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Работа с геодезическими приборами

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?.O. AIO NII

*eoeineee eanioaoie/aneee eieeaaeae

niaoeeaeueiinoue 120101

Io/ao

Ii o/aaiie i?aeoeea aeey iieo/aiey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ia?aiia/aeueiuo
iaaueia

Auiieiee nooaeaio a?oiiu IA-28

Eaaaaeaa Eaai Aeeoi?iae/

I?iaa?ee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

Nii?iaeieeiaa N.I.

*eoa 2009.

I?aaeea ii oaoieea aaciianiinoe

I?e auiieiaiee aaiaeace/aneeo ?aaio iaiaoiaeeii no?iaia niaethaeaiea
i?aaee ii oaoieea aaciianiinoe.

Oiii?u, iieioee, eoaaeaeu aeieaeiu auoue ieioea ianaaeaiu ia niaa?oaiii
aeaaeeea aea?aayiiua ?o/ee, eiathuea ooieuaiey e naiaiaeiiio eiioeo.

Oooey?u i?eai?ia aeieaeiu eiaoue i?i/ii oe?aieaiiua ?o/ee, a neeaaeiua
?aeee – eni?aaiua aeiou a ianoao ne?aieaiey eo /anoae.

Aaoee, ooaoeau e ae?oaea i?aaeiaou, eiathuea ino?ua eiioeu, neaaeoao
ia?aiineoue aea?aea eo aia?aae ino?uie eiioeaie.

Oiii?u e oieeueee ia?iuo eaio ia?aiineoue e ianoo ?aaiou e ia?aoii a
a?acaioiaii iaoea.

I?e ia?aoiaea ii oeeoeai cai?auaaony iineoue ?aeee ia iea/ao.
Ia?aiineoue eo neaaeoao a ?oeao neiaeaiiuie e n i?i/ii cae?aieaiiuie
aeioaie.

Ia ?ac?aoaaony inoaaeyoue aac iaaeci?a i?eai?u a i?aaeaeao aei?iaeiiai
iieioia.

I?e i?eaeeaeaiee a?icu neaaeoao i?ae?aoeoue ecia?aiey e ia?aeoe a
cae?uoua iiiauaiey. Ai a?aiy a?icu cai?auaaony noiyoue iiae aea?aaueyie,
iaoiaeeoueny ieiei a?iiiioaiaeia, aunieeo i?aaeiaoia, eiioaeoiie naoe
aunieiaieueoiuo eeiee e ia aicauoaiiuo ianoao.

I?e ia?aoiaea /a?ac aei?iao no?iai niaethaeaeoa i?aaeea, onoaiiaeaiiua
aeey aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oa. Ia?aoiaeeoa aei?iao oieueei iiae i?yiui
oaeii e aa ine.

Ai a?aiy ia?a?uaa ia ?ac?aoaaony ?aniieaaaoueny ia i?iacaeae /anoe
ethaiai aeaea aei?iae e inoaaeyoue ia iae i?eai?u e eino?oiaiou.

A nieia/iua aeie ?aaioaoue n iie?uoie aieiaie.

1. Iiaa?ee e thnoe?iaee ieaaee?ia

1.1 Inue e?oaeiai o?iaiy aeieaeia auoue ia?aeeaeueia ine a?auaiey
ieaaee?a. Iiaa?eo auiieiytho neaaeothuei ia?acii

A?auaieai iiaeuaiiuo aeioia iocu?ae o?iaiy i?eaiaeyo a iieue-ioieo.
A?auatho aa?oithth /anoue ieaaee?a (o?oao) ia 1800. Anee oneiaea
auiieiaii, iocu?ae inoaaony a iieue-ioieoa. Anee oneiaea ia auiieiaii,
iocu?ae ioeeiiyaony ia aeaieioth aaee/eio iaia?aeeaeueiinoe.

Aeaenoaoy eni?aaeoaeueiuie aeioaie o?iaiy, iocu?ae ia?aiauatho ia
iieiaeio aeoae ioeeiiaiey. Iinea eni?aaeaiey iiaa?eo iiaoi?ytho.

1.2 Inue oeeeeiae?e/aneiai o?iaiy aeieaeia auoue ia?aeeaeueia aece?iie
ine

Aeey iiaa?ee yoiai oneiaey ia ?iaiie ianoiinoe cae?aieytho aeaa oi/ee (A
e A) ia ?annoiyiee 70 i ae?oa io ae?oaa (aeey o?iaiaiiuo ieaaee?ia IV
eeanna oeia I–3) eee 100 i (aeey naiionoaiaaeeaathueony ieaaee?ia III-IV
eeanna oi/iinoe). Onoaiaaeeaatho ieaaee? iina?aaeeia iaaeaeo ?aeeaie, ia
?aaiii ?annoiyiee io oi/ae (noiyiea I), ono?aiea oai naiui iia?aoiinoue
ion/aoa. Nieiatho ion/ao i?aauoaiey (a – b). Caoai ia?anoaaeytho ieaaee?
ia iiaoth noiyieo (noiyiea II) a iaeneiaeueiie aeecinoe io ioieoa A eee
A (2-3 i). Nieiatho ion/ao (a1 – b1). I?e iaeni?aaiii oeeeeiae?e/aneii
o?iaia ion/ao a1 – b1 aeano aeaieioth aaee/eio iia?aoiinoe.
Aa?oeeaeueiuie eni?aaeoaeueiuie aeioaie oeeeeiae?e/aneiai o?iaiy iaaei
niaiaoue ioiaoeo (iai?eia? b1) aei ioiaoee b1’, aeiaaaey, ion/ao
i?aauoaiey iaaeaeo A e A (a1 – b1) aei i?aauoaiey, iieo/aiiiai i?e
ia?aii ion/aoa (a – b). Caoai iiaa?eo iiaoi?ytho. Aeiioneaaiay
iia?aoiinoue aeey o?iaaiiuo ieaaee?ia aeieaeia auoue ia aieaa 10 ii ia
70 i. Aeey naiionoaiaaeeaathueony ieaaee?ia – ia aieaa 1-2 ii ia 100 i.

Aeey naiionoaiaaeeaathueony ieaaee?ia n eiiiainaoi?aie i?iecaiaeyo
oaeaea iiaa?eo iia?aoiinoe ?aaiou eiiiainaoi?a. E eni?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaeyo ia?aiauaieai ieoae naoee.

1.3 Eiiiainaoeey oaeia iaeeiia o?oau ieaaee?a aeieaeia auoue iieiie

Ieaaee? onoaiaaeeaatho a na?aaeeia iaaeaeo oi/eaie, ionoiyueie ae?oa io
ae?oaa ia ?annoiyiee 100 i. Iocu?ae e?oaeiai o?iaiy i?eaiaeyo a
iieue-ioieo e ii?aaeaeytho i?aauoaiea iaaeaeo oi/eaie. Iinea yoiai
iocu?ae o?iaiy niauatho io oeaio?a iineaaeiaaoaeueii a iiceoeee 2, 3, 4,
5 e ii?aaeaeytho i?aauoaiey i?e eaaeaeii iieiaeaiee iocu?ueea e?oaeiai
o?iaiy.

Anee i?aauoaiey, au/eneaiiua i?e iiceoeeyo 2, 3, 4, 5, ioee/athony io
i?aauoaiey, iieo/aiiiai ec iiceoeee 1 (eiaaea iocu?ae iaoiaeeeny a
oeaio?a iieue-ioieoa) aieaa /ai ia 5 ii, cia/eo oaeu, iaeeiia o?oau
eiiiaine?othony ia iieiinoueth. A yoii neo/aa i?eai? iaiaoiaeeii
ioi?aaeoue a ianoa?neoth.

1.4 Iiaa?ee e thnoe?iaee ieaaee?ia n eiiiainaoi?ii

Iiaa?ee e?oaeiai o?iaiy e naoee ieoae i?iecaiaeyony aiaeiae/ii iiaa?eai
o?iaiaiiuo ieaaee?ia.

Aeaaiia oneiaea ieaaee?ia n eiiiainaoi?ii oi?ioee?oaony oae: a i?aaeaeao
?aaiou eiiiainaoi?a aece?iue eo/ c?eoaeueiie o?oau aeieaeai auoue
ai?eciioaeueiui. Iiaa?ea aeaeaaony oae aea, eae e iiaa?ea aeaaiiai
oneiaey o?iaiaiiuo ieaaee?ia (ni. ?en. 10). THnoe?iaea i?iecaiaeeony
onoaiiaeie eni?aaeaiiiai ion/aoa i?e iiiiue aeioia naoee; o ieaaee?a
NiE1 ioaeiue ion/ao onoaiaaeeaaaony a?auaieai ii?aau 8 (ni. ?en. 8)
iioe/aneiai eeeia iinea ineaaeaiey noiii?iiai aeioa 9.

2. ONO?IENOAI, ENNEAAeIAAIEA E IIAA?EE IEAAEE?IUO ?AAE

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuai AINO 11158 – 76 i?aaeoniio?aii
ecaioiaeaiey o?ao oeiia ?aae:?I-10,?I-3, ?I-05.

?AEEA ?I-10 aeaonoi?iiiyy oaoa/iay, i?aaeiacia/aia aeey oaoie/aneiai
ieaaee?iaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio. ?aeee yoiai oeia
neeaaeiua aeeeiith 4i (?en. 78,a). ?aeee iiaoo ecaioiaeyoueny n i?yiie
eee ia?aoiie ioeeo?iaeie oeae, /oi aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue i?yiiio eee
ia?aoiiio ecia?aaeaieth c?eoaeueiie o?oau ieaaee?a. A iaicia/aiee
neeaaeiuo ?aae iinea oeacaiey eo aeeeiu aeiaaaeyaony aoeaa «N», A
caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeay i?aaeoniio?aia ioeeo?iaea oeae, aeiaaaeyaony
aoeaa «I» (i?yiay) eee «I» (ia?aoiay).

?AEEA ?I-3 aeaonoi?iiiyy oaoa/iay, i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ieaaee?iaaiey 3 e
4 eeannia e eiaeaia?ii-aaiaeace/aneeo ecuneaiee. Yoe ?aeee iiaoo auoue
aeeeiith 1,5; 3,0; e 4,0i. ?aeee yoiai oeia aeeeiith 3i iiaoo auoue
neeaaeiuie e oeaeueiuie. Oae, ?aeea aeeeiith 3i neeaaeiay, aeey i?yiiai
ecia?aaeaiey o?oau, eiaao oneiaiia iaicia/aiea ?I-CI-CIIIN.

?AEEA ?H-05 iaeiinoi?iiiyy oo?eoiaay, i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ieaaee?iaaiey
1 e 2 eeannia. Ecaioiaeyaony aeeeiie 3 eee 1.2i. Ia eeoeaaie noi?iia
oaeeo ?aae niiioe?iaaia eiaa?iay eaioa. Ieaeiee eiiaoe eaiou cae?aieai
iaaeooi, a aa?oiee niaaeeiai n i?oaeeiie, i?eaeathuee eaioa iinoiyiiia
iaoyaeaiea n neeie 20ea. Ia eeoeaaie noi?iia eaiou eiathony aeaa oeaeu,
niauaiiua iaeia ioiineoaeueii ae?oaie ia 2,5ii. Ia oeaeao aeaiu iiaeiene
iieoaeaoeeiao?iauo aeaeaiee.

?aeee oeia ?I-3 e ?i-05 niaaaeaiu e?oaeuie o?iaiyie aeey onoaiiaee a
ioaaniia iieiaeaiea; ?aeee ?I-10 niaaaeathony o?iaiyie oieueei ii
i?inueaa caeac/eea.

Ia aeaonoi?iiieo ?aeeao n iaeiie noi?iiu /a?aaeothony /a?iua e aaeua
aeaeaiey (/a?iay noi?iia ?aae), a ia ae?oaie noi?iia — e?aniua e aaeua
(e?aniay noi?iia). Ia /a?iie (iniiaiie) noi?iia n/ao aeaeaiee eaeao io
iyoee ?aeee, n eioi?ie niaiauai ioeue. N iyoeaie e?aniuo noi?ii ?aae
niaiauaiu ion/aou 468,7 e 4787, o.a. ia ?aeeao iaeiiai eiiieaeoa ion/aou
ioee/athony ia 100i.

I?e ia?aoiie ioeeo?iaee oeae eaaeaeue aeaoeeiao? ?aeee iiaeienai
ia?aaa?ioouie oeeo?aie, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue a o?oao ieaaee?a,
eiathuoth ia?aoiia ecia?aaeaiea, aeaeaoue eo a i?yiii aeaea. ?aeee ai
a?aiy ?aaiou onoaiaaeeaatho ia aea?aayiiua eieuey, aaoiaee eee einouee.

3. ENNEAAeIAAIEA E IIAA?EE IEAAEE?IUO ?AAE

Ninoaa iiaa?ie ii?aaeaeyaony oeiii ?aae.

IIAA?EE E ENNEAAeIAAIEss ?AAE ?I-10 E ?I-3.

?aeee enneaaeotho a cae?uoii iiiauaiee, eoaea eo aiiny aianoe n
ii?iaeueiui oo?eoiaui iao?ii ca aeaa /ana aei ia/aei enneaaeiaaiee.

3.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea n?aaeiae aeeeiu iaeiiai iao?a ?aeee

Oeeaaeuaatho ?aeeo oae, /oiau a? eiioeu ia i?iaenaee e i?e iiiiue
eiio?ieueiiai iao?a aeaaaeaeu, i?yiii e ia?aoiii iai?aaeaieyo ecia?yo
aeeeiu io?aceia iaaeaeo aeaeaieyie 1-10, 10-20,20-30 aei.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee iaoiaeyo n?aaeithth aeeeio iao?a eaaeaeie
ia?u ?aae n?aaeiee iii?aai/iue eiyooeoeeaio aeey iaeiiai iao?a.

Aeiionoeiay ?aciinoue iaaeaeo n?aaeiae aeeeiie iao?a ia?u ?aae eiiieaeoa
i?eiyoa ?aaiie 1,5ii.

3.2 Ii?aaeaeaiea iia?aoiinoae aeaoeeiao?iauo ?aae

Enneaaeiaaiea auiieiytho i?e iiiiue ii?iaeueiie oo?eoiaie eeiaeee, ioeue
eioi?ue niaiauatho n ioeaaui aeaeaieai ?aeee. Ion/aou i?iecaiaeyo i?ioea
aeaoeeiao?iauo oo?eoia ?aeee a i?aaeaeao eaaeaeiai iao?a.

Neo/aeiua iia?aoiinoe aeaoeeiao?iauo aeaeaiee ?aeee ia aeieaeiu
i?aauoaoue ±0,5ii.

C.3 Ii?aaeaeaiea ?aciinoe aunio ioeae e?aniie e /a?iie noi?ii ?aae

Ia ?annoiyiee 20i io ieaaee?a caaeaatho einoueue, ia eioi?ue
onoaiaaeeaatho ioaanii ?aeeo e aa?oo ion/aou ii /a?iie e e?aniie
noi?iiai. Oaeeo ii?aaeaeaiee aeaeatho /aou?a e ca ieii/aoaeueiue
?acoeueoao i?eieiatho n?aaeiaa cia/aiea ec anao iieo/aiiuo cia/aiee
?aciinoae.

3.4 Iiaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe onoaiiaee ia ?aeea e?oaeiai o?iaiy: iiaa?ea
ia?aeeaeueiinoe ine o?iaiy ine ?aeee

Iaeiei ec niiniaia iiaa?ee yoiai oneiaey ninoieo a neaaeothuai. A 50-60i
io ieaaee?a caaeaatho einoueue (eee eieuoae) e onoaiaaeeaatho ia iaai
?aeeo. Iaaiaeyo ia iaa c?eoaeueioth o?oao, e ii neaiaeo iaaethaeaoaey
?a/iee onoaiaaeeaaao ?aa?i ?aeee, oae, /oiau aai ecia?aaeaiea niaiaei n
aa?oeeaeueiie ieoueth naoee. Anee i?e yoii iocu?ae o?iaiy i?e ?aeee
inoaeny ia na?aaeeia, oi oneiaea auiieiaii. A i?ioeaiii neo/ae,
aeaenoaoy aai eni?aaeoaeueiuie aeioaie, i?eaiaeeo iocu?ae ia na?aaeeio.
Iiaa?eo iiaoi?ytho, iiaa?ioa ?aeo ia 90°.

3.5 Inue a?auaiey c?eoaeueiie o?oau aeieaeia auoue ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e
aa?oeeaeueiie ine a?auaiey oaiaeieeoa

Aeey iiaa?ee oaiaeieeoa ioaeii onoaiiaeoue a 10-15i io noaiu caeaiey e
i?eaanoe aa?oeeaeueioth inue a ioaaniia iieiaeaiea. C?eoaeueioth o?oao
iaaiaeyo ia aua?aiioth e oi?iie aeaeeioth ia noaia oi/eo. Oaie iaeeiia
ia yoo oi/eo aeieaeai auoue +30 – 40°.Caoai iioneatho c?eoaeueioth o?oao
aiec, i?iaeoe?otho yoo oi/eo ia o?iaie auniou i?eai?a e ioia/ath’] ia
noaia i?iaeoeeth ia?ae?anoey naoee ieoae. Ia?aaiaey! o?oao /a?ac caieo,
iaaiaeyo ia oo aea aunieoth oi/eo, aiiaue iioneatho o?oao e niiaa
ioia/atho ia noaia i?iaeoeeth ia?ae?anoey naoee ieoae. Anee ioia/aiiua
aieco oi/ee niaiaaeatho eee oiauathony a i?aaeaeao aennaeoi?a, oi iaeeii
ine aeiionoei. Eni?aaeyoue iaeeii ine aeieaeai iaoaiee a ianoa?neeo, oae
eae eni?aaeaiea naycaii n /anoe/iie ?acai?eie i?eai?a.

3.6 Ianoi ioeue II aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa aeieaeii auoue iinoiyiiui e
aeeceei e 0°

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey II aece?otho i?e aeaoo iieiaeaieyo aa?oeeaeueiiai
e?oaa ia oaeaeaiioth, oi?ioi aeaeeioth oi/eo; i?e yoii iia aeieaeia
iaoiaeeoueny iiae oaeii iaeeiia, aeeceei e 0°. Ia?aae ion/aoaie a
oaiaeieeoao O15, O5, 2O5A eOO-4 iocu?ae o?iaiy i?e aeeaeaaea
aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa i?eaiaeyo iaaiaeyuei ono?ienoaii a ioeue – ioieo. O
oaiaeieeoa 130 oaeiai o?iaiy iao. A yoii oaiaeieeoa i?aae iaaaaeaieai
c?eoaeueiie o?oau i?eaiaeyo a ioeue ioieo o?iaaiue i?e ai?eciioaeueiii
e?oaa.

4. OAOIE*ANEIA IEAAEE?IAAIEA

Oaoie/aneia ieaaee?iaaiea i?iecaiaeyo aeey aunioiiai iainiiaaiey
oiiinue?iie ianooaaa 1:500 e 1:5 000 e aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aaieiae/aneeo
au?aaioie, ?aoaiea eiaeaia?iuo caaea/.

Oiaeu oaoie/aneiai ieaaee?iaaiey ianooaaa caieioou e ?aciieiooua-
i?ieiaeaiiua L aeaoiy ?aia?aie ioiaoee eioi?uo ecaanoiu, aeny/ee
iie?athueany oieueei ia iaeei ?aia? n ecaanoiui ioiaoeie.

Aeeeiu caieioouo e ?aciieioouo oiaeia ia aieaa 15 eeeiiao?ia e aeny/ee 8
ei.

I?iaeoe?iaaiea e ?aeiaoee?iaea.

Ia?aae auiieiaieai ?aaio i?ieiaeaiea oaoie/aneiai ieaaee?iaaiey
iaiaoiaeeii io?aeiaoee?iaaoue ia ianoiinoe, iau/ii eniieuecotho ea?ou
ianooaaa 1:10 000, 1:25 000. Iaiinyo ana ecaanoiua enoiaeiua aeaiiua,
ia?ee, ?aiaa i?ieiaeaiiua oiaeu. Auae?atho iaeaieaa oaeiaiua aeey
ieaaee?iaaiey ianoi aei?iae eaniua i?inaee, aa?aaa ?ae, neaaeoao
iaoiaeeoue caaiei/aiiua ieiuaaee e ia?aae.

Noaiiua ?aia?u caeeaaeuaatho a noaiao, nii?oaeaiee ia aunioa io 0,4 i
aei 0,6 i iaae iiaa?oiinoue caiee i?e yoii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiie onoaiiaee ia ieo ?aae aa?oeeaeueii. Eaaeaeue
onoaiiaeaiiue ?aia? iaiaoiaeeii ia?ee?iaaoue (e?aneie), oeacuaay
ii?yaeeiaue iiia?, aiae onoaiiaee e ia/aeueiua aoeau iacaaiey
o/?aaeaeaiey io eioi?iai ii onoaiiaeai.

?aniieiaeaiey anao ?aia?ia aeieaeii auoue ca?eniaaii eee
noioia?aoe?iaaii ninoaaeaiu e?iee oeacuaaao ?annoiyiey io caeiaeaiiuo
?aia?a aei aeeaeaeoeo i?aaeiaoia a aeey noaiiuo e aunioo iaae
iiaa?oiinoueth caiee.

Aeey oaoie/aneiai ieaaee?iaaiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ieaaee?u “I-3”
“I-1” i?e ?aaioa neaaeoao iieueciaaoueny ciioii aeey caueo ieaaee?a io
nieioea ?aeee neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue aeaoonoa?iiaa oaoa/iua.

Iieaaua ?aaiou.

Caieiooua oiaeu oaoie/aneea ieaaee?iaaiey e i?ieiaeaiu iaaeaeo oi/eaie e
aeny/ea a i?yiii e ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee.

?aeee i?e ieaaee?iaaiea noaayo iiae iyoeaie noa?e/aneoth aieiaeo
einouey, caaeaaaiuo a caieth ieaaee?iaaiea i?iecaiaeyo ii niiniao ec
na?aaeeiu i?e ii?iaeueiie aeeeia aece?iiai eo/a a noi iao?ia, ?annoiyiey
ecia?ytho oiieei o?inii ?oeaoeie.

Ia eaaeaeie noaioeee ia?aaainoai iea/ ia aeieaeii ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue
5 iao?ia. I?e aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo (niieieiia ecia?aaeaiea) oeoia
ianio?iay iiaiaea oaaee/aieai c?eoaeueiie o?oau ieaaee?a ia iaiaa 25
e?ao e i?e oeaia aeaeaiey oeeeeiae?e/aneiai o?iaiy ia aieaa 15 naeoiae
ia 2ii, aeiioneaaony oaaee/aiea aeeeiiu aece?iiai eo/a aei 150 iao?ia.

Caiene ion/?oia ii ?aeeai i?iecaiaeyo a aeo?iae.

Iinea onoaiiaee ieaaee?a a ?aai/aa iieiaeaiea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
ion/?oia ii ?aeeai ia eaaeaeie noaioeee neaaeothuaa:

1. Aece?oao ia caaeiath ?aeeo, ia?auaiioth e iaaethaeaoaeth e /??iie
noi?iiie e i?iecaiaeyo ion/?o ii aa?oiae (1) e n?aaeiae (2) ieoyi.

2. Aece?oao ia /??ioth noi?iio ia?aaeiae ?aeee e aeaeatho ion/?o ii
aa?oiae (3) e n?aaeiae (4) ieoyi.

3. Iiai?a/eaatho ia?aaeiath ?aeeo e?aniie noi?iiie e iaaethaeaoaee e
io/eouaatho oieueei ii n?aaeiae ieoe.

4. Aece?otho ia e?anioth noi?iio caaeiae ?aeee e aeaeatho ion/?o oieueei
ii n?aaeiae ieoe.

Ia?aae ooiaeii n eaaeaeie noaioeee iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaanoe i?iaa?eo
i?iecaaaeaiiuo ion/?oia ii ?aeeai.

? ?aae? noaioeeeAeaeueiiia?iia ?annoiyieaIon/?o ii
?aeeaiI?aauoaieaN?aaeiaa i?aauoaieaIa?aaeiyyCaaeiyy1-21105

100

0/50527

0632

5315

46831442

1542

6239

4697

910

924

14

9122-1293

90

5/81447

1570

6272

47021532

1622

6309

4687

52

37

15

531-23-96

-98

8/61392

1488

6174

46861297

1395

6092

4697

-93

-82

-11

-932-14101

102

6/51454

1555

6257

47020542

0644

5332

4688

-911

-925

14

913

Ieaaee?iaaiea 4 eeanna auiieiytho a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee niiniaii
“n?aaeiae ieoe”.

Ieaaee?iaaiea 4 eeanna i?iecaiaeyo ieaaee?iaaiea n o?iaiai eee
eiiiainaoi?ii.

I?e ieaaee?iaaiea 4 eeanna i?eiaiythony o?aoiao?iaua ?aeee.

I?e ieaaee?iaaiea 4 eeanna ion/?ou ii /??iui e e?aniui noi?iiai ?aae
aeaeatho ii n?aaeiae ieoe, a aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?annoiyiee io ieaaee?a
aei ?aae ion/eouaatho ii aa?oiae aeaeueiiia?iie ieoe ii /??iui noi?iiai
?aae.

Ii?yaeie iaaethaeaiey ia noaioeee.

· Ion/?ou ii /??iie noi?iia ?aeea (caaeiae)

· Ion/?ou ii /??iie ia?aaeiae noi?iiu ?aeee.

· Ion/?ou ii /??iie noi?iia ia?aaeiae ?aeee.

· Ion/?ou ii e?aniie noi?iia caaeiae ?aeee.

?anoiaeaeaiea cia/aiea i?aauoaiey ia noaioeee,

Ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii /??iui e e?aniui noi?iiai ?aae aeiioneatho aei 5ii n
o/?oii aunio ioeae ia?u ?aae. I?e aeaeueiai ?anoiaeaeaiee iaaethaeaiey
ia noaioeee iiaoi?ytho, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ecia?ea, iaeiieaiea
iaaethaeaiee ia noaioeee iiaoi?ytho, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ecia?ea,
iieiaeaiea ieaaee?a ii aunioa ia iaiaa, /ai ia 3 ni.

Aei ieii/aiee ieaaee?iaaiey ii eeiee iaaeaeo enoiaeiuie ?aia?aie
iiaen/eouaatho iaayceo, eioi?ia ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 20 ii/L.

? oi/ae? noaioeeeAeaeueiiia?iia ?annoiyiea io caaeiae e ia?aaeiae
?aaeIon/?ou ii ?aeeaI?aauoaiea, iiN?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea
ii.CaaeiyyIa?aaeiyy1-2180

82

0/-20450

0530

5210

46801678

1760

6443

4683

-1230

-1233

3

-1322-12143

147

-2/-61447

1590

6273

46830978

1125

5810

4685

465

463

2

4641-23116

150

-6/-401549

1665

6349

46840550

0720

5405

4685

945

944

1

9442-1475

80

-40/-451990

2065

6752

46870580

0660

5345

4685

1405

1407

-2

14061-2592

80

-45/-331420

1512

6195

46831025

1105

5790

4685

407

405

2

4062-1685

03

-33/470305

0390

5075

46852195

2200

6885

4685

-1810

-1810

0

-1810

5. IEAAEE?IAAIEA 3 EEANNA

Ieaaee?iua naoe 3 eeanna neoaeao aunioiuie iainiiaaieai nue?iie e
eniieuecothony i?e ?aoaiea eiaeaia?iuo caaea/. I?ieeaaeuaatho eo aioo?e
iieaaiia ieaaee?iaaiea 2-1-2 eeanna eae ioaeaeueiuie eeieyie oae e a
aeaea nenoai ia?anaeathueany iaaeaeo niaie oiaeia n oaeei ?an/?oii /oiau
?acaeoue eaaeaeue iieeaii ieaaee?iaaiey 3 eeanna 6-9 iieeaiiia n
ia?eiao?ii 150-200 ei eaaeaeue.

Iieaaua ?aaiou.

1. Ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoia ?aniieiaeaiea ieaaee?iuo oiaeia e ?aia?ia.

2. Caeeaaeea ?aia?ia.

3. Ieaaee?iaaiea

Ieaaee?iaaiea 3 eeanna i?iecaiaeyo n ieaaee?aie n oaaee/aieai
c?eoaeueiie o?oau ia iaiueoa 30 e?ao. N oeaiie aeaeaiey
oeeeeiae?e/aneiai eee eiioaeoiiai o?iaiy niioaaonoaaiii

Ia 2 ii e naoee, eiathuea o?e ai?eciioaeueiua ieoe yoei oneiaeai
oaeiaeaoai?ytho ieaaee?u I-3 e I-1 e ae?oaea ?aaiioeaiiua ei.

?aeee i?e ieaaee?iaaiea onoaiaaeeaatho ioaanii ii e?oaeui o?iaiyi ia
oe?aieaiiua ia caiee aaoiaee eee einouee ni noa?e/aneei aieiaeaie.

? ooaoeaiaEcia?aiea ii aeaeueiiia?iui ieoyiEiio?ieueiua
i?aauoaieaNoi?iia ?aaeIaaethaeaiea ii n?aaeiai ieoyiN?aaeiaa
i?aauoaieaCaaeiyyIa?aaeiyy1

1-21100

1235

1351350

1490

140-250

-255

0/5*

E1170

5850

46801420

6100

4680-250

-250

±0

-2502

2-1

1356

1523

56190

1350

160137

173

5/9*

E1445

6130

46851270

5955

4685+175

+175

±0

+11753

1-21457

1607

1501085

1250

165372

357

9/15*

E1530

6215

46851168

5850

4682+362

+365

-3

+3644

2-11595

1747

1520835

0980

145760

767

15/7*

E1670

6355

46850910

5592

4682+760

+763

-3

+366

5

1-21860

1970

110

0615

187

125

7/15*

E1915

6600

46850675

5365

4687+1237

+1235

+2

+12366

2-10715

0730

151862

1871

91147

1146

15/6*

E0681

5352

46711927

6601

4674-1246

-1246

+3

-12467

1-20845

0990

1451600

1750

150735

760

6/5*

E0951

5600

46851675

6380

4685-760

-760

±0

-7608

2-1

1065

1200

1351400

1585

185335

385

5/30*

E1132

5815

46831495

6180

4685-363

-365

±2

-3649

1-21200

1360

1401385

1555

170165

195

30/30*

E1290

5975

40851468

6150

4082-178

-175

-3

-17610

2-11350

1477

1271100

1235

135250

242

30/8*

E1415

6100

46851160

5845

4685+255

+255

±0

+225Eiio?ieue 1 ?=703

Eiio?ieue 2 ?=562?=735

?=649

6. IIAA?EE E THNOE?IAEA OAIAeIEEOIA

Ia?aae i?iaaaeaieai iiaa?ie ioaeii i?iaanoe iauee iniio? oaiaeieeoa. I?e
yoii neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia neaaeothuaa:

a) iioe/aneay nenoaia c?eoaeueiie o?oau aeieaeia auoue /enoie e aeieaeia
aeaaaoue i?aaeeueiua, io/aoeeaua, aac caiaoiuo ie?aoeaaiee ecia?aaeaiee.
Oiae oieone?othuae eeicu ia aeieaeai aucuaaoue niauaiey ecia?aaeaiee;

a) a?auaiea aa?oeeaeueiie e ai?eciioaeueiuo inae aeieaeii auoue eaaeei,
ieaaiui;

a) iiaeuaiiua, cae?aieoaeueiua, iaaiaeyuea e thnoe?iai/iua aeiou
aeieaeiu auoue eni?aaiu;

a) ion/aoiua nenoaiu aeieaeiu auoue aeaeiu a iee?ineii oi?ioi e /aoei,
ia aucuaay iai?yaeaiey i?e ion/eouaaiee ii iei. Iaaeaeo oo?eoaie eeiaia
e oeaeai ia aeieaeii auoue ia?aeeaena.

Iiaa?ee e thnoe?iaee oaiaeieeoia auiieiythony aeey auyaeaiey a i?eai?ao
ionooieaiee io aaiiao?e/aneeo e iioeea — iaoaie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee,
iieiaeaiiuo a iniiao eo eino?oeoeee, e aeey aieaa iieiiai ono?aiaiey
auyaeaiiuo oiaea iiaa?eaie ioeeiiaiee. Iiaa?ee e thnoe?iaee auiieiythony
a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

6.1 Iiaa?ea iiaeuaiiuo aeioia

A?auaiey iiaeuaiiuo aeioia aeieaeii auoue ieaaiui, aac nea/eia e ethooa.
Ana o?e aeioa aeieaeiu a?auaoueny iaeeiaeiai n iaaieueoei cao?oaeiaieai.
Iaaiaeyo c?eoaeueioth o?oao ia eaeoth-eeai io/aoeeaoth aeaeeioth
ioaeaeaiioth oeaeue. Caaeeiatho cae?aieoaeueiua ono?ienoaa eeiaa e
aeeaeaaeu. Acyaoenue iaaeie ?oeaie ca ei?ion iiaenoaaee, eaaeei oneeeai
iuoathony neaaea iiaa?iooue iiaenoaaeo n oaiaeieeoii a iaeio ec noi?ii,
iinea /aai nieiatho ?oee. Anee iinea eaaeaeiai iiai?ioa ecia?aaeaiea
aica?auaaony ia i?aaeiea ianoi, oi iiaeuaiiua aeiou io?aaoee?iaaiu
oi?ioi. Anee ecia?aaeaiea ia aica?auaaony ia aaee/eio, i?aauoathuoth
oieueio oo?eoa naoee ieoae, oi ioaeii caoyiooue oieeueeie ?aaoee?iai/iua
aaeee iiaeuaiiuo aeioia.

6.2 Inue oeeeeiae?e/aneiai o?iaiy i?e aeeaeaaea ai?eciioaeueiiai e?oaa
aeieaeii auoue ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e aa?oeeaeueiie ine oaiaeieeoa

Iiai?ioii aeeaeaaeu onoaiaaeeaatho o?iaaiue ii iai?aaeaieth aeaoo ethauo
iiaeuaiiuo aeioia, a?auay eo a i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo, i?eaiaeyo
iocu?ae o?iaiy a ioeue ioieo. Caoai iiai?a/eaatho aeeaeaaeo ia aeac ia
90°, onoaiaaeeaatho o?iaaiue ii iai?aaeaieth o?aoueaai aeioa e a?auay
aai, niiaa i?eaiaeyo iocu?ae o?iaiy a ioeue ioieo. Aeaenoaey yoe
iiaoi?ytho, iiea iocu?ae o?iaiy a iieiaeaieyo 1 e 2 aoaeao ioeeiiyony io
ioeue ioieoa ia aieaa iaeiiai aeaeaiey aiioeu. Caoai aeeaeaaeo
iiai?a/eaatho ia aeac ia 180° ioiineoaeueii 1 iieiaeaiey. Oneiaea
n/eoaainy auiieiaiiui, anee iinea yoiai iineaaeiaai iiai?ioa iocu?ae
o?iaiy ioeeiieony io ioeue ioieoa a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai aeaeaiey. Anee
iocu?ae ioeeiieony aieueoa, oi iaaei iiaen/eoaoue /enei aeaeaiee n
aiioeu, ia eioi?ue ii ioeeiieeny. Caoai eni?aaeoaeueiui aeioii (eee
aeioaie) o?iaiy ia?aianoeoue iocu?ae ii iai?aaeaieth e ioeue ioieo ia
iieiaeio aeoae ioeeiiaiey, o.a. ia (n: 2) aeaeaiea .

THnoe?iaaoue o?iaaiue iiaeii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iinea iiaoi?a
aeeaeaaeu ia 180° iocu?ae o?iaiy oioy e ioeeiieeny io ioeue ioieoa, ii
ia i?eaeaoue e iaeiiio ec eiioeia a?. Anee iinea iiai?ioa aeeaeaaeu ia
180° iocu?ae o?iaiy ieaaeaony i?eaeaoui e iaeiiio ec eiioeia aiioeu, oi
eni?aaeyoue aai ia?aiauaieai ia iieiaeio aeoae ioeeiiaiey iaeuecy oae
eae a yoii neo/ae ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui iiaen/eoaoue /enei
aeaeaiey aiioeu, ia eioi?ie ioeeiieeny iocu?ae (anee au ia eiiaoe
aiioeu, oi iocu?ae naeaeioeny cia/eoaeueii aeaeueoa).Aeaenoaiaaoue a
yoii neo/ae ioaeii iaoiaeii i?eaeeaeaiey .i?e iiiiue eni?aaeoaeueiuo
aeioia niauaao iocu?ae o?iaiy a ioeue ioieo ia ia iieiaeio aeoae
ioeeiiaiey o?iaiy, a ia aaee/eio cia/eoaeueii iaiueooth. Oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea i?e iiai?ioa aeeaeaaeu ia 180″ iocu?ae o?iaiy aoaeao naiaiaeai
(ia aoaeao eanaoueny eiioea aiioeu), iiaeii eni?aaeoaeueiui aeioii
ia?aiauaoue aai ia iieiaeio aeoae ioeeiiaiey. Iinea eni?aaeaiey iocu?ae
o?iaiy aeieaeai inoaaaoueny a ioeue ioieoa i?e ethauo iiai?ioao
aeeaeaaeu.

6.3 Aa?oeeaeueiue oo?eo naoee ieoae (eee aennaeoi?) aeieaeai eaaeaoue a
eieeeiaoeeiiiie ieineinoe o?oau

Aa?oeeaeueioth inue a?auaiey i?eai?a i?eaiaeyo a ioaaniia iieiaeaiea.
Iaaiaeyo o?oao ia oi?ioi aeaeeioth oi/eo. Iaaiaeyuei ono?ienoaii
a?auatho o?oao aie?oa ai?eciioaeueiie ine. Anee i?e yoii aoaeao caia/aii
niauaiea ecia?aaeaiey oi/ee n aa?oeeaeueiiai oo?eoa naoee, oi nieiatho
eieia/ie, cae?uaathuee eioe?iai/iua aeiou naoee, ioaa?oeie neaaea
ioioneatho aeiou 4, 6, 8 e 10 e iiai?a/eaatho ieoey? niaianoii n naoeie.
Iiaa?eo iiaoi?ytho. Eiaaea aeaeaaiia iieiaeaiea naoee aeinoeaiooi, aeiou
cae?aieyth.

O oaiaeieeoa 2O5A eioe?iai/iuo aeioia naoee ieoae iao. Naoea ieoae
ne?aieaia iaaeooi n ei?ionii ieoey?a. Aeey ono?aiaiey iaeeiia naoee
ieoae iaiaoiaeeii iiaa?iooue ei?ion ieoey?a. Aeey yoiai neaaea iioneatho
o?e noiii?iuo aeioa, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia oeeeeiae?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoe
ei?iona ieoey?a. Iinea thnoe?iaee ei?ion ieoey?a cae?aieytho.

6.4 Aece?iay inue c?eoaeueiie o?oau aeieaeia auoue ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e
ine a?auaiey o?oau

Ioeeiiaiea io ia?iaiaeeeoey?iinoe aucuaaao eieeeiaoeeiiioth
iia?aoiinoue. Iau/ii ii?aaeaeytho ia eieeeiaoeeiiioth iia?aoiinoue n, a
aeaieioth eieeeiaoeeiiioth iia?aoiinoue 2n i?aauoaao 30″ (aeey
oaiaeieeoa OCI- 1′).

Onoaiaaeeaatho aa?oeeaeueioth inue oaiaeieeoa a ioaaniia iieiaeaiea e
iaaiaeyo c?eoaeueioth o?oao ia oaeaeaiiue, oi?ioi aeaeeiue i?aaeiao; i?e
yoii ii aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny iiae oaeii iaeeiia, aeeceei e 0°. Aa?oo
ion/aou ii ai?eciioaeueiiio e?oao i?e aeaoo iieiaeaieyo aa?oeeaeueiiai
e?oaa EE e EI . N oeaeueth eneeth/aiey aeeyiey yenoeaio?eneoaoa
ioe?aieytho oaiaeieeo a iiaenoaaea e iiai?a/eaatho aai ia 180°. Iinea
yoiai iiaoi?ytho iaaaaeaiey e ion/aou EE e EI . Aaee/eio aeaieiie e
eieeeiaoeeiiiie iia?aoiinoe au/eneyth! ii Oi?ioea.

A oaiaeieeoa OCI iiaenoaaea iaaeooi ne?aieaia n oaiaeieeoii, iiyoiio e
EI iiai?a/eaatho eeia ia 180°.

I?aaeaea /ai noaeeoue i aaee/eia 2n e iaiaoiaeeiinoe thnoe?iaee, a?
ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iiaoi?ii aece?iaaieai ia ae?oaie i?aaeiao. Eieaaaiea
cia/aiea 2n ec aeaoo ii?aaeaeaiee ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue oo?iaiiie
oi/iinoe ecia?aiey oaea. Oieueei i?e auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey
ii?aaeaeaiey 2n iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui i?aaeeueii.

Aeey ono?aiaiey eieeeiaoeeiiiie iia?aoiinoe onoaiaaeeaatho iaaiaeyuei
ono?ienoaii aeeaeaaeu ion/ao, au/eneaiiie ii iaeiie ec oi?ioe:

I?e iinoaiiaee ia yoio ion/ao ia?ae?anoea naoee ieoae oeaeao n
iaaaaeaiiiai i?aaeiaoa. Aeey thnoe?iaee nieiatho eieia/ie, ineaaeytho ia
1/4iai?ioa iaeei ec aa?oeeaeueiuo aeioia 5 eee 9, aieiauie aeioaie 3 e 7
(auaei/eaay iaeei e caaei/eaay ae?oaie) ia?aiauatho naoeo aei niaiauaiey
a? ia?ae?anoey n ecia?aaeaieai i?aaeiaoa e cae?aieytho ana aeiou. I?e
eni?aaeaiee iaeuecy i?eeaaaoue aieueoeo oneeee e thnoe?iai/iui aeioai,
oae eae eo iiaeii neiiaoue. Iiaa?eo ioaeii iiaoi?eoue, /oiau
oaaaeeoueny, /oi eieeeiaoeeiiiay iia?aoiinoue eni?aaeaia.

A oaiaeieeoa 2O5E naoea ieoae eioe?iai/iuo aeioia ia eiaao.
Eieeeiaoeeiiioth iia?aoiinoue ono?aiytho a?auaieai eeeiiaiai eieueoea
niaoeeaeueii aeey yoiai i?aaeiacia/aiiui eeth/ii.

I?eia?. I?e i?iaa?ea auee iieo/aiu ion/aou:

7. ECIA?AIEA AI?ECIIOAEUeIUO OAEIA

?aaioo ii ecia?aieth oaeia ia noaioeee auiieiytho a neaaeothuai
ii?yaeea:

1. Onoaiiaea oaiaeieeoa ?aai/aa iieiaeaiea: oeaio?e?iaaiea eino?oiaioa:
i?eaaaeaiea aai ine a ioaaniia iieiaeaiea; onoaiiaea o?oau aeey
aece?iaaiey.

2. Ecia?aiey ai?eciioaeueiuo oaeia (iai?aaeaiee) ia?aaioea aeo?iaea
iaaethaeaiee e eiio?ieue ecia?aiee ia noaioeee.

Aeey ecia?aiey ai?eciioaeueiuo oaeia i?eiaiytho niinia (ai?eciioaeueiuo)
i?e?iia i?e ecia?aiee iaeiiai oaea, niinia e?oaiauo i?e?iia i?e
ecia?aiee ia noaioeee oaeia iaaeaeo o?aiy e aieaa iai?aaeaiee.

a). Niinia i?e?iia.

Aeey ecia?aiey oaea AAN oaiaeieeo onoaiaaeeaatho a aa?oeia oaea N e,
cae?aiea eeia, iaaiaeyo ia caaeithth oi/eo A. Cae?aiea aeeaeaaeo
i?iecaiaeyo ion/?o ii ai?eciioaeueiiio e?oao. Aeaeaa ioe?aieytho
aeeaeaaeo, aece?otho ia ia?aaeithth oi/eo B e aeaeatho ion/?o a2 .
Aaee/eia ecia?yaiiai oaea.

A=a1-a2

a). Niinia e?oaiauo i?e?iia.

Onoaiiaea oaiaeieeo iaae oi/eie, aece?otho iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia ana
iai?aaeaiey ii oiaeo /aniaie no?aeee e i?iecaiaeyo io/?ou. Iineaaeiaa
iaaaaeaiea aeaeatho ia ia/aeueiia iai?aaeaiey /oiau oaaaeeony a
iaiiaeaeaeiinoe eeiaa. Ai aoi?ii iieo i?e?ia iaiytho eeia, i?eaiaeyo
/a?ac caieo e iineaaeiaaoaeueii aece?otho ia ana iai?aaeaiey i?ioea
oiaea /aniaie no?aeee.

8. ECIA?AIEA AA?OEEAEUeIUO OAEIA

I?e ecia?aiee aa?oeeaeueiuo oaeia enoiaeiui iai?aaeaieai yaeyaony
ai?eciioaeueiia. Io/?ou aaaeoo ii oeaea, iaianaiiui ia aa?oeeaeueiue
e?oa oaiaeieeoa. O iaeioi?uo oeiia oaiaeieeoia iiaeienue oeae ia
aa?oeeaeueiii e?oaa oeaea, oi ai anai niaiaaeaao oeaeia /enei a?aaeonia:
0i,90i.

Aeey au/eneaiey cia/aiee oaeia iaeeiia ii?aaeaeytho ianoi ioey I0. Ianoi
ioey – yoi ion/?o ii aa?oeeaeueiiio e?oao, niioaaonoaothuee
ai?eciioaeueiiio iieiaeaieth aece?iie ine e iieiaeaieth o?iaiy i?e
aeeaeaaea aa?oeeaeueiiai e?oaa a ioeue-ioieoa, n eiiiainaoi?ii i?e
aa?oeeaeueiii e?oaa. I0 ii?aaeaeytho oae; onoaiaaeeaatho oaiaeieeo,
i?eaiaeyo aai a ?aai/aa iieiaeaiea, iaoiaeyo ia ia? o?oao i?e e?oaa eaai
(E). I?e iaee/ee o?iaiy i?e aa?oeeaeueiii e?oaa i?eaiaeyo iocu??e aai a
ioeue ioieo e aa?oo ion/?o ii aa?oeeaeueiiio e?oao. O?oao
ia?aai?a/eaatho /a?ac caieo, oaiaeieeo- ia 180ie aiiaue, oaia?ue oaea,
i?e e?oaa i?aai (I), iaaiaeyo e?ano naoee ieoae ia oo aea oi/eo a iiaue
i?eaiaeyo iocu??e o?iaiy a ioeue- ioieo e ae?oo aoi?i ion/?o ii
aa?oeeaeueiiio e?oao.

I?e ?aaioa n oaiaeieeoii 3o30 I0 au/eneytho ii oi?ioea:

I0=(I+E+180i)/2

Caeeth/aiea

A oiaea i?ioiaeaeaiey o/aaiie i?aeoeee iu i?eia?aee iiuo ?aaiou n
oaiaeieeoii 2O30, 2O5E e ieaaee?ii I3 e oaaaeeeenue a iaiaoiaeeiinoe
oi/iinoe ecia?aiee.

Aeeyoaeueiuie oaeoi?aie yaeythony:

– iiaiaea

– ?aeueao ianoiinoe

Ai a?aiy iieaauo ?aaio iu i?iecaaee ecia?aiea aa?oeeaeueiuo e
ai?eciioaeueiuo oaeia, auiieieee ioeaieo oi/iinoe iieo/aiiuo
?acoeueoaoia.

Eae aoaeouea niaoeeaeenou iaycaiu ciaoue iniiau aaiaeacee e oiaoue
?aaioaoue n aaiaeace/aneeie i?eai?aie.

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