ia ii ?acia?ai «iaooaaacinai?iay ieiuaaeue» e iaeaa/aiu oneiaey aeey ?ac?ooaiey OA eioeeueo?aoeeiiiuie aiaeaie.Aaaeiui e?eoa?eai iaooaaaciiiniinoe aannaeiia eee eo /anoae yaeyaony i?enoonoaea aiaeioii?ia. Aeeeoaeueiay nio?aiiinoue iaooaaaciauo caeaaeae iaania/eaaaony iaee/eai ?aaeiiaeueiuo aiaeioii?ia cia/eoaeueiie iiuiinoe. Oaeeie aiaeioii?aie neoaeao iiuiua oieue nieaiiniuo, aeiniaiaeae?eoiauo, aeeienouo, aeeienoi-ea?aiiaoiuo e ae?oaeo eciee?othueo ii?iae.Aiaeec iniaaiiinoae ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeae?ioeie/aneeo, aaciauo e oaiia?aoo?iuo ia?aiao?ia iiaecaiiuo aiae iicaieyao a ?yaea neo/aaa iaiaoeoue a ?ac?aca e ii ieiuaaee inaaei/iuo aannaeiia ciiu, aeaaii?eyoiua aeey nio?aiaiey caeaaeae iaooe e aaca. Iai?eia?, a iai?aaeaiee aic?anoaiey ieia?aeecaoeee e niaea?aeaiey iee?ieiiiiiaioia (a?iia, eiaea, ai?a, aethieiey e ae?.), oaaee/aiey iauae aaciianuuaiiinoe aiae, oi?oainoe aacia, noaiaie i?ia?aoinoe iaae? e o. ae. ia?anoatho ia?niaeoeau iaooaaaciiiniinoe. Oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae ii ieiuaaee ?acaeoey aiaeiiiniuo eiiieaenia iicaieyao i?ineaaeeoue, ianeieueei aeaeaei io ia?aieaiey aannaeiia ?ani?ino?aiythony iaeanoe, i?iiuoua eioeeueo?aoeeiiiuie aiaeaie, n iaaeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie aeey nio?aiiinoe caeaaeae iaooe e aaca. Caeanue ?anniio?aiu oieueei aeaaiua iauea aeae?iaaieiae/aneea iieacaoaee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe, ia naiii aeaea eo ia?a/aiue yoei ia en/a?iuaaaony.Iaeaiaeae?iaaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaieyIniiaiua caaea/e iaeaiaeae?iaaieiaee caeeth/athony a auyniaiee aeae?iaaieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee ieioaoeo aaieiae/aneeo yiio n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey aeeyiey iiaecaiiie aeae?inoa?u ia i?ioeannu ia?aciaaiey e iea?aoeee iaooe e aaca, oi?ie?iaaiey, nio?aiaiey e ?ac?ooaiey eo caeaaeae.Oi?ie?iaaiea e nio?aiaiea caeaaeae iaooe e aaca naycaiu aeaaiui ia?acii n aiaeaie naaeeiaioaoeeiiiiai aaiacena, o. a. yeeceiiiue aiaeiiaiai ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeaaii?eyoiue iieacaoaeue iaooaaaciiiniinoe iaae?. N eioeeueo?aoeeiiiui aiaeiiaiaiii naycuaathony iniiaiua aeae?iaaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, i?eaiaeyuea e ?ac?ooaieth neiieaiee iaooe e aaca. Iiyoiio n?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea eioaineaiinoe e a?aiaie i?iyaeaiey yeeceiiiiai e eioeeueo?aoeeiiiiai aiaeiiaiaia a aeae?iaaieiae/aneie enoi?ee aannaeia eee aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena iicaieyao iieo/eoue oeaiiua aeaiiua i?e ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey iaeaioaiia?aoo?iuo oneiaee ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao aeae?iaaieiae/aneie enoi?ee aannaeia eee ioaeaeueiiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena iiaoo auoue iaia/aiu iaeanoe iiauoaiiie oaiia?aoo?u, eioi?ay niinianoaiaaea iaeaieaa iieiiio i?aa?auaieth IA e iai?aaeaiee ia?aciaaiey OA, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue «i?ia?aaa:».Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea iieacaoaeeE nianoaaiii aeae?iaeeiaie/aneei e?eoa?eyi iaooaaaciiiniinoe ioiinyony iieacaoaee i?ioeannia aiaeiiaiaia e aeae?iaaieiae/aneay cae?uoinoue iaae?, niioiioaiea iueaciiao?e/aneeo oeeiiia e iaaeaiey ai?eciioia, nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iiaecaiiuo iiae, i/aae ?aca?ocee iiae (iueaciieieioiu) e ae?.Auoa ioia/aeinue, /oi a aa?oeeaeueiii ?ac?aca iaooaaaciiiniioi aannaeia auaeaeytho o?e aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea ciiu: aeoeaiiai, cao?oaeiaiiiai aiaeiiaiaia e canoieiiai aiaeiiai ?aaeeia. A ciia naiaiaeiiai aiaeiiaiaia, eae i?aaeei, ia ano?a/athony i?iiuoeaiiua caeaaee iaooe e aaca, caoi oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu oaa?aeua iaooeaeu, a eiiaaea e aeeaeeea ieeneaiiua iaooe. Iniiaiua ?ano?nu iaooe e aaca naycaiu n ciiie canoieiiai aiaeiiai ?aaeeia e a iacia/eoaeueiie noaiaie n ciiie ca o?oaeiae iie oee?eoeyoeee iiaecaiiuo iiae.Aaaeiue iieacaoaeue i?e eco/aiee iaooaaaciiiniinoe iaae? — aeaiiua i aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo aiiiaeeyo, eioi?ua au?aaeathony a eieaeueiuo iiieaeaieyo e iiauoaieyo iaii?ia iiaecaiiuo aiae — a iueaciieieioiao e iueaciiaeneioiao. E iueaciiao?e/aneei ieieioiai, naycaiiui n i/aaaie ?aca?ocee iiaecaiiuo aiae /anoi i?eo?i/aiu iaeanoe eieaeecaoeee iaooe e aaca. ?acaeaeytho ana iueaciieieioiu ia ia?aoi/iua, i?aa?aaeiua e o?iioaeueiua. Iniaia ianoi i?e iieneao caeaaeae i?eia?aoatho iueaciieieioiu ia?aoi/iiai oeia. ?ieue iueaciieieioiia e oi?ie?iaaiee neiieaiee OA e eo iieneiaia cia/aiea onoaiiaeaiu a ?yaea iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia, iieacaia naycue ?aciauaiey caeaaeae iaooe e aaca n aeoaeiiuie aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeie aiiiaeeyie, n eioi?uie oaeaea niaiaaeatho aeae?ioeie/aneea e aaioa?ie/aneea aiiiaeee.Aeae?ioeie/aneea iieacaoaeeAieueoeinoai iieacaoaeae nieaaiai ninoaaa aiae oa?aeoa?ecoao aaioeie/aneoth n?aaeo ieanoiaie nenoaiu, noaiaiue aeae?iaaieiae/aneie cae?uoinoe iaae?, aiciiaeiinoue i?ioaeaiey oao eee eiuo oeie/aneeo e aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia. A ?aciia a?aiy e ea/anoaa iieacaoaeae nieaaiai ninoaaa aiae auaeaeaaeenue naiua ?aciiia?aciua oeie/aneea eiiiiiaiou aiae e ?acee/iua eiyooeoeeaiou, onoaiaaeeaaaiua ec eo niioiioaiee. A iineaaeothuai iiiaea ec yoeo iieacaoaeae auee ioaa?aioou eae iaaeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiua. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey iaooaaaciiieneiauo oeaeae eniieuecotho neaaeothuea iieacaoaee nieaiiai ninoaaa aiae: oei aiae e oa?aeoa? iauae ieia?aeecaoeee, eiyooeoeeaiou iaoaii?oecaoeee aiae, noeueoaoiinoue, niaea?aeaiea iee?iyeaiaioia aiiiiee, eiaea, a?iia, ai?a e ae?.), ?aaeeeo e ?annayiiuo yeaiaioia (no?iioeee, aaiaaeey, ieeaey, iaaee, iieeaaeaia e ae?.).Aeae?ioeie/aneea iieacaoaee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue niaea?aeaiea noeueoaoia e aeae?iea?aiiaoia, aeey iiiaeo ?ac?acia yooaeoeaiu, ia?aaeei naycaiu n aeioeie/aneei e oeceei-oeie/aneei acaeiiaeaenoaeai caeaaeae OA n iiaecaiiuie aiaeaie. Yoe aea iieacaoaee iaei-aooaeoeaiu i neo/aa caeaaaiey aiae a nieaiiniuo ioeiaeaieyo e ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao.?aaeeea e ?annayiiua yeaiaiou (aaiaaeee, ieeaeue, o?ii, iaaeue, eiaaeueo, iieeaaeai, ieiai, naeiaoe e ae?.) aeey ioaeaeueiuo aaieiai-aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaee iiaoo auoue iaaeaaeiuie i?eciaeaie iaee/ey caeaaeae iaooe e aaca.Iniiaiay /anoue eco/aaiuo eiiiiiaioia aiaei?anoai?aiiiai IA naycaia n caeaaeaie iaooe e aacieiiaeainaoa e eeoue /anoe/ii n caeaaeaie oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo aacia. Aie?oa caeaaeae a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao ia?acothony i?aieu ?annayiey IA. Oiiiaia aea niaea?aeaiea IA, ano?a/aaiith i?aeoe/anee ai anao aiaeao, ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa i?aa?auaiee aauanoa, niaea?aeaueony a naieo iiaecaiiuo aiaeao e ecaeaeaaiuo iineaaeieie iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec aiaeiaiauathueo e aiaeioii?iuo oieu. Eaeay-oi /anoue yoiai A?IA iiaea nio?aieoueny, a naaeeiaioaoeeiiiuo aiaeao n iiiaioa inaaeeiiaeiieaiey. Aeey iaooaaaciiieneiauo oeaeae iaeaieaa eioa?ania oa /anoue IA, eioi?ay yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii ?annayiey OI caeaaeae a ie?oaeathuea eo aiaeu.Enneaaeiaaieyie a ?acee/iuo iaooaaaciiiniuo ?aeiiao onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii ia?a i?eaeeaeaiee e caeaaeai aaca, aacieiiaeainaoa, eaaeie iaooe niaea?aeaiea Ni?, iau/ii aic?anoaao, aeaaiui ia?acii ca n/ao eaoo/eo eiiiiiaioia. Ioia/aaony, oaeae naycue iaaeaeo niaea?aeaieai Ni? iaeaoo/eo aeooiieaeiuo aauanoa, ecaeaeaaiuo ec aiae oei?ioi?iii, e iaooaaaciiiniinoueth.A iiaecaiiuo aiaeao iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia i?aiaeaaeatho oa eee eiua acioenoua niaaeeiaiey. Aeaiiua i ?ani?aaeaeaiee a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao ?acee/iuo oi?i acioa e aaee/eiu eo niioiioaiee, io?aaeathuea iacaeiiiia?iia eciaiaiea yoeo iieacaoaeae a i?eeiioo?iuo aiaeao caeaaeae OA, cao?oaeiytho eniieueciaaiea i?aaie/aneiai acioa eae i?yiiai iieacaoaey i?e i?iaiica iaooaaaciiiniinoe; aai neaaeoao ioianoe a ?ac?yae einaaiiuo iieacaoaeae. E einaaiiui iieacaoaeyi i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeaea i?aaie/aneea eeneiou — iaooaiiaua, aoieiiaua e aee?iua, oae eae aeey ieii/aoaeueiuo auaiaeia ia eo i?eiaieiinoe a ea/anoaa i?yiuo iaooaaaciiieneiauo iieacaoaeae aeaiiuo iaaeinoaoi/ii.Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea eaoo/eo oaiieia oyaioaao e i?eeiioo?iui aiaeai caeaaeae ia?aoeienoie eaaeie iaooe e aacieiiaeainaoa; eaoo/ea oaiieu ionoonoaotho eee niaea?aeaony a iaeuo eiee/anoaao a iiaeao aaciauo caeaaeae e aiaeao, eiioaeoe?othueo n (caeaaeaie oyaeaeuo iaooae). Oeacaiiia iicaieyao n/eoaoue iaee/ea oaiieia a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao i?eciaeii iaooyiuo e aacieiiaeainaaiuo iaeiaeaiAaciaua iieacaoaeeAaaeiia cia/aiea i?e iaooaaacniieneiauo ?aaioao eiatho oaeaaiaei?iaeiua aacu, eioi?ua ia?aaeei iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n caeaaeaie iaooe e aaca. Iaeiaei e ae?oaea aacu, i?enoonoaothuea a caeaaeao a iacia/eoaeueiuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo e yiea?e?othuea ec ieo a aiaeu, iiaoo aeaoue oeaiioth iieneiaoth eioi?iaoeeth.I?e ioeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiie e eieaeueiie iaooaaaciiineinoe iau/ii i?eiaiytho neaaeothuea iieacaoaee aaciaie a?oiiu: iauay aaciianuuaiiinoue e oi?oainoue aacia iiaecaiiuo aiae, eiyooeoeeaio ianuuaiey aiaeu aacii, niaea?aeaiea a aiaei?anoai?aiiuo aacao iaoaia, oyaeaeuo OA (i?aaeaeueiua e iai?aaeaeueiua OA), acioa, aeeieneaea oaea?iaea, na?iaiaei?iaea, aiaei?iaea, eenei?iaea, aaeey e a?aiia;Ia?niaeoeau iaooaaaciiiniinoe aannaeiia n iiaen/aoii i?iaiiciuo caiania iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny, enoiaey ec iniaaiiinoae aaciianuuaiiinoe iiaecaiiuo aiae. Aiciiaeiinoue oaeie ioeaiee ii?aaeaeyaony aaciianuuaiiinoueth, niaeanii eioi?ie i?iaiiciua caianu OA ninoaaeytho eeoue, /anoue aiaei?anoai?aiiuo aacia e iauai neo/aa i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu eo caianai.Onoaiiaeaiiua iniaaiiinoe eciaiaiey ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aacia iiaecaiiuo aiae iicaieytho n/eoaoue ia?aiao?u aaciiiniinoe aiae iaaeaaeiuie iieacaoaeyie ?aaeiiaeueiie e eieaeueiie ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe.Aaioa?ie/aneea e?eoa?eeAeaiiua aaioa?ie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee eniieuecotho aeey onoaiiaeaiey eae ?aaeiiaeueiuo oneiaee eaooaaaciia?aciaaiey e iaooaaaciiaeiieaiey, oae e aiciiaeiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe eieaeueiuo no?oeoo?. A ea/anoaa aaioa?ie/aneeo iieacaoaeae iau/ii eniieuecotho oaiia?aoo?o, aaioa?ie/aneea nooiaiue e a?aaeeaio, ieioiinoue oaieiaiai iioiea.Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ciiu iaeneiaeueiie i?ia?aoinoe inaaei/iuo ii?iae yaeythony naiaia?aciuie «?aaeoi?aie», a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo iaooaaaciaue iioaioeeae IA inaaei/iuo ii?iae ?aaeecoaony iaeaieaa iieii. I?e aeeaaiinoeea oneiaee e cii iaooaia?aciaaiey iniaoth aaaeiinoue i?eia?aoatho aii?inu auyniaiey iaeaioaiia?aoo?iie ianoaiiaee iaooaaaciiiniuo ii?iae.Oaiia?aoo?a i?yiui ia?acii aeeyao ia ?anoai?eiinoue OA.Ia iniiaa eioa?i?aoaoeee aaioa?ie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia iiaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue aa?iyoiua iaeanoe ieoaiey, noiea e ?aca?ocee aiaeiiiniuo eiiieaenia, /oi eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea i?e ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe.A ?yaea neo/aaa iaia/aaony caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo iaooaaaciiiniinoueth e aaioa?ie/aneeie oneiaeyie iaae?. Oae, a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao Aieai-O?aeueneiai iaaaaannaeia ia ?aaeiiaeueiii aaioaiia?aoo?iii oiia auyaeythony ciiu n aiiiaeueii aunieie iai?yaeaiiinoueth oaieiaiai iiey, i?eo?i/aiiua e oaeoiie/anee ineaaeaiiui o/anoeai (Aeiii-Iaaeaaaeeoeeee aae, Noaiiianei-Niaaoneea, AEeaoeaaneea nenoaiu aeeneieaoeee), n eioi?uie naycaia ?aaeiiaeueiay iaooaaaciiiniinoue. Yoe ciiu, iau/ii yaeythueany iaeanoyie iaaeieanoiaie ?aca?ocee ieanoiauo aiae e OA, oeene?othony ia iauai oiia aiiiaeeyie iiauoaiiie oaiia?aoo?u e iiieaeaiiie aaioa?ie/aneie nooiaie. Oeacaiioth caaeneiinoue iiaeii o/eouaaoue i?e ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe eae e?oiiuo oa??eoi?ee, oae e eieaeueiuo ieiuaaeae.A naiaeiauo /anoyo eieaeueiuo no?oeoo? /anoi ioia/athony oaiia?aoo?iua iaeneioiu. N oaiia?aoo?iuie aiiiaeeyie iau/ii niaiaaeatho aaciaeae?ioeie/aneea e aaciaeeiaie/aneea aiiiaeee, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i aa?oeeaeueiie ?aca?ocea iiaecaiiuo aiae. Iaeiaei ia ana no?oeoo?u, a iaae?ao eioi?uo auyaeaiu caeaaee iaooe e aaca, ioia/athony aaioa?ie/aneeie iaeneioiaie. ?yae i?iaeoeoeaiuo ieiuaaeae ia ?aaeiiaeueiii aaioaiia?aoo?iii iiea ioia/aaony oiiiaie eee aeaaea iiieaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?ie.Iee?iaeieiae/aneea e?eoa?eeE iee?iaeieiae/aneei iieacaoaeyi iaooaaaciiiniinoe ioiinyony iee?ii?aaieciu, eniieuecothuea a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia aeeciaaeayoaeue iinoe ?acee/iua OA. Onoaiiaeaia i?eo?i/aiiinoue e ianoi?iaeaeaieyi OA ?acee/iuo aeaeia iee?ii?aaieciia, ecae?aoaeueii eniieuecothueo iaoai e aai aiiieiae. Iaeaieaa iieacaoaeueiu e iaooaaaceiieneiaii ioiioaiee aaeoa?ee, ieeneythuea i?iiai, aooai e /anoe/ii iaioai.Iee?ii?aaieciu ?aciuo aeaeia, eniieuecoaiua i?e iieneao iaooe e aaca, iiaoo neoaeeoue i?yiuie, ieeneythuea aaci- e ia?iia?aciua OA), einaaiiuie (aiaei?iaeieeneythuea) e eiio?ieueiuie (i?aaieciu, ?ac?ooathuea eeao/aoeo, iaoai- e aiaei?iae ia?acothuea) iieacaoaeyie iaooaaaciiiniinoe.?ani?ino?aiaiea aeecianiiniaiie iee?ioei?u e. a /anoiinoe, ia?acothuae e ieeneythuae OA eiaao aieueooth aeoaeio ?acaeoey, /ai yoi i?aaenoaaeyeinue ?aiaa. Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, ia?aie/eaathuei ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia aeoaeio iee?ioei?u, yaeyaony oaiia?aoo?a. Aianoa n oai eiee/anoai iee?ii?aaieciia e eo eioaineaiinoue ?acaeoey n aeoaeiie iau/ii oiaiueoathony.Aiaeec iaoa?eaeia iicaieyao n/eoaoue iee?iaeieiae/aneea iieacaoaee (iaee/ea aaeoa?ee, ieeneythueo aaciia?aciua e aeeaeeea OA, noeueoao?aaeooee?othueo, aeaieo?eoeoee?othueo e ae?.) aeaaiui ia?acii einaaiiuie eiaeeeaoi?aie iaooaaaciiiniinoe. Ionoonoaea iee?ioei?u a iiaecaiiuo aiaeao a ?yaea neo/aaa iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae io?eoeaoaeueiue iieacaoaeue, oae eae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue iee?ii?aaieciia caaeneo io ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia (oaiia?aoo?u, ?I n?aaeu, ieia?aeecaoeee e ae?.). Aaaeiia cia/aiea iee?iaeieiae/aneea iieacaoaee i?eia?aoatho i?e iaooaaaciiieneiauo ?aaioao, i?iaiaeeiuo ii i?eiiaa?oiinoiui aiaeai.Iioeiaeueiue eiiieaen aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae i?e ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoeAeey ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe e ?aciia a?aiy auei i?aaeeiaeaii aieaa 100 ?acee/iuo aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Iaeaieaa aaaeiua ?anniio?aiu auoa. A i?ioeanna i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eco/aoue ana iieacaoaee ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui, oae eae yoi caieiaao i/aiue iiiai a?aiaie e ia iaania/eaaao yeni?anniinoe auaea/e iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee i?e aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaioao ia iaooue e aac. N?aaee aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae eiathony aieaa eee iaiaa iaaeaaeiua, eioi?iaoeaiua ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao eee oieueei ia ia?aie/aiiuo o/anoeao.Iaeie e oa aea iieacaoaee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu e i?e ?aaeiiaeueiie, e i?e eieaeueiie ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe.?aaeiiaeueiua e ciiaeueiua iieacaoaee. Ioeaiea ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe a i?aaeaeao inaaei/iiai aannaeia (eee aai /anoe) e ioaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee (eee cii) caeeth/aaony a auyniaiee iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae iaooaaaciia?aciaaiey e iaooaaaciiaeiieaiey a iaae?ao e?oiiie oa??eoi?ee (anaai inaaei/iiai aannaeia eee aai /anoe) e ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia. Oeacaiiua caaea/e iiaoo ?aoaoueny ia iniiaa eco/aiey ioia/aiiuo auoa aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae n eniieueciaaieai ae?oaeo aaieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia. Ii ?acoeueoaoai eco/aiey iaeaiaeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae e nia?aiaiiuo aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaee i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui ii?aaeaeyoue i?iaiiciua caianu iaooe e aaca a iaae?ao eae anaai inaaei/iiai aannaeia, oae e aai /anoae e ioaeaeueiuo cii.Eieaeueiua iieacaoaee. Iioeiaeueiue eiiieaen aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae eieaeueiie ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iaooaaaciiiniinoe, eae yoi aeaeatho e ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee, ?aeiiaiaeoaony iiae?acaeaeyoue ia a?oiio i?yiuo e einaaiiuo iieacaoaeae. N?aaee i?yiuo eieaeueiuo iieacaoaeae ?acee/atho iieacaoaee i?aieueiiai ?annayiey eiiiiiaioia ec caeaaeae e iieacaoaee aeioeie/aneiai e oeceei-oeie/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey caeaaeae iaooe e aaca n iiaecaiiuie aiaeaie.

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