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O????? ????i ? ?????th

OIINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO (OAO)

A???-??????? ????o

E??? ????e

?AOA?AO

??ue e ???? ???u

O??-2009

1. ??ue ???u

N??? ??tho ??oth ?? a ??e ??i, ???yy ?e ?????? (???????a ?????), ?e e
y????n?a, ?????, ?????, ???a, ???-???????a ???e. A ???a ??o n????y ???e
????a (??????) e i????? (y??????, ?????, ???????ua e ?.). A??? ????
?????? ?i?? ? eth?? ???? y??????i e/?e ?????i ??? y?y?ny au???? ????o
???e — ????? ?????e ?????a e ?i ?????. A ????, ?e ???i, ???ath?y ????u
?? ???o ??? ???????e ??oe — ???????e, ??????? e ????. O?? ???i, ???a
y?y?ny ??iui ???i ???????? ????ey ???e [3].

I??a — ???a ?????e O????, ??ae ?????? ???ey, ???????? ??? Oe?????i
?????? ??? e I????e ???e (a ??? ???e ? ???). Y? ???e?e ? ?????e ????y
??ae ??n? e A??u (????a ? 1 ethey 2009 ?? — 10,527 ?i. ???e) [6], ???
I????e ????e ?????e. O?? y?y?ny ??i ? ????? ???a ??, ???y ???a ??i a y?i
???. I??a ????y e ????? ???i, ???ay ???a ?ey?a ? ??. Y?? ?????? ???e
y?????? ????e ???, ?i ????a.

I??a — ????e ?????? ??, a ??a ??????, y??????, ????? e ???e ??? ???. A??
????atho 6 ay????. A I??a 9 ???????o ????, 3 ??? ??a (???y ??? ????a n
??y? ????a A??????i e N???? E????i ???a). N 1935 ?? a ???a ???? ??????.
I??a — ????? a ??????? ???? ????? ??? e ??? ????ey a??? ??ueth y????
???. O?, ????, a I??a ??????i ??i ???? ??? ? ??a ????????? a ???e. E??
??, ???y ??ue ????? ???? ???????? e ?atho ?????a ??u ??? a I??a, ?oy ?
i?????? ??o ?? ?????i ? ?ny? ????? ? ??.

A I??a, ?e a ???, ????? E?????e ?O ????? ??oeey?, ??aey?y ???????a,
??????? e ???? ?????a ??? ??? ???, ? ??th??? E?????i?? N?a ?O, ???e a
2008 ?? ?e ????i a N??-I????. I?o ??????? ????o ???e ????? ? ??? ???o,
??? ??i, n ?????? ??? ???????? ???n?a. Ae????i ??? ????a ???e ???????? a
?e ? A???e, ?a ???e ? ?????o ????eth ??? ??????ue ? O????a-?-I??, ?????
? ??o – a Ith???a, ???????e ?ae – a E???y.

I??a ?e ???a y?y?ny ??? ????ey ???????? ????e a ???a ?????e O????,
????uo ???a, ??a, ????, a ??a ???a???? ???????? ?????o ?????. I????e
E??ue y?y?ny ?????e ?????e i????a ?????e O????. I? ?????ony a ??? N??a.
I??a y?y?ny ? ??ei «????» a ?y?i ??? y?? ?iy?y, ? e ????? a ???e ???i
?????? ???ey, ???i ???? ????? n ???????i ?????, ???????i e ???e???
y?????? ?cy???.

I?????? I??? ????o ???e ???? ??? ?e ?????e ???i ??? ?y? ???e ??????? (a
?i?a e ??????i) ???? [2]:

— ?????? ??????? ???ey, y?????ay ??????, ??? ???th?e ?e??? ??u, ?? ?????
?????e ?i?? e ??????ey ?????? ????;

— ????? ?????, ??????, ??????i ?????y I??u e ? ????ia;

— ???? ?????e ?????? ??e I??u ?e ??????i ?????i-?????i ???, ???a ?????
????????e, a ??a ???u ????o ?????? ???a e ?i, ??????o, ?????, ??????o e
????? ????? ?e ?o?????u ??????i e ??????? ??c?;

— ?????a ???? ?????, ??n???e e ????? ??????? ???, ?????th?o ?????
???????? ?? ??? ?????ey ????e e ??? n???, e ?yae ??? ?????.

2. I???u ???u

A ?? ??y ???a ????? ?????a ??????a ???????. A?? ???????y — n?iy?y
??iy??? ???a ??ey, ?????y ?????ay ?o?????a, y??? ??a, ???a ??o ?? ?
?????? a ??? ?????? ?????i ???a. Iiy?yth?y ????u ? ??????o ????? ???i
??? ????y ??y.

NIE ???oth ????ytho ??????? «?????? ??, ???ay ????y?a ???? a ??? a ??a
1990-o ??a — ??? XXI ??. I? y?i ?e ???tho, ?i ?-? ??? ???e ????e ??e a
?????e ??e ???, y?o ?i ????i ?ey? ia ?????ue ?????i? ??? ???. *?? ny????
??? ????u ???oth ?uy?ytho ??ey ???e e ??yo ?, ??y ? ? ??a ??? ?????a
??iy??? ??ey.

A ? ? ?? ????ue y??? ?ae ????i «???ay ?????, ??a ???e ?????y ????a,
????, ? ??a ???e ????, ???? ??e ???? ??e ?i. I???y ???? ???? ???? ? ???u
????e. A 2008 ?? «???ay ????? ?? ????a, ??? ? ????yi ?y? NIE ?????e
??oii ??aeyo ???u ?y ?????y ???? ???? [1].

A ??a ??? ????? ?????e ??????i ?? NIE ???tho ??? a ???o ???? ????? ??? ?
????? ???? e th?? ??i NIA. A???? ?????atho, ?i ?????a, e???? ??? ? ????
?-? y??????i ???a, ???o ????? ???e ?????oe e ?a ???tho ?? ?????
??y?i??e, ????ny e ?? ??a ????o n??, ???o ?????atho ? ??????? ????e e
????e.

N?? ??? ????e I??u ????a ??? ??atho ???i-???i??th ???eth e ???a ???. I??
?i ???? ????? I???? a ???a ?e ? ???o ???u ?n????ny 650 ???. I?? 60%
?????? ?? a I????i ?????? ?? ?a??o a ??? ?????. A ??iy?a ??y ??i 80%
??y???? ??????o ??a e ?????? ??a ??? I??u, ???? a ?????e ??e, ????th
????e ????oth ?????ue. A ?y? n y?i ???e?? ?????tho, ?i ?? ???i? ???
???yo ????? ????? a y?o ???o, ?i ?a a ??? ???e ?????? ???? a ??? ????
?????y. I??a – y? ???e ?????? ?? ?? ???, e ???a ?????? ???i a ???a ?e?i
????ue ? ???????i ???, ???o iy? ???u TH?e E??a [1]. Ii ???e, ?i a ????e
??? ?? ???? ??a ?i??, ?e ??????i ??o ??e ??i, ???? ???o ????o ?????e, a
?i ??a e ?ae ???? ???e, ????? ????i ??e????, ????a ??o ???o ?????? ??a,
?e E???, ???? e I????e ???u. Ii ??? ? ???o – ???? ?? ???o ???a. Ia
??th??a e E??i. Ec-? ??? e ???a ??iyy ???? ? ?i o??o – ?? ?? 16 ?//. A
???a 2003 ?? ?y ???y y?e ???? ??e ?????e ?????? ??a: 8 ??? (???? 16
????) ? ??ae a ?????a ??? ???. Ii ?e ???? ????o?a ????? E???, ???? y??
??? ? ??? ???? “???” a ???n?e ???a. A ???a ss??e O?? ???u ??? n ????
????ue ??a y?????e. Y?o ??ae ??o ???a ?????? ? ????th n ???e n????, ?e
?e o ?? ?o ??????i ???, ?? ? ??i ????i ???e ????y??y?. Na?a ???, ?i ??e
??? ??? ?y ??? n ????, y? ???ue ????a e ??????ua ???? ????? e ??y?e.
I??? ????? ???e ????o iy?. I?? eth?th ??? ??i ???? – a O?? 12 ????o ??a,
? ?o 8 ????uo.

A? ??e ????e i???e ??atho ?c?e ???ue ??e. O?y I??a e ???? 25-a ??i ??e
??o ???o ???a ?? (? ????i ????? ???i), ? y? ?????y ? ?? ?????a ???a,
?????i ????aey?? ????? ???i?? ? ??? a A??a, ? e a NOA [4]. A I??a ???
10% ???? ??????i ????y ???atho ??? 10% ???? ??????i ????y a 39 ?c,
?????i ????aeyo ?????i ? ???e a ??i e y?yth?y ??a ???i, ?i ? ?? ????o
???o e ???? ??? (???a 1).

Eiy???? ??? (?y???? ??????? ???a) ??????o ???ue ?????i ????ey e ???ey?ny
?e ?????a ??o ???? ??iy? ???? ???a 10% ????y n ??? ???? ???? e 10% ????y
n ??? ???e ????. Eiy???? Ae?? (??? ?????? ae???) ??????o ???ue ????ey
??e ?????? ??????y ??? ??? ??ae? ? ??e ? ?????? ??????y. A???a ?y????a
??o ???ia?ue ? 0 ? 1; ?i ?? ???? ????ey, ?i ??a ?????? ?????? ae??u a
????.

O??? 1. ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???a ? 20-????? ???i ????y a 2005 a. [4]

???iO???e ?n ??? ??? ???? ae?i?a, ???y??y ? ?????oth?th a??o ????y, a
??i ??? ???? ae???

(a %)Eiy???? ???, ??Eiy???? Ae????ay (n ???ue-?? ????)??ay??uey????yiy?y
(n ?????e ????)?????y
O???ey5,510,2115,222,746,414,80,405I??a2,95,610,220,660,738,60,567

I???a ?ey???e ???? ??e ??th??ny ? ??? a ??eth?? ????, ???? ???e, ?oy e
???ath?y ? ???? ????? ???? ???i??i ????, ???i ??? ?y ??e??i ?????. Ae?y
????y I??u ? ??????i ???i ?? ?????i ???i??i ???? ??? e ?? ??? a ??e
?????e ????y ???e a ??i, ??a ?e ????? ??????e ??ae a 3 ?? ?????o
??ia???e ??ae ??i ????y ???e (???a 2,3).

O??? 2. ??????? ?????e ????y ? ???? ??????o ???? ???a a 2005 a. (a % ?
??e ?????e ????y ???a) [4]

A???a ??????? ????i ???, ?a/?n??n??ay O???eyI??aAei
10000,80,11000-15002,40,51500-20003,91,12000-300010,64,33000-400011,76,1
4000-500011,06,55000-700017,811,8N?? 7000 41,869,6

O??? 3. *????? ????y n ????e ???? ?? ???? ?i????i ???? (a % ? ??e /?????
????y ????) [4]

???i2000 a2001 a2002 a2003 a2004 a2005 a????ay
O???ey29,027,524,620,317,6-I??a23,621,820,718,614,613,2

A I??a ??? ??????y ????, ??????y ???e ??????e ???a e ???? ???o. Ii ???i
E???? ????i-y?????? ???i ???????y ?AI, 51% ???e I??u ?atho ??????e ??ae
?? 60% ??????? ??? ? I??a. Y? ????, ?i ?????ay ??ue ?na??y, ???a ?
???????i e ????i-???????? ????i ??? a?i ? ????ny e ???? ???, ??u?? a
I??a a ???yo ??????e ???? ? ???i. A ??????a ?????i e ?????i ????? e
y?????? ?ci???? a I??a ?????i ????aeyo ??????? ?????i ???a.

N????o e y?????? ????, ?????? ?? ???i ???i. Ii ??? I?????a ????o ????,
??y ???y y?????ay ???? ???u – y? ??y??? ???a. Ii ??? I????u, ????? ??? a
???? ??y?y?ny ????e ?????. I? y?i ?i?? ??? ???? ????????e ??? ???i ?
?????. I????a ???u c??y??u a ???e ???e, ?i ???, ii e ?o ???ey a??a e
?????e. I???e ???? ??y??ey I??u-?? e ??? ????o ???? y?yth?y ae?a ? ???
???ey?e, a ?????? ???? ?y? n ?? ??a ??? e a ????? ?y?y ??a. A?y?? ??,
e??? ??atho ? ??i ??? e i??atho a ????? ???u, ?????e ? ???yo ???e[5].

A ???i a ?? ??ae?? ??? ? ?ay 400 ??? ?? a ??, a a ????o ???o I??u y?o
??? ????o 700 ??? a ??. N?? 90 % y?e ??, ? ?a ??y???e, ????o a ?????th.
I????a ?????i ???n?a ?? ????i ???? e ???a ?a??a ???e ?? ???? e ??????
y??????i e ????o ??? ??? i???.

I??a ? ????th n ???e ???? ???? ?? ??o ?yae ?????o ?e??a, ???yth?o
y?????? ????. N????? y????u I????? ????? e ????????eth ?????i ??, ?i a
??a ??? ???o. I????a ???a ????ey, ????????? ???u a ???? e ??a a “??oth
????” ?a?atho ? ??a 5-6 ?ny?a a ??.

Oe???????a ???u ??i- e ??????y, ?ay ????a ??????, a ? ? ??y ????otho
????a ????e ????e, a, ??????i, e ???? ?????e ???? ? ???o ?????. I??a ??o
??th ???th ????ue ????y ? ????? ??? ??. A ???i ? ??i ????? ????a a I??a
????o ??i 8,4 ?ny/ ???e, ??a ?e a ?????e ??e Iueth-E?? – 8,1; a O?? –
5,4; A??? – 3,5; E??? – 3,9 ?ny/ ???e.

???? y?????? ???i a a. I??a ???o ????o ????i-y?????? e ????????o ??????
e ?????, ?????? e ??????o ???? e ???, a ???o ??? ?oue ??? ???u ?????ey
???? ????? ?????, ??????a y?????e ????? ???ey?e e ???? y?????? ???????.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA

1. A?eyae [Y????? ???]. – Y???i. ??. – 2005-2009. – URL: http://vz.ru

2. A????? ?ai ???ey I??u ? 2020 a. [Y????? ???] / I??e ???e ????? e
????? ? ??. – 2009. – URL: http://www.genplan2020.ru

3. A???ey [Y????? ???]. – Y???i. ???. – 2009. – URL:
http://geo.1september.ru

4. I?????ue e ?????. I???a ??????a [Y????? ???]. – Y???i. ??. – 2009. –
URL: http://dpr.ru

5. ?AE daily [Y????? ???] / A????y ??aay ???. – Y???i. ??. – 1995-2009.
– URL: http://www.rbcdaily.ru

6. N???ay y?????y [Y????? ???]. – Y???i. ??. – 2009. – URL:
http://ru.wikipedia.org

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