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I?iiuoeaiiinoue Ii?ooaaeee

Ii?ooaaeey – ioeoeeaeueiia iacaaiea Ii?ooaaeueneay ?anioaeeea –
?aniieiaeaia ia naiii caiaaea Ie?aiaeneiai iieoino?iaa. Iacaaiea no?aiu
i?ienoiaeeo io iaeiaiiaaiey ?eineiai iinaeaiey Ii?oon Eaea (Portus Cale)
a onouea ?aee Aei?o. N thaa e caiaaea iia iiuaaaony aiaeaie
Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia, a ia naaa?a e ainoiea a?aie/eo n Eniaieae. Ae
oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeao a?oeiaeaa Iaaeae?a e Aci?neea ino?iaa.
Eiioeiaioaeueiay /anoue Ii?ooaaeee caieiaao oa??eoi?eth 88 889 ei2
(i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 218 ei n ainoiea ia caiaae, 561 ei n naaa?a ia tha,
832 ei aa?aaiaie iieinu e 1 215 ei nooiiooiie a?aieoeu n Eniaieae).
Aci?neee a?oeiaeaa, ?aniieiaeaiiue a Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia caieiaao
oa??eoi?eth 2 355 ei2 e ninoieo ec aeaayoe ino?iaia, iauaaeeiyaiuo a o?e
a?oiiu: ainoi/iay – Nai-Ieaae e Naioa-Ia?ey, oeaio?aeueiay – Oa?nae?a,
A?aneica, Nai-AEi?aee, Ieeo e Oaeae – e caiaaeiay – Oei?eo e Ei?ao. N
eiioeiaioaeueiie Ii?ooaaeeae Aci?neea ino?iaa naycuaaao aicaeooiia
niiauaiea, i?e/ai a?aiy iieaoa caieiaao ieiei 2 /ania. A?oeiaeaa
Iaaeae?a ?aniieiaeai a Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia ia oa??eoi?ee 741 ei2
i?eaeeceoaeueii a 500 ei io aa?aaia Caiaaeiie Ao?eee e a 1000 ei io
aa?iiaeneiai eiioeiaioa (iieoi?a /ana iieaoa aei Eennaaiia). A?oeiaeaa
aeeth/aao a naay ino?iaa Iaaeae?a e Ii?oo-Naioo, a oaeaea iaiaeoaaiua
ino?iaa Aeaca?oao e Naeaaaeaio, iauyaeaiiua i?e?iaeiio?aiiuie
oa??eoi?eyie.

Noieeoea Ii?ooaaeee — Eennaaii — iaeei ec e?aneaaeoeo ai?iaeia ie?a.
Ae?oaea e?oiiua ai?iaea — Ii?oo, A?aaa, Naooaae, Eieia?a, Yai?a.
Ioeoeeaeueiue ycue – ii?ooaaeueneee.

Eiioeiaioaeueiay /anoue no?aiu iiae?acaeaeyaony ia 18 aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
ie?oaia. Nio?aiyaony oaeaea aeaeaiea ia enoi?e/aneea i?iaeioeee. Ino?iaa
Aci?neea e Iaaeae?a eiatho noaoon aaoiiiiiuo iaeanoae. Ie?oae, a naith
i/a?aaeue, aeaeyony ia ioieoeeiee e i?eoiaeu.

I?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie i?eoiaea yaeythony annaiaeay e aeoioa
i?eoiaea. Annaiaeay ecae?aaony anaie a?aaeaeaiaie i?eoiaea. AEoioa
yaeyaony eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii i?eoiaea e ecae?aaony oaeiui
aieiniaaieai annaiaeae ec /enea aa /eaiia. I?aaenaaeaoaeai aeoiou
yaeyaony a?aaeaeaiei, aicaeaaeythuee nienie eaiaeeaeaoia e iieo/eaoee
iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai aieinia i?e auai?ao a annaiaeath.

Ioieoeeiee oi?aaeythony ioieoeeiaeueiuie annaiaeayie e iaeaoaie.
Ioieoeeiaeueiua annaiaeae ninoiyo ec i?aaenaaeaoaeae aeoio
(eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia) i?eoiaeia e ii e?aeiae ia?a oaeiai aea /enea
eca?aiiuo aeaiooaoia. Ioieoeeiaeueiay iaeaoa yaeyaony eniieieoaeueiui
i?aaiii aeanoe e aicaeaaeyaony eaiaeeaeaoii io aaaeouae ia?oee,
iieo/eaoae aieueoeinoai aieinia. Ioieoeeiee iiaoo nicaeaaaoue
annioeeaoeee e oaaea?aoeee aeey ?aoaiey yeiiiie/aneeo, iauanoaaiiuo,
eoeueoo?iuo e ae?oaeo aii?inia.

I?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ie?oaia yaeythony
annaiaeay e aeoioa ie?oaa. Annaiaeay ninoieo ec /eaiia, eca?aiiuo
anaiauei i?yiui aieiniaaieai, e /eaiia, aua?aiiuo eieeaaeae auai?ueeia,
ninoiyuae ec /eaiia ioieoeeiaeueiuo annaiaeae. Eniieieoaeueiue
eieeaaeaeueiue i?aai, aeoioa, ecae?aaony oaeiui aieiniaaieai annaiaeaae
ie?oaa ec /enea aa /eaiia. I?e aeoioa ie?oaa eiaaony i?aaenoaaeoaeue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aci?neea ino?iaa e Iaaeae?a iieuecothony naiioi?aaeaieai
e oaeaea aeaeyony ia ioieoeeiee e i?eoiaeu. Iaeanoiua annaiaeae
ecae?athony ia i?yiuo anaiaueo e oaeiuo auai?ao a niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai no?aiu – iaeiiiaeaoiue ia?eaiaio (Annaiaeay
?anioaeeee), ninoieo ec 230 aeaiooaoia, ecae?aaiuo ia anaiaueo auai?ao
ia /aou?aoeaoiee n?ie. Annaiaeay i?eieiaao caeiiu e ooaa?aeaeaao
athaeaeao. Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue ?acaeaeaia iaaeaeo i?aceaeaioii e
i?aaeoaeuenoaii ai aeaaa n i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii. I?aceaeaio ecae?aaony ia
anaiaueo auai?ao n?ieii ia iyoue eao e ia iiaeao auoue ia?aeca?ai ia
o?aoee n?ie. A /enei iieiiii/ee i?aceaeaioa aoiaeyo iacia/aiea e
niauaiea i?aiuea?-ieieno?a e ae?oaeo ieieno?ia, ii iiaeao iaeaaaoue aaoi
ia caeiiii?iaeou, i?eiyoua ia?eaiaioii. I?aaeoaeuenoai ii?aaeaeyao
iieeoeeo no?aiu, oi?ie?oao athaeaeao e inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca
ainoaea?noaaiiui oi?aaeaieai.

A nia?aiaiiie Ii?ooaaeee aeaenoaotho ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeythuea aanue niaeo? iieeoe/aneeo e eaeaeiuo nee. .
Ii?ooaaeueneay eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey (IEI), iniiaaiiay a 1921 aiaeo ,
nioeeaeenoe/aneay ia?oey (NI), ainnicaeaiiay ca ?oaaaeii a ia?eiae
oaoenoeie aeeeoaoo?a a Ii?ooaaeee a 1973 aiaeo (iia aoiaeeo a
nioeeaeenoe/aneee eioa?iaoeeiiae.), Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey
(NAeI) e Ia?iaeiay ia?oey, iniiaaiiua a 1974 aiaeo, Eaaue aeie (EA) –
eiaeeoeey ?yaea eaai?aaeeeaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Aeie aiciee iaeaioia
anaiaueo auai?ia 1999 aiaeo a iiiuoea ?ai?aaieciaaoue ?acae?iaeaiiue
eaaa?ue ii?ooaaeueneeo oeueo?aeaauo, iiioey?iuo a 1970o, ii caoai
oo?aoeaoeo aeeyiea. A EA aioee o?ioeeenoneay ?aaiethoeeiiiay
nioeeaeenoe/aneay ia?oey ( auaoee iaienoneee Ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/aneee
nithc ), iaaieueoay eaaay a?oiie?iaea «Iieeoeea XXI», ioeieiaoayny io
IEI, a oaeaea iacaaeneiua eaaua. Ianeaaeieeaie iaeiaaea iiuiiai
aia?oenoneiai aeaeaeaiey a Ii?ooaaeee yaeythony ii?ooaaeueneea naeoeee
Oaaea?aoeee aia?oenoia Eaa?ee e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie annioeeaoeee
o?oaeyueony (aia?oi-neiaeeeaeenoneiai Eioa?iaoeeiiaea).

N?aaee i?ionithciuo iauaaeeiaiee Ii?ooaaeee e?oiiaeoei yaeyaony Anaiauay
eiioaaea?aoeey ii?ooaaeueneeo o?oaeyueony – Iaoeeiiaeueiie
eioa?neiaeeeao (AEIO-IE). Iia iauaaeeiyao 85% /eaiia i?ionithcia.

1 yiaa?y 1986 a. Ii?ooaaeey anooieea a Aa?inithc, a a 2002 a. Aioea a
ciio aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie aaethou Aa?i.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue Ii?ooaaeee neiioeaio?e?iaaia a aeaoo ?aeiiao, aie?oa
Eennaaiia e Naooaaea ia thaa e aie?oa Ii?oo, Aaae?o e A?aae ia naaa?a. A
?aeiia Eennaaiia i?aiaeaaeaao oyaeaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, auioneathuay
noaeue, iaooai?iaeoeou, noaiee, aaoiiiaeee, oeie/aneea i?iaeoeou e
oeaiaio. Noaeino?ieoaeueiua aeiee Eeoiaae ecaanoiu ia aanue ie?. A
ie?oaa Eennaaii auioneaaony oaeaea yeaeo?iiiia iai?oaeiaaiea. A Ii?oo
iaoiaeeony naiue e?oiiue a no?aia iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuee caaiae, ii
naaa?iua ai?iaea niaoeeaeece?othony ia i?iecaiaenoaa oaeeo oiaa?ia, eae
oeaie, iaoaue, iaaaeue, aeia e i?iaeoeou ieoaiey. Noa?eiiue i/aa
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoiaeeony ia naaa?i-caiaaea (Ii?oo,
Aeia?aeo e A?aaa), aeaaiua oeaio?u oa?noyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – a ai?iii
?aeiia aie?oa ai?iaeia Aoa?aea e Eiaeeuey. Iiiaea i?iiuoeaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey oeie/aneie, oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie, oeaiaioiie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe neiioeaio?e?iaaiu a i?ea?aaeiie iieina iaaeaeo Ii?oo e
Eennaaiiii. Iaa oiiiyioouo ai?iaea yaeythony oeaio?aie iaoaeeo?aee e
iaoeiino?iaiey.

A naeueneii oicyenoaa enoi?e/anee neiaeeeenue cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey a
oa?aeoa?a caieaiieueciaaiey iaaeaeo naaa?iuie e thaeiuie ?aeiiaie
no?aiu. Ia naaa?a aeiieie?oao eioaineaiue niinia aaaeaiey oicyenoaa.
*aua anaai e?anoueyia niae?atho aeaa o?iaeay a aiae. Au?aueaaiea eaoii
eoeo?ocu, a ceiie aiaiauo ni/aoaaony n ?aciiia?aciui ieiaeiaiaenoaii e
aeeaioiiaiaenoaii. A thaeiuo ?aeiiao Ii?ooaaeee i?aiaeaaeatho iinaau
ioaieoeu.

Aaaeiaeoee ?aeii niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai noao?iie/aneiai ieiaeiaiaenoaa –
naiay thaeiay i?iaeioeey no?aiu – Aeaa?aa. Iaeia ec iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a yoie canooeeaie e iaei i?ioaaiie iaeanoe eoeueoo? –
ieiaeaeue. A Aeaa?aa ?ano?o oaeaea eiaee?, ?iaeeiaia aea?aai.. I?ioaaiua
aeethaeaeueiua aeieeiu Aeaa?aa /anoi caiyou aiaeueneiiauie ?iuaie.
Caeanue aea ano?a/athony oeieeiaua iaeueiu.

A ai?iuo naaa?i-ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao aeaaiay ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a – ?iaeue.
?en aicaeaeuaatho ia caoiieyaiuo aeethaeaeueiuo ?aaieiao a ieciaueyo ?ae
oeaio?aeueiie e thaeiie Ii?ooaaeee, iniaaiii ?ae Oaaeo, Iiiaeaao, Naaeo
e ae?. Aiaiaua e ea?oioaeue au?aueaatho i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeeeo
e?anoueyineeo oicyenoaao naaa?i-caiaaea.

Ianeeiu, niae?aaiua a aieueoii eiee/anoaa, eniieuecothony a ieuo, ii
aeaaiui ia?acii neoaeao nu?ueai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ieeaeiaiai ianea.
Ii?ooaaeey – iaeei ec aeaaiuo yenii?oa?ia eao/oia. Ia?iiioth ?ieue a
naeueneii oicyenoaa ea?atho aeiia?aaea?noai e aeiiaeaeea. Ii?ooaaeey –
iaeia ec aaaeoueo caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai-yenii?oa?ia aeia. Iaeaieaa
aaaeiua ?aeiiu aeiia?aaea?noaa – aeieeiu naaa?iuo ?ae Aei?o, Iiiaeaao e
Eeia. Aeiia?aaeieee ?aniieiaeaiu oaeaea a Aeaa?aa e ia iieoino?iaa
Naooaae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii e thao io Eennaaiia. Ii?ooaaeueneea aeana?oiua
aeia, iniaaiii ii?oaaei e ioneao, a oaeaea ?iciaua noieiaua aeia
ecaanoiu ia aanue ie?.

Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea Ii?ooaaeee oaeaea ea?aao eaniia
oicyenoai. Eiiia?/anee oeaiiuie ii?iaeaie yaeythony ninia e i?iaeiaue
aeoa. Ii?ooaaeey aaeaaiaeii i?iecaiaeeo aieueoa nu?uey ec i?iaeiaiai
aeoaa, /ai aanue inoaeueiie ie?. Yaeaeeiou, caaacaiiua ec Aano?aeee,
yaeythony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii nu?uey aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oeaeetheicu. Ia
aaca eaniiai nu?uey i?iecaiaeyony e yenii?oe?othony neeieaea?,
eaieoieue, oaiei, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea i?iaeoeou eanioeiee.

N iieiaeaieai Ii?ooaaeee ia Aoeaioe/aneii iiaa?aaeuea naycaii ?acaeoeai
?uaiiai i?iiunea. ?uaieianoaii caieiathony ia oieueei i?ioanneiiaeueiua
?uaaee, ii e cia/eoaeueiay /anoue caieaaeaeueoeaa, aeey eioi?uo eia ?uau
neoaeeo iiaeniaiui i?iiuneii. Iniaaiii iiiai oaeeo e?anoueyi ia naaa?iii
iiaa?aaeuea no?aiu. ?uaiua eiina?au – iaeia ec aeaaiuo noaoae
ii?ooaaeueneiai yenii?oa e aaaeiue i?iaeoeo ieoaiey ianoiuo aeeoaeae. E
aeaaiui ?uaieiaiui ii?oai ioiinyony Eennaaii , Iaoiceiuetho, Naooaae,
Oa?o, Ii?oeiai.

A no?aio i?eacaeatho ca aiae aei 5 iei. eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia,
i?eaeaeaaiuo i?e?iaeie ino?iaia e iiaa?aaeuey Ii?ooaaeee,
iiiai/eneaiiuie iaiyoieeaie eoeueoo?u e enoi?ee.

Aa?a?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

Oa??eoi?ey Ii?ooaaeee i?ioyaeaiiinoueth n naaa?a ia tha – aieaa 400 ei e
n caiaaea ia ainoie – aieaa 150 ei, ?anna/aia aeieeiaie ?ae Ieiueo
(naaa?iay a?aieoea n Eniaieae), Aeio?o, Oaaeo e Aoaaeeaia (ainoi/iay
a?aieoea n Eniaieae). Yoe ?aee, aa?ouea ia/aei ia oa??eoi?ee ninaaeiae
Eniaiee, ianoo aiaeu /a?ac ana Eaa?eeneia iaai?uea a Aoeaioe/aneee
ieaai. Aeaaiay ?aea Ii?ooaaeee – Oaaeo (a Eniaiee – Oaoi), i?ioaeathuay
n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae, aeaeeo oa??eoi?eth no?aiu ia aeaa
i?eia?ii ?aaiua ii ieiuaaee /anoe.

Naaa?iay /anoue oa??eoi?ee no?aiu, ?aniieiaeaiiay iaaeaeo ?aeaie
Ieiueo-Aeio?o e Aeio?o-Oaaeo, ia?acoao ieineiai?uea, ec?acaiiia
i?eoieaie yoeo ?ae (i?iaeioeee O?ac-oo-Iiioao, Aeio?o Eeoi?ae, Aae?a
Eeoi?ae, Aae?a Eioa?ei? e Yoo?aiaaeo?a). N oi/ee c?aiey
caieaiieueciaaiey yoe eaiaienoua oaeaaeiaiiua ii/au i?eaiaeiu aeey
aeiia?aaea?noaa e naaeiaiaenoaa, caeanue au?aueaatho e?oiiue ?iaaoue
neio (E?N), a oaeaea iaaoe e eic.

THaeiay /anoue oa??eoi?ee Ii?ooaaeee, ?aniieiaeaiiay iaaeaeo ?aeaie
Oaaeo e Aoaaeeaiie, ia?acoao ciio canooeeauo ?aaiei, ia?anaeaaiuo
oieienouie a?yaeaie (i?iaeioeee ?eaaoaaeo, Aeaioaaeo e Aeaa?aa). A yoie
/anoe no?aiu ?acaeoi iaoioiia caieaaeaeea, au?aueaathony ca?iiaua e
iaiuiua eoeueoo?u, iiiai naaeia, a ia neeiiao oieiia – aeiia?aaeieeia. A
aeieeia ?aee Naaeo ?acaeoi ?eniaiaenoai. A aeeaioiiaiaenoaa i?aaaee?oao
au?aueaaiea E?N e naeiae, ?acaeoi ioeoeaaiaenoai. Iiey ca?iiauo e
iaiuiuo eoeueoo? ia?aiaaeathony ieaioaoeeyie eoeueoeae?oaiiai caeanue
i?iaeiaiai aeoaa e ieeaeiauo aea?aaueaa.

Ec iauae ieiuaaee oa??eoi?ee no?aiu, ?aaiie 5,08 iei. aa, a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii iai?ioa caiyoi 3,92 iei. aa, a oii /enea ia
eiioeiaioa – 4,93 e 3,80, ia a?oeiaeaaa Aci?neeo ino?iaia – 0,14 e 0,12
e ia a?oeiaeaaa Iaaeae?a – 0,01 e 0,07 iei. aa niioaaonoaaiii.

Ii niiniao caieaiieueciaaiey n/o caiee ?ani?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii
(a i?ioeaioao io ieiuaaee, caiyoie a iai?ioa): naciiiua eoeueoo?u
(ca?iiaua, iaiue e o. ae.) – 33,5; iinoiyiiua eoeueoo?u (naaeu,
aeiia?aaeieee) 19; ianoaeua – 26,1; i?eonaaeaaiua caiee – 0,7;
iaaicaeaeaiiua caiee – 20,7. Ieiuaaeue, caiyoay eanaie, ninoaaeyao 0,5
iei. aa.

A n/o i?iecaiaenoaa caiyoi 10,1% o?oaeiniiniaiiai eee 4,2% anaai
ianaeaiey no?aiu, i?e yoii aeiey n/o i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?a?aaaouaathuae
io?anee a iauai iauaia AAI ia i?aauoaao 10-12%.

Naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, a neeo ii?aaeaeaiiie
o?aaeeoeeiiiinoe, ia iiaeaa?aeaii nea/eiia?aciui eciaiaieyi, iiyoiio
aeey aiaeeca ninoiyiey ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae naeueneiai oicyenoaa
aeinoaoi/ii n ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieae aeinoiaa?iinoe ainiieueciaaoueny
aeaiiuie ca 1996 aiae. Iauea iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa 1997 aiaea ieaea, /ai
i?aaeuaeouaai, oae eae oa??eoi?ey ia thaa no?aiu iino?aaeaea io canooe e
eeaiaauo iaaiaeeia, a naaa?iua i?iaeioeee – io iicaeieo caii?iceia, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aue oie/oiaeai o?iaeae
aeiia?aaea a aeieeiao ?ae Aeio?o, Aeai e Ieiueo, eaeouaai aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa anaie?ii ecaanoiuo aei.

AEeaioiiaiaenoai e ioeoeaaiaenoai. A 1996 a. iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee yoeo io?aneae a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaeee 3221,9 iei.
aeiee, eee ia 7,8% aieueoa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo.

Iniiaiay i?iaeaia yoeo io?aneae – iaania/aiea iiaieiauey iieiioeaiiie
ei?iiaie aacie, oae eae iiaeiiaeiue ei?i yaeyaony ieceieaei?eeiui, a a
canooeeaue ia?eiae ei?ieaiea inouanoaeyaony a iniiaiii eiiaeei?iaie.
Aeey iieiioeaiiiai ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo eniieuecoaony cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue au?aueaaaiuo a no?aia ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, a oaeaea einoiay e
?uaiay ioea, i?ioaeiu e ieia?aeueiua aeiaaaee. Aaeaaiaeii a no?aia
i?iecaiaeeony 3,5-4 iei. o. eiiaeei?iia e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aei 0,1
iei. o. eiii?oe?oaony (a iniiaiii ec Eniaiee).

AEeaioiiaiaenoai Ii?ooaaeee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aace?oaony ia ianoiuo
ii?iaeao, i?eau/iuo e aea?eiio eeeiaoo, eaiaienoui ii/aai e
niioaaonoaothuae ei?iiaie aaca. Aaiceiua ec Aa?iiu iiae no?iaei
aaoa?eia?iui eiio?ieai ieaiaiiua aeeaioiua eniieuecothony a iniiaiii
aeey naeaeoeeiiiie ?aaiou, iai?aaeaiiie ia oeo/oaiea ianoiiai ii?iaeiiai
ninoaaa. Yoi yaeeinue iniiaiie i?e/eiie iacia/eoaeueiiai ii?aaeaiey
iiaieiauey E?N ?ani?ino?aieaoaeny a Aa?iia aieaciueth, iacuaaaiie
«aaoainoaii ei?ia» . Anaai a no?aia auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 93 neo/ay
caaieaaaiee (a iniiaiii a naaa?iuo i?iaeioeeyo), a iauaa eiee/anoai
caaeouo ii iiaeic?aieth a caaieaaaiee aeeaioiuo ia i?aauneei 1300 aieia.

?anoaieaaiaenoai. Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a 1996 a. i?iaeoeoeee yoie io?anee
ninoaaee 2936 iei. aeiee. eee ia 10,5% aieueoa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai
aiaeo.

Iniiaiuie i?iaeaiaie, iaaaoeaii aeeythueie ia ?acaeoea ?anoaieaaiaenoaa,
yaeythony ionoaeay no?oeoo?a caieaiieueciaaiey (n?aaeiyy ieiuaaeue
caiaeueiiai iaaeaea ia iaeii oa?ia?neia oicyenoai Ii?ooaaeee ii aeaiiui
ca 1996 a. ?aaia 8,7 aa), neaaay oaoie/aneay aaca ( 1 o?aeoi?
i?eoiaeeony ia 4 oa?ia?neeo oicyenoaa, o. a. aieueoay /anoue caiee
ia?aaaouaaaony eioaaeueie eee n i?eiaiaieai ?o/iiai o?oaea) e
neaai?acaeoinoue eio?ano?oeoo?, iaania/eaathueo naeueneioicyenoaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai (nenoaiu yia?aiiaania/aiey, i?ioaiey, aei?iae e o. ae.).

Na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie, naea?aeeaathuae ?acaeoea n/o i?iecaiaenoaa a
oeaeii, yaeyaony iooie iieiaeaaee ec naeueneeo ?aaeiiia a ai?iaea e, eae
neaaenoaea, «noa?aiea» naeueneiai ianaeaiey, aai ieceay eaaeeoeeaoeey,
iicaieythuay aanoe oicyenoai oieueei ia o?iaia naiiiaania/aiey, oi anoue
iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa. Iaaethaeaaoeeny a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?ino
aac?aaioeoeu canoaaee /anoue naeueneie iieiaeaaee aa?iooueny a naei, ii
?acoeueoaou yoiai i?ioeanna iiea iacia/eoaeueiu.

I?iaeaia i?ioeaiaeaenoaey iaaeaaii?eyoiui iiaiaeiui oneiaeyi (eeaiaaua
iaaiaeee a inaiia-ceiiee ia?eiae e canooa, nii?iaiaeaeaaiay eaniuie
iiaea?aie – a eaoiee ia?eiae) yaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiie aeey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa Ii?ooaaeee, e ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaeeo a
oaniii acaeiiaeaenoaee n AN e i?aaeaea anaai – n i?aaeoaeuenoaii
Eniaiee. Aeaei a oii, /oi ana iniiaiua ?aee, i?ioaeathuea ii oa??eoi?ee
Ii?ooaaeee, ia/eiathony a ninaaeiae Eniaiee, e eo oa/aiea ca?aaoee?iaaii
oai eaneaaeaie aeae?inii?oaeaiee. Eae ?acoeueoao, i?e iaaiaeeao yoe
aeae?inii?oaeaiey (ieioeiu) ia/eiatho na?in eceeoiae iannu aiaeu, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iaaiaeiaieyi a Ii?ooaaeee. E iaiai?io, i?e canooa na?in
aiaeu i?ae?auaaony, /oi noaiiaeony aaaenoaeai aeey aa?a?eaa Ii?ooaaeee.

Ianiio?y ia iaee/ea ?yaea niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaie Ii?ooaaeee
e Eniaiee i ?acaeaea aeae?iyia?ai?ano?nia, ia?aaeee neo/ae ia?ooaiey
yoeo niaeaoaiee Eniaieae a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea, /oi iicaieyao
ii?ooaaeueneei i?aaiai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee cayaeyoue i oii, /oi
Ii?ooaaeey ieaoeo aeaaaeaeu – ca oua?a io iaaiaeiaiee e canooe, a oaeaea
ca i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua e i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ec Eniaiee, iaaiaeieaoea Ii?ooaaeeth.

Iiiiuue AN ii oeo/oaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa
Ii?ooaaeee inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu Iauae
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiie Iieeoeee (Politica Agncola Comum – ?AN) e
i?ia?aiiu LEADER. I?e yoii i?ia?aiia ?AN eiaao io?aneaaie, a LEADER –
?aaeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Aeaenoaea yoeo i?ia?aii ioaaouaaao aei 20% anaai
n/o i?iecaiaenoaa no?aiu, a iauee iauai iiiiue ec oiiaeia AN ia eo
?aaeecaoeeth ii aeaiiui Aaiea Ii?ooaaeee ca yiaa?ue-naioya?ue 1997 a.
ninoaaee 0,9 ie?ae. aeiee.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie yoie iiiiue yaeythony eiaanoeoeee a ?aaeecaoeeth
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeoia, ai?iae?iaaiiuo niioaaonoaothueie ii?ooaaeueneeie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, a oaeaea niaeaenoaea aa?a?eyi /a?ac
niaeaniaaiioth n AN nenoaio aa?aioe?iaaiiuo caeoii/iuo oeai ia
ii?aaeaeaiiia a i?aaeaeao eaio (ooaa?aeaeathony Aa?ieiienneae ii
naeueneiio oicyenoao) eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee ii ?yaeo no?aoaae/aneeo
eoeueoo? (ca?iiaua, iiaenieia/iee, oiiaou, iiei/iua i?iaeoeou).

?uaieianoai e ia?a?aaaouaathuay io?aneue. Ii?ooaaeey – no?aia n
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth aa?aaiaie eeiee eiioeiaioaeueiie /anoe ieiei 800 ei,
eiathuay e oiio aea a Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia aaoiiiiiua oa??eoi?ee
a?oeiaeaaia Aci?neeo ino?iaia e Iaaeae?u. Aeaaiea o?aaeeoeee ?uaieianoaa
e ?uaiia?a?aaioee naeaeaee iaeeea aethae ec ii?ai?iaeoeoia
iniaaiiinoueth iaoeeiiaeueiie eooie. Ii iio?aaeaieth ii?ai?iaeoeoeee ia
aeooo ianaeaiey (60 ea a aiae) Ii?ooaaeey caieiaao iaeii ec ia?auo iano
a ie?a.

Aeayoaeueiinoue ?uaieiaiiai oeioa Ii?ooaaeee inouanoaeyaony eae a
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaeao, oae e a aeaaoi?ee ie?iaiai ieaaia a i?aaeaeao
eaio, auaeaeyaiuo no?aia Eiienneae ii ?uaieianoao AN.

Aueia ii?ai?iaeoeoeee a iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaoi?ee ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiii
1977 a. i 12-ieeueiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aiaeao e 200-ieeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie ciia. Ii aeaiiui noaoenoeee Ii?ooaaeee, a iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aiaeao aueaaeeaaaony aei 80% iauaai iauaia ii?ai?iaeoeoia. Caeanue
iinoiyiii ?aaioaao iniiaiay ianna ?uaieiaiuo noaeia (a 1996 a.
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 9324 noaeia iauei aiaeieciauaieai 121 052 a?oooi
?aaeno?iauo oiii).

Aiciiaeiinoe aueiaa ii?ai?iaeoeoeee a iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaeao
ia?aie/eaathony iao/ii iainiiaaiiuie ii?iaie, a oiaiueoaiea iauaiia
aueiaa a iineaaeiea aiaeu o/aiua naycuaatho n aaneiio?ieueiui eiaii,
iaoaie/aneeie ?ac?ooaieyie iano ia?anoa e iaaoea a ?acoeueoaoa
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea caa?yciaieai i?ea?aaeiuo aiae.
Icaai/aiiinoue o/aiuo e ianaeaiey no?aiu iaoea io?aaeaiea a i?eiyoii a
1997 a. iinoaiiaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?ac?aoathuai noaeai aueia ?uau a
oa/aiea 204 aeiae a aiaeo (?aiaa – 260 aeiae).

Eaioe?iaaiea aueiaa ieaaie/aneeo ii?iae ?uau (o?anea, ia?eoca, oae,
eaiaaea, neoia?ey, ii?neie ieoiue), inouanoaeyaiia Eiienneae AN ii
?uaieianoao, naycaii n aieueoei cia/aieai yoeo ii?iae aeey yeiiiieee
no?ai, eiathueo niioaaonoaothuee ?uaieiaiue oeio. Ii?ooaaeey, eiathuay
16 noaeia ieaaie/aneiai eeanna, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey eiaa ?uau a
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie ciia, aaeaaiaeii iieo/aao eaiou AN. Aianoa n yoei, a
ii?ooaaeueneie i?anna iinoiyiii aeeneooe?oaony aii?in i oii, /oi AN
caieaeaao eaiou, auaeaeyaiua Ii?ooaaeee, iniaaiii a aueiaa o?anee. A
/anoiinoe, Annioeeaoeey noaeiaeaaeaeueoeaa i?iiuoeaiiiai ?uaieianoaa
(ADAPI) cayaeea, /oi anee a 1990 a. ii?ooaaeueneea noaea aueiaeee ia
naaa?a Aoeaioeee 67 oun. o. ?uau (a iniiaiii o?anee), oi a 1995 a. –
anaai 12,5 oun. o., a eaioa ia aueia o?anee a yoie ciia ia 1997 aiae
ninoaaeea 9 oun. o.

Eiienney AN ii ?uaieianoao iuoaaony iaeoe auoiae ec nicaeaaoaainy
iieiaeaiey. A /anoiinoe, a 1996 a. Ii?ooaaeee auee auaeaeaiu eaiou ia
aueia ii?neiai ieoiy, ia eniieueciaaiiua O?A. A iiya?a 1997 a. Eiienney
AN iaoea iauaa ?aoaiea: ia?aaeaoue Ii?ooaaeee eaiou, ia eniieueciaaiiua
no?aiaie-/eaiaie AN, /oi n iaeia?aieai auei aini?eiyoi ii?ooaaeueneeie
noaeiaeaaeaeueoeaie.

Iauea iauaiu aueiaa ii?ai?iaeoeoeee ii?ooaaeueneei oeioii ninoaaeee a
1996 a. 265 oun. o. I?e yoii a iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaeao aueiaeaii 82,3%
ii?ai?iaeoeoeee e a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo – 17,7%. ?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiaa ii
ii?iaeiiio ninoaao a i?ioeaioao io iauaai iauaia aueiaa: na?aeeia
(32,8), noaa?eaea (8,7), eaeueia? (3,7), neoia?ey(3,4), ?uaa-naaey
(2,3), oae, ia?eoca (2,3), ae?oaay ii?ai?iaeoeoeey (46,8). A ?acaeae
«ae?oaay ii?ai?iaeoeoeey» aeeth/aiu ioaeaeueiua ii?iaeu ?uau, iieethneia
e ?aeiia?aciuo, iaeoathueo a oaeueoiaie ciia Ii?ooaaeee, a oaeaea
ii?ai?iaeoeoeey, aueaaeeaaaiay a eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaeao (o?anea,
ii?neie ieoiue, eaiaaea, ooiaoe, e?aaaoea e ae?.).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?uaieianoai, eae o?aaeeoeeiiiay io?aneue
ii?ooaaeueneie yeiiiieee, ia?aaeeaaao e?ecen: oiaiueoathony iauaiu
aueiaa (iaeneiaeueii aueaaeeaaeinue aei 310 oun. o a na?aaeeia 80-o
aiaeia), nie?auaaony eiee/anoai noaeia ?uaieiaiiai oeioa (ii n?aaiaieth
n 1990 a. eiee/anoai noaeia oiaiueoeeinue ia 30%), n?aaee ?uaaeia ?anoao
aac?aaioeoea. Eae neaaenoaea, Ii?ooaaeey ii aeaiiui OAI ia?aianoeeanue a
?aeoeiaa no?ai n ?acaeoie io?aneueth ?uaieianoaa n 36-ai ianoa a 1990a.
ia 50-a ianoi a 1996 a. Eae cayaeee i?aaenoaaeoaee ADAPI, no?aia nae/an
aueaaeeaaao ii?ai?iaeoeoeee iaiueoa, /ai oaeea ao?eeaineea no?aiu, eae
Aaia, Iaieaey, Oa?a?neea ino?iaa.

Oiaiueoaiea iauaiia aueiaa ii?ai?iaeoeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiui oeioii i?e
nio?aiaiee o?aaeeoeeiiii aunieeo ii?i iio?aaeaiey (ia o?iaia 600 oun. o.
aaeaaiaeii) auioaeaeaao oaaee/eaaoue iauaiu eiii?oa yoie i?iaeoeoeee.
Iniiaiua iauaiu eiii?oa i?eoiaeyony ia o?aneo (ec Ii?aaaee, ?innee, NOA
e a iineaaeiaa a?aiy – ec Eniaiee), ia?eoco, oae (ec A?aaioeiu),
eininaaua (ec Ii?aaaee) e ?aeiia?aciua (ec A?aceeee, Aiaieu e
Iicaiaeea). Eiii?o o?anee a iineaaeiea aiaeu noaaeeece?iaaeny ia o?iaia
90-100 oun. o. a aiae.

?uaiia?a?aaaouaathuay io?aneue ian/eouaaao aieaa 120 ia?a?aaaouaathueo
i?aaei?eyoee, ia eioi?uo caiyoi ieiei 30 oun. /ae. Iniiaiie i?iaeoeoeeae
io?anee yaeythony ?uaiua eiina?au: na?aeeia a ianea (oiiaoa), ooiaoe e a
iaaieueoeo iauaiao – neoia?ey. Ii aeaiiui noaoenoeee, a 1996 a. io?aneue
i?iecaaea 50,8 oun. o. eiina?aia. Aaaeoueie eiina?aiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie
yaeythony: Cofaco, Vasco da Gama e Ramires.

E?iia eiina?aiuo oaa?ee a no?aia eiaaony aieaa 100 i?aaei?eyoee ii
ia?ae/iie ia?aaioea e caii?icea ii?ai?iaeoeoeee n iauei iauaiii
i?iecaiaenoaa 90-100 oun. o. aaeaaiaeii. I?iaeoeoeey yoeo i?aaei?eyoee
eaeao a iniiaiii ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie.

E?ecen, ia?aaeeaaaiue ia?a?aaaouaathuae io?aneueth, yaeyaony a iniiaiii
neaaenoaeai aaeaaiaeiiai oiaiueoaiey iauaiia aueiaa. A /anoiinoe,
oieueei aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa eiina?aia ec na?aeei
io?anee o?aaoaony aei 100 oun. o. ?uau aaeaaiaeii, a oi a?aiy eae ii
aeaiiui Ii?ooaaeueneiai einoeoooa enneaaeiaaiey ii?y (IPAMAR) aeiianna
na?aeeiu, iaeoathuae a iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaeao, oiaiueoeeanue 1986-96 aa.
n 450 oun. o. aei 160 oun. o.

?oeiaiaenoai iniiaiuo i?aaei?eyoee io?anee aeaeeo auoiae a iinoaiaiiii
ia?aiauaiee i?iecaiaenoaa ooaea, aaea anoue niioaaonoaothuay nu?ueaaay
aaca, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue – a Ia?ieei. O?aaeeoeeiiii /anoue
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oeioa aueaaeeaaea na?aeeio a oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aiaeao
Ia?ieei.

Niioaaonoaothuaa niaeaoaiea caeai/eaaaony a 1999 a., e ia?ieeaineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai oaea cayaeei, /oi eeoeaicee ia aueia na?aeeiu a aiaeao
Ia?ieei aoaeoo auaeaaaoueny oieueei niaianoiui i?aaei?eyoeyi. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ian/eouaaaony aieaa 40 ii?ooaaeuenei-ia?ieeaineeo
i?aaei?eyoee ii aeiau/a e ia?a?aaioea na?aeeiu, no?ieoaeuenoao e ?aiiioo
noaeia e nauoo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaeoaeuenoai Ii?ooaaeee ?ac?aaioaei e ii niaeaniaaieth n AN i?eiyei a
1994 a. i?ia?aiio ?acaeoey io?anee (Propesca), i?aaeoniao?eaathuoth
iiiiuue noaeiaeaaeaeueoeai, ?uaieiaaoeeei eiiia?aoeaai e
ia?a?aaaouaathuei i?aaei?eyoeyi. I?e yoii oeiaine?iaaiea yoie i?ia?aiiu
inouanoaeyaony ec athaeaeaoa n o/anoeai oiiaeia AN. Aeiiieieoaeueii a
1995 a. i?eiyoa oeiaine?oaiay ec athaeaeaoa i?ia?aiia iiiiue
?uaieiina?aiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oeaeueth eioi?ie yaeyaony iiaea?iecaoeey
e aeeaa?neoeeaoeey i?aaei?eyoee n o/aoii iaania/aiey caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey.

Ai?iia aeaei

Annioeeaoeey i?iiuoeaiieeia Ii?ooaaeee AII iioaeeeiaaea a ethea 1998 a.
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia
eiioeiaioaeueiie /anoe no?aiu. Ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuea yeiiiie/aneea
«naeoi?u iaeaieueoae niaoeeaeecaoeee» ii ioaeaeueiui ?aaeiiai:

Naaa?: eiaeaaaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ecaeaeey ec eiaee e
eiaeacaiaieoaeae; oaenoeeueiay e oaaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue; na?aeniua e
?aiiioiua i?aaei?eyoey; ia?a?aaaouaathuea i?aaei?eyoey; i?aaei?eyoey ii
i?iecaiaenoao iaieoeia.

Oeaio?: i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao oa?oi?a, oayina e aii/a?iuo
ecaeaeee; noaeieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue; na?aeniua e ?aiiioiua
i?aaei?eyoey; i?iecaiaenoai ii?ai?iaeoeoia e ?uaiuo eiina?aia;
i?iecaiaenoai ?aceiioaoie/aneeo e ieanoianniauo ecaeaeee.

Eennaaii e aeieeia ?. Oaaeo: oaaa/iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue; i?iecaiaenoai
n?aaenoa nayce; ii?neie e aaeaoeeiiiue o?ainii?o; na?aeniua e
aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey o?ainii?oiie io?anee; no?ieoaeuenoai
aeeeuey.

I?iaeioeey Aeaioaaeo: ia?a?aaioea ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey; oeie/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai; ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (ia?a?aaioea ca?iiauo e iaiuiuo
eoeueoo?); i?iecaiaenoai o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa; aaiee e ae?oaea
oeiainiaua no?oeoo?u.

I?iaeioeey Aeaa?aa: ?anoi?aiu e ioaee; aaiee e ae?oaea oeiainiaua
no?oeoo?u; i?iecaiaenoai ii?ai?iaeoeoia e ?uaiuo eiina?aia; oi?aiaey;
na?aeniua i?aaei?eyoey.

Ai?iia aeaei.

Aaaeouoth ?ieue a i?iecaiaenoaa e yenii?oiuo iinoaaeao no?aiu ea?atho
eiioeaio?aou iaaee e ieiaa, a oaeaea no?ieoaeueii-iiaeaei/iua eaiie
(a?aieo e i?aii?).

Ii i?iecaiaenoao eiioeaio?aoa iaaee, 106,5 oun. o. a 1997 a., Ii?ooaaeey
caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a Aa?inithca. Aaaeouaa ii?ooaaeueneia i?aaei?eyoea
aeaiiiai naeoi?a – «Niieiei?» . ?acaaaeaiiua ia 1997 a. caianu
iaaeiiniaea?aeauae ?oaeu iicaieytho ieaie?iaaoue iiaeaea?aeaiea
?aioaaaeueiiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeiiai eiioeaio?aoa ia aeaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee aei 2012 aiaea. Eco/athony aa?eaiou i?iecaiaenoaa oe?iie
«Niieiei?» oeeiea.

Aaeaaiaeiia i?iecaiaenoai eiioeaio?aoa ieiaa a Ii?ooaaeee eieaaeaony a
i?aaeaeao 8-9 oun. o. Iniiaiie oaooie aeey iieo/aiey ieia?aeueiiai
nu?uey, niaea?aeauaai ieiai a ea/anoaa niioonoaothuaai i?iaeoeoa i?e
aeiau/a iaaeiie ?oaeu yaeyaony «Iaaan Ei?ai» .

Ii?ooaaeueneea yenia?ou, a neo/aa aeaaii?eyoiie eiiuthieoo?u ie?iaiai
?uiea, iiceoeaii ioeaieaatho ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa
i?iecaiaenoaa aieueo?aiiaiai eiioeaio?aoa, o/eouaay eiathueany a no?aia
cia/eoaeueiua niioaaonoaothuea ?oaeiua caianu n aiaaoui niaea?aeaieai
aieueo?aia (aei 75% aieueo?aieoa) e ?aneiina?aaoeeth a 1996 a.
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie oaoou a Iaianeae?a. A Iaianeae?a a 1997 a.
i?iecaaaeaii nauoa 3 oun. o. aieueo?aiiaiai eiioeaio?aoa. Iniiaiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie yaeythony NOA (70%) e ssiiiey (30%). No?aiu AN ia?aoee ia
eiii?o aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee (iaoaeee/aneiai aieueo?aia).

?aneiina?aaoeey oaoo a Iaianeae?a noaea yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciie a
?acoeueoaoa iaeioi?ie noaaeeecaoeee oeai ia ie?iaii ?uiea aieueo?aia,
iinea eiaaoaai ianoi e?ecena a na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia ec-ca ianne?iaaiiuo
iinoaaie oeacaiiiai iaoaeea ec Eeoay ii aeaiieiaiaui oeaiai.

A 1996-97 aa. i?iaeieaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey aaeaaiaeiiai ?inoa – a
n?aaeiai ia 1% – i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieoaeueii-iiaeaei/iuo eaiiae (i?aii?a
e a?aieoa) n aioiaui iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa 640 oun. o. a?aieoa e 240
oun. o. i?aii?a.

Ioia/aeinue oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/iuo aeaeia ieia?aeueiuo aiae
(noieiauo e ea/aaiuo), eioi?ua a Ii?ooaaeee oaeaea ioiinyony e
iiiaieeaoo?a i?iaeoeoeee ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

E?eceniua yaeaiey ii?ooaaeueneie ai?iiaeiauaathuae io?anee iaeaieaa
caiaoiu a oaeaaeiau/a, i?iecaiaenoaa o?aia e eaa?oea. Iaoeeiiaeueiay
oaeaaeiau/a a Ii?ooaaeee i?aeoe/anee naa?iooa. I?iecaiaenoai o?aia e
eaa?oea a nayce n iaaeaaii?eyoiie neooaoeeae ia aiaoiai ?uiea
nie?aoeeinue i?eia?ii ia 40 e 20%. Ii?ooaaeey i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth
caaeneo io aaica eiii?oiuo yia?aiiineoaeae.

Iaoaeeo?aey

Ia aeieth iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iaoaeeiiaoaieee i?eoiaeeony
10% io iaoeeiiaeueiiai AAI, a iieacaoaeue aeiee iaoaeeo?aee e
iaoeiino?iaiey a ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe Ii?ooaaeee a oeaeii
ninoaaeyao ieiei 18%, i?e yoii ia aaciaoth iaoaeeo?aeth i?eoiaeeony 3%,
ia iaoaeeiecaeaeey – 4,6%, ia iaoeiu iayeaeo?e/aneea – 3,2%, ia iaoeiu e
yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiea – 7,9% e ia o?ainii?oiia iaoeiino?iaiea – 3,7%.
Inoaeueiay /anoue i?eoiaeeony ia oaenoeeueioth, aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuoth,
ieuaaoth e ae?oaea io?anee ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiui naeoi?ai io?anee ia iaoaeeiecaeaeey i?eoiaeeony
26%, iaoeiu iayeaeo?e/aneea – 14,9%, iaoeiu yeaeo?e/aneea – 28,1%,
ecaeaeey aeey o?ainii?oiiai iaoeiino?iaiey – 29,2% e eino?oiaiou 1,8%.

A nayce n ieaiiaie ?aeiino?oeoeeae io?anee, aucaaiiie cia/eoaeueiui
oaoiieiae/aneei ionoaaaieai io aa?iiaeneiai o?iaiy e neaai?acaeoie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naoueth, a aeeaeaeoea 5 eao /anoue i?aaei?eyoee
ieaie?oaony cae?uoue, a ae?oaea iiaea?iece?iaaoue. I?e yoii ii i?iaiicai
eiee/anoai aac?aaioiuo iiaeao aic?anoe ia 60 ouny/ /aeiaae. A oiaea
?aeiino?oeoeee ii?ooaaeueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaia?aii iieiinoueth
ioeacaoueny io noaneaee?iaaiey ia?aioaaaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a
Iaoeeiiaeueiiio einoeoooo eiaeaia?ee e i?iiuoeaiiuo oaoiieiaee a 1997
aiaeo ii?o/aii ?ac?aaioaoue iiaoth no?oeoo?o io?anee, eioi?ay iaania/eea
au aa noaaeeecaoeeth.

N?aaee iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee ?aeiino?oeoeee io?anee n 1998 aiaea
auaeaeythony neaaeothuea: iiauoaiea oaoiieiae/aneie iniauaiiinoe e
iiaea?iecaoeey iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoa, a oii /enea oe?ieia aiaae?aiea a
io?aneue eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeecaeia e eaca?iie naa?ee;
aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee n oeaeueth iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e
nio?aiaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a oaeaea i?eaaoecaoeey e i?ei?eoao
eiaanoeoeeyi a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o, /oi a oeaeii niioaaonoaoao
iaoeeiiaeueiie i?ia?aiia PEDIP-II e iyoeeaoiaio no?aoaae/aneiio ieaio
?aeiino?oeoeee io?anee.

A 1997 aiaeo Ii?ooaaeey i?iaeieaeaea eiii?oe?iaaoue cia/eoaeueiua iauaiu
iaoaeea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae naiaai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A aaciaie iaoaeeo?aee eiii?o ii-i?aaeiaio i?aauoaao
yenii?o aieaa, /ai a 7 ?ac, a iayeaeo?e/aneii iaoeiino?iaiee – a 4,8
?aca, a o?ainii?oiii iaoeiino?iaiee – a 2 ?aca, a i?iecaiaenoaa
iaoaeeiecaeaeee (e?iia iaoei) e i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey – a 1,1
?aca.

A iaoaeeo?aee caiyoi ieiei 150 oun. /aeiaae, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a
aaciaie iaoaeeo?aee a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 1700 ie?ae. yneoaei (9,2
ie?ae. aeiee.) e ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii aic?in ia 9,2%.
I?iecaiaenoai iayeaeo?e/aneeo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey aic?inei ia 9,5%,
yeaeo?e/aneeo iaoei e iioeee – ia 0,9%, a iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee aeey
o?ainii?oiiai iaoeiino?iaiey – aieaa /ai ia 50%. A oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee
a 1997 aiaeo ioia/ai ?ino i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia 8%.

Aeiey iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Ii?ooaaeee a AN a 1997 aiaeo
ninoaaeea ieiei 0,6%, iaeiaei iniiaa iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
no?aiu – eiiiaiey «Neaea?o?aeey Ianeiiae» ii iauaiai i?iecaiaeeiie
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ii-i?aaeiaio aoiaeeo a aeanyoeo e?oiiaeoeo
i?iecaiaenoa yoie io?anee a Aa?inithca.

Iniiaiie iiiaieeaoo?ie aaciaie iaoaeeo?aee no?aiu yaeythony i?ieao,
i?ioeee, (a oii /enea ec aethieieaauo nieaaia), noaeueiua o?oau,
/oaoiiia eeouea, iaaeiue i?ieao. Ia?yaeo n naiinoiyoaeueiui ?acaeoeai
ii?ooaaeueneeo io?aneae iaoaeeo?aee e iaoeiino?iaiey, a oii /enea n
i?eaea/aieai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey
aiaae?aiey e?oiiuo aa?iiaeneeo i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee a ii?ooaaeueneoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A eiiiaiee «Neaea?o?aeey Ianeiiae», ?acaeaeaiiie ia 3
naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoey, 80% aeoeee i?aaei?eyoey «NI-i?ioeeueiue
i?ieao» i?eiaaeeaaeao eniaineie eiiiaiee «Iaaaca», eioi?ay auieaoeea
ii?ooaaeueneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao 25 iei. aeiee. ca aeaaeaiea iaeaoii
aeoeee. Aeoeee i?aaei?eyoey «NI-eenoiaie i?ieao» (ia?aeiaiiaaia a
«Eociceaea?» ) ioeaieaaaony a 17 iei. aeiee. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 1997 aiaea
i?aaei?eyoea «Eociceaea?», ianiio?y ia nicaeaiea ia aai aaca niaianoiiai
n a?oiiaie Sollac e Hoogovens i?aaei?eyoey, i?iaeieaeaei eniuouaaoue
oeiainiaua o?oaeiinoe a nayce n iaaeaieai oeai ia noaeue eae ia
aioo?aiiai, oae e ia aa?iiaeneii ?uieao.

I?aaei?eyoea «NI-ianeoaeeaaiea», i?iaeieaeay inoaaaoueny
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai, oaeaea iaoiaeeony a e?eceniii iieiaeaiee
a nayce n nie?auaieai athaeaeaoiiai oeiiaine?iaaiey io?anee. Eiiiaiey
«Neaea?o?aeey Ianeiiae» ioaeaeaaony a eiaanoeoeeyo a ianeieueei nio
ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia aeey eiiieaeniie ia?ai?eaioaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia
i?iaeoeoeeth, iieuecothuothny ni?inii ia aiaoieo, a oii /enea
iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?uieao.

Iniiaiui iio?aaeoaeai i?iaeoeoeee eiiiaiee a AN yaeyaony Eniaiey (55%).
A 1999 aiaeo, ianiio?y ia nouanoaothuoth iauaaa?iiaeneoth oaiaeaioeeth
iaeioi?iai nie?auaiey iio?aaeaiey /a?iuo e oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia ii i?e/eiai
eiathueony neeaaeneeo caiania, auno?iai ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee e eiaeono?ee
iiauo iaoa?eaeia, iiyaeaiey ia ?uiea yenii?oa?ia o?aoueeo no?ai,
Ii?ooaaeey ii-i?aaeiaio aoaeao eniuouaaoue cia/eoaeueioth iio?aaiinoue a
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee aeey ?aaeecaoeee e?oiiuo i?ia?aii ii
?acaeoeth eio?ano?oeoo?u no?aiu.

Yenii?o iaoaeeiecaeaeee a 1997 aiaeo ianeieueei oaaee/eeny a iniiaiii ca
n/ao aeoeaecaoeee oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa ni no?aiaie ia
yaeythueieny /eaiaie AN. O?iaaiue caaeaenoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae io?anee ninoaaee 72%. A i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeeiecaeaeee
Ii?ooaaeey i?iaeieaeaao caieiaoue iineaaeithth iiceoeeth n?aaee no?ai
AN. Aeiey iaoaeeiecaeaeee a ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoaaeyao
6,1%.

A Ii?ooaaeee aieueoay /anoue i?iecaiaeeiie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee (aieaa
75%) i?eaioe?iaaia ia iio?aaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea. Iniiaiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie yaeythony a?oiia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee «Naiaoa»,
e?oiiia noaeai?ieaoiia i?iecaiaenoai «Neai», aaaeouea a?oiiu
i?aaei?eyoee ii i?iecaiaenoao e yenii?oo i?annoi?i aeey ecaioiaeaiey
ecaeaeee ec ieanoiann «Oaeiieaea», «Eaa?iieaea» e ae?.

I?aaei?eyoea «Neai”iaania/eaaao aioiaie i?iaeoeoeeae iniiaiuo
iio?aaeoaeae noaee a Ii?ooaaeee e Eniaiee, a oii /enea aieaa /ai ia 75%
io iauae iio?aaiinoe – aaoii?aaei?eyoea «Aaoi-Aa?iia» (a. Iaeiaea).

Noieiinoiie iauai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeiia?a?aaaouaathuae
io?anee a 1997 aiaeo a n?aaeiai inoaeny ia i?ioeiaiaeiai o?iaia e
ninoaaee ieiei 1 ie?ae. aeieea?ia (i?eia?ii 6% io iauaai iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe).

A?oiia «Naiaoa» iauaaeeiyao 12 e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee Ii?ooaaeee,
i?aaenoaaeythueo iaoaeeiaieea i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aaoe/aneeo nenoai,
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia, eiioaeia?ia ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee, ii?oiauo
e ae?oaeo e?aiia iiauoaiiie a?ociiiaeuaiiinoe, i?iiuoeaiiiai e
iiioaaeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaie ii ia?a?aaioea
iooiaeia e ioni?a.

A i?iiuoeaiiii iaoeiino?iaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaii Ii?ooaaeee
i?aaei?eieiaeenue ia?u ii aeaeueiaeoae iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia a nayce n aiaae?aieai ia iiiaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee. *oi eanaaony ia?niaeoea i?iaeoeoeee
io?anee ia ie?iaii ?uiea, oi aiieia eiieo?aioiniiniaiuie yaeythony
i?iecaiaenoai i?ann-oi?i, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia (i?aaei?eyoea
«Ni?aoaia» ), iaoaeeieino?oiaioa, ae?oaeo iaoaeeiecaeaeee e ecaeaeee ec
iaoaeeiea?aieee.

Ii?ooaaeey aoiaeeo a /enei ainueie e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?anoi?i a
ie?a. Ia 250 i?aaei?eyoeyo io?anee caiyoi 7500 /aeiaae. A 1997 aiaeo
iauaiu yenii?oa aic?inee n 29,5 aei 36,7 ie?ae. yneoaei (n 16,8 aei 20,9
iei. aeiee.). Eiii?o ninoaaee 4,48 ie?ae. yneoaei. A 1999 aiaeo
ieaie?oaony aeoeaii ?acaeaaoue iiaua iai?aaeaiey: i?iecaiaenoai
i?annoi?i aeey ecaeaeee ec noaeea e ?aceiu. Iaeiaei, e a yoie
ia?niaeoeaiie io-?anee eiathony i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua i?aaeaea anaai n
iaoaaoeie aunieii?ioanneiiaeueiuo eaae?ia e nieaeaieai
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

Iaoeiino?iaiea Ii?ooaaeee ii-i?aaeiaio nouanoaaiii ionoaao io
n?aaeiaaa?iiaeneiai o?iaiy, a iaoeeiiaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, oae aea eae e
a iaoaeeo?aee, oaeiaeaoai?ythony a iniiaiii ca n/ao eiii?oa. Iniiaiuie
aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee io?anee a 1997 aiaeo yaeyeenue
naeueoiciai?oaeiaaiea, aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuea (a oii /enea aeey
ia?a?aaioee i?iaee) noaiee, i?ann-oi?iu, noaiee aeey oaenoeeueiiai e
eiaeaaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (a oii /enea iaoae), oo?aeiu,
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua aaaiiu e eiioaeia?u, aaoicai/anoe, a oaeaea nai?ea
eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae.

Iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee io?anee ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea
yaeythony ao?eeaineea no?aiu, a iniiaiii ii?ooaaeiycu/iua e
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, a oaeaea, a iaaieueoeo iauaiao – Eniaiey, O?aioeey
NOA.

A 1997 aiaeo iieo/ee eioaineaiia ?acaeoea ioiineoaeueii iiaue aeey
Ii?ooaaeee naeoi? iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie io?anee – i?iecaiaenoai
eiiieaeoothueo e caianiuo /anoae aeey aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey. *aou?a
ii?ooaaeueneeo i?aaei?eyoey Autosil, Covina, Inapal e Plasfil a 1997
aiaeo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie (ia 41%) iaania/eee e?oiiaeoaa a no?aia
aaoinai?i/iia i?aaei?eyoea «Aaoi-Aa?iia» ieanoeeiauie aeaoaeyie,
i?iaiaeeie, eaaaeyie e ?aaeeaoi?aie. I?e yoii yenii?o yoie i?iaeoeoeee
oaeaea aic?in aei 695 ie?ae. yneoaei (3,9 ie?ae. aeiee.). Iniiaiui
eiino?aiiui iio?aaeoaeai i?iaeoeoee yaeyaony Aa?iaiey.

Aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Ii?ooaaeee yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo
iieiaeuo e ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae eiaeono?ee, ?acaeaaaony caiaoiuie
oaiiaie e a oeaeii noaaeeueii.

N auaiaeii ia iieioth iiuiinoue aaoinai?i/iiai i?aaei?eyoey «Aaoi
Aa?iia» aei 2000 aiaea a ii?ooaaeueneii aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee iaeeaeaaony
cia/eoaeueiue nea/ie ?inoa iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee
io?anee. A 1997 aiaeo i?aaei?eyoea «Aaoi-Aa?iia» i?iecaaei 131400
aaoiiiaeeae, /oi ia 10% aieueoa i?ioeiaiaeiaai iieacaoaey. A 1998 aiaeo
ieaie?iaaeinue aeiaanoe iauaiu nai?i/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa aei 150000
aaoiiiaeeae. Nouanoaaiii aic?in e yenii?o i?iaeoeoeee: 40% nia?aiiuo
aaoiiiaeeae iinoaaeaiu a Aa?iaieth, 17% – a Aaeeeia?eoaieth,
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yenii?oe?iaaia ai O?aioeeth, Aaeueaeth e Eoaeeth.
Ia ianoiii ?uiea a 1997 aiaeo i?iaeaii oieueei 2% nia?aiiuo a no?aia
aaoiiiaeeae. Iaeaieueoei oniaoii o ca?oaaaeiuo iieoiaoaeae iieuecoaony
ieieayi Volkswagen Sharan. A oeaeii ?ino eiaeaena i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa io?anee a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 12%.

Ec ae?oaeo aeaenoaothueo a no?aia aaoinai?i/iuo i?aaei?eyoee iaeaieaa
e?oiiuie yaeythony «Iiaeue-Ii?ooaae», «Oi?ae-Eoceoaia», «Naeaaaei?
Eayoaii», ia aeieth eioi?uo aianoa n i?aaei?eyoeai «Aaoi-Aa?iia»
i?eoiaeeony ieiei 90% niae?aaiuo aaoiiiaeeae.

Ii i?iaeaaeai aaoiiiaeeae ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea eeaee?oao Opel (30095
iaoei a 1997 aiaeo). A aeanyoeo iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo aaoiiiaeeae ia
ii?ooaaeueneii ?uiea aoiaeyo: Fiat – 25721, Renault – 25289, Ford –
22230, Volkswagen – 18065, Citroen – 15676, Peugeit – 15016, Honda –
7025, Seat – 6989 e Rover – 5656. A oeaeii eiee/anoai i?iaeaiiuo ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea aaoiiiaeeae a 1997 aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii
nie?aoeeinue n 217091 aei 21356 (ia 2,1%).

I?iaeaaee ?inneeneeo aaoiiiaeeae «Ieaa» oaeaea oiaiueoeeenue ni 198
iaoei a 1996 aiaeo aei 130 a 1997. ?inneeneia i?aaei?eyoea AaoiAAC
i?ae?aoeei iinoaaeo a Ii?ooaaeeth eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae «EAAeA-Naia?a»
08, 09, e 99 iiaeaeae ii i?e/eia iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe yoeo iaoei ia
ii?ooaaeueneii ?uiea. ?inneeneea aiaaei?iaeieee «Ieaa», ianiio?y ia
nieaeaiea iauaiia i?iaeaae, ii-i?aaeiaio iieuecothony a Ii?ooaaeee
ni?inii, ec-ca eo ioiineoaeueii ieceie oeaiu a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie
ia?eaie aeaiiiai eeanna e n aeaeeiaie yiiineie oi?iu Suzuki (iiaeaeyie
«Naio?ae» e «Aeoa?a» ).

A 1998 aiaeo aeayoaeueiinoue ii?ooaaeueneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa auea
iaoeaeaia ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea io?anee iooai iinoaiaiiie
i?eaaoecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee (a oii /enea eiino?aiiuie
eiiiaieyie). Athaeaeaoii 1998 aiaea i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue iaeioi?ia
oaaee/aiea oeiaine?iaaiey iaoaeeiaieeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Ieaie?oaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacu n?aaenoa nayce e
aunieioaoiieiae/iuo io?aneae iaoeii- e i?eai?ino?iaiey, a oaeaea
aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey. Yoi iio?aaoao ?anoe?aiey nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
eiiieaeoothueo oceia e aeaoaeae, oaaee/eo iio?aaiinoe Ii?ooaaeee a
iaoaeea e ae?oaii iaiaoiaeeiii nu?uea.

Yia?aaoeea

Yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain Ii?ooaaeee ii aeaiiui ia 1996 a. i?aaenoaaeai a
aeaaaaoo//an: i?iecaiaenoai – 30 875, iio?aaeaiea – 31 966, yenii?o –
3322, eiii?o – 4413.

I?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?iyia?aee ia 70% io iauaai iauaia iaania/eaaaony OYN
e oieueei ia 30% – AYN. I?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?iyia?aee ca n/ao
aiciaiiaeyaiuo enoi/ieeia (aaoa?, nieioea, aaioa?iaeueiua enoi/ieee)
iacia/eoaeueii e i?aeoe/anee ia ieacuaaao aeeyiey ia yia?aiaaeain
no?aiu. Aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee a Ii?ooaaeee iao, e eo no?ieoaeuenoai ia
i?aaeiieaaaaony.

Nianoaaiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo caiania oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai nu?uey a no?aia iiea
ia iaia?oaeaii. Ii aeaiiui Aa?inoaoa ca 1996 a., yia?aaoeea Ii?ooaaeee
yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo caaeneiuo a AN, e noaiaiue eiii?oa
yia?aiiineoaeae ninoaaeyao 96,7%. Aeey iaania/aiey ?aaiou OYN aaeaaiaeii
eiii?oe?oaony 10-11 iei. o. iaooe e 4-4,5 iei. o. oaey.

?acaaaeea iaooaaaciiiniuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ?aiaa aaeanue a oaeueoiaie
ciia naaa?iiai iiaa?aaeuey Ii?ooaaeee, ii auea i?ae?auaia a 1995 a. a
nayce n iaia?niaeoeaiinoueth. ?aaiou ii iieneo iaooaaaciiiniuo ieanoia a
yoie ciia ieaie?iaaeinue aiciaiiaeoue a 1998 a. niaianoiuie oneeeyie
ii?ooaaeueneeo e eniaineeo eiiiaiee i?e iiaeaea?aeea ?oeiaiaenoaa
i?iaeioeee Ii?ooaaeee e ninaaeiae Eniaiee.

Oaieue aeey OYN aeiauaaeny a Ii?ooaaeee a iauaiao aei 100 oun. o.
aaeaaiaeii, iaeiaei a iineaaeiea aiaeu aai aeiau/a i?eciaia yeiiiie/anee
iaoeaeaniia?aciie e i?aeoe/anee i?ae?auaia.

?acaeoea oaieiyia?aaoeee aaaeaony a ?aieao niaeaniaaiiie n AN i?ia?aiiu
«Yia?aey» iooai no?ieoaeuenoaa o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiiai aacii?iaiaea,
eioi?ue nayaeao Ii?ooaaeeth n Eniaieae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy naeeaeaiiue
aac iinooiaao ec Aeaee?a e Ia?ieei ia oa?ieiae a ii?oo Naooaae.
Iiaeaiaeiue aacii?iaiae aeeeiie 45 ei. nayaeao a. Oaiaea? (Ia?ieei) n a.
Oa?eoa (Eniaiey). Ia oa??eoi?ee Ii?ooaaeee oaea aaaeaony i?ieeaaeea
aacii?iaiaea Naooaae – A?aaa (380 ei.), ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo naoae (370
ei.) e no?ieoaeuenoai OYN a a. Oaiaaea (?yaeii n a. Ii?oo) iiuiinoueth
990 iao. (3 aaia?aoi?a ii 330 iao.). Ione ia?aiai aaia?aoi?a ninoiyeny a
ia?oa 1998 a.

Aei 1991 a. i?e?iaeiue aac a oaieiyia?aaoeea Ii?ooaaeee ia
eniieueciaaeny, a 1997 a. iio?aaeaiea ninoaaeei 133 iei. eoa. i., ia
1998 a. auei caieaie?iaaii iio?aaeaiea aeey yoeo oeaeae a iauaia 508
iei. eoa. i. e ia 1999 a. – 1016 iei. eoa. i., oi anoue a 6 ?ac aieueoa,
/ai a 1997 a. Aaceoeeaoeey oaieiyia?aaoeee iicaieeo yeiiiieea Ii?ooaaeee
iinoaiaiii oiaiueoeoue iauaiu eiii?oa iaooe e oaey n oai, /oiau a
aeaeueiaeoai naanoe eiii?o yoeo yia?aiiineoaeae aei ieieioia.

A i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ii?ooaaeee eaaeeo ieai nicaeaiey e 1999 a.
noia?oieaeeiaa ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia a iaeanoe iaooe e aaca. Iiaay
eiiiaiey, ioeaii/iay noieiinoue eioi?ie ninoaaeo 320 ie?ae. yneoaei,
iauaaeeieo eiiiaiee «Iao?iaae» e «Aac-aea-Ii?ooaae» . Ia neaaeothuai
yoaia i?aaeoniio?aii i?eniaaeeiaiea e yoiio oieaeeiao eiiiaiee
«Yeaeo?eneaeaaea-aea-Iopoyaae» (i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
yeaeo?iyia?aee), aeey /aai nicaeaia a ?aieao yoie eiiiaiee ?aai/ay
a?oiia, eco/athuay aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaiaea anao OYN ia i?e?iaeiue aac.
Iiceoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a a yoie eiiiaiee iinea aeaoo yoaiia
i?eaaoecaoeee aa aeoeee (ainoaea?noai ?aniieaaaao 50% iethn 100 aeoeee)
inoaaeytho aio aeinoaoi/iia i?ino?ainoai aeey iaiaa?a, naycaiiiai n
nicaeaieai yoiai iiaiai noia?oieaeeiaa.

A ethia 1998 a. iiaeienai eiio?aeo iaaeaeo eiiiaieyie «O?ainaac» e
«Aac-aea-Ii?ooaae» e eiini?oeeoiii ieaa?eeneeo eiiiaiee n eiiiaieae
«Oaee» ia iinoaaeo a Ii?ooaaeeth, ia/eiay n 2000 a., 300 iei. eoa. i.
naeeaeaiiiai i?e?iaeiiai aaca aaeaaiaeii. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeienuaaee
eiio?aeo n eniaineeie eiiiaieyie «Aac-Iaoo?ae» e «Yiaaac» ia i?eaieo
yoiai aaca ia oa?ieiaea a eniaineii ii?oo a. Oyeueaa, aai
?aaaceoeeaoeeth e iineaaeothuoth o?ainii?oe?iaeo ii aacii?iaiaeo a
Ii?ooaaeeth.

Iiaeienaiea yoeo eiio?aeoia yaeyaony ia?aui aeueoa?iaoeaiui ?aoaieai n
oai, /oiau aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaoue iinoaaee aaca eneeth/eoaeueii ec
Aeaee?a, eae yoi ieaie?iaaeinue ?aiaa. Eco/aaony oaeaea i?iaeo
no?ieoaeuenoaa aacio?aieeeua a oeaio?a Ii?ooaaeee n ioeaii/iie
noieiinoueth a 25 ie?ae. yneoaei.

Aeae?iyia?aaoeea no?aiu aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony, ia/eiay n 60-o aiaeia,
eiaaea aue niaeaniaai n Eniaieae (ana iniiaiua ?aee ia/eiathony ia
oa??eoi?ee yoie no?aiu e eo oa/aiea ca?aaoee?iaaii eaneaaeii ieioei) e
noae ?aaeeciauaaoueny niaianoiue ieai ?acaeoey aeae?iyia?aaoeee. Ii
ioeaieai ii?ooaaeueneeo yenia?oia, yoio ieai i?aeoe/anee auiieiai.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?iaeo no?ieoaeuenoaa AYN a aa?oiaueyo
?aee Aeio?o ia naaa?a no?aiu iaaeaeaei io a?aieoeu n Eniaieae. Ae?oaie
i?iaeo iaoeeiiaeueiiai cia/aiey – no?ieoaeuenoai aiaeio?aieeeua e AYN
Aeeaaa ia ?aea Aoaaeeaia (ainoi/iay a?aieoea n Eniaieae) iiuiinoueth 240
iaaaaaoo. A 1997 a. niaeaniaai n AN aii?in oeiaine?iaaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa
yoie AYN n i?eaea/aieai eiaanoeoeee ec oiiaeia AN. Iauay ioeaiea cao?ao
ia ?aaeecaoeeth yoiai i?iaeoa – 2 ie?ae. aeiee.

I?ia?aiia «Yia?aey», ?ac?aaioaiiay i?aaeoaeuenoaii Ii?ooaaeee i?e
niaeaenoaee AN e /anoe/ii oeiaine?oaiay ec oiiaeia AN, ?ann/eoaia ia
1994-99 aa. Iniiaiay oeaeue yoie i?ia?aiiu – oiaiueoeoue caaeneiinoue
yia?aaoeee no?aiu io eiii?oa yia?aiiineoaeae n 96,7% aei 90%: ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey iio?aaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai aaca (/oi aeano yeiiiieth n?aaenoa
aei 40%), aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e auoo e oe?ieiai inaiaiey aiciaiiaeyaiuo enoi/ieeia
yia?aee (aao?iaua, oa?iaeueiua yeaeo?inoaioeee, eniieueciaaiea nieia/iie
yia?aee aeey auoiauo oeaeae e ae?.).

Aao?iaua yeaeo?inoaioeee (AYN) iiyaeeenue ia oa??eoi?ee Ii?ooaaeee a
70-o aiaeao (iin. Eio?ae a ie?anoiinoyo a. Eennaaiia). Ooieoeeiie?otho
AYN a ie?anoiinoyo a. Neiao, a. Eaiaao, ia i. Iaaeae?a.

A ?aieao i?ia?aiiu «Yia?aey» ieaie?oaony aeiaanoe e 1999 a.
onoaiiaeaiioth iiuiinoue AYN aei 100 iao. Ia?niaeoeaiuie ?aaeiiaie aeey
yoeo oeaeae i?eciaiu aeieeia ?aee Aeio?o e a?oeiaeaa i. Iaaeae?a.
Ioieoeeiaeeoao a. Eaoeaeo (i?eai?iae Eennaaiia) eco/aao aii?in i
no?ieoaeuenoaa a yoie ciia AYN.

Aaioa?iaeueiua yeaeo?inoaioeee (aai-OYN) yaeythony ia?niaeoeaiuie ia
a?oeiaeaaa Aci?neeo ino?iaia, eiathuai ana i?eciaee aaioa?iaeueiie ciiu.
Ia i. Nai-Ieaae oaea ooieoeeiie?oao aai-OYN, iie?uaathuay 20%
iio?aaiinoae ino?iaa, ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?iaeo no?ieoaeuenoaa aai-OYN
iiuiinoueth 20 iao. ia i. Oa?oae?a, /oi aeieaeii iieiinoueth iaania/eoue
iio?aaiinoe ino?iaa a yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Eco/athony oaeaea aiciiaeiinoe no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo aai-OYN ia i.
Nai-Ieaae (onoaiiaeaiiay iiuiinoue aeaoo aeaenoaothueo a noiia ?aaia 5,7
iao.) n oai, /oiau aeiaanoe yia?aiiaania/aiea ino?iaa ca n/ao aai-OYN
aei 50%. Ia i/a?aaee – i?iaeou aai-OYN ia ino?iaao Ieeo e Oaeae.

Ooeeecaoeey iooiaeia. Aii?in ooeeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiuo e auoiauo iooiaeia
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii ceiaiaeiaaiui aeey Ii?ooaaeee, no?aiyuaeny
iiaeaea?aeaoue e nio?aieoue eieaeae iaeiie ec naiuo iacaa?yciaiiuo no?ai
Aa?iiu n oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia. Yoio aii?in aia?aua
ianoaeaeaeny i?aaeoaeuenoaii a 1996 a. a nayce n oai, /oi aieueoea
neiieaiey oaa?aeuo iooiaeia ?aniieiaeaiu a ie?anoiinoyo aa. Eennaaiia e
Ii?oo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?aaaouaaaony ieeioiue i?iaeo i?iecaiaenoaa ii
naeeaaieth oaa?aeuo iooiaeia, neiieaoeony a naaa?iuo i?eai?iaeao
Eennaaiia, /oi iicaieeo, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia i?iaeoa, i?iecaiaeeoue
aaeaaiaeii 300 iaaaaaoo//an yeaeo?iyia?aee e oai naiui nie?aoeoue iauaiu
eiii?oa yia?aiiineoaeae, eniieuecoaiuo ia OYN.

Yia?aey nieioea. Ia oa??eoi?ee Ii?ooaaeee iao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nieia/iuo yeaeo?inoaioeee. Aianoa n yoei, oaea caiouaiu a i?iecaiaenoai
e oe?iei ?aeeaie?othony onoaiiaee ii iaa?aao aiaeu a auoiauo oeaeyo. A
oneiaeyo, eiaaea oeaiu ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth a Ii?ooaaeee yaeythony naiuie
aunieeie a AN (ii aeaiiui Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaaionoaa ii yia?aaoeea ca
1997 a. i?e eiaeaena oeai Ii?aaaee, i?eiyoii ca 100, eiaeaen oeai a
Ii?ooaaeee ?aaai 411), ianaeaiea, iniaaiii ?aniieaaathuaa ioaeaeueiuie
aeeeuie no?iaieyie, ana aieueoa i?eia?aoaao yoe onoaiiaee.

O?ainii?o. Aaeaoeey

I?iaaaeaiea Anaie?iie aunoaaee «YENII-98» eaoii 1998 aiaea noeioee?iaaei
eiiieaen ?aaio ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth anao aeaeia o?ainii?oa e
eiiioieeaoeee. Aa?iiaeneee nithc ia i?ioyaeaiee 5-6 iineaaeieo eao
auaeaeye eiaanoeoeee, niiniaiua ono?aieoue ionoaaaiea o?ainii?oiie naoe
Ii?ooaaeee io ia?oia?ia ii AN.

Ii?neie o?ainii?o. Ca 1997 aiae iauaiu a?ociiai?ioa iacia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eeenue (5%) e ninoaaeee 61 iei. oiii: aeinoaaeaii a no?aio – 44,
auaacaii – 17 iei. oiii. Anaai a no?aia ian/eouaaaony 357 o?ainii?oiuo
noaeia iauei aiaeieciauaieai 952 oun. a?oooi ?aaeno?iauo oiii. Ca
ieioaoee aiae a ii?oao no?aiu ia?aaioaii 14866 noaeia. Ia?aaacaii
iannaaee?ia – 556 oun., a o. /. 206 oun. o?aiceoiuo. Ec 19 ii?oia
no?aiu, iaeaieaa cia/eiuie ii iauaio a?ociiioieia yaeyeenue a 1997 a.
neaaeothuea.

Ii?o Eennaaiia. A 1997 a. i?iecaaaeaia ?aeiino?oeoeey iannaaee?neeo
i?e/aeia, iai?aaeaiiay ia oaaee/aiea iioiea noaeia ianeoaeeaathueo
ianoiua eeiee.

A?ociiai?io ii?oa nieceeny ii/oe ia 10% e ninoaaee 11,5 iei. oiii.
N?aaee a?ocia i?aiaeaaeaee eiioaeia?iua ia?aaicee. Ec i?e/ei,
iineoaeeaoeo nieaeaieth a?ociiai?ioa ioia/aiu iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua
nayce ii?oa n aaoino?aaeaie Naaa?a e THaa no?aiu, a oaeaea ieceay
i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie aaoee ii?oa.

Ii?o Neiao. Aaeeinoaaiiue ii?o, niiniaiue i?eieiaoue e ia?aaaouaaoue
e?oiiioiiiaaeiua noaea, n inaaeeie aei 22 iao?ia. Ian/eouaaao 4200
?aaioathueo. Ia?aaioaii aieaa 2000 noaeia, n iauei aanii a?ocia (a
iniiaiii oaey, iaooe, iaooai?iaeoeoia e oeie/aneeo aauanoa) – 21,4 iei.
oiii.

I?iaiaeeony iiaea?iecaoeey ii?oa, iai?aaeaiiay ia auno?oth ia?aaioeo
eiioaeia?ia ?acee/iiai iauaia, i?iaeieaeaii no?ieoaeuenoai i?e/aea
aeeeiie 300 iao?ia, a oaeaea eeiee ii aua?ocea oaey.

Ii?o Eaeoiao. I?aaeiacia/ai a iniiaiii aeey aaia?aeueiuo a?ocia,
aaoio?ainii?oa e eiioaeia?ia. A?ociiai?io a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 13,3
iei. oiii. Iauai iannaaee?neeo ia?aaicie iacia/eoaeueiue – 32 oun. ca
aiae.

Ii?o Naooaae. A?ociiai?io ii?oa ninoaaee 5 iei. oiii, ?ino 11% e 1996
aiaeo. I?ia?aiia iiaea?iecaoeee ii?oa i?aaeiieaaaao eiaanoeoeee aei 2000
aiaea a iauaia 7 ie?ae. yneoaei (ieiei 40 iei. aeiee.) aeey caaa?oaiey
no?ieoaeuenoaa eiioaeia?iiai oa?ieiaea e oe?aieaiey aa?aaiaie ciiu a.
Naooaaea.

Ii?o Aaae?i. A?ociiai?io ii?oa ninoaaee 2,6 iei. oiii. ?ino e 1996 aiaeo
– 27%.

Ii?o Aeaia aeo Eaooaeo. A?ociiai?io ii?oa aic?in ii n?aaiaieth n 1996
aiaeii ia 80% e ninoaaee aieaa 0,5 iei. oiii.

Ae?oaea ii?ou eiioeiaioaeueiie /anoe no?aiu: Oeaae?a aea Oin, Ii?oeiai e
Oa?i, iaiaa cia/eiu. Eo iauee a?ociiai?io ninoaaee 4,4 iei. oiii.

Ii?ou, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia Aci?neeo ino?iaao e ino?iaa Iaaeae?a,
i?aaeiacia/aiu a iniiaiii aeey aeeciaiaania/aiey ianaeaiey ino?iaiie
/anoe e auaica ia eiioeiaio n/o i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie ia ino?iaao.
Eo a?ociiai?io ninoaaee niioaaonoaaiii 1,7 e 1,5 iei. oiii.

AEaeaciua aei?iae. *enei ?aaioathueo a io?anee – 13150 /aeiaae.
I?ioyaeaiiinoue naoe aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo eeiee ninoaaeyao 3065 ei.
Eieiiioeaia – 275, a o. /. aeecaeae – 194, yeaeo?iaicia – 81. Aaaiiia –
5101, a oii /enea iannaaee?neeo – 503 oo.

A 1997 a. aic?in iauai a?ociauo ia?aaicie ia 12% e ninoaaee 9,61 iei.
oiii eee 2342 iei. oiii/ei, a o. /. ia?aaacaii 34432 eiioaeia?a, iauei
aanii 396 oun. oiii. No?oeoo?a a?ociia?aaicie ?ani?aaeaeeeanue
neaaeothuei ia?acii: oeaiaio – 26%, oaieue – 18%, ae?aaaneia – 16%,
aoiaaa – 7%, eiioaeia?u – 6%, ieia?aeu – 6%, ae?oaea a?ocu – 21%

Eiaanoeoeee a ?acaeoea aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa a 1997 aiaeo
ninoaaeee 48132 iei. yneoaei (260 iei. aeiee.). I?ia?aiia iiaea?iecaoeee
aeaiiiai aeaea o?ainii?oa aei 2001 a. aeeth/eoaeueii i?aaeoniao?eaaao
iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee a 666 ie?ae. yneoaei (3,8 ie?ae. aeiee.).
Iniiaiuie ninoaaeythueie i?ia?aiiu iiaeii n/eoaoue neaaeothuea:

– ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa aeaeaeaiey iiacaeia ii iinoo /a?ac ?aeo Oaaeo
(1997-98aa.), iauay noieiinoue i?iaeoa 245 ie?ae. yneoaei (1,4 ie?ae.
aeiee.);

– no?ieoaeuenoai iinoa /a?ac ?. Aeio?o;

– iiaea?iecaoeey eeiee ia Aae?a Aeoa (1998 a.);

– no?ieoaeuenoai aaoee nei?inoiiai iiacaea Eennaaii-Ii?oo «Iaiaeieeii»
ni nei?inoueth aeaeaeaiey 220 ei//an, noieiinoue i?iaeoa 13,5 ie?ae.
yneoaei (76,7 iei. aeiee.), aioiaiinoue – ai?aeue 1998 a.;

– no?ieoaeuenoai nei?inoiie aaoee iaaeaeo Ii?oo e Aeai, ni nei?inoueth
aeaeaeaiey iiacaeia 140 ei//an, aaiae a yenieoaoaoeeth a 2002 aiaeo;

– nii?oaeaiea iiaie aaoee ii Eennaaiio e i?eai?iaeai aei 1999 aiaea, n
i?aaeiieaaaaiui iannaaee?iiioieii aei 40 iei. /aeiaae a aiae;

– iiaea?iecaoeey eeiee ia Naaa? e THa no?aiu, eioaineoeeaoeey aeaeaeaiey
i?eai?iaeiuo iiacaeia Eennaaii-Eaoeaeo e Eennaaii-Neio?a, no?ieoaeuenoai
e ?aeiino?oeoeey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iinoia oiiiaeae e ae?.

Iao?iiieeoai. Aeaenoaothuay a a. Eennaaiia naoue iao?iiieeoaia
oaaee/eeanue a 1997 aiaeo ia 4,2 ei. e ninoaaeea 26,2 ei. eeiee.
Eiee/anoai ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea – 2,1 oun. /aeiaae, ia?aaacaii
123,9 iei. iannaaee?ia. I?iaeieaeathony ?aaiou ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa
no?ieoaeuenoaa iao?i thaa Oaaeo (MST).

A 1997 aiaeo i?iaaaeaiu eiieo?nu, ii?aaeaeaiu eaiiaiee Ii?ooaaeee,
O?aioeee, Eoaeee, Aa?iaiee e ae?. no?ai, o/anoaothuea a ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa nicaeaiey iao?i a a. Ii?oo, ?ani?aaeaeaiu eo ciiu
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e iauaiu eiaanoeoeee, eioi?ua ninoaayo 169 ie?ae.
yneoaei (960 iei. aeiee.). Anaai aoaeao nii?oaeaii 4 eeiee iauae
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 70 ei., ia?aay ec ieo ieaie?oaony e ioneo a 2000
aiaeo, a e 2002 aiaeo aoaeoo eo?ne?iaaoue oaea 72 iiacaea.

Aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o. I?ioyaeaiiinoue aaoiaei?ia ninoaaeyao 10633
ei, a oii /enea ino?iaiie /anoe no?aiu – 687 ei.

Eiee/anoai ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a no?aia aaoiiiaeeae (eaaeiauo e a?ociauo)
ian/eouaaao 4985 oun., o?aeoi?ia – 233 oun., oyaa/ae – 280 oun,
iioioeeeeia – 219 oun. aae. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ?ino aaoiiiaeeueiiai
ia?ea ca n/ao eiii?oa a Ii?ooaaeeth auaoeo a oiio?aaeaiee aaoiiaoei
(50,3 oun. aae. i?ioea 17 oun. – a 1996 aiaeo), a iniiaiii ec Aa?iaiee,
Eoaeee, O?aioeee. O/eouaay aeaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai, i?aaeoaeuenoai
no?aiu ?ac?aaioaei e ?aaeecoao ii?iaoeaiua ia?u, i?aiyonoaothuea
aeaiiiio aeaeo eiii?oa.

A?ociiai?io aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa iaoeeiiii ?anoao e a 1997 aiaeo
ninoaaee 315 iei. oiii, a oii /enea yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo a?ocia – 11 iei.
oiii.

Ia?aaacaii iannaaee?ia iaaeaeoai?iaeiuie aaoiaonaie – 562 iei. /aeiaae e
ai?iaeneeie a aa. Eennaaii e Ii?oo – 594 iei. /ae.

A 1997 aiaeo iauai eiaanoeoeee a no?ieoaeuenoai aaoiaei?ia ninoaaee 132
ie?ae. yneoaei (672 iei. aeiee.). Iieiinoueth caaa?oaii no?ieoaeuenoai
nei?inoiie aaoino?aaeu Eennaaii-A?aaa, a 1998 oaeouai aiaeo ieaie?iaaeny
aaiae anao o/anoeia aaoino?aaeu Eennaaii-Aeaa?aa. Aei 2002 aiaea
i?aaeiieaaaaony ioe?uoue iyoue iiauo nei?inoiuo aaoino?aae, naycuaathueo
Ii?ooaaeeth e Eniaieth.

A ai?aea 1998 aiaea ioe?uoi aeaeaeaiea ii iinoo eiaie «Aanei aea
Aaia”/a?ac ?. Oaaeo, naiiio aieueoiio ii i?ioyaeaiiinoe a Aa?iia.
I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue aai ninoaaeo a 1998 aiaeo – 8 iei. aaoiiiaeeae,
a 2100 a. – 33 e a 2030 a. – 49 iei. aaoiiiaeeae.

Aaeaoeey

Iauay i?ioyaeaiiinoue ia?o?ooia ninoaaeyao 229 oun. ei. Eiee/anoai
auiieiaiiuo ca aiae ?aenia – 56110. A 1997 aiaeo ia?aaacaii 4098 oun.
iannaaee?ia. A?ociiai?io ninoaaee 65 oun. o. iaueo a?ocia e 8, 4 oun. o.
ii/ou. Iniiaiuo ay?iii?oia a no?aia – 3. Ay?iii?o Eennaaiia. A 1997
aiaeo iannaaee?iiioie e a?ociiai?io ay?iii?oa aic?inee ii/oe a 2 ?aca.
I?eiyoi naiieaoia – 35 oun. Ianeoaeaii iannaaee?ia – 6343 oun. /aeiaae,
a oii /enea o?aiceoiuo – 233 oun. Ia?aaioaii a?ocia – 99 oun. oiii, a
oii /enea ii/oiauo – 10 oun. oiii.

A 1997 aiaeo caaa?oaia ?aeiino?oeoeey caeaiey ay?iaiecaea. A
niioaaonoaee n nouanoaothuae i?ia?aiiie ALS-2000, iinea ieii/aiey ?aaiou
aunoaaee «YENII-98» ?aeiino?oeoeey ay?iii?oa i?iaeieaeeony aieioue aei
eiioea 1999 aiaea. Auiieiaiiua ?aaiou iicaieyo oaaee/eoue
iannaaee?iiioie aei 12 iei. iannaaee?ia a aiae e i?eieiaoue
iaeiia?aiaiii aei 30 aaeaeaeia?ia ca /an.

Ay?iii?o Oa?i. A ieioaoai aiaeo ioia/ai ?ino iannaaee?iiioiea. Anaai
i?eiyoi 13,1 oun. naiieaoia. Ianeoaeaii iannaaee?ia – 3831 oun. /aeiaae,
a oii /enea o?aiceoiuo – 179 oun. Ia?aaioaii a?ocia – 2,1 oun. o. Ia/aou
?aaiou ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu aaciianiinoe iieaoia, eioi?ua
aoaeoo caaa?oaiu a 1998 aiaeo.

Ay?iii?o Ii?oo. I?eiyoi naiieaoia – 13,4 oun. Ianeoaeaii iannaaee?ia –
2116 oun. /aeiaaea o. /. o?aiceoiuo – 202 oun. Ia?aaioaii a?ocia – 25,8
oun. o., a oii /enea ii/oiauo – 430 oiii. I?eiyo ieai ?aeiino?oeoeee
ay?iii?oa ia ia?eiae 1999-2001 aa., eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao
i?aia?aciaaiea aai a iaeei ec naiuo nia?aiaiiuo e oaeiaiuo a Aa?iia,
niiniaiue ianeoaeeaaoue aei 6 iei. iannaaee?ia a aiae. I?aaeoniio?aii
oeiaine?iaaiea yoeo ?aaio a iauaia 7,8 ie?ae. yneoaei (42 iei. aeiee.)

Inoaeueiua 10 ay?iii?oia cia/eoaeueii iaiueoae iiuiinoe e e?iia
ino?iaiuo, eniieuecothony a iniiaiii aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iaaeaeoai?iaeiuo
iannaaee?neeo e ii/oiauo ia?aaicie.

Noaei?aiiio

Noaeino?iaiea e noaei?aiiio yaeyaony aaaeiui naeoi?ii yeiiiieee
Ii?ooaaeee, iauaaeeiythuei 56 i?aaei?eyoee e iiae?acaeaeythueiny ia aeaa
io?anee: no?ieoaeuenoai iaeiia?iuo e n?aaeieo noaeia aeey ?uaieiaiiai,
ii?oiaiai e eaaioaaeiiai oeioa, a oaeaea e?oiiue e n?aaeiee noaei?aiiio.
I?e yoii noaei?aiiio yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei iai?aaeaieai aeayoaeueiinoe
ii?ooaaeueneeo aa?oae, iineieueeo noieiinoiie iauai i?iecaiaeeiie a yoie
noa?a i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeyao 80%.

A 1997 aiaeo ii?ooaaeueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaei?eiyei ?yae ia? ii
auaiaeo noaei?aiiioiuo aa?oae ec caoyioaoaainy e?ecena iooai eioaa?aoeee
n aa?iiaeneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie n oeaeueth i?eia?aoaiey iaeaieaa
niaa?oaiiuo oaoiieiaee e ia eo aaca iiiieiaiey ii?ooaey caeacia.

3a 10 iineaaeieo eao ?uaieiaiue oeio Ii?ooaaeee oiaiueoeeny ii/oe ia
50%, /oi ca oio aea ia?eiae aucaaei nieaeaiea caa?ocee noaei?aiiioiuo
aa?oae ia 27%. E?iia yoiai, io?aneue iuouaao na?ueacioth eiieo?aioeeth
ni noi?iiu eniaineeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iniiaiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie yaeythony aa?oe «Aeaia aeo Eaooaeo» (iaeaaeaao
iaeaieueoeie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiuiinoyie ii no?ieoaeuenoao noaeia) e
«Eeaeiaaa» – e?oiiaeoaa noaei?aiiioiia i?aaei?eyoea a Aa?iia.

Aa?oue «Eeaeiaaa» ?aniieaaaao nia?aiaiiuie noaeiiiaeuaiiuie n?aaenoaaie,
eiaao 8 nooeo aeieia, iaeaieueoee ec eioi?uo – ?acia?ii 520 ia 90
iao?ia, /oi iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue ?aiiio oaiea?iiai oeioa a 1 iei.
oiii aeaaeaaeoa.

Aeeeia ?aiiioiuo i?e/aeia, iai?oaeiaaiiuo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie
eiiioieeaoeeyie, nia?aiaiiui iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiui iai?oaeiaaieai
i?aauoaao 2500 iao?ia. Iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe «Eeaeiaaa»
i?eaioe?iaaiu ia ?aiiio oaiea?iiai oeioa. A 1997 aiaeo ia «Eeaeiaaa»
ia/aoi nicaeaiea aeaoo iiauo i?aaei?eyoee ii ?aiiioo noaeia (3800
?aai/eo iano). I?ia?aiia ?an/eoaia aei 2003 aiaea e ioeaieaaaony a 83,3
ie?ae. yneoaei (470 iei. aeiee.). Ca ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1997 aiaea aa?oe
«Eeaeiaaa» oaaee/eee iauai ?aiiioiuo ?aaio ia noaeao ii/oe a 2 ?aca.
Iauaiu ?aiiioa iaooyiuo oaiea?ia a 1997 aiaeo aic?inee ia 18%.

Eae e ieaie?iaaeinue, a 1997 aiaeo ia/aoa ?aeiino?oeoeey aa?oe «Ieo?aia»
a a. Naooaae. Iauay noieiinoue i?iaeoa ninoaaeo i?eia?ii 88 iei. aeiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee 48% aeoeee
«Eeaeiaaa”i?eiaaeeaaeao a?oiia /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee «Iaeei», 37% –
/anoiui aeoeeiia?ai e 15% aeoeee iaoiaeyony a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa. *enei
?aai/eo iano ia «Eeaeiaaa» a 1997 aiaeo nie?aoeeinue n 3200 aei 2300.

Noaeiaa?oue «Aeaia aeo Eaooaeo», iaeia ec noa?aeoeo a Ii?ooaaeee, auea
iniiaaia a 40-o aiaeao eae noaeino?ieoaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea. E?iia yoiai,
i?aaei?eyoea caieiaaony iaeeei e n?aaeiei noaei?aiiioii. Ia «Aeaia aeo
Eaooaeo» caiyoi ieiei 1300 /aeiaae. Aa?oue ?aniieaaaao aeaoiy nooeie
aeieaie ?acia?ii 157 ia 25 e 129 ia 18,5 iao?ia aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa
noaeia, o?aoee aeie ?aniieiaeai ca i?aaeaeaie aa?oe e i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
?aiiioa noaeia, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao aei 15% iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa «Aeaia
aeo Eaooaeo» I?aaei?eyoea eiaao i?e/aeu aeeeiie aei 400 iao?ia, /oi
iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue aeino?ia/iua e ?aiiioiua ?aaiou.

Iiieii no?ieoaeuenoaa noaeia aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oeioa aa?oue «Aeaia
aeo Eaooaeo» ?aaeecoao caeacu iaiaoeeeo e ii?aaaeneeo oe?i ia
no?ieoaeuenoai 6 noaeia aeey eiioaeia?iuo ia?aaicie, 6 noaeia aeey
o?ainii?oe?iaee oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia e 4 aeey ia?aaicee oeaiaioa. Iauay
noieiinoue eiio?aeoia 270 iei. iai. ia?ie. Aeey auiieiaiey caeacia
aa?oue «Beaia aeo Eaooaeo”i?eaeaeaao iiuiinoe eniaineeo aa?oae a a.
Aeai, aaea no?iyony iiniaua /anoe ei?iona.

A 1997 aiaeo a naeoi?a no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aiiioa iaeiia?iiai ?uaieiaiiai
e ii?oiaiai oeioa aiaeo eciaiaiee ia i?iecioei. Ii-i?aaeiaio ca aiae
no?ieony 30-35 noaeia.

Caieiay oaeiaiia aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ia ia?ana/aiee ii?neeo iooae,
ii?ooaaeueneea aa?oe i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an aeey eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee ii
i?iaaaeaieth noaei?aiiioa, iniaaiii oaiea?iiai oeioa, eioi?ue
inouanoaeyao ia?aaicee iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia n Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea ia
naaa? Aa?iiu.

Oo?eci

A iineaaeiea aiaeu i?aaeoaeuenoai oaeaeyao i?ei?eoaoiia aieiaiea
?acaeoeth yoie noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo e eiiia?/aneeo
no?oeoo?.

Ia?yaeo n i?yiuie e einaaiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie eae iaoeeiiaeueiuo, oae e
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia, i?iaiaeeeanue aieueoay ?aaioa ii ?ac?aaioea e
aaaaeaieth a aeaenoaea n ethiy 1997 aiaea iiaiai «Caeiia i oo?ecia».
Iineaaeiee /aoei ?aca?aie/eaaao i?aaa oeaio?aeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaiia,
iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue aeoaee?iaaiey eo ooieoeee e iiiaeo ath?ie?aoe/aneeo
iiiaioia a ?aaioa.

Ii aeaiiui Einoeoooa aiaoiae oi?aiaee (ENAI) a 1997 aiaeo Ii?ooaaeeth
iinaoeei 8 iei. eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia. Iee oo?enoe/aneiai naciia
i?eoiaeeony ia etheue-naioya?ue. ?ino yaa?ocee ioaeae ioia/aaony oaeaea
a ia/aea-na?aaeeia oaa?aey (Ea?iaaae) e o?aoueae aeaeaaea aeaeaa?y
(?iaeaeanoai). A iaaenaciiuea (ceia, aania, inaiue) ainoeieoeu a ianoao
ianniaiai ioaeuoa caa?oaeaiu ia 20-30%. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao i.
Iaaeae?a, aaea caiieiyaiinoue ioaeae ia iioneaaony ieaea o?iaiy 50%.

A 1997 aiaeo iniiaiie iioie oo?enoia caoeene?iaai ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
Aa?iaiee, Aieeaiaeee, ec Neaiaeeiaaneeo no?ai e Eniaiee. Eae
iieiaeeoaeueiue eoia ?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee ii i?eaea/aieth oo?enoia a
Ii?ooaaeeth, i?iaaaeaiiie a 1996-97 aa., ?anoeaieaaaony oaaee/aiea
iauaai eiee/anoaa oo?enoia ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Aieeaiaeee, Oaaoeee a
oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea aunieie oo?enoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe (iae-ieoya?ue).
?ino iinauaaiinoe iano ioaeuoa ii?ooaaeueneeie a?aaeaeaiaie ninoaaee
ieiei 20% e 1996 aiaeo.

Ioia/aaony oaaee/aiea eioa?ana ?inneeneeo oo?enoe/aneeo oe?i e
Ii?ooaaeee, eae e eiioeiaioaeueiie aa /anoe, oae e e ino?iaai. A 1997 a.
Ii?ooaaeeth iinaoeei ieiei 12 oun. oo?enoia ec ?innee. A i/a?aaeiie ?ac
ia aaeaaiaeiie oo?enoe/aneie y?ia?ea, i?ioaaeoae a Eennaaiia a yiaa?a
1998 aiaea, i?enoonoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee ?inneeneeo oo?oe?i, eioi?ua
aeoeaii eioa?aniaaeenue aiciiaeiinoueth e oneiaeyie i?aaiecaoeee ioaeuoa
a Ii?ooaaeee.

Ii?ooaaeueneea i?aaenoaaeoaee oo?enoe/aneiai aeciana n iioeieciii
ano?aoeee ianooieaiea oo?enoe/aneiai naciia – 1998 aiaea. A yiaa?a a
Eennaaiia e ie?anoiinoyo ioia/aeanue iieiay caa?ocea ainoeieoe, ai
iiiaeo ec ieo ia auei naiaiaeiuo iano oaea ia ia?eiae n iay ii
naioya?ue. A 1998 aiaeo ieaie?iaaeinue i?eauoea aieaa 12 iei. oo?enoia.
A iaiaeie noaiaie yoiio niinianoaiaaei i?iaaaeaiea a Eennaaiia Anaie?iie
aunoaaee «YENII-98» .

«YENII-98» . Ia o/anoee ?innee ai anaie?iie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie aunoaaea
(Eennaaii, Ii?ooaaeey, 22 iay-30 naioya?y 1998 a.). I?aaeoaeuenoai
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ioaao ia ioeoeeaeueiia i?eaeaoaiea
I?aaeoaeuenoaa Ii?ooaaeee i?eiyei ?aoaiea ia o/anoee no?aiu a «YENII-98»
. A iiya?a 1995 a. nicaeaee I?aaiecaoeeiiiue eiieoao ai aeaaa n
caianoeoaeai I?aaenaaeaoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O.

Ieioei ?innee a 1997 aiaeo a niioaaonoaee n ooaa?aeaeaiiie niaoie
?anoiaeia ii athaeaeaoiiio oeiaine?iaaieth iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio e
?anii?yaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 22 ieoya?y 1997 aiaea auaeaeeei CAI
«Yeniioeaio?» 1,2 iei. aeiee.

A oeaeii athaeaeaoiua cao?aou ia o/anoea ?innee a «YENII-98» ninoaaeee
3,5 iei. aeiee. Aue inouanoaeai ioai? yeniiiaoia a ?inneeneoth naeoeeth
ia YENII-98. Ii caeeth/aieyi yenia?oiuo eiiennee Ieiiaoee, Ieiyeiiiieee,
IAYN ?innee e ?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee iaoe iaoeeiiaeueiay yeniiceoeey
i?aaenoaaeea ?inneth eae ie?iaoth ii?neoth aea?aeaao n aiaaoaeoeie
o?aaeeoeeyie inaiaiey ieaaia, i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, iaeaaeathuoth
iiaaeoeie oaoiieiaeyie e iio-oao, aunieei iao/iui, eoeueoo?iui e
eioaeeaeooaeueiui iioaioeeaeii.

A /enei yeniiiaioia aioee iocae Ie?iaiai ieaaia (a. Eaeeieia?aae),
Ieii?e?iaeu ?innee, Aineiiaeae?iiao, einoeooo Ieaaiieiaee ei. I. I.
Oe?oiaa, ?AI «Aaci?ii» (a. Iineaa), EEA «Eaco?eo» (a. Ieaeiee
Iiaai?iae), Io?iaineia ii?neia ia?ioiaenoai e o,ae.

Aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth iaaeeueiia noae eioi?iaoeeiiiue oeaio?, aaea
nin?aaeioi/aia any aeinooiiay eioi?iaoeey i ?innee e aa ?aaeiiao,
aeeth/ay yeiiiieeo, ?ano?nu, nioeeaeueiua aii?inu, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou e o. ae. Niaoeeaeenou OAINE niaianoii n IAYN e
Ieiyeiiiieee ?innee noi?ie?iaaee aacu aeaiiuo, ?ac?aaioaee
aeaiiino?aoeeiiiua aa?nee.

Ia niiini?neie iniiaa oe?iie «O?eoiae?ao» nicaeaia «ae?ooaeueiay
iiaeaeue» iaaeeueiia ?innee ia «YENII-98», aeaaiaea?y /aio oe?ieee e?oa
iieueciaaoaeae naoe Eioa?iao eiae aiciiaeiinoue ciaeiieoueny n
?inneeneie yeniiceoeeae, iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth.

A oeaeyo iiauoaiey iieeoe/aneiai ?aiiia ?innee, cia/eiinoe o/anoey
no?aiu a «YENII-98», aeaiiino?aoeee iiaiai aeaeaiey iaua/aeiaa/aneeo
yeieiae/aneeo, aoiaieoa?iuo, yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai e aiciiaeiuo iooae eo
?aoaiey ia/aoa ?aaeecaoeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?ia?aiiu «*aeiaae e Ieaai.
Aeiaaeueiay Eieoeeaoeaa», ninoiyuae ec oieeaeueiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo,
yeieiae/aneeo, ia?aciaaoaeueiuo, eoeueoo?iuo e nii?oeaiuo i?iaeoia.

A ?aieao i?ia?aiiu ninoiyeinue o/anoea ?inneeneie eiiaiaeu ia yooa
«Aeiaaeueiay eieoeeaoeaa» a /aiieiiaoa ie?a. A?oiia ieiaoeia ec
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie annioeeaoeee «Ceiiaa ia?aoiiiia ieaaaiea”niaa?oeea
caieua i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ieiei 150 ei. ii ica?o Aaeeae. A iiya?a 1997 a,
ec Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa a ia?eaeeiiaeueiia e?oainaaoiia ieaaaiea auoea yooa
«O?aiey-II» . Ecaanoiue ?inneeneee iooaoanoaaiiee Oaaei? Eiithoia ia/ae
naia iiaia iaeeii/iia e?oainaaoiia ieaaaiea, noa?o eioi?iio aeai ia
«YENII-98».

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