.

Путь развития Колумбии

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 787
Скачать документ

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee Oe?aeiu

?aoa?ao

ii oaia

«Iooue ?acaeoey Eieoiaee»

Auiieieea:

Aeaoa ________ ?inienue________

I?iaa?ee :

Aeaoa ________ ?inienue_________

Aeiiaoee 2009 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Eieoiaey eae ainoaea?noai

Enoi?ey Eieoiaee

Eoeueoo?a Eieoiaee

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey yeiiiieee

Naeueneia oicyenoai

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

Eieoiaey, eiio naaiaeiy aua ia i?eoiaeeeinue oneuoaoue ia yoii
i?ae?aniii oaieea i?e?iaeu. Aiai?yo, eniaineea caaiaaaoaee a 1499 aiaeo
nooieaoea ia aa caieth, iacuaaee Eieoiaeth «No?aiie neaci/iuo aiaaonoa».

A?aiaeeiciua o?iie/aneea eana, ai?u, ieyaee e neaca/ii e?aneaua ai?iaea
iinoaaeei aa a ?yae naiuo i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo iano anaai ie?a.I Eieoiaee
iiaeii neacaoue /oi yoi yoie/aneay iicaeea, io?aaeathuay naith
eoeueoo?o, oieueeei?, eneonnoai, ?aianei. ?aciua ei?ie e o?aaeeoeee
eiaeaeoeaa, eniaioeaa e ao?eeaioeaa nicaeaee eioa?anioth nianue,
iniaaiii a ?aianeaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, neoeueioo?a, iocuea.
Aeieieoiaianeia eneonnoai a iniiaiii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaiaiioth
neoeueioo?o, aii/a?iua ecaeaeey, thaaee?iua oe?aoaiey ec cieioa.
Eiaeaeneea ieaoaiua, i?yaeeeueiua e aii/a?iua i?iiunee ecaanoiu n
aeieieoiaianeeo a?aiai, ii nae/an yoi – ni/aoaiea nia?aiaiiuo oaoiee e
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai aeecaeia. Eieoiaeeneay iocuea – ni/aoaiea ao?eeaineeo
?eoiia Ea?eaneiai aannaeia, eoaeineie naeuenu e aiaeneie iocuee, n
iaeioi?ui eniaineei aeeyieai.

Noieo neacaoue, /oi a Eieoiaee naiia aieueoia eiee/anoai i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo ia eaaae?aoiue eeeiiao?, a ie?a. AEeaioiue ie?
caeanue i?aaenoaaeai yaoa?ii, ioeaeioii, iaea?e, oaie?ii, ieaiai,
a?iiaiinoeai, ianeieueeeie aeaeaie iaacueyi, a oaeaea ?aaeeei i/eiaui
iaaeaaaeai. Caiiaaaeiua ciiu caieiatho 7,9% oa??eoi?ee Eieoiaee, a
ninoaaa eo 33 iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?ea, 6 iaeaiueeeo ?aeiiia -nie?iaeuieoe
oei?u e oaoiu, 2 iaoeeiiaeueiuo caiiaaaeieea, a oaeaea yeicaiiaaaeiee –
eae iao?iiooue oaieie aeeeie i?e?iaeu.

Oaeaea auei oiiiyiooi, /oi a Eieoiaee ioe?uou neaaeu iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
eioa?aniuo oeeaeeecaoeee Caiaaeiiai iieooa?ey, a iaaeaeaei io
Nai-Aaonoeia, o enoieia ?aee Iaaaeaeaia, a iaua?ao iaeaeaii aieueoia
eiee/anoai eaiaiiuo oeao?, ioaeaeaiii iaiiieiathueo noaooe yiioe eiia?ee
aoeoaeia.

Oaeeaeyao Eieoiaey e ia?iiiui eiee/anoaii iocaaa n?aaee ieo auaeaeytho
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iocae n eieeaeoeeae yeniiiaoia eniaineiai caaiaaaiey e
eieiieaeueiiai ia?eiaea e Iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oaieiae/aneee iocae, iocae
cieioa, a eioi?ii aunoaaeaiu cieioua ecaeaeey aeieieoiaiaiai ia?eiaea.
Ana yoe iocae iaoiaeyony a Aiaioa. E ae?oaei aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoyi
iiaeii ioianoe niai? Nai-Iaae?i e iiianou?ue Nai-O?ainenei a Eaee, e
eniaineoth e?aiinoue Ea?oaoaia. Niai? a Naioa-Ia?oa, a eioi?ii aue
caoi?iiai Neiii Aieeaa?, oi?o Nai-Oa?iaiaei, iiianou?ue Naioi-Aeiieiai.

E aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoyi Aiaiou: oea?eiaue Nai-O?ainenei 1567a.,
Iaoeeiiaeueiue niai?, iinoaaeaiiue ia ianoa o?aia eiaeaeoeaa, iaaeaeaei
io ai?iaea iiaecaiiue nieyiie niai? a Ceaaeoe?a e aiaeiiaaeu Oaeaiaeaia.

Eieoiaey eae ainoaea?noai

Nae/an Eieoiaey yaeyaony ?anioaeeeie, aeaaa ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa – i?aceaeaio. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai – aeaooiaeaoiue
eiia?ann, i?iaacaeaoaiia iacaaeneiui ainoaea?noaii 20 ethey 1810 aiaea.,
yaeyaony /eaiii III e I?aaiecaoeee aia?eeaineeo ainoaea?noa.
?aniieiaaaoueny iia ia naaa?i-caiaaea THaeiie Aia?eee caieiaao
oa??eoi?eth a 1 138 910 ei? (n o/aoii 8,8 % aiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe ).
A?aie/eo n A?aceeeae e Aaianoyeie ia ainoiea, ia thaa — n Yeaaaei?ii e
Ia?o, ia caiaaea — n Iaiaiie. Iiuaaaony Ea?eaneei ii?ai ia naaa?a e
Oeoei ieaaiii ia caiaaea Ia caiaaea no?aiu n naaa?a ia tha i?ioyioeenue
Aiaeu, ?an/eai?iiua ?aeaie Iaaaeaeaia, Eaoea e ae?oaeie aieaa iaeeeie.
Ia ainoiea ?aniieiaeaii ieineiai?uea, ia?anaeaaiia i?eoieaie Aiaciiee.
Aaeieue iiaa?aaeee ?aneeioeenue ieciaiiinoe. Noieeoea Eieoiaee ai?iae
Aiaioa. Eieoiaey yaeyaony 4ie ii ieiuaaee no?aiie a THaeiie Aia?eea e
caieiaao 25a ianoi ii ieiuaaee oa??eoi?ee a ie?a. Eeeiao ia aa
oa??eoi?ee a iniiaiii yeaaoi?eaeueiue e noayeaaoi?eaeueiue.
N?aaeiaiany/iua oaiia?aoo?u ia ieciaiiinoyo ieiei 29 °C, a ai?ao ia
aunioao 2000-3000 i — 13-16 °C. Inaaeeia auiaaeaao io 150 ii a aiae ia
naaa?i-ainoiea aei 10 000 ii.

Ia yeiiiieea iiaeii neacaoue /oi no?aia aaoiiiiia a yia?aiiaania/aiee ca
n/ao caiania iaooe e oaey, a oaeaea aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee. Caei?iaay
aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiay i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia yenii?o yeiiiieea, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue eioa e oaieue. Eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. ?aniieaaaao e?oiiuie
caianaie iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, nin?aaeioi/aiiuo i?aeiouanoaaiii a ai?iuo
?aeiiao Aiae. A no?aia aeiauaatho cieioi, na?aa?i, ieaoeio, ecoi?oaeu
ieiei 90 % ie?iaie aeiau/e.

A i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?acaeaaaoueny iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay, ia?a?aaaouaathuay,
iaoaiay e oeie/aneay io?anee. Aeaaiua i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u yoi Aiaioa,
Iaaeaeueei e Eaee, ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue a iniiaiii iai?aaeaiia ia
ia?a?aaioeo naoa?iiai o?inoieea, iaiuae e o?oeoia.

Enoi?ey Eieoiaee

Eieoiaey ca aiaeu naiaai nouanoaiaaiey i?ioea ianeieueei ia?eiaeia:
aeieieiieaeueiue, ia?eiae eieiiecaoeey, eieiieaeueiue, e ia?eiae
iacaaeneiinoe. Aeieieiieaeueiue ia?eiae- a?aiy i?aauaaiey /aeiaaea ia
oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiae Eieoiaee ai a?aaia 15-12 aaeia aei i.y. Ia
oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiae Aiaiou aeeee ieaiaia ioioieeia-niae?aoaeae, eioi?ua
i?iaeeaaee a iniiaiii a aeieeia ?aee Iaaaeaeaia. Oaea iicaea a ia/aea
iaoae y?u ia oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiae Eieoiaee aeeee eiaeaeoeu (ea?eau,
a?aaaee, /ea/a-ioenee), i?e/?i n?aaee ieo i?aiaeaaeaee /ea/a, o
/ea/a-ioeneia auei aanueia ?acaeoia ii oai a?aiaiai iauanoai, iie
yaeyeenue iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ?acaeouo oeeaeeecaoeee a THaeiie Aia?eea
(iinea iaey e eieia). Iie nicaeaaaee thaaee?iua ecaeaeey ec cieioa e
nieaaa cieioa n iaaeueth, a ea/anoaa aeaiaaeiiai yeaeaaeaioa aunooiaee
cieioua ieanoeiee. *ea/a-ioenee iieeiiyeenue Aiao-Nieioeo eioi?iai iie
n/eoaee enoi/ieeii ieiaei?iaeey e i?eiineee aio a aea?oao aeeaioiuo.
Eieiiecaoeey i?iecoiaeeea n ia/aea 16, ai a?aiaia eieiiecaoeee
eniaioeaie THaeiie Aia?eee,ia?aua eieiiee eniaioeaa iniiaaee ia
Ea?eaneii iiaa?aaeuea, ii a 1536 aiaeo Eanaaei caaiaaae oa??eoi?eth e
ie?anoee Iiaie A?aiaaeie, eioi?ay aiineaaenoaee a 1549 aiaeo iieo/eea
noaoon aoaeueainee. Ai a?aiy eieiieaeueiiai ia?eiaea caiee Eieoiaee
aioee a ninoaa aeoea-ei?ieaanoaa Ia?o, a eiaiii ai a?aiy 1512 aiaea,
iiciaa a 1718 aiaeo a ninoaa aeoea-ei?ieaanoaa Iiaay A?aiaaea. Ia?eiae
iacaaeneiinoe aeeeeny n 1818-1830 iiea Neiii Aieeaa? ia i?iaicaeanee
iacaaeneiinoue Aaeeeie Eieoiaee. Caoai ia?aciaaiea iacaaeneiie
?anioaeeee Iiaay A?aiaaea a 1832 aiaeo, a 1863 aiaeo – Niaaeei?iiua
Ooaou Eieoiaee e 1886 aiae oieoa?iay ?anioaeeea Eieoiaey.

Eoeueoo?a Eieoiaee

Eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee Eieoiaee aei neo ii? nio?aiythony aiaaoua e
?aciiia?aciua eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee aeieieoiaiaie yiioe. A iaeioi?uo
ieaiaiiuo a?oiiao eiaeaeoeaa i?aeoeeiaaeinue caieaaeaeea e ?aianea,
ecaioaaeeaaeenue ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ecaeaeey ec eaiiy e ae?aaioeaiiuo
iaoaeeia, aeeth/ay cieioi. Nio?aieaoeany o?aiu, noaooe e ea?aieea
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aiaaonoaa eo eoeueoo?u; eiaeaeneia aeeyiea aei neo
ii? caiaoii a i?iecaaaeaieyo ia?iaeiiai eneonnoaa, a neoeueioo?a,
oeaiyo, iocuea e oaioeao. Eniaineea eieiienou cao?aoeee ai?acaei iaiueoa
nee ia ?acaeoea Iiaie A?aiaaeu, eae iie iacuaaee Eieoiaeth, /ai ia
ae?oaea ?aeiiu Eaoeineie Aia?eee. Ia?aue oieaa?neoao a Eieoiaee aue
iniiaai oieueei a 1580, a a Naioi-Aeiieiai oieaa?neoao Na. Oiiu
nouanoaiaae e yoiio a?aiaie oaea 40 eao. Ia?aue ia/aoiue noaiie a
Eieoiaee iiyaeeny a 1738, ia 200 eao iicaea, /ai a Iaeneea. Naiuee
a?enoie?aoia iau/ii ia iinaeyeenue a yoii ?aeiia, iiyoiio caeanue ia
no?ieeenue aaee/anoaaiiua aeai?oeu. A iineieueeo iaeaieueoeie
aiaaonoaaie iaeaaeaea eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, oi eneonnoai
eieiieaeueiiai ia?eiaea i?aaenoaaeaii aeaaiui ia?acii oea?eiaiie
a?oeoaeoo?ie, ea?oeiaie ?aeeaeiciiai niaea?aeaiey e noaooyie nayouo.
Aeinoeaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa Eieoiaee yaeythony i?aaeiaoii
iaoeeiiaeueiie ai?aeinoe. AEeoaee Eieoiaee ai?aeyony oaeaea naiei
eniaineei ycueii, eioi?ue iiiaea n/eoatho aieaa aeeceei e «/enoiio»
eanoeeueneiio, o.a. nianoaaiii eniaineiio, ycueo, /ai aeeaeaeou, ia
eioi?uo aiai?yo a ae?oaeo no?aiao eiioeiaioa. A 1960 aue i?eiyo Caeii ia
io?aia ycuea, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui cai?auaaony eniieueciaaiea
iaeniaineeo neia a ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao. A Eieoiaee aei iaoeo aeiae
nio?aieeenue ianeieueei eiaeaeneeo ycueia, ii ia ieo aiai?yo
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeeoaee oaeaeaiiuo ?aeiiia.

Ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai e a?oeoaeoo?a. Eneonnoai e a?oeoaeoo?a
eieiieaeueiiai ia?eiaea oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue i?aiaeaaeaieai oi?i iicaeiaai
N?aaeiaaaeiauey e yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. A 16–17 aa. a eneonnoaa
i?aiaeaaeae aeaei?aoeaiue noeeue ieaoa?ane, a oaeaea iaiuea?eci e noeeue
aa?ieei, n iaeeeai ene?eaeaiiuo eeiee, iaiau/iuie oi?iaie e eciu?aiiui
aeaei?ii. I?aainoiaeiui i?eia?ii noeey ieaoa?ane iiaeao neoaeeoue
eaoaae?aeueiue niai? a Ooioa, iaiuea?ecia – oea?eiaue Nai-Eaianei a
Aiaioa; noeey aa?ieei – Aeai?aoe eieaeceoeee a Ea?oaoaia e oea?eiaue
Nai-O?ainenei a Iiiayia. Iineieueeo Ea?oaoaia auea ioe?uoa iaiaaeaieyi n
ii?y, iia auea iniiaaoaeueii oe?aieaia e iiaeao neoaeeoue ia?acoeii
aiaiiie a?oeoaeoo?u. E na?aaeeia 18 a. a eieiiee iuoiui oeaaoii ?anoeaae
iaieeanneoeeci. Eniaineee a?oeoaeoi? Aeiieiai aea Iao?an (1750–1811)
ni?iaeoe?iaae ianeieueei niai?ia e aeai?oeia a iaieeanne/aneii noeea. A
Iiaie A?aiaaea neiaeeeanue e?oiiay oeiea eaoeiiaia?eeaineie
eieiieaeueiie aeeaiiene, ?acaeaaaoaeny i?aeiouanoaaiii a ?onea
iaiuea?ecia e aa?ieei. Ec ooaeiaeieeia eieiieaeueiie yiioe iaeaieaa
ecaanoai aeeaiienaoe e a?aoee, aaoi? ?aeeaeiciuo e aeeaai?e/aneeo ea?oei
A?aai?ei Aanean (1638–1711). A 19 a. ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny iaoeeiiaeueiue
noeeue a eneonnoaa, ecia?aaeaaoee ianoiua iau/ae. Ec ooaeiaeieeia 19 a.
auaeaeythony ?aiii Oi??an Iaiaean (1809–1885); Aeueaa?oi O?aeaiaoa
(1845–1887), eo/oa ae?oaeo oeiaeaoee aeoo ?iiaioecia; ii?o?aoenou
Iaioaeaii Iaiaeina, Yieoaiei Aa?ae (1849–1903) e ?eea?aei Anaaaaei
Aa?iaeue (1867–1938); Aiae?an aea Naioa-Ia?ey (1860–1945), iaoiaeeaoeeny
iiae neeueiui aeeyieai eii?anneiienoia. A 1886 ioe?ueanue Iaoeeiiaeueiay
oeiea ecyuiuo eneonnoa, aaea iieo/aee iiaeaioiaeo oeaeua iieieaiey
ooaeiaeieeia. N?aaee iaecaaeenoia ia/aea 20 a. aieueooth ecaanoiinoue
i?eia?aee Oanon Ia?ey Naii?a, ?iaa?oi Ia?aii e Eoen Ioiuean Ai?aea, a
O?ainenei Aioiiei Eaii, ?iaa?oi Ienaii, Ieaaeue Aeean Aa?aan e Oeaeiei
Aeueoiini Aiinaean Eaia?ai aeinoeaee aieueoiai ianoa?noaa, ?aaioay a
aeooa oae iacuaaaiiai einooia?ecia («auoiienaiey») e auae?ay a ea/anoaa
nthaeaoia noeaiu iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, ianoiua eee oieueeei?iua iioeau.

A 1930–1940-a aiaeu a eieoiaeeneie aeeaiiene iaoiaeeee io?aaeaiea
iieeoe/aneea ?aaiethoeeiiiua aeaeaeaiey. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaeneeaineeo
ooaeiaeieeia neeaaeuaaeinue oai?/anoai ecaanoiuo eieoiaeeneeo
iiioiaioaeenoia, auiieieaoeo ?yae ?inienae iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee – Iaae?i
Iaeue Aiiana (?. 1899) e Eaianei Aiiana Oa?aieeuei (?. 1910). A
na?aaeeia aaea aieueoia aeeyiea ia eneonnoai Eieoiaee ieacuaae
aano?aeoeeiieci, eae iiaeii aeaeaoue ia i?eia?a ?yaea ooaeiaeieeia
(Ia?ei Inieia e Aeeuea?ii Aeaeaiaii) e neoeueioi?ia (Yaeaa? Iaa?ao). A
oi aea a?aiy aeaa naiuo ecaanoiuo eieoiaeeneeo ooaeiaeieea – Yi?eea A?ao
(?. 1920) e Oa?iaiaei Aioa?i (?. 1932) nicaeaee iiaue oei ia?acia: eo
?aaiou auiieiyeenue a a?ioaneiie, ea?eeaoo?iie iaia?a e /anoi iineee
iieeoe/aneoth ie?aneo. A iniaaiiinoe yoi ioiineony e ?enoieai, aeeaiiene
e neoeueioo?a Aioa?i, ecia?aaeaaoaai iaiiia?ii ?acaeooua oeao?u a
noaoe/iuo iicao. A 1960-a a eieoiaeeneii eneonnoaa ia ia?aue ieai
auoiaeyo oaiu naena, ianeeey e nioeeaeueiuo eiioeeeoia; yoi iiaeii
aeaeaoue ia i?eia?a oai?/anoaa oaeeo ooaeiaeieeia, eae Ii?iai Iaoey,
Eoneaii Oa?aieeuei e Eaiiaeue Aiiai?a. Aiciiaeii, eiaiii ?aaeoeeae ia
oaioe/ioth ia?aciinoue noaee no?iaea aaiiao?e/aneea eiiiiceoeee Iia?a
?aei, Oaiie Naiei e Iaiiei Aaeueioeia.

I eeoa?aoo?a a Eieoiaee. O enoieia eieoiaeeneie eeoa?aoo?iie o?aaeeoeee
noiyo o?iienou 16–17 aa.: Iaae?i aea Aaoaaei (1503–1588), Ooai aea
Eanoaeueyiin (1522–1607), aaoi? enoi?eei-yie/aneie iiyiu Yeaaee i
aeinoineaaiuo ioaeao Eiaeee, Eoean Oa?iaiaean aea Iueaae?aeoa
(1624–1688) e Ooai ?iae?eaan O?aeea (1556–1638). Ai a?aiy ai?ueau ca
iacaaeneiinoue a iieeoe/aneie e eeoa?aoo?iie aeecie Eieoiaee aieueoie
iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeenue i?inaaoeoaeueneea eaeae, caeinoaiaaiiua
ec O?aioeee; aeoeaiui i?iiiaaaeieeii yoeo eaeae aue Aioiiei Ia?eiuei
(1765–1823). Iicaeiaa eieoiaeeneee ienaoaeue-?iiaioee Oi?oa Enaaen
(1837–1895) nicaeae iaeei ec naiuo /eoaaiuo a Eaoeineie Aia?eea ?iiaiia
Ia?ey (1867). ?iiaioeeaie auee e iaeaieaa ecaanoiua ee?e/aneea iiyou 19
a. Oina Yonaaei Ea?i (1817–1853) e ?aoayeue Iiiai (1833–1912). Iiyou e
oeeieiae ?ooeii Oina Eoy?ai (1801–1853) e Ieaaeue Aioiiei Ea?i
(1843–1909) iniiaaoaee aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe Eieoiaee; Einoeooo eiaie Ea?i e
Eoy?ai, nicaeaiiue a 1942 aeey ?acaeoey eeiaaenoe/aneeo, oeeieiae/aneeo,
eeoa?aoo?iuo e aeia?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, caieiaao ii/aoiia ianoi
n?aaee iiaeiaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee. N?aaee
eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo iiyoia-iiaea?ienoia eiioea 19 a. auaeaeyaony Oina
Anoinueii Neeueaa (1865–1896), iaeeiaeiai naiaiaeii aeaaeaaoee e
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie, e iiauie oi?iaie noeoineiaeaiey. Aeeuea?ii Aaeainey
(1873–1943), eioi?iai /anoi iacuaaee «naiui ia?ianneei» ec
eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo iiyoia, niaaeeiee a naieo noeoao eeanne/aneee noeeue
a?a/aneie e eaoeineie iiycee n iniaaiiinoyie eniaineiai noeey ?aiiaai
Aic?iaeaeaiey. Iieaie/aneoth ?aaeoeeth ia iiaea?ieci ninoaaeea
iinoiiaea?ienoneay oaiaeaioeey: n iniaie ino?ioie iia i?iyaeeanue a
na?eanoe/aneie auoiienaoaeueiie iiycee Eoena Ea?eina Eiiana (1883–1950)
e a o?aae/aneie yiioeeiiaeueii iaiaaeaiiie ee?eea Ieaaey Aioaey Ini?ei
(inaaae. Ii?oe?ei Aa?aa Oaeia, 1883–1942). Aaaiaa?aeenoneea oaiaeaioeee
a eieoiaeeneie iiycee i?aaenoaaeytho Eaii aea A?aeoo (1895–1976) e Eoen
Aeaeaean (?. 1904). Ec i?icaeeia ecaanoiinoueth iieueciaaeenue
ca/eiaoaeue ?aaeecia Oiian Ea??aneeeuey (1858–1940) e iniaaiii Oina
Yonoanei ?eaa?a (1889–1928), ?iiai eioi?iai Io/eia (1924) iiaanoaoao i
oyaeaeie aeecie nai?ueeia eao/oea a aeaeoiaeyo aa?oiae Aiaciiee. Oa?iai
A?neiueaaan (?. 1900) iieo/ee iaaeaeoia?iaeioth ecaanoiinoue eae
enoi?ee, aaoi? iieeoe/aneeo ynna. Ia ia?aciaaiee iiaeii neacaoue /oi a
eieiieaeueiue ia?eiae aeaaiie oeaeueth ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
auei ?ani?ino?aiaiea eniaineiai ycuea e eaoiee/aneie aa?u. Ia?aciaaiea
iaoiaeeeinue a ?oeao naiuee e oea?eae, ainoaea?noai aea e iaio ioiioaiey
ia eiaei. A 16 a. ?acee/iua ?aeeaeiciua i?aeaia nicaeaaaee ia/aeueiua
oeieu. A 17 a. eacoeou iniiaaee n?aaeiea oeieu – eieeaaeaee, oaeea eae
eieeaaeae Nai-Aa?oieiia (1605). Aaaeiui niauoeai eieiieaeueiiai ia?eiaea
auei nicaeaiea a 1783 Aioaie/aneie yeniaaeeoeee n oeaeueth eco/aiey
?anoeoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea aeey ano?iiiie/aneeo e aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaaethaeaiee; a oa/aiea 20 eao ai aeaaa yeniaaeeoeee noiye Oina
Naeanoeii Iooen (1732–1808). Aeayoaeueiinoue yoie ia?aie iao/iie
i?aaiecaoeee ioaaouaaea aeeaiienue, iaaeeoeeio, einiia?aoeth,
iaoaiaoeeo, ai?iia aeaei, caieaaeaeea, no?ieoaeuenoai e ae?oaea io?anee
ciaiey e i?iecaaea iiaeeeiioth ?aaiethoeeth a iao/iie iunee eieiiee
Iiaay A?aiaaea. Iinea oiai eae a 1819 Eieoiaey ia?aea iacaaeneiinoue,
eeaa?aeu e eiina?aaoi?u aaee aea?eea nii?u i oii, eaeei aeieaeii auoue
ia?aciaaiea a no?aia; iaeie ionoaeaaee naaoneia ia?aciaaiea aeey anao, a
ae?oaea aunooiaee a iiaeaea?aeeo ia?aciaaiey aeey yeeou iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii oea?eae. Yoio ?aneie neacuaaeny ia nenoaia ia?aciaaiey a
Eieoiaee ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aa enoi?ee. Eiinoeoooeey 1886 e eiiei?aeao
1887 i?eciaee ca oea?eiaueth ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea a nenoaia
ia?aciaaiey e iaeiia?aiaiii cae?aieee nouanoaiaaaoee ?ac?ua iaaeaeo
ai?iaeneeie e naeueneeie oeieaie. I?eiyoue a 1903 caeii i
ainoaea?noaaiiii ia?aciaaiee caeiaeee iniiau nenoaiu ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey a Eieoiaee. A niioaaonoaee n yoei caeiiii, ia?aciaaiea
aeieaeii auoue aanieaoiui, ii ia aeieaeii auoue iaycaoaeueiui.
Oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeie ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue, iiyoiio
ia?aciaaiea naiei aeaoyi iiaee aeaoue oieueei aiaaoua ethaee. A 1930,
eiaaea Eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey caiyea ?oeiaiaeyuea iiceoeee a
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, auee i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee naeaeaoue ia?aciaaiea aieaa
aeinooiiui, ono?aieoue aeene?eieiaoeeth e oeo/oeoue iieiaeaiea o/eoaeae.
N 1940 ii 1970 eiee/anoai o/aueony ?acei au?inei, oioy aeaeaei ia ana
aeaoe iinauaee oeieo. A ia/aea 1970-o aiaeia ai iiiaeo
eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo no?aiao auea i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?ia nenoaiu ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey. Ia?aciaaiea noaei aanieaoiui e iaycaoaeueiui aeey anao
aeaoae a aic?anoa io 7 aei 11 eao aeeth/eoaeueii. Ii aeaiiui
eieoiaeeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ie. 80% ianaeaiey no?aiu a?aiioii. A
no?aia nouanoaoao ie. 40 oieaa?neoaoia, aeeth/ay e?oiiaeoee a no?aia
Iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao Eieoiaee a Aiaioa, Aioueieeeneee oieaa?neoao
a a.Iaaeaeueei e eaoiee/aneee Oaaa?eaineee iaineee oieaa?neoao
iniiaaiiue 1622 aiaeo.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu

Eieoiaey aeaaeaao iaennyeaaiuie caianaie i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Caiey
aiaaoa iaooueth, eaiaiiui oaeai, ecoi?oaeaie, cieioii, na?aa?ii,
ieeaeai, aeaeaciie ?oaeie, ieaoeiie, i?e?iaeiui aacii, iaaeueth, o?aiii,
naeioeii, ecaanoiyeii, na?ie, anaanoii, aeinii, i?aii?ii, iieaaui
oiaoii, aeeiie, e?aiiacaiii, nieueth. A no?aia nin?aaeioi/aiu 4% ie?iauo
caiania iaooe. Aaeaaiaeii aeiauaaaony 301.696.500 aa??aeae «/a?iiai
cieioa». Aeaaiua oeaio?u iaooaaeiau/e – aannaei ?. Ioooiaei ia
naaa?i-ainoiea no?aiu, aeieeia ?. Iaaaeaeaia (aaeece a.
Aa??aieaaa?iaoa), aeaia?oaiaiou Naaa?iue Naioaiaea? e A?aoea iaaeaeaei
io a?aieoeu n Aaianoyeie, caeea Ii??ineeeuei ia naaa?i-caiaaea. Eieoiaey
caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a Eaoeineie Aia?eea ii aeiau/a eaiaiiiai oaey
(aieaa 32 iei. o a aiae). Caianu yoiai iieaciiai eneiiaaiiai ninoaaeytho
7,328 ie?ae. o. Eiaeaeoeu ?ac?aaaouaaee caeaaee oaey n ia?auo aaeia
iaoae y?u. Eioa?aniue oaeo: eniaineea caaiaaaoaee aeaaea ia
aeiaaaeuaaeenue, /oi eo ie?oaeatho ia?iiiua oaieueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey.
Oieueei a na?aaeeia XX a. a nayce ni no?ieoaeuenoaii ia?aiai a Eieoiaee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa ia/aeenue iienee oaey. Naiia e?oiiia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea eaiaiiiai oaey – Yeue-Na??aoii ia naaa?a no?aiu (aai
?aca?au en/eneythony 4,6 ie?ae. o).

Eieoiaey – aeaaiay ie?iaay nie?iaeuieoea ecoi?oaeia. Aa /anoi iacuaatho
«ecoi?oaeiie no?aiie». Eieoiaeeneea ecoi?oaeu iaeaaeatho iniaaiii y?eei
caeaiui oeaaoii, aac anyeie aieoaeciu. Oeaao eaaei aa?uee?oao, a
caaeneiinoe io ianoa iaoiaeee. Eiaeaeoeu eniieueciaaee ecoi?oaeu eae
aea?oaii?eiioaiey aiaai. Eiieenoaaei?u iacuaaee eo «caeaiui eueaeii».
Yoe ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie aeiauaatho a eiiyo Yeue-Ioni e *eai? a Ainoi/iie
Ei?aeeeuea?a. Ii aeiau/a cieioa (19 oun. ea aaeaaiaeii) Eieoiaey –
eeaea? a Eaoeineie Aia?eea. Iniiaiua ?aeiiu cieioiaeiau/e –
naaa?i-caiaaeiue aeaia?oaiaio Aioeieey, a iaiueoae noaiaie caiaaeiua e
oeaio?aeueiua aeaia?oaiaiou Eaoea, Eaeueaean, Ia?eiuei, Oieeia, *iei. A
ea/anoaa iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa i?e aeiau/a cieioa iieo/atho na?aa?i. Ii
anoue e naiinoiyoaeueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey na?aa?a (iaeaieaa e?oiiua – a
iaai?ueyo Aioeieee).

Eieoiaey iaoiaeeony ia eeaee?othueo iiceoeeyo ii aeiau/a ieeaey
(ianoi?iaeaeaiea Na??i-Iaoini ia naaa?i-caiaaea ?anioaeeee), aeaeaciuo
?oae (iniiaiie ?aeii aeiau/e – naaa?i-ainoie aeaia?oaiaioa Aiyea,
iaaeaeaei io a?aieoeu n Aaianoyeie), ieaoeiu, nin?aaeioi/aiiie a ciia ?.
Nai-Ooai e Ao?aoi ia caiaaea no?aiu. Aaeaaiaeii aeiauaaaony 5.097.000
eoa. i i?e?iaeiiai aaca

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey yeiiiieee

Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe 20 a. iniiao eieoiaeeneie yeiiiieee
ninoaaeyei naeueneia oicyenoai, a eioi?ii aaaeouae eoeueoo?ie e iniiaiie
noaoueae eaaaeueiiai yenii?oa aue eioa. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey ?ieue naeueneiai oicyenoaa iinoaiaiii ia/aea nieaeaoueny, e
e 1996 ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeeinue 20% aioo?aiiaai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa
(AAI), aeeth/athuaai noieiinoue anao i?iecaaaeaiiuo a no?aia oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Oaeei ia?acii, naeueneia oicyenoai oaia?ue i?eaeeceeinue ii
cia/aieth e ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe (19%), e onooiaao naeoi?o
oneoa (ii/oe 51%). Yenii?oiua iinooieaiey a 1997 ninoaaeee 11,529 ie?ae.
aeiee., a oii /enea io yenii?oa iaooe – 2,7 ie?ae. aeiee., eioa – 2,2
ie?ae. aeiee., eaiaiiiai oaey – 888 ie?ae. aeiee. e ieeaey – 161 ie?ae.
aeiee. A 1996 AAI Eieoiaee ninoaaee ie. 86 ie?ae. aeiee., o.a. 2225
aeiee. ia aeooo ianaeaiey. N 1970 ii 1992 AAI au?in ia 162%, o.a.
i?eia?ii ia 4,5% a aiae; i?e?ino ianaeaiey ca oio aea ia?eiae ninoaaeye
2% a aiae, /oi i?aeoe/anee eiiiaine?iaaei oaaee/aiea i?iaeoeoeee ia
aeooo ianaeaiey, iaeiaei oaiiu ?inoa eae yeiiiieee a oeaeii, oae e
aeioiaea ia aeooo ianaeaiey inoathony ii/oe naiuie aunieeie a THaeiie
Aia?eea. Eieoiaey n?aaieoaeueii eaaei ia?aianea oeiainiaue e?ecen 1980-o
e inoaeanue aaeeinoaaiiie no?aiie a ?aaeiia, eioi?ie ia i?eoeinue
i?eaaaaoue e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee aiaoiaai aeieaa. Oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa a 2000o eieaaethony io 2 aei 5% a aiae. Aaeiaua aioo?aiiea
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, oioy e nieceeenue a 1980-a aiaeu, aieueoae /anoueth
inoaaaeenue ia o?iaia, aeeceii e 20% AAI.

Naeueneia oicyenoai

Iineieueeo aieueoay /anoue no?aiu iaeaaeaao ai?enoui ?aeueaoii,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee ninoaaeytho iaiaa iyoie /anoe oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu, e eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue ec ieo eniieuecoaony iiae iinaau. Ia
iaoe?iuo oa??eoi?eyo, aaea ii/au iaiaa ieiaei?iaeiu, i?aeoeeoaony
yenoaineaiia aeeaioiiaiaenoai. ?aai/ea, caiyoua a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii
naeoi?a, nin?aaeioi/aiu aeaaiui ia?acii a caieaaeaeue/aneeo ?aeiiao, i?e
yoii i?iaeieaeaaony inaiaiea iiauo caiaeue.

Eiaiii naeueneia oicyenoai ecaeaaia iaania/eaaei aeoeaiue oi?aiaue
aaeain a no?aia, aeaaay cia/eoaeueiue ia?aaan yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii.
Ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee ?aniieiaeaiu a ?acee/iuo aunioiuo iiynao – io
o?iieeia aei oieiaeiiai iiyna ia ioiaoeao auoa 2000 i. Ia ii?neii
iiaa?aaeuea e a aeieeia ?. Iaaaeaeaia au?aueaaaony ?yae eiiia?/aneeo
eoeueoo? – aaiaiu, naoa?iue o?inoiee, oeii/aoiee, ?en, eoeo?oca,
aaeiaeneay ianee/iay iaeueia; ae?oaea eoeueoo?u, oaeea eae eaeai, aiau,
eannaaa e ?aciiia?aciua o?oeou, au?aueaathony aeaaiui ia?acii aeey
aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey. ?aniieiaeaiiua auoa ieiaei?iaeiua aeieeiu ?ae a
i?aaeaeao aeaia?oaiaioia Eaoea e Oieeia eniieuecothony aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa naoa?iiai o?inoieea e niaauo aiaia, oaaaea, ?ena e eioa. A
iaieo ?aeiiao eiathony ieaioaoeee oeii/aoieea.

Auoa ia neeiiao Aiae au?aueaaaony eioa iniauo iyaeeo a?iiaoiuo ni?oia,
eioi?uie neaaeony Eieoiaey; a yoie iaeanoe n ?iaiui oia?aiiui eeeiaoii
i?aeoe/anee ia auaaao ie caii?iceia.

A i?aaeaeao oieiaeiiai iiyna, a ie?anoiinoyo Aiaiou e ae?oaeo ai?iaeia,
?aniieiaeaiiuo a ai?ao, iiaeii au?aueaaoue ea?oioaeue, aiau, iaen,
ioaieoeo, y/iaiue e iaeioi?ua o?oeou. Ia ieaoi aaeece Aiaiou
au?aueaathony oeaaou, eioi?ua a oa/aiea 1980-o aiaeia iinoaiaiii caiyee
iaeii ec aaaeoueo iano a eieoiaeeneii yenii?oa.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oa??eoi?ee Eieoiaee iie?uoa eanaie, a oii /enea
oeaiiuo ii?iae, noieiinoue yoeo ?ano?nia iiauoaaony ec-ca eo
o?oaeiiaeinooiiinoe.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1.«Eieoiaey-iaecaaaeaiiay nie?iaeuieoea» Ieaaeue Iaeanei, 2006a.

2.«Enoi?ey ecoi?oaeiie no?aiu : Eieoiaey» Aaa?eeia TH?ee Iaaeiae/,
2001a.

3.«Eieoiaey.Iooaaiaeeoaeue ii no?aiai» Eain Porup, Eaaei Raub, Naca? A.
E ?iaa?o ?aeae, 2009a.

4.«Eieoiaey» Na?a Aoaen, 2008a.

5.«Eieoiaey. *a?u ie?a» Iy?eii Ii??enii, 2007a.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019