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Равноточные и неравноточные измерения, оценка точности функций измеренных величин. Построение поперечного масштаба

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21

ДЕПАРТАМЕНТ ВЫСШИХ УЧЕБНЫХ ЗАВЕДЕНИЙ

Волгоградская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия

Кафедра: _____________________

Дисциплина: Инженерная геодезия

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА

Выполнила: студентка третьего курса,

заочного отделения, группы 32 ЭМЗ, 04/040

Фастова Надежда Александровна

Волгоград 2006г.

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

В задание входит решение 3-х задач по теории ошибок. Задача 1 относится
к типу задач на равноточные измерения, задача 2 – на неравноточные
измерения и задача 3 – на оценку точности функций измеренных величин.

При решении задач по теории ошибок пользуются формулами, приведенными
ниже, в которых приняты следующие обозначения:

Х – истинное значение измеряемой величины;

?,L,H – результат измерения расстояния, угла или высоты;

n – число измерений;

p – вес результата измерений;

l о – вероятнейшее значение результата измерения,

? =l –Х – истинная ошибка результата измерений;

v=l-l o – отклонение результата измерения от вероятнейшего значения;

ср.кв. ош. – средняя квадратическая ошибка;

m – ср.кв.ош. одного измерения, вычисленная из ряда измерений;
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–
ср.кв.ош. единицы веса;

М – ср.кв.ош. вероятнейшего значения;

1/N – относительная ошибка.

Непосредственные измерения

Название формулыИзмеренияравноточныенеравноточныеВероятнейшее значениеLо
=picscalex1000100090000039501000003001c000000000005000000090200000000050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Lo=picscalex1000100090000031301000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000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picscalex1000100090000030502000003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Lo=picscalex1000100090000039701000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000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Ср.кв. ошибка
одного
измеренияm=picscalex1000100090000039b01000004001c00000000000500000009020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m=picscalex100010009000003cf01000004001c00000000000500000009020000000005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Ср.кв.
ошибка единицы
весаpicscalex100010009000003c900000002001c000000000005000000090200000000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Ср.кв.ош. вероятнейшего
значенияM=picscalex100010009000003f300000004001c000000000005000000090200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picscalex100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Зависимость между весом и ср.кв.ош., где
с–произв.
пост.числоР=picscalex100010009000003510000000000120000000000050000000902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*Если
значение m неизвестно, то величина веса p назначается по формулам для
нивелирования
p=picscalex100010009000003df00000003001c00000000000500000009020000000005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или
p=picscalex100010009000003c300000003001c00000000000500000009020000000005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;

где l – число километров в ходе, n – число станций в ходе; для угловых
измерений

P=c*k,

где к – число приемов при измерении угла.

Задача 1а (вариант 0, т.к последняя цифра 40)

Расстояние измерялось стальной двадцатиметровой лентой 3 раза. Требуется
определить:

1) вероятнейшее значение расстояния;

2)ср.кв.ош. одного измерения;

3)ср.кв.ош. вероятнейшего значения;

4) относительную ошибку окончательного результата.

Схема решения задачи:

Номера измеренийРезультаты измерений, мv=l-l o ,
смV21248,77492248,56-7493248,6300l
o248,63picscalex1000100090000034d01000002001c000000000005000000090200000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Решение:

1)
Lo=picscalex1000100090000031301000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000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picscalex100010009000003530100000300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;

2)
m=picscalex100010009000003cf01000004001c00000000000500000009020000000005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=picsc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см;

3)
M=picscalex100010009000003f300000004001c00000000000500000009020000000005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picscalex100010009000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 см;

4)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.

Ответ: Lo=248,63; m=+-7 см; M=+-4,042 см; 1/6151,2.

Задача 1б

От трех реперов проложены нивелирные ходы к новому реперу, по каждому
ходу определена высота этого репера.

Номер ходаВысота репера НДлина хода l ,
км1181,52522181,51843181,5075Определить вероятнейшее значение высоты
репера и ее среднюю квадратическую ошибку.

За вес – р нивелирного хода следует принять величину обратную длине хода
l.

Схема задачи:

№ ходаВысота репера, НДлина хода l , кмВес
р=picscalex100010009000003bb00000003001c00000000000500000009020000000005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H-Hopvpv212345671181,52520,55-2,512,52181,51840,25-82163181,50750,2-132,
633,8181,520,954,6 и -2,562,3

Решение:

1) по формуле Но
=picscalex1000100090000039701000003001c000000000005000000090200000000050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 находим
вероятнейшее значение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0 (или близко к
нулю);

Но =
picscalex100010009000003c601000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02e00300211200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
bcffffffc02000009c0300000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000c0000800
0000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014020002400005000000
13020002141b1c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d657320
4e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000800
0000320a6002441f02000000353208000000320a6002e41e010000002e3209000000320a
6002a41c030000003138316508000000320a9003800d02000000393508000000320a9003
200d010000002e3508000000320a9003600c01000000303508000000320a6a01461a0100
0000323508000000320a6a01e619010000002e3508000000320a6a012619010000003035
08000000320a6a013618010000002a3509000000320a6a01c01503000000353037650800
0000320a6a016015010000002e3009000000320a6a012013030000003138316508000000
320a6a01621002000000323508000000320a6a010210010000002e3508000000320a6a01
420f01000000303508000000320a6a01520e010000002a3509000000320a6a01e80b0300
00003531386508000000320a6a01880b010000002e3109000000320a6a01480903000000
3138316508000000320a6a014a0701000000353808000000320a6a01ea06010000002e38
08000000320a6a012a0601000000303808000000320a6a013a05010000002a3809000000
320a6a01d002030000003532356508000000320a6a017002010000002e3209000000320a
6a01300003000000313831651c000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000000204020010
53796d626f6c007740000000a6090a77b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca770000300004000000
2d01020004000000f001010008000000320a60028e1b010000003d3808000000320a6a01
2412010000002b3808000000320a6a014c08010000002b380a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d000000000a0021008a010000000001000000f8f31200b9c1c777040000002d010100
04000000f0010200030000000000

Р1=picscalex100010009000003bb00000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000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2/4=0,5;

Р2=picscalex100010009000003bb00000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000
5000000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020
0000000050000000c02e00320011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0fff
fffbcffffffe00000009c0300000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000c0000
8000000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014020002400005000
00013020002e0001c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d657
3204e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000
8000000320a90034e00010000006c7908000000320a6a0154000100000069790a0000002
6060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0
102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a0100000000ffffffff98f31200b9c1c7770
40000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000000=4/16=0,25;

Р3=picscalex100010009000003bb00000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000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5/25=0,2.
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0,95.

2) ср.кв.ош. веса:

picscalex100010009000003c900000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02a001c0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
2600000080020000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0077400000001809
0a68b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a0001a401
010000003d791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c
0077400000006c090aeab7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a00014000010000006d790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff
0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
000000000a0021008a010000000000000000f8f31200b9c1c777040000002d0100000400
0000f0010100030000000000picscalex100010009000003cf01000004001c0000000000
0500000009020000000005000000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01
18000000050000000b0200000000050000000c028004c0041200000026060f001a00ffff
ffff000010000000c0ffffffbdffffff800400003d0400000b00000026060f000c004d61
7468547970650000d0001c000000fb0283fde30000000000900100000002040200105379
6d626f6c00774000000078090afeb7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01
000008000000320ae6015201010000005b791c000000fb0283fde3000000000090010000
00020402001053796d626f6c00774000000075090a4fb7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca770000
3000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae601f903010000005d790800
0000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014028002440105000000
130280025204050000001402cb024800050000001302af02790008000000fa0200002000
000000000000040000002d010200050000001402b70279000500000013022604c0000400
00002d0100000500000014022604c8000500000013024b0026010500000014024b002601
0500000013024b0072041c000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000000040200105469
6d6573204e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01
030004000000f001010008000000320a100482030100000031791c000000fb0220ff0000
000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5
c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001030008000000320a3e015d03
0100000032791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c
00774000000078090a00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0103000400
0000f001010008000000320a10048c02010000002d791c000000fb0280fe000000000000
9001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0
ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001030008000000320a10047e0101000000
6e7908000000320aea01de010200000070760a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000
00001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00000000
0a0021008a010000000003000000f8f31200b9c1c777040000002d01030004000000f001
0100030000000000=picscalex1000100090000036701000004001c00000000000500000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 мм;

V= H-Ho

V1=(181,525-181,52)*1000=5,

V2=-8,

V3=-13.

рv1=-2,5, pv2=2, pv3=2,6.

pv21=12,5, pv22=16, pv23=33,8.

M=picscalex1000100090000036f01000004001c00000000000500000009020000000005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picscalex10001000900000367010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мм.

Ответ: Но =181,52;
picscalex100010009000003c900000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02a001c0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
2600000080020000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0077400000001809
0a68b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a0001a401
010000003d791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c
0077400000006c090aeab7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a00014000010000006d790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff
0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
000000000a0021008a010000000000000000f8f31200b9c1c777040000002d0100000400
0000f0010100030000000000+-5,58 мм; M=+-5,72 мм.

Задача 1в

Вариант 0

Пронивелирован ход между реперами 1,23,4. Вычислить сумму превышений
между реперами 1 и 4 и ее среднюю квадратическую ошибку, если:

h1.2 =2,781 м, m1,2=+-9 мм;

h2,3= -3,517 м, m2,3=+-7 мм,

h3,4 =1,284 м. m3,4=+-10 мм.

Решение:

h1.4= h1.2 + h2,3+ h3,4=0,548 м,

M=picscalex100010009000003f300000004001c00000000000500000009020000000005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picscalex100010009000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мм.

Ответ: h1.4=0,548м, M=+-15 мм.

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

Построение поперечного масштаба и отложение по нему отрезков линий в
различных масштабах.

Вариант 0

Масштабрасстояние1/2000138,421/5000127,541/10000378,34

1. 1 см на плане соответствует 50 м на местности;

2. 1 см на плане соответствует 20 м на местности;

3. 1 см на плане соответствует 100 м на местности.

(Чертеж прилагается).

ЗАДАНИЕ 3

Камеральная обработка результатов съемки.

1. Вычислить координаты точек теодолитных ходов: замкнутого и
диагонального.

2. По вычисленным координатам точек составить план в масштабе 1/2000 и
по данным абриса съемки нанести ситуацию на план.

Результаты измерений и исходные данные:

а)величины углов и горизонтальных проложений, полученные в результате
измерений:

№ точекИзмеренные углыДлины сторон, м195 59224,99283 08201,943128
46208,04478 37126,705152 29192,471Диагональный ход4590 34130,336208
30189,65233 303

б)дирекционный угол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277 46 начальной стороны;

в) координаты точек 1: Х1=8 000,00; У1=6 000,00;

г) схема теодолитного хода на рис.

д) горизонтальные углы измерены теодолитом Т30.
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21

Рис. Схема съемочного обоснования

1. Вычисление координат точек теодолитного хода

Запись исходных данных в ведомость ординат

Последовательность вычислений:

Определение угловой невязки и распределение поправок в углы.

Суммируют величины всех измеренных углов полигона и записывают
практическую сумму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 под общей
чертой. Затем вычисляют теоретическую сумму углов полигона по формуле:

picscalex100010009000003eb01000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c028002600d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
b7ffffff200d0000370200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000070001c00
0000fb0205fee300000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0077400000008108
0a90b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a9e015a09
0100000028791c000000fb0205fee300000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c
0077400000005c090a50b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a9e01cc0c0100000029791c000000fb0280fe000000000000
9001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0
ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320aa001000c01000000
327909000000320aa001790603000000313830651c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001
000000020402001053796d626f6c0077400000005c090a51b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca77
00003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001e00a010000002d38
08000000320aa0016305010000003d381c000000fb02c0fd000000000000900100000002
0402001053796d626f6c0077400000009d090ad6b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000
040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320af901370001000000e5381c000000
fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00
b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000
320aa001d209010000006e381c000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc04020010
54696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca770000300004000000
2d01000004000000f001010008000000320af400c00801000000ee3809000000320a0002
ea0204000000f2e5eef01c000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000002040200105379
6d626f6c0077400000005c090a53b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01
010004000000f001000008000000320aa00103020100000062e50a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d000000000a0021008a010000000000000000f8f31200b9c1c777040000002d01
000004000000f0010100030000000000, где n – число углов теодолитного хода.

Угловая невязка теодолитного хода:
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Вычисленная угловая невязка не должна превышать предельную:

Пред.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Для теодолита Т30 m=0,5. Тогда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 .Если полученная невязка окажется меньше
предельной, то поправки вводятся на все измеренные углы, учитывая
следующие правила:

1. поправки имеют знак, обратный знаку невязки;

2. поправки вводятся поровну во все измеренные углы. Для простоты
вычислений допускается введение таких поправок, чтобы исправленные
значения углов имели целое число минут;

3. абсолютная сумма поправок должен быть равна невязке.

Сумма исправленных углов должна равняться сумме углов полигона.

Вычисление дирекционных углов теодолитного хода

Дирекционные углы для каждой стороны вычисляют по формуле:
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, где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– дирекционный угол предыдущей стороны ход;

picscalex100010009000003c900000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c024002e0011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffffa0010000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000060001c00
0000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320ae0012901
010000006e791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c
00774000000089080ac7b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a80011c000100000061790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff
0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
000000000a0021008a010000000000000000f8f31200b9c1c777040000002d0100000400
0000f0010100030000000000– дирекционный угол последующей стороны;
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– исправленный угол, лежащий вправо по ходу
между стороной с известным дирекционным углом и следующей стороной.

Например, если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 – известен, то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 будет равен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, где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– угол при второй точке. Дирекционные углы всех
последующих сторон вычисляются в том же порядке. Контролем правильности
вычисления дирекционных углов является получение исходного дирекционного
угла через дирекционный угол последней стороны и первый исправленный
угол.

277 46,00+180=457 46-83 08=374 38-360=14 38+180=194 38-128 46=65
52+180=245 52-78 37=167 15+180=347 15-152 29=193 46.

167 15+180=347 15-90 35=256 40+180=436 40-208 31=228 09.

Если дирекционный угол получается больше 360о, как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, то необходимо из него вычесть 360о. Если после
прибавки 180о к дирекционному углу исправленный угол не вычитается из
него, то необходимо добавить еще 360о, а затем вычитать исправленный
угол
picscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02000280011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
c6ffffff40010000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c007740000000a708
0ab0b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a60014000
0100000062790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb0210000700
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a0100000000ffff
fffff8f31200b9c1c777040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000. В
конце вычислений необходимо получить исходный дирекционный угол.

Вычисление румбов

Вычисленные дирекционные углы переводят в румбы по одной из формул,
данных на рисунке, в зависимости от величины дирекционного угла.

picscalex1100100090000032a0200000200a20100000000a201000026060f003a03574d
46430100000000000100298a000000000100000018030000000000001803000001000000
6c0000000000000000000000350000006f00000000000000000000009236000073260000
20454d4600000100180300001200000002000000000000000000000000000000bf120000
121a0000cb0000001a010000000000000000000000000000f8180300904d040016000000
0c000000180000000a0000001000000000000000000000000900000010000000e40c0000
15090000250000000c0000000e000080250000000c0000000e000080120000000c000000
01000000520000007001000001000000a4ffffff00000000000000000000000090010000
000000cc04400022430061006c0069006200720069000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000110080ae110010000000e4b1110064af110052516032e4b11100dcae110010000000
4cb01100c8b1110024516032e4b11100dcae11002000000049642f31dcae1100e4b11100
20000000ffffffffcc32d200d0642f31ffffffffffff0180ffff01800fff0180ffffffff
000000000008000000080000d4fb5c0401000000000000005802000025000000372e9001
cc00020f0502020204030204ef0200a07b20004000000000000000009f00000000000000
430061006c0069006200720000000000410e0000a4af1100dee32e31e88d083204b31100
10af11009c38273104000000010000004caf11004caf1100e87825310400000074af1100
cc32d2006476000800000000250000000c00000001000000250000000c00000001000000
250000000c00000001000000180000000c00000000000002540000005400000000000000
00000000350000006f000000010000008d5c874016368740000000005700000001000000
4c000000040000000000000000000000e40c000015090000500000002000ffff36000000
46000000280000001c0000004744494302000000ffffffffffffffffe50c000016090000
000000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c0000000e000080
250000000c0000000e0000800e0000001400000000000000100000001400000004000000
03010800050000000b0200000000050000000c026101f301040000002e0118001c000000
fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010000040000002d01000004000000
020101001c000000fb02f2ff0000000000009001000000cc0440002243616c6962726900
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d01010004000000
2d010100040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a0d00000001000400
00000000f3016001201d0800040000002d010000040000002d010000030000000000

21

Рис. Зависимость между дирекционными углами и румбами.

r2 =180-167 15=12 45;

r3 =193 46-180=13 46; r3 =256 40-180=76 40; r3 =228 09-180=48 09;

r4 =360-277 46=82 14.

Вычисление приращений координат, невязок и координат точек.

Приращение координат ?Х и ?У есть разности координат двух точек по оси Х
и по оси У. Приращения координат по абсолютной величине вычисляют по
формулам:

?Х=/d*cospicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c0000000000050000000902000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/d*cos r/;

?У=/d*sinpicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c0000000000050000000902000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/d*sin r/;

где d – горизонтальное проложение;
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–
дирекционный угол;

r – румб.

Для нахождения cos r и sin r – значений тригонометрических функций румба
линии используют «Пятизначную таблицу тригонометрических функций».
Горизонтальное проложение следует умножить на все пятизначное число,
выражающее синус или косинус, а результат округлить до сотых долей
метра.

1. 224,99* cos82 14=224,99*0,1363=30,66,

2. 201,94* cos14 38=201,94*0,9678=195,44,

3. 208,04* cos65 52=208,04*0,4078=84,84,

4. 126,70* cos12 45=126,70*0,9757=123,62,

5. 192,47* cos13 46=192,47*0,9710=186,89,

6. 130,33* cos76 40=130,33*0,2294=29,90,

7. 189,65* cos48 09=189,65*0,6671=126,51.

1. 224,99* sin82 14=224,99*0,9908=222,92,

2. 201,94* sin14 38=201,94*0,2527=51,03,

3. 208,04* sin65 52=208,04*0,9126=189,86,

4. 126,70* sin12 45=126,70*0,2207=27,96,

5. 192,47* sin13 46=192,47*0,2379=45,79,

6. 130,33* sin76 40=130,33*0,9731=126,82,

7. 189,65* sin48 09=189,65*0,7449=141,27.

Перед значениями ?Х и ?У ставят знак плюс (+) или минус (-) согласно
названию румба:

Название румбовЗнак приращения координат?Х?У123СВ++ЮВ-+ЮЗ–СЗ+-

Затем подсчитывают алгебраические суммы для ?Х и ?У. Теоретическая сумма
приращений замкнутого хода должна равняться нулю, т.е.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,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. Из-за неизбежности случайных ошибок измерений это условие
не выполняется и величины сумм ?Х и ?У будут являться невязками по оси Х
и по оси У.

Абсолютная невязка теодолитного хода представляет собой гипотенузу
прямоугольного треугольника с катетами, равными fx и fy,, т.е.
fабс=picscalex1000100090000037501000004001c00000000000500000009020000000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.
Допустимость этой невязки определяется относительной невязкой, которая
не должна превышать 1/1500 при измерении расстояний 20-метровой стальной
лентой.

Для определения относительной невязки подсчитывают периметр теодолитного
хода с округлением до сотен метров и вычисляют ее по формуле fабс/Р.

После подсчета относительной невязки следует невязки fx и fy
распределить в виде поправок соответственно на все ?Х и ?У.

Суммы исправленных ?Х и ?У должны равняться нулю.

Координаты точек вычисляются по формулам:
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Контролем служит получение заданных координат точки №1.

Вычисление координат точек диагонального хода.

Координаты точек диагонального хода вычисляют в той же
последовательности, что и для замкнутого теодолитного хода. Некоторые
различия в вычислениях заключаются в следующем:

1. Теоретическую сумму углов диагонального ход подсчитывают по формуле:
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, где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 и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– соответственно начальный и конечный
дирекционные углы.

N – число измеренных углов.

2. Теоретическую сумму приращений вычисляют по формулам:

?picscalex100010009000003fa00000002001c000000000005000000090200000000050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;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, где Хн,Ун,Хк,Ук – координаты
начальной и конечной точек, т.е. точек 5 и 2.

3. Невязку в приращениях координат вычисляют по формулам:

fx=picscalex1000100090000031601000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000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fy=picscalex1000100090000031601000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000
5000000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020
0000000050000000c028002400c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0fff
fffaeffffff000c00002e0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000070001
c000000fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0077400000003
b090a8fb7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320af9015
50601000000e57908000000320af901370001000000e5791c000000fb0280fe000000000
0009001000000020402001053796d626f6c00774000000092080a75b7c5c777c0c5c7772
0c0ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa0011b0802000
000445508000000320aa0013805010000002d5508000000320aa001fd010200000044551
c000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6
d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f00101000
9000000320a0002000a04000000f2e5eef008000000320a0002e20302000000eff00a000
00026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc0200000
0cc0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a010000000001000000f8f31200b9c1c
777040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 .
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332 34,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 37.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 – 3.

Доп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1,5picscalex100010009000003e100000004001c000000
00000500000009020000000005000000020101000000050000000102ffffff0005000000
2e0118000000050000000b0200000000050000000c02400260021200000026060f001a00
ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffb6ffffff20020000f60100000b00000026060f000c00
4d617468547970650000400008000000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d010000
050000001402680148000500000013024c01790008000000fa0200002000000000000000
040000002d01010005000000140254017900050000001302d601c000040000002d010000
050000001402d601c8000500000013025200260105000000140252002601050000001302
520012021c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e00b7c5c777c0c5c77720c0ca7700003000040000002d01020008000000
320ac0013e01010000006e790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000
fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a01
00000000fffffffff8f31200b9c1c777040000002d01030004000000f001020003000000
0000=+-2,5. Р=319,98.
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- 156,41,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 – 268,09.
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 38,95,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 – 217,75

fx=8186,98-29,90=81157,08-126,51=8030,57-8225,93= – 195,36,

fy=6045,82-126,82=5919-141,27=5777,73-5828,07= – 50,34.

fx=picscalex1000100090000031601000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000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 – 156,41-38,95= –
195,36,

fy=picscalex1000100090000031601000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000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 – 268,09+217,75= –
50,34.

fабс=picscalex1000100090000038e01000004001c00000000000500000009020000000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201,74.

(Таблица-ведомость прилагается).

Построение плана. Построение координатной сетки.

(чертеж прилагается)

ЗАДАНИЕ 4

1. В журнале продольного нивелирования надо вычесть отметки всех
пронивелированных точек и провести контроль вычислений.

2. На основании данных обработанного журнала построить продольный
профиль трассы и поперечник; на профиль нанести проектную линию,
вычислить рабочие отметки и определить расстояния до точек нулевых
работ.

Вычисление превышений между связующими точками (пикетными и иксовыми)

Так как пикетные точки нивелировались по способу «из середины», то
превышение между ними вычисляют по формуле:

H =а-в, где H – превышение;

а – отсчет на заднюю рейку;

в – отсчет на переднюю рейку.

Вариант 40-49.

(Вариант 40)

Ст.1

H=966-1662= – 696 мм,

H=5649-6343= -694 мм.

Расхождение: – 696+694= -2 мм – допустимое.

Ср. превышение: (696+694)/2=695.

Ст.2.

H=2612-888=1724, H=7296-5568=1728.

Ст.3.

H=2721-990=1731, H=7401-5671=1730.

Ст.4.

H=712-1956= – 1244, H=5395-6636= -1241.

Ст. 5.

H=474-2856= -2382, H=5156-7540= -2384.

Ст. 6.

H=593-1846= – 1253, H=5277-6530= -1253.

Вычисление невязки в превышениях и ее распределение.

Полученная сумма всех средних превышений теоретически должна быть равна
разности отметок конечного и начального реперов. Практически же
вследствие ошибок в измерениях получается невязка, которая
подсчитывается по формуле:

fh=picscalex100010009000003a101000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000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. Невязка равна разности между алгебраической
суммой средних превышений и разностью отметок конечного и начального
реперов.

Допустимость невязки проверяют по формуле:

Пред. Fh=30
ммpicscalex100010009000003e100000004001c00000000000500000009020000000005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. Где 1–число
километров нивелирного хода.

В нашем примере оно = 0,5.

Пред. Fh=+-21 мм, а наша невязка 15 мм меньше предельной, следовательно
ее можно распределить.

Вычисление отметок связующих точек

Отметки связующих точек вычисляют последовательно от известной отметки
начального репера по формуле Нn=Hn-1+h, т.е. отметка следующей точки
равна отметке данной точки плюс исправленное превышение между этими
точками.

ППКО: Но=Нн+hн-о

91,608+0,697=90,911.

Отметка точки Х равна:

Нх=Но+hо-х

90,911+1,724=92,635.

Отметка ПК1

Н3=Нх+ hх-3

92,635+1,728=94,363.

Отметка ПК2

Н2=Н1+ h1-2

94,363+(-1,245)=93,118.

Отметка ПК3

Н3=Н2+ h2-3

93,118+(-2,386)=90,732.

Следует помнить, что отметки записывают в метрах, а вычисленные в
журнале превышения получают в миллиметрах, поэтому при вычислении
отметок превышения необходимо выражать в метрах.

Контролем правильности вычисления отметок связующих точек является
получение точного значения НRp2, вычисленного по исправленным
превышениям.

Вычисление отметок промежуточных точек (плюсовых и точек поперечников).

Отметки этих точек определяют через горизонт нивелира.

Горизонтом нивелира называют высоту луча визирования над уровенной
поверхностью или отметку луч визирования.

ГН=На+а, ГН=Нв+в.

где На – отметка задней связующей точки;

а – отсчет по рейке на этой точке, взятый по рабочей стороне, или

где Нв – отметка передней связующей точи;

в – отсчет по рейке на этой точке, взятый по рабочей стороне.

Отметка плюсовой точки С равна

Нс=ГН-с,

где с – отсчет по рейке на данную плюсовую точку.

Так все промежуточные точки нивелируют только по рабочей стороне рейки,
то для вычисления горизонта нивелира на станции используют отсчеты,
взятые по рабочей стороне реек.

Ст. 4.

ГН=94,363+0,712=95,075 ГН=93,118+1,956=95,074.

Ср. (95,075+95,074)/2=95,074.

Отметка плюсовой точки

ПК1+68

95,074-1,518=93,556.

ГН=93,118+0,474=93,592 м, ГН=90,732+2,856=93,588 м. ГНср=93,59.

Отметка точки ПР6,8

93,59-1,215=92,375 м.

ПР20

93,59-2,496=91,094 м.

Лв 12,6

93,59-0,785=92,805 м.

Лв 20

93,59-0,447=93,143 м.

Построение продольного профиля.

После вычисления отметок всех пронивелированных точек приступают к
построению продольного профиля и поперечников. Масштабы: 1/1000, 1/2000,
1/5000, 1/10 000 для горизонтальных линий.

Масштабы для вертикальных линий в 10 раз больше.

Рекомендуемые масштабы: для горизонтальных линий: 1/2000; для
вертикальных 1/200.

Положение начала и конца кривой.

Угол поворота 36 40, следовательно Т (тангенс) 331,364. кривая
(К)=639,954, домер Д=2Т-К=22,774, биссектриса Б– =53,471. При радиусе
1000 м.

Так как наш радиус 100 м. то все значения надо уменьшить в 10 раз, т.о.
для угла 36 40: Т=33,14, К=63,99, Б=5,35, Д=2,28.

Для определения положения начала и конца делают следующие подсчеты:

– выписывают расстояние до угла поворота ПК3+6,8;

– вычитают тангенс Т-33,14;

–получают расстояние до начала кривой НК=ПК2+73,66;

– прибавляют длину кривой К+63,99;

– получают расстояние до конца кривой КК=ПК3+37,65.

Проведение проектной линии

На профиль наносят проектную линию строящегося сооружения. Для этого
необходимо вычислить и подписать ее отметки в каждой из нанесенных на
профиле точек в соответствующей графе профильной сетки. Исходными
данными для вычисления проектных отметок являются: заданная проектная
отметка начальной точки, проектируемые уклоны и длинны участков
проектной линии.

Уклон линии равен тангенсу угла наклона этой линии или, (рис) уклон
есть отношение превышения к горизонтальному проложению линии, или

i=tgv=h/d,

где I – продольный уклон линии АВ;

v– угол наклона линии АВ к горизонту;

h– превышение между точками А и В;

d– горизонтальное проложение линии АВ.

Если известен уклон I и горизонтальное проложение d, то превышение между
точками А иВ будет равно:

h=i*d

Следовательно, если отметка точки А известна, то отметку точки В
вычисляют так:

Нв=На+- h или Нв=На+- i*d.

Проектная отметка следующей точки равна проектной отметке данной точки
плюс или минус произведение проектного уклона и горизонтальное
проложение линии между этими точками. Знак плюс берут в случае, если
проектная линия идет с подъемом, а знак минус, если она имеет спуск.

№ вариантаПикетаж угла поворотаУгол поворотаПроектная отметка пикета
0Уклоны проектной линии40-49ПК1+6036 40Но+2,5
(90,911+2,5=93,411)-0,004спуск
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21

Рис. Вычисление отметок проектной линии

В основу выбора уклонов отдельных участков проектной линии и ее
начальной отметки должны быть положены следующие соображения:

1) проектная линия должна быть проведена так, чтобы объем земляных работ
был минимальным;

2) количество земляных работ по выемкам и по насыпям должно быть по
возможности одинаковым, чтобы землю из выемок можно было использовать
для насыпей;

3) уклоны, выбранные для проектной линии, должны быть в пределах
величин, рекомендуемых техническими условиями для данного сооружения.

В дано работе уклоны проектной линии и начальная отметка намечаются по
заданию.

Заданные уклоны проектной линии выписывают на профиле на графу «уклоны
проектной линии». В этой графе число, стоящее над чертой показывает
длину участка, на котором проектная линия проходит указанным уклоном.
Наклон черты, разделяющий эти два числа, указывает на подъем или спуск
проектной линии на данном участке.

Проектные отметки пикетных и плюсовых точек вычислены следующим образом:

НПК1+68 =НПК0- i*d.=93,411-(- 0,004*68)=93,411+0,2720=93,683 м,

НПК1=93,411- (- 0,004*100)=93,811 м,

НПК2=93,811- (-0,004*100)=94,211 м,

НПК3=94,211-(-0,004*100)=94,611 м.

Вычисленные таким образом отметки подписывают на профиле в графе
«Проектные отметки» против соответствующих им точек.

Отметки проектной линии откладывают от условного горизонта в принятом
масштабе так же, как и отметки земли. Для окончательного проведения
проектной линии нет необходимости откладывать все подписанные на профиле
отметки, достаточно отложить только те отметки, которые расположены в
точках изменения уклонов. Соединив по линейке точки, получают проектную
линию.

Определение рабочих отметок.

Высоты насыпей и глубины выемок на данных точках профиля называют
рабочими отметками.

Рабочие отметки вычисляют как разность между проектной отметкой и
отметкой земли одной и той же точки.

Рабочие отметки выписывают около проектной линии на вертикалях
соответствующих им точек: в случае насыпи – над проектной линией, а в
случае выемки – под проектной линией.

Высота насыпи на ППКО получилась 93,411-90,911= 2,5 м, а глубина выемки
на ПК1+68 равна 93,556-93,683= – 0,127 м.

Определение положения точек нулевых работ

Точками нулевых работ на профиле называют такие, в которых проектная
линия пересекает земную поверхность, т.е. в которых рабочие отметки
равны нулю.

Знание точного положения точек нулевых работ на профиле имеет большое
значение при строительстве сооружения и при подсчете объемов земляных
работ, а поэтому его определяют аналитически.

Расстояние от точки нулевых работ до ближайшей предыдущей точки,
нанесенной на профиле, определяется следующим образом.

Построение поперечников

ЗАДАНИЕ 5

Камеральная обработка полевых материалов при нивелировании поверхности
по квадратам.

1. По журналу нивелирования поверхности по квадратам вычислить отметки
всех пронивелированных точек.

2. На основании обработанного журнала составить план с горизонталями
пронивелированного участка.

Исходные данные:

Вариант 10.

– Журнал нивелирования поверхности по квадратам
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21
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21

– Отметка репера 91,608 м.

– стороны квадратов 40*40мм, масштаб плана 1/1000, высота сечения
рельефа 0,25 м.

Вычисление превышения и контроль правильности взятия отсчетов

h =1627-592=1035;

h =6310-5277=1033. Среднее=1034.

Нивелирование промежуточных точек и всех других вершин квадратов.
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671-324=347

5354-5009=345 ср=346

1387-1604= – 217, 6076-6289= – 213. ср= – 215.

1429-2584= – 1155, 6113-7268= – 1155. ср= – 1155.

1604-1387=217, 6289-6076=213. ср=215.

Fh=1034+346-215-1155=10 мм

Пред.
Fh=10ммpicscalex100010009000003e100000004001c000000000005000000090200000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10*picscalex1000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+-20 мм, где n – число станций.

Так как полученная невязка 10 мм меньше допустимой, то е распределяют.

Вычисление отметок всех связующих точек по общему правилу: отметка
последующей точки равна отметке данной точки плюс превышение.

Отметка репера дана =91,608.

Н1=91,608+1,037=92,645,

Н2=92,645+0,349=92,994,

Н3=92,994-0,213=92,781,

НRp=92,781-1,152=91,628.

Вычисляют отметки всех остальных вершин квадрата

Так как остальные вершины пронивелированы как промежуточные точки, то их
отметки вычисляют через горизонт нивелира. Для каждой станции значение
горизонта нивелира вычисляют дважды: по задней и по передней связующим
точкам:

ГН=На+а и ГН=Нв+в,

где На и Нв – отметки задней и передней точек;

а и в – отсчеты по рейкам на эти точки, взятые по рабочей стороне реек.

Ст. 2

ГН=91,608+1,627=93,235.

ГН=92,645+0,592=93,237.

ГНср=93,236

Ст. 1

92,645+0,671=93,316, 92,994+0,324=93,318. ср=93,317.

Ст.4

92,994+1,387=94,381, 92,781+1,604=94,385. ср=94,383.

Ст 3.

92,781+1,429=94,21, 91,608+2,584=94,192. ср=94,201.

Отметки промежуточных точек получают, вычитая из ГН отсчеты по рейке на
эти точки по формуле: Нс=ГН-с.

Н1=93,317-1,629=91,688,

Н2=93,317-1,359=91,958,

Н3=93,317-0,890=92,427,

Н4=93,317-0,841=92,476,

Н5=93,236-1,828=91,408,

Н6=93,236-2,216=91,02,

Н7=93,236-2,109=91,127,

Н8=93,236-0,390=92,846,

Н9=93,236-1,213=92,023,

Н10=94,201-1,835=92,366,

Н11=94,201-2,652=91,549,

Н12=94,201-1,821=92,380,

Н13=94,201-1,021=93,18,

Н14=94,201-1,819=92,382,

Н15=94,383-1,171=93,212,

Н16=94,383-0,840=93,543

Н17=94,383-1,380=93,00.

Проведение горизонталей

Высота сечения рельефа 0,25м,

Отметки горизонталей:

91,00; 91,25; 91,50; 91,75; 92,00; 92,25; 92,50; 92,75; 93,00.

Построение графиков уклонов и углов наклона.

Крутизна ската может быть выражена либо уклоном i , либо углом наклона.
Известно, что уклоном линии называют тангенс угла наклона этой линии.
Если точка А и В лежат на соседних горизонталях, то

i=tgv=h/d

где I – уклон линии АВ;

v– угол наклона;

h– высота сечения рельефа;

d– заложение (расстояние между соседними горизонталями)

Тогда d=h/i=h*ctgv.

Для высоты сечения рельефа 0,25, принятого на плане:

d1=0,25/0,01=25 м, d2=0,25/0,02=12,5м, d3=0,25/0,03=8,33 м,
d4=0,25/0,04=6,25 м, d5=0,25/0,05=5 м.

Если вместо уклонов откладывать по вертикали углы наклона в градусах, то
вычисление заложений производить по формуле d=h*ctgv

d1=0,25*ctg 0о30/,= м, d2=0,25*ctg1о,= м, d3=0,25*ctg1о30/,= м,
d4=0,25*ctg 2о= м, d5=0,25*ctg 2о30/,= м.

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