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Реки и водопады Крыма

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?AEE E AIAeIIAAeU E?UIA

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaoe ?aee iaaaeeee, ii aio oae iienoeia: iae cieioiee,
aea aei?ia. A E?uio aieaa 150 ?ae e ?o/ueaa. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo aeeeiie
ia aieaa 10 ei. Ii/oe ana ia/aei aa?oo a ai?ao. Oai, a nu?uo e oa?thiuo
ouaeueyo, auae?athony ia aieth naaoeua ?iaeieee. Eo aiaeu neeaathony
ae?oa n ae?oaii e aanaei naaaatho aiec ii eaiaienoui e?ooui ?oneai.
Eiiaaea aiaea en/acaao, ooiaeeo a caieth e ?onei ia i?ioyaeaiee nioai
iao?ia inoaaony nooei, ii aae?oa aiaea iiyoue auoiaeeo ia iiaa?oiinoue;
iinoaiaiii aa noaiiaeony ana aieueoa e aieueoa. E niio?eoue, aieco yoi
oaea ia oio noaoeeaue ?o/aae, eioi?ue i?iai?ii i?iae?aeny iaaeaeo
aeuaaie a aa?oiaueyo, a noaiaiiue, iieiue nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa
iioie, iaoi?iieeai ianouee naie aiaeu e ii?th. Iniiaiay iiaeieoea iaoeo
?a/ae – a?oioiaua ea?noiaua aiaeu (io yoiai oae auniee eo ieoueaaua
ea/anoaa), a e?iia oiai, eaeao na?ueaciia iiiieiaiea ca n/ao aeiaeaeae,
ia?aaeeeo a ai?ao, e oaeuo aiae. Eaoii ia ia?aue acaeyae iacia/eoaeueiue
?o/aae a eano iiaeao ca aeaa-o?e /ana i?aa?aoeoueny a ?aaouee iioie,
ai?i/athuee eaiie e a?aaia. I?aaenoaaeyaoa, /oi aeaeaaony aaniie?! Ii?ie
yoi i?inoi iianii.

Naiay aeeeiiay ?aea E?uia – Naeae? (232 ei). A aa?oiai e n?aaeiai
oa/aiee i?ioaeaao ii naaa?iui neeiiai Aeaaiie a?yaeu E?uineeo ai?, a
ieaeiai – ii noaiiiio E?uio. Nia/aea yoi ?a/ea Aiaa?a. Iia ia/eiaaony ia
neeiiao *aou?-Aeaaa, oa/ao ii oceiio ouaeueth aaeieue oinna
Neioa?iiieue-Aeoooa (Aiaa?neee ia?aaae iacaai aa eiaiai). I?eia?ii /a?ac
15 ei n Aiaa?ie niaaeeiyaony ?a/ea, aa?ouay ia/aei o E?aniuo iaua?. Iia
oae aea, eae e iaua?u, iacuaaaony Eecee-Eiaa. N yoiai ianoa ?aea
i?eia?aoaao naia iiaia eiy – Naeae?, eee Naeau?-aaaa, Naeae?-ioaoe
(Naeae? – ioaeneia eiy n oth?eneiai). A aannaeia Naeae?a ieiei 500
enoi/ieeia, a naiue e?oiiue ec ieo – Ayi o naea Ca?a/iia (ia iai
nii?oaeaii aiaeio?aieeeua). Ayi ninoaaeytho iiaecaiiua aiaeu ii/oe anaai
*aou?aeaaneiai ianneaa. Oaea ia ie?aeia Neioa?iiiey a Naeae? aiaaeaao
aua e Iaeue Naeae?.

O?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa Neioa?iiieue aac Naeae?a, aac Iaaa?aaeiie,
aac ia?iiiuo ea, aac iinoeeia, aac oaienoiai ia?ea… Aeaaea Iooeei ia
iaioae iao Naeae? aieiaieai:

I?eaeo ee aiiaue, iieeiiiee ioc e ie?a,

Caaua iieao e naaoa noaou

Ia aa?aaa aanaeiai Naeae?a

Ainiiieiaoue aeooe iiae ia/ou?

A iioii ?aea ono?aieyaony /a?ac aanue E?ui aei naiiai Neaaoa. Oai iia
i?eieiaao aua iaeei e?oiiue i?eoie – Aethe-Ea?ano. Yoa ?aea oiaea
aeiaieueii i?eee/iie aeey E?uia aeeeiu – 106 ei — e aa?ao ia/aei o
iiiaiaiaeiiai enoi/ieea Ea?ano-Aaoe ia naaa?iuo neeiiao Ea?aae (oai a
?aeiia Aaeiai?nea nii?oaeaii Oaeaaineia aiaeio?aieeeua). Anoue aua
ianeieueei ?a/ae, aa?oueo ia/aei ia naaa?iuo e naaa?i-ainoi/iuo neeiiao
ai?: Coy, Aaooa?ae, Ao?oeue/a, Ainoi/iue Aoeaaiae, Nooie Eiaeie,
*o?oe-No, — ii iie iaiiiai onooiatho ii ?acia?ai Naeae?o.

Naiua caiaoiua ?aee thaeiiai iai?aaeaiey oaeaea ana ia/eiathony a ai?ao,
ii caoai ono?aieythony e ii?th. Iai?eia?, ?aea Ainoi/iue Oeo-Ocaiue
aa?ao naia ia/aei ia neeiia ianneaa Ou?ea, eioi?ue niaaeeiyao
Aeaia?aeaee-yeeo n Ea?aae, a aiaaeaao a ii?a o i.Nieia/iiai?neia ca
Aeoooie. Oeo-Ocaiue – oeie/iue ai?iue iioie. A ai?ao ii «i?iieeee»
aeoaieia e o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiia ouaeuea Oaioae, a a ianeieueeeo ianoao
ia?acoao aiaeiiaaeu.

Aiaeiiaae Aeaeo?-Aeaeo? (n a?iyineiai “aeaeo?” – aiaea) — naiue
iieiiaiaeiue aiaeiiaae E?uia, ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee aeoooeineiai
?aeiia a ie?anoiinoyo naea Aaia?aeueneiai, a ouaeuea Oaioae,
ia?aciaaaoeiny a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey aiae ?aee Ainoi/iue Oeo-Ocaiue ia
aunioa 468 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y. ?aea Oeo-Ocaiue iaaeaao ni noiiao?iaie
auniou ii o??oeaneaaeiiio ii?iao. N ecaanoiyeiaiai onooia, aunioa
eioi?iai 15 iao?ia, oe?ieei iyoeiao?iaui iioieii aiaea ia?ooeaaaony a
aeoaieee eioeiaai e no?aieony aeaeueoa ii ?oneo ?aee. Aeaeo?-Aeaeo? —
naiue iiuiue aiaeiiaae a E?uio: aai n?aaeiee iiiaieaoiee ?anoiae aiaeu
ninoaaeyao 270 eeo?ia a naeoiaeo. Ii ia ennyeaao aeaaea a naiia nooia
a?aiy aiaea.

Ca naeii Aaia?aeueneia, ?aniieiaeaiiii a aeeaiieniie ianoiinoe,
aioeoaao?ii iiaeieiathony aaee/anoaaiiua ai?u: ia naaa?i-ainoiea
Ea?aae-sseea, ia naaa?i-caiaaea — Aeaia?aeaee, a iaaeaeo ieie aeaaioneei
iinoii ?aniieiaeai a?aaaiue ai?u Ou?ea. Aeeaea e Ou?ea iaoiaeeony
aeeaiieniia ouaeuea Oaioae, aonoi ii?inoaa eanii. E ouaeueth io naea
aaaeao eaniay aei?iaa.

Anee iiaeiyoueny io aiaeiiaaea aaeieue ?aee i?eia?ii ia eeeiiao?,
ioe?uaaaony aeeaiieniay iaii?aia ii?iaia-eaneaaeia, ec eioi?uo
i?aaeiineaaeiee e iineaaeiee eiatho aunioo 28 e 60 iao?ia. Iaiiaeaeaeo
iaoiaeeony iaua?a Aeaeo?-Aeaeo? aeeeiie 750 iao?ia. Iaua?o ie?oaeaao
ean, a eioi?ii i?iec?anoatho a?aa e aoe, a oaeaea aeoa, eeia, ?yaeia,
eaueia e eecee, anoue o/anoee aeaooaaeiaiai eana, aaea ?anooo neaeueiue
aeoa, e?uineay ninia.

N ecaanoiyeiaiai onooia aunioie nauoa 12 i aiaea iecaa?aaaony
ianeieueeeie ioaaniuie no?oyie a iaaieueoia ica?oei e ioooaea oa/ao e
?oneo Oeo-Ocaiy, ia?anaeaao n.Aaia?aeueneia e ono?aieyaony aiec – e
ii?th. Neaaeoy aaa?o ii oa/aieth ia i?ioyaeaiee aaea-oi eeeiiao?a,
iiaeii oaeaeaoue na?eth eaneaaeia-ii?iaia, ii eioi?ui aiaea neaouaaaony
n onooia ia onooi, eae au ii nooiaiyi ia?iiiie eanoieoeu. Eiia/ii, a
aiaeiiaaea, ica?oea e a naiie ?a/ea aiaea aeaaea a naiue aea?eee aeaiue
i/aiue oieiaeiay. Ieoiooueny eee iinoiyoue iiae oyaeaeuie no?oyie
iiaeii, ii aeieai ia auaea?aeeoue – oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ia i?aauoaao
+10-11N. Anoue aua iaeia ?aea n iacaaieai Oeo-Ocaiue. Ii yoi oaea
Aeoooeineay Oeo-Ocaiue (aiaaeaao a ii?a iiae Aeoooie)…

Aa?oiaa aa oa/aiea neeaaeuaaaony ec aeaoo ?a/ae: Nioo-Ocaiue (oa/ao n
thaeiiai neeiia ai?u *aou?-Aeaa) e Ocaiue-Aao. Ocaiue-Aao nioneaaony n
Aaaoaai-yeeu, aaea ec iaeeeo ai?iuo ?o/ueaa, naaaathueo a ouaeuea
ssiai-Aea?a, ?iaeaeaaony ?aea. Iia oa/ao ii eaiaiiui onooiai, ia?acoy
aeeaiieniua eaneaaeu (oaeeo eaneaaeia-nooiaiae ainaiue). Iao?ia /a?ac
aeaanoe aiec ii oa/aieth ia?acoaony i/aiue yooaeoiue aiaeiiaae.
Naa?eathuea, iaiyueany no?oe aiaeu, acaeuiay oo/e a?uca, n ooiii
iaaeatho n aeaaiaaeoeaoeiao?iaie auniou. Yoi aiaeiiaae Aieiaeeineiai.
Iacaai a /anoue e?oiiiai ?onneiai aaieiaa e aeae?iaaieiaa, iiiai eao
?aaioaaoaai a E?uio. Aanueia i?eaeiaeueia ?anoeoaeueiinoue aiaeiiaaeiiai
ouaeuey. Caeanue, e?iia iau/iiai aeey e?uineeo eania aoea, anoue
aaeeinoaaiiay a E?uio ?aeeeoiaay aa?aciaay ?iua. Ia oae oae iiiai o ian
iano, aioiauo niia?ie/aoue ii e?anioa e naiaia?aceth n aa?oiaueyie ?aee
Ocaiue-Aao. Ioaeii ee iaiiieiaoue, /oi ana yoi — caiiaaaeiua ianoa,
eioi?ua o?aaotho e naaa iniaiai ioiioaiey?

Iaaeaeaei io sseou oiaea anoue naie aiaeiiaae. Ii oae e iacuaaaony –
sseoeineee. Anoue o iaai aua iaeii iacaaiea – O/ai-No (Eaoo/ay Aiaea).
Iaoiaeeony ii ia iaeiieiaiiie ?a/ea (eee, eae aua aiai?yo,
Aiaeiiaaeiie). Aeeeia aa 8,4 ei. Aa?ao ia/aei o e?iiee Ae-Iao?eineie
yeeu e oa/ao aiec n i/aiue aieueoei iaaeaieai, ia?acoy a /aou?ao ianoao
aiaeiiaaeu, ec eioi?uo naiue aieueoie e ecaanoiue – O/ai-No. Ii ai anae
e?ana aai iiaeii oaeaeaoue oieueei aaniie, ai a?aiy iaaiaeeia, eiaaea ia
Ae-Iao?e oaao niaa e iioiee aiaeu ia/eiatho n ooiii iecaa?aaoueny ni
noiiao?iaiai onooia, iaiieiyy aicaeoo ie?eaaeaie aeanoyueo a?uca. Eiaiii
oiaaea ii iieiinoueth ii?aaaeuaaao naia iacaaiea. Eaoii ii/oe any aiaea
caae?aaony aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey sseou e oieueei ianeieueei iaaieueoeo
no?oe noaoeeai naaaatho ii ioaaniie neaea. E aiaeiiaaeo iiaeii eaaei
aeieoe ii iaoaoiaeiie o?iia io inoaiiaee «O/ai-No» ia oinna
sseoa-Aao/ena?ae. Oaeaea iiaeii i?ieoe aaa?o e aeaai io Iieyiu neacie.
Ii aei?iaa iiaeii ano?aoeoue aua iaeio i/aiue aeeaiienioth ai?ioth ?a/eo
— ssocea?. Iia oaeaea ia?acoao ianeieueei iaaieueoeo, ii i/aiue
neiiaoe/iuo aiaeiiaaeia, caoai aiaaeaao a ?aeo Aiaeiiaaeioth e aianoa n
iae ono?aieyaony a ai?iae. N?aaieoaeueii niieieii oa/ao Aiaeiiaaeiay
/a?ac sseoo, ieii noaaeeiia, ieii eeiioaao?a «Nia?oae» e ecaanoiie
ainoeieoea «I?aaiaea» e nianai oaea niieieii ?anoai?yaony aicea
«Yniaiueieu» a ii?a.

A sseoo n ai? nioneaaony aua iaeia ?a/ea – Aea?aeieea, eee Auno?ay. Iu
n?aco ano?a/aai aa ii i?eacaea a ai?iae – o aaoiaiecaea. Iia oeacuaaao
iooue a oeaio?, ii aeaaiie oeeoea, e iaaa?aaeiie, a ii?o. Anee aaniie
eee iinea neeueiuo aeiaeaeae noiyoue ia aeeaiieniii iinoeea a iaeaiueeii
naaeeea o aiecaea, oi iiaeii iieo/eoue i/aiue iiuiue aae?aiaeeiiaue
ca?yae – aiaeu Aea?aeieee n ooiii e a?ioioii aoaeoo i?iiineoueny iiae
aaie ia ?annoiyiee aoeaaeueii auoyiooie ?oee, a au aoaeaoa e?aiei
aea?aeaoueny ca ia?eea, /oanoaiaaoue naay ii?neei aieeii e iaeciaiii
oaeeaeyoueny aeecianoieeinoe yoiai aa/iiai aeaeaciiai iinoi/ea.

E ?a/eai THaeiiai Aa?aaa E?uia iiaeii oaeaea ioianoe ?aeo Aaoiaeo o
Ao?cooa; ?tre Aeaia?aeaee (iacuaaaony oae aea, eae e ai?a, oae eae aa?ao
ia/aei eiaiii ia iae), ?aeo Oneoo, ?a/eo Oaeai, ?a/eoA?oao, ?a/eoAi?ii e
?a/eo Ae-Na?ac ca Aeoooie.

Anoue aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiua ?aee e a Caiaaeiii E?uio. Iie ana oaeaea
aa?oo naia ia/aei a ai?ao, a caoai, ono?aieyynue ii aeeaiieniui aeieeiai
e ii?th a ?aeiia Naaanoiiiey, aeatho yoei aeieeiai naie eiaia. Yoi oae
iacuaaaiua cieioua aeieeiu, a ?aee — Aaeueaae, Aeueia, Ea/a e *a?iay.

?aea Aaeueaae (63ei) ia naiay i?ioyaeaiiay, ii naiay iieiiaiaeiay.
Nionoeaoenue n ai? o n.N/anoeeaiai, aeieaia a?aiy oa/ao ii eioeiaeia
iaaeaeo io?iaaie Aeaaiie e Aioo?aiiae ai?iuo a?yae. O naea A?iiao a
Aaeueaae aiaaeaao aa eaaue e?oiiue i?eoie – ?aea Eieeicea, a aa?oiaueyo
eioi?ie iaoiaeeony ciaiaieoue Aieueoie Eaiueii.

Anee io n.Nieieeiiai i?ieoe aaa?o ii aei?iaa Aao/ena?ae-sseoa 5 ei e
naa?iooue aeaai, aei?iaa i?eaaaeao e ianoo neeyiey aeaoo ai?iuo ?a/ooae:
Na?u-Ocaiue e Aocoi-Ocaiue. Eiaiii caeanue ia/eiaaony ?aea Eieeicea.
Aocoi-Ocaiue, aa i?aaue i?eoie, «i?iieeee» a oieua ai? ia?iiiia ouaeuea
n ioaaniuie noaiaie, iacaaiiia Aieueoei Eaiueiiii E?uia. A ia 1,5 ei
auoa a eaiaiiii oaeoaeaiee ?aniieaaaaony naiue iiuiue ea?noiaue enoi/iee
E?uia – Iaiey (Iaiaea – i?anayoay; n a?a/.- Aiai?iaeeoea). ?yaeii –
?oeiu n?aaeiaaaeiaie oea?eae Eeeuena-Aae?.

Ea/a – n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay ?aea. Ia?aciaaeanue io neeyiey n?aco
o?ao ai?iuo ?a/ae – Aethe-Ocaie, Iana?u e Aeiiaa. Yoi caiiaaaeiua ianoa,
e aeieeiu yoeo ?a/ae — n?aaee naiuo e?aneauo oaieeia E?uia. ?a/ee
naaaatho a ia?iiioth /aoo, ia?aciaaiioth aeaoiy ai?iuie o?aaoaie n
ai?aie Aieueoay e Iaeay *o/aeue, *a?iay, Aaniai e Ea?iai. I?ic?a/iua
iioiee aaaoo n?aaee aunieinoaieueiuo aoeiauo eania, aonoi iie?uaathueo
neeiiu ai?. Eia-aaea ?onea caa?iiiaeaeaiu noaieaie ia?iiiuo aoeia, a
auoa caaaeia, ia neeiiao o iaeeeo ?iaeieeia, anee iiaacao, iiaeii
oaeaeaoue iaeoaoaeae caiiaaaeiiai eana – ieaiae e aeeeeo eaaaiia. Ca
o?aaoii Aaniai-Ea?iai eaaeeo aeieeia Eaniaiu, a ca neaaeothuei
iaaieueoei o?aaoii – aeieeia Noeee. Iaa yoe ?a/ee – i?eoiee Ea/e. O naea
I?aaeouaeueiiai iaoiaeeony iaeaieaa aicauoaiiay /anoue a?yaeu; eiaiii
caeanue ia?aciaaeenue oae iacuaaaiua Ea/eineea ai?ioa, eee Ea/eineee
Eaiueii. Neiaa ouaeuea, neeiiu eioi?iai iie?uou caeaiie aao?iiie eana,
aieoaia iaai – ana aia/aoeyao. A yoii ianoa aeieeiu ethaee naeeeenue
iiiai ouny/ eao iacaae: a a?ioa aaeece naea I?aaeouaeueiiai iaeaeaia
noiyiea iaua?iiai /aeiaaea.

?aea *a?iay – naiay caiaaeiay ?aea e aoi?ay iinea Aaeueaaea ii
iieiiaiaeiinoe. Caeanue anoue i/aiue ethaiiuoiia ianoi – Aaeaea?neay
aeieeia. Ieineia aeieua aa ni anao noi?ii ie?oaeaii ai?aie, e ni neeiiia
naaaatho auno?ua ?a/ooee. Naia aeieeia eiaao iaaeueioth oi?io (aeeeia
16-17 ei, oe?eia 7-8 ei). A aeieeia 4 naea, a a oeaio?a – e?oiiia
aiaeio?aieeeua, niaaaeathuaa aiaeie Naaanoiiieue. Iaeia ec ?ae aeieeiu
iineo iacaaiea Ocoiaeaea. Aa ieoaao iaaieueoie ea?noiaue enoi/iee
Nooe-No. Ii ai?acaei aieaa cia/eoaeueia ?ieue Neaeueneiai enoi/ieea
(aoi?iai ii aaee/eia a E?uio iinea Iaiee). Oaeoe/anee n yoiai ianoa ?aea
noaiiaeony ianoiyuae ?aeie e iacuaaaony *a?iay. Ana ?a/ee Aaeaea?neie
aeieeiu ono?aieythony a iaa. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee, aa?ucaynue a
neaeu, ?aea ia?aciaaea ecoieoaeueiue ii e?anioa eaiueii. Ii eaaeeo a
noi?iia io oo?enoe/aneeo o?ii, iinauaaony iaei, oae eae aoiaeeo a ciio
no?iaiai aiaeiio?aiiiai ?aaeeia. Ianoa caeanue iaiau/aeii aeeaiieniua.
Iaaenathuea i?a/iua neaeu, oeoeia, ia?ooaaiay eeoue iiiioiiiui ooiii
aiaeu, a?iciay e?anioa neae, ooiaeyueo e iaao, i?ic?a/iue aieoaie
aicaeoo. A naiii ia/aea eaiueiia auneony e?aniay, eae au n?acaiiay n
iaeiiai aiea iiaeii, neaea Eecee-Eay. Aeaeaa neeiiu i?eia?aoatho
ineaieoaeueii aaeue oeaao, a ianoaie ei?e/iaaua eee na?ua oiia – e oae
aei naiiai auoiaea ?aee ia ?aaieio. Aei neo ii? ia ecaanoii, eae
ia?aciaaeny *a?ii?a/aineee eaiueii. E?oaa?, ecaanoiue enneaaeiaaoaeue
e?uineiai ea?noa, i?aaeiieaaae, /oi yoi ?acoeueoao i?iaaea ia?iiiie
iaua?u iaae o/anoeii iiaecaiiiai oa/aiey ?aee. Ii aieueoeinoai
niaoeeaeenoia neeiiythony e iunee, /oi aa?oiauey ?a/ee iinoaiaiii
a?acaeenue a ai?iua ianneau, ie?oaeathuea Aaeaea?neoth eioeiaeio, iiea
ia aeinoeaee aa i?aaeaeia. 17ei oa/ao ?aea *a?iay ii eaiueiio. Ca naeii
*a?ii?a/aineei aa?aaa aeieeiu ionooiatho, e aei aiaaeaiey a ii?a yoio
o/anoie iineo iacaaiea Eiea?iaineie aeieeiu…

Iacaaiea *??iay ia eiaao ioiioaiey e oeaaoo ?aee, a auei aeaii ?onneei
ianaeaieai ii nicao/eth n aieaa ?aiiei iacaaieai *i?aoi.

Ii neeiiai Aaeaea?neie aeieeiu iaoiaeeony ?yae aiaeioieia, ieoathueo
?aeo a aa?oiae /anoe. Iinoiyiiia oa/aiea a ?onea eiiaaea i?a?uaaaony:
?aea ne?uaaaony a iaiinao, inoaaeyy ?onei nooei. Iii iaiieiyaony aiaeie
iinea eeaiae e iaaiaeeia. Ieaea aiaaeaiey ?aee O?eonou *??iay anooiaao a
oceia ouaeuea aeeeiie ieiei 16 ei. Ooo iia oa/?o, naeaaeaiiay ii/oe
ioaaniuie neaeaie, e a? oa/aiea oneeeaaaony. Ineaaeaiea oa/aiey
ianooiaao iinea auoiaea ?aee a Eiea?iaineoth aeieeio. Caeanue a *??ioth
aiaaeaao aeaa i?aauo i?eoiea, iaeei ec eioi?uo (Ae-Oiaei?ea) eiaao
aeinoaoi/ioth aiaeiiiniinoue, oae eae aai ieoatho enoi/ieee, a ae?oaie
(Nooay) — i?eiineo a ?aeo aeiaeaeaaua aiaeu.

A aa?oiaueyo ?aee nii?oaeaii iiiaeanoai aiaeio?aieeeu, niaaaeathueo
i?aniie aiaeie ai?iae Naaanoiiieue. A n?aaeiai oa/aiee ?aea i?ioaeaao ii
aeeaiieniiio ouaeueth, ecaanoiiio iiae iacaaieai *a?ii?a/aineee eaiueii.
Ia?aae eaiueiiii ia ?aea nii?oaeaii *a?ii?a/aineia aiaeio?aieeeua.

I?e onouea ?aee *??iie iaoiaeyony Eiea?iaineee iaua?iue iiianou?ue e
inoaoee n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ai?iaea Aaeeoa (n e?aiinoueth Eaeaieoa), auaoaai
oi?aiaui ii?oii eiyaeanoaa Oaiaei?i.

Aiaeiiaae O/a?i-No (oe?. O/ai-No, e?uineioao. Ucan Suv, O/ai Noa) —
aiaeiiaae a E?uio, ia iaeiiei?iiie ?aea, naiue aunieee aiaeiiaae
Oe?aeiu. Iaoiaeeony ia aunioa 390 iao?ia iaae o?iaiai ii?y ia thaeiii
neeiia ai?u Ae-Iao?e a oanoe eeeiiao?ao e naaa?o io sseou. Aunioa
aiaeiiaaea — 98,5 iao?ia.

Iacaaiea aiaeiiaaea icia/aao «eaoyuay aiaea» a ia?aaiaea n
thaeiiaa?aaeiiai aeeaeaeoa e?uineioaoa?neiai ycuea (ucan – eaoyuee, suv
– aiaea). Ecaanoiu oaeaea e ae?oaea iacaaiey aiaeiiaaea: E?aianoi-Ia?i
(ae?.-a?a/. ????????? ????? — «aenyuay aiaea») e Aea?-No (e?uineioao.
Aqar Suv — «oaeouay aiaea»).

Aiaeiiaae O/ai-No iaeaieaa yooaeoii niio?eony ai a?aiy eeaiae e
niaaioayiey ia yeea. A eaoiaa a?aiy ii i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth
ia?anuoaao, a no?iaua ceiu eiiaaea caia?caao. N?aaeiaaiaeiaie ?anoiae
na?anuaaaiie aiaeu ninoaaeyao 50 e/n. I?e iaaeaiee O/ai-No ia?acoao aeaa
eaneaaea: ia aoi?ii eaneaaea nii?oaeaii iaaieueoia no?iaiea n
aiaeicaai?ii e neoeueioo?ie i?ea ia e?uoa. Ionthaea aiaea iinooiaao a
Iiaaaeineia aiaeio?aieeeua (300 oun. i?) e caoai eniieuecoaony aeey
aiaeiniaaaeaiey sseou.

Aiaeiiaae ia?aciaai ?aeie O/ai-No, eioi?ay aa??o ia/aei iiae e?iieie
Ae-Iao?eineie yeeu ia cia/eoaeueiie aunioa e oa/ao aiec n i/aiue
aieueoei oeeiiii. A naiai ieaeiai oa/aiee ?aea ia?acoao au? o?e
iaaieueoeo aiaeiiaaea. O/ai-No i?ioaeaao /a?ac caiaaeioth /anoue sseou,
aiaaeay a ii?a o ainoeieoeu «I?aaiaea». Aeeeia ?aee — 7 ei, ieiuaaeue
aiaeinai?iiai aannaeia — 28,9 ei?. A 1947 a. aiaeiiaae O/ai-No aue
iauyaeai caiiaaaeiui, n 1973 a. — yoi oa??eoi?ey sseoeineiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ai?ii-eaniiai caiiaaaeieea.

A?iaoneee aiaeiiaae. Iaoiaeeony ia naaa?a io naea Caeaiiai?uea a o?i/eua
Iaiaaey ia ?aea Iaiaiueyi-Ocaiue (“nayoay ?aea”). Ieaea ii oa/aieth ?aea
iacuaaaony A?iao, a aua ieaea – Oneoo. Aunioa aiaeiiaaea – ieiei 10 i.
Iiae aiaeiiaaeii iaoiaeyony 10-15 ii?iaia.

Aiaeiiaae Aeaeo?ea. Aeaeo?ea a ia?aaiaea n oaoa?neiai – “aaaouay”. Na?ey
iaaunieeo eaneaaeia iaoiaeeony ia aunioa 820 i i.o.i. a oa/aiee ?o/uey
Aeaeo?ea. A ieaeiae /anoe ?a/ea iacuaaaony Nioa?a, aua ieaea – Aeaea.
Oaeia ?aciiia?acea a iacaaieyo naycaii n oai, /oi oaoa?u ia aini?eieiaee
?aee eae aaeeiia oeaeia e aeaaaee iacaaiea ia ?aea, a ianoiinoe, a
eioi?ie iia oa/ao.

?aea Naia?eei. oaeaea Niia?ee, THc-Iaa (oe?. Naia?e?, e?uineioao.
Samarl?, Naia?eu) — ia?anuoathuay ?aea ia Ea?/aineii iieoino?iaa, a
E?uio. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe aiaea ?onei ?aee inoa?ony nooei,
aiaea a i?i iaaethaeaaony aeaaiui ia?acii aaniie, a ia?eiae niaaioayiey,
e ai a?aiy inaaeeia eeaiaaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ia/eiaaony a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Ea?/aineiai iieoino?iaa o naea Oiioai
Eaieineiai ?aeiia. A n?aaeiai oa/aiee o naea naei Eaieineia a 1972 aiaeo
iino?iaii Eaieineia aiaeio?aieeeua iau?iii 7,7 iei.i?. Aiaeio?aieeeua
caiieiaii aeiai?ianeie aiaeie, iinooiathuae ec Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea.
Ieaea ii oa/aieth, iinea ia?ana/aiey ?aeie Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea a
anoanoaaiiie eioeiaeia nii?oaeaii Naia?eeineia aiaeio?aieeeua iau?iii 9
iei. i?, oaeaea caiieiyaiia aeiai?ianeie aiaeie. O naea Eaieineia ?onei
Naia?ee ia i?ioyaeaiee 3,9 ei ni?yieaii e eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa
eieeaeoi?a, ioaiaeyuaai eieeaeoi?ii-ae?aiaaeiua aiaeu n ieiuaaee 487 aa.

?aniieiaeaiiia iaiiaeae?eo io Aeoaoneiai ica?a ieciauea ?aee Naia?ee
oa?yaony a caaiei/aiiuo Anoaieineeo ieaaiyo — i?ieoieiae/aneii caeacieea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai cia/aiey. Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a 10 ei io
Eacaioeineiai i?e?iaeiiai caiiaaaeieea.

?aea Naia?eei oaeaea Niia?ee, THc-Iaa (oe?. Naia?e?, e?uineioao.
Samarly, Naia?eu) — ia?anuoathuay ?aea ia Ea?/aineii iieoino?iaa, a
E?uio. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe aiaea ?onei ?aee inoa?ony nooei,
aiaea a i?i iaaethaeaaony aeaaiui ia?acii aaniie, a ia?eiae niaaioayiey,
e ai a?aiy inaaeeia eeaiaaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ia/eiaaony a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Ea?/aineiai iieoino?iaa o naea Oiioai
Eaieineiai ?aeiia. A n?aaeiai oa/aiee o naea naei Eaieineia a 1972 aiaeo
iino?iaii Eaieineia aiaeio?aieeeua iau?iii 7,7 iei.i?. Aiaeio?aieeeua
caiieiaii aeiai?ianeie aiaeie, iinooiathuae ec Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea.
Ieaea ii oa/aieth, iinea ia?ana/aiey ?aeie Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea a
anoanoaaiiie eioeiaeia nii?oaeaii Naia?eeineia aiaeio?aieeeua iau?iii 9
iei. i?, oaeaea caiieiyaiia aeiai?ianeie aiaeie. O naea Eaieineia ?onei
Naia?ee ia i?ioyaeaiee 3,9 ei ni?yieaii e eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa
eieeaeoi?a, ioaiaeyuaai eieeaeoi?ii-ae?aiaaeiua aiaeu n ieiuaaee 487 aa.

?aniieiaeaiiia iaiiaeae?eo io Aeoaoneiai ica?a ieciauea ?aee Naia?ee
oa?yaony a caaiei/aiiuo Anoaieineeo ieaaiyo — i?ieoieiae/aneii caeacieea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai cia/aiey. Caeaciee ?aniieiaeai a 10 ei io
Eacaioeineiai i?e?iaeiiai caiiaaaeieea.

?aea *aou?euie. (oe?. *aoe?eee, e?uineioao. Catyrlyq, *aou?eueu) — ?aea
a E?uio. Ia/eiaaony ia Oa?oaieoonei-Aaiaoi?eeneii iiaeiyoee o iin?eea
Iiain?eianeia (O?aeaei?o) ?acaeieueiaineiai ?aeiia, oa/?o ia ainoie,
caoai iiai?a/eaaao caoai ia naaa?, aiaaeaao a Ea?eeieoneee caeea *??iiai
ii?y aaeece ai?iaea E?aniiia?aeiine.

Aieueoay /anoue ?aee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nooi?a/uea. *anoue ?onea
ni?yieaia e eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa i?ineoaeueiuo eaiaeia. Aiaea
iinooiaao ec Naaa?i-E?uineiai e ?acaeieueiaineiai eaiaeia. A 1966 aiaeo
auea iino?iaia aeaiaa, ioaeaeeaoay onouea *aou?euea io Ea?eeieoneiai
caeeaa. Ia?aciaaaoeany i?oaeu ieiuaaeueth 2 oun. aa eniieuecothony aeey
au?aueaaiey ?uau.

?aiaa e?oiiaeoei i?eoieii *aou?euea auea ?aea Ai?iioeiaea. A? iieia
caieiaea ouny/e aaeoa?ia. Nae/an Ai?iioeiaea ii eneonnoaaiiiio ?oneo
aiaaeaao a Ea?eeieoneee caeea *??iiai ii?y.

?aea Iiie?ue Eiaeiie, oaeaea Eiaeie (oe?. Iie?ee ?iaeie, ?iaeie,
e?uineioao. Suvlu Yndol, Noaeo Eiaeie) — ?aea a ainoi/iii E?uio. Aa??o
ia/aei ia naaa?iuo neeiiao Aeaaiie a?yaeu E?uineeo ai?. Ia?anaeaao
Aioo?aiithth a?yaeo o naea Oiiie?aea (Oiieo) Aaeiai?neiai ?aeiia. Iinea
no?ieoaeuenoaa a 60-a aiaeu XX aaea Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea ?onei
Iie?iai Eiaeiea auei ia?aiai?aaeaii e ?aea aiaaeaao a Ainoi/iue Aoeaaiae
a 2 ei io caeeaa Neaao. ?aiaa ?aea aiaaeaea a Neaao naiinoiyoaeueii.

Eae e o aieueoeinoaa ?ae E?uia aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei Iie?iai Eiaeiea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy ia?eiaeaie: iaaiaei/iui ceiia-aanaiiei e
iaaeaiiui eaoia-inaiiei, ia i?ioyaeaiee eioi?uo a n?aaeiai i?ioiaeeo
niioaaonoaaiii 80-95% e 5-20% noiea.

I?eoiee Iie?iai Eiaeiea: No-Eiaeie, Naea, I?oaeaiea.

?aea Aea?aeiieea eee Auino?ay (oe?. Aea?aeieea, e?uineioao. Derekoey,
Aea?aeie) — ?aea, i?ioaeathuay ii THaeiiio aa?aao E?uia. Aiaaeaao a
*??iia ii?a a /a?oa ai?iaea sseoa. Ia?aua 2 ei ?aea eiaao oeeii ?onea
aieaa, /ai 120 i ia 1 ei. Ia ia/aea 3 ei io enoieia iiaa?oiinoiia
oa/aiea ?aee ne?uaaaony a eaiaienoi-aaea/iuo iaiinao e caoai iiyaeyaony
/a?ac 1,5 ei o neae Ouna?-Eay. Ieoaiea ?aee aeiaeaeaaia, niaaiaia e
iiaecaiiia (ea?noiaua enoi/ieee). A ?aeo aiaaeatho aiaeu aieaa 60
?iaeieeia. Iaeaieaa e?oiiue ec ieo — Iannaiae?ianeee aiaeiiaae ni
n?aaeiaiiiaieaoiei ?anoiaeii aiaeu — 0,23 i?/n. Iaeaieueoee ?anoiae
aiaeu a Aea?aeieea a oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea, a iaaeaiue (aieioue aei
iieiiai ia?anuoaiey a ieaeiai oa/aiee) iaaethaeaaony n ethey ii ieoya?ue

Ia i?aaii aa?aao Iie?iai Eiaeiea o naea O/aaiia (Aa?oiee Oiieo)
Aaeiai?neiai ?aeiia iaoiaeeony Nayoi-Ia?aneaaeineee (Oiieianeee)
aeaineee iiianou?ue

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