.

Промышленность Германии

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1111
Скачать документ

I?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee

1. Yia?aaoeea O?A

Iinea iauaaeeiaiey O?A e AAe? aue ia/ao i?ioeann ia?ano?ieee OYE auaoae
AAe?, iniiaiuie oeaeyie eioi?iai auei oeo/oaiea oaoie/aneie e
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe, a oaeaea nieaeaiea iaa?ocee ni noi?iiu
yia?aieiiieaena ia yeieiaeth. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae auee
i?aaei?eiyou neaaeothuea ia?u: i?eaaoecaoeey, aaaaeaiea eiieo?aioeee e
inaiaiaeaeaiea oeai ia yia?aiiineoaee e yeaeo?iyia?aeth.

N o/aoii oiai, /oi ao?ue oaieue yaeyeny iniiaie yia?aaoeee AAe?,
ninoaaeyy ieiei 70% «ia?ae/iie yia?aee» e eniieueciaaeny aeey
aaia?e?iaaiey yeaeo?i- e oaieiyia?aee (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeey
iaia?aaa iiiauaiee), a oaeaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aaca, iaeaieueoea
eciaiaiey einioeenue eiaiii aeaiiiai naeoi?a OYE.

A i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ieaia oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue AAe? ninoiyea ec
e?oiiuo eiiieaenia, aeeth/athueo a naay ai?iua ?ac?aaioee,
iaiaaoeoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey, noaioeee ii aaceoeeaoeee oaey e oaieiaua
yeaeo?inoaioeee. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?ano?ieee ai?iua ?ac?aaioee auee
auaeaeaiu a ioaeaeueioth io?aneue e ia?aaeaiu ia i?eaaoecaoeeth.
I?iaaaeaiiua aiaeecu iieacaee, /oi oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue aoaeao
eiaoue ia?niaeoeao eeoue a neo/aa eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee ia ianeieueeeo
e?oiiuo ioe?uouo ?ac?aaioeao. A eiioea eiioeia auei nio?aiaii eeoue aeaa
oaeaaeiauaathueo ?aeiia – 5 oaieueiuo ?ac?acia Lausitz Revier
(Ae?acaeai), a oaeaea 3 Mitteldeutsches Revier (Eaeioeea), ai aeaaeaiea
eioi?uie a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaaoecaoeee anooieee LAUBAG (O?A) e
aiaei-aia?eeaineee eiini?oeeoi MIBRAG. Ia ianoiyuee iiiaio
oaeaaeiauaathuee naeoi? eiaao neaaeothuoth no?oeoo?o: LAUBAG aeaaeaao 5
?ac?acaie, noiia?iay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?uo a ia?niaeoeaa
aeieaeia aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny a i?aaeaeao 50-55iei. o./aiae; MIRBAG – 3
?ac?aca (15-20 iei. o./aiae). E?iia oiai eaaeaeay ec eiiiaiee eiaao
onoaiiaee ii a?eeaoe?iaaieth oaey. Ia aeieain?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao
i?aaeiieaaaaony noaaeeece?iaaoue aeiau/o ia o?iaia 70iei. o./aiae (a
1989 a. auei C00 iei. o./aiae). I?e yoii iauaa eiee/anoai caiyouo a
naeoi?a nie?aoeony aei 16 oun. (a 1989 a. eo auei 96 oun. /aeiaae).
Iaeioi?ia a?aiy aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny aua ?yae iaaieueoeo oaoo,
?aniieiaeaiiuo a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io OYN e i?aaeiacia/aiiuo
eneeth/eoaeueii aeey niaaaeaiey eo oiieeaii. Iaeiaei aii?in ia eo
cae?uoee aoaeao ?aoaoueny iaeiia?aiaiii n auaiaeii noaioeee ec
yenieoaoaoeee. Caaa?oaiea aeaiiiai i?ioeanna iaeeaeaaony e eiioeo 1999
aiaea.

Ei?aiiui eciaiaieyi iiaeaa?aeenue oaeaea ?uiie e nenoaia
iaooaniaaaeaiey. ?aeiino?oeoeeae io?anee caieiaeenue ca?oaaaeiua
iaooyiua oe?iu.

I?ioeann i?eaaoecaoeee iaooaia?aaiiiuo caaiaeia i?eaeae ?acee/iua
iaoeeiiaeueiua e ca?oaaaeiua eiiiaiee. I?aaei?eyoea Schwedt auei
i?eia?aoaii oe?iie Veba/Dea, a /anoue aeoeee ia?aoea eoaeueyineie Agip,
o?aioeocneei Elf e Total. Oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyie a Leuna e Zeits auei
ia?aaeaii Elf Aquitaine. Niaianoii n oe?iie Thyssen Elf inouanoaee
no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai caaiaea Leuna-2000, noiia?iua cao?aou ia eioi?ue
ioeaieaathony a 4,8 ie?ae. ia?ie. No?oeoo?a iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo
i?aaei?eyoee caaeoiaia oaeei ia?acii, /oiau oaeiaeaoai?youe iiaie
?uii/iie neooaoeee.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iio?aaeaiea aaoiiiaeeueiiai oiieeaa a oeaeii
oaaee/eeinue ia 144%, oai ia iaiaa iiuiinoe caaiaeia Schwedt e Leuna
i?aauoatho iio?aaiinoe ?uiea IOC. Eiaiii yoi e yaeeinue iaeiie ec
iniiaiuo i?e/ei nie?auaiey /enea caiyouo a naeoi?a n 28 aei 6 oun.
/aeiaae. Ia ianoiyuee iiiaio iniiaiua oneeey nin?aaeioi/aiu ia ?aceii
iiauoaiee ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aeiaaaeaiee aa aei o?iaiy
aa?iiaeneeo noaiaea?oia. Ia yoe oeaee oaea eiaanoe?iaaii ieiei 1,2
ie?ae., e aei eiioea 2000 aiaea i?aaeiieaaaaony aeiaeeoue aua ieiei 7
ie?ae. ia?ie.

Nenoaia aaciniaaaeaiey AAe? aeaaiui ia?acii iniiauaaeanue ia oae
iacuaaaiii «auoiaii aaca», 80% eioi?iai aaia?e?iaaeinue ec ao?iai oaey,
a oaeaea ia iinoaaeao i?e?iaeiiai aaca ec NNN? (aieueoae /anoueth oaeaea
ia?a?aaaouaaeny a auoiaie aac).

?aeiino?oeoeey naeoi?a auea aeaaiui ia?acii iai?aaeaia ia: eciaiaiea
no?oeoo?u niaaaeaiey; ia?aaiae oicyenoaa n auoiaiai aaca ia i?e?iaeiue
(o?aaoao eciaiaiey noaiaea?oia aaciianiinoe e caiaiu iai?oaeiaaiey aieaa
/ai o 2,8 iei. /anoiuo iio?aaeoaeae); ?anoe?aiea naoe aacii?iaiaeia;
?anoe?aiea e aeeaa?neoeeaoeeth enoi/ieeia aaca; ?acaeoea ?uiea aaca.

?aiaa aaciaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue eiaea «i/aaiaue» oa?aeoa?, oeaio?aie
eioi?uo yaeyeenue e?oiiua eiiaeiaou, caiyoua i?iecaiaenoaii e
iaae?aaeiiaeueiie o?ainii?oe?iaeie aaca e ?aeiiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi.
Ainoi/iiaa?iaineay eiiiaiey Verbundnetz Gas auea i?aia?aciaaia e
iniiaiui aea?aeaoaeai aeoeee noae e?oiiue caiaaeiiaa?iaineee eiioea?i
Ruhrgas, 20% aeoeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo ca?oaaaeiui aaciaui i?aaei?eyoeai.
Ia?aciaaiea iinea iauaaeeiaiey iiauo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe
iio?aaiaaei oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
noaioeee aei 23 (?aiaa – 15), io eioi?uo auee i?ieiaeaiu aacii?iaiaeu e
eieaeueiui noaioeeyi, ioaaonoaaiiui ca i?iaeaaeo aaca iio?aaeoaeyi e
na?aeniua oneoae (120 a iauae neiaeiinoe). Aeiey o/anoey VNG a aeaiiii
ieaeiai caaia ninoaaeea 15%.

Iiieii ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo noaioeee nenoaia aaciniaaaeaiey aeeth/aao a
naay 3 nenoaiu o?oaii?iaiaeia – aunieiai aeaaeaiey, i?ioyaeaiiinoueth
ieiei 13 oun. ei., n?aaeiaai e ieceiai aeaaeaiey – 30 oun. ei. Aeey
iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiiai e aania?aaieiiai niaaaeaiey aaciaay naoue IOC
auea eioaa?e?iaaia a iauaaa?iiaeneoth aaciaoth nenoaio (nouee iaaeaeo
Vitzeroda e Zwickau, Stegal, Steinnitz e Bemau). A ?acoeueoaoa aeeeia
iaaeno?aeueiuo o?oaii?iaiaeia aic?inea n 1000 aei 9000 ei.

Ia?aeeaeueii n oaoie/aneie eioaa?aoeeae i?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaanoe
aeeaa?neoeeaoeeth aaciaiai niaaaeaiey. Oioy ?inney e inoaiaony iniiaiui
iinoaaueeii, i?aaeiieaaaaony nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eoue iinoaaee e ec
Ii?aaaee.

A ia?eiae aei eiioea 1997 aiaea ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth aaciaiai naeoi?a
cao?a/aii 10 ie?ae. ia?ie, oaeoth aea noiio i?aaeiieaaaaony
eiaanoe?iaaoue aei eiioea 2000 aiaea.

Ei?aiiay ?aeiino?oeoeey auea i?iaaaeaia e a yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea. Iniiaiay
oeaeue ia?ano?ieee auea – aac oua?aa aeey iio?aaeoaeae i?iaanoe
oaoie/aneia ia?ainiauaiea nouanoaothueo e iino?ieoue iiaua
yeaeo?inoaioeee, i?eaioe?oynue i?e yoii ia ianoiue ao?ue oaieue.
?oeiaiaenoai aeaiiui naeoi?ii inouanoaeyaony VEAG, iniiaiuie
aea?aeaoaeyie aeoeee eioi?iai yaeythony e?oiiua caiaaeiiaa?iaineea
yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneea eiiiaiee Aao-Ernwerk, Preussen-Elektra e RWE.

Nenoaia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey IOC ninoieo ec 3-o o?iaiae: VEAG, 14-oe
?aaeiiaeueiuo eiiiaiee e eieaeueiuo ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee –
?ani?aaeaeeoaeae. VEAG, inouanoaeythuee aaia?e?iaaiea e
«o?ainii?oe?iaeo» ii aunieiaieueoiui eeieyi yeaeo?iia?aaea/, i?iaeaao
yeaeo?iyia?aeth ?aaeiiaeueiui eiiiaieyi, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue
ia?ai?iaeatho aa eieaeueiui i?aaei?eyoeyi. Iineaaeiea iaania/eaatho
aeiaaaeaiea yeaeo?iyia?aee aei eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey. E?iia oiai,
eieaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey eiatho i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii i?iecaiaeeoue
yeaeo?iyia?aeth, iaeiaei, ia aieaa 30 % io iauaai iauaia.

Nenoaia yeaeo?iaaia?e?othueo iiuiinoae a AAe? (iauay iiuiinoue noaioeee
?aciiai oeia – ieiei 23000iao.) eiaea neaaeothuoth no?oeoo?o:

– OYN ia ao?ii oaea ninoaaeyee iniiao naeoi?a, eo noiia?iay iiuiinoue –
18500 iao. A yenieoaoaoeee iaoiaeeeinue 10 aeieia ii 500 iao., 16 ii 210
iao., 32 ii 100 iao., a oaeaea cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai iaeuo
yia?aiaeieia (iaiaa 100 iao.) noiia?iie iiuiinoueth 6940 iao.);

– AYN ?aaeoi?u aiaei-aiaeyiiai oeia AAY? ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa
(noiia?iay iiuiinoue – 1800 iao.);

– AYN (noiia?iay iiuiinoue – 1700 iao);

– OYN ia aaca (noiia?iay iiuiinoue – 1000 iao).

I?ia?aiia yenieoaoaoeee AYN auea ia?aniio?aia e ana yaea?iua noaioeee
ainoi/iuo caiaeue auee auaaaeaiu ec yenieoaoaoeee n ia?niaeoeaie
iineaaeothuaai aeaiiioaaea. Ii iiaieth aa?iaineeo yia?aaoeeia,
aiciiaeiinoue aiciaiiaeaiey eniieueciaaiey yaea?iie yia?aee aeaaea a
ioaeaeaiiie ia?niaeoeaa i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeiaa?iyoiie.

Ec anao oaieueiuo OYN eeoue 8 yia?aiaeieia, ?aaioathueo ia ao?ii oaea
(Boxberg – 2o500 iao. e Jaenschwalde – 6o500 iao.) iiaoo auoue
ia?aiai?oaeiaaiu iiae nia?aiaiiua o?aaiaaiey (aeiioneatho aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiiaeaiey ono?ienoa aeey oaeaeaiey niaaeeiaiee na?u ec aeuia). ?yae
noaioeee, iauae iiuiinoueth 6000 iao. i?aaeiieaaaaony auaiaeeoue ec
yenieoaoaoeee ii ia?a caiaiu ia iiaua a Schwarze Pumpe, Boxberg e
Lippendorf (a iauae neiaeiinoe 6 yia?aiaeieia ii 800 iao.), eioi?ua
ieaie?oaony aaanoe a no?ie aei 2000 a. Oaea caeii/aii no?ieoaeuenoai
iiaie noaioeee a Schkopau (900 iao.). E?iia oiai a aeiiieiaiea e
noaioeee a Rostok (550iao.), ?aaioathuae ia ao?ii oaea, i?aaeiieaaaaony
no?ieoaeuenoai aua 2 iiauo aeieia a Stendal.

*anoue auaoeo ainoi/iiaa?iaineeo OYN (2500 iao.) auee cae?uou n?aco aea
iinea iauaaeeiaiey Aa?iaiee ec-ca e?aeia ieceeo yeieiae/aneeo
iieacaoaeae.

A niioaaonoaee n i?ia?aiiie ?aeiino?oeoeee i?aaeiieaaaaony
no?ieoaeuenoai e aaaaeaiea a yenieoaoaoeeth ?yaea «aaciauo» OYN,
iaeiaei, niaoeeaeenou VEAG n/eoatho, /oi iniiao ninoaayo ana-oaee
oaieueiua noaioeee, ia eioi?uo e 2005 aiaeo aoaeao aaia?e?iaaoueny ieiei
90% yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Niaoeeaeenou ioia/atho, /oi iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaaia, i?aaei?eiyouo
iinea iauaaeeiaiey Aa?iaiee noaei iiaeniaaeeiaiea ainoi/iiaa?iaineie
naoe UCPTE e caiaaeiie. 3 eeiee nayce oaea caeii/aiu, a aua 4 iaoiaeyony
a caaa?oathuae noaaeee no?ieoaeuenoaa. Ii ?yaeo ioeaiie, ii caaa?oaiee
?aeiino?oeoeee nenoaia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey IOC noaiao naiie niaa?oaiiie a
Aa?iia. Ii?aaeaeaiiua iiceoeaiua iiiaiou ?aeiino?oeoeee i?iyaeythony
oaea e nae/an. Oae anee n?aaeiyy eioaineaiinoue aua?ina aeaoieene
oaea?iaea ninoaaeyea a 1989 a. 0,62ea. ia eao/, 1991 a. – 0,55, oi e
2005 a. i?iaiice?oaony o?iaaiue a 0,23ea/eao/.

Iauea cao?aou ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth OYE AAe? ioeaieaathony a 100 ie?ae.
ia?ie.

Ianiio?y ia iaee/ea oeaeiai ?yaea noiaeiuo iiiaioia a no?oeoo?a OYE AAe?
ni no?aiaie NIA e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, caiaaeiua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi
/enoi iaoaie/aneee ia?aiin iiuoa ainoi/iuo caiaeue Aa?iaiee ia ae?oaea
ainoaea?noaa i?eaaaeao eeoue e iaaaoeaiui iineaaenoaeyi. A /anoiinoe,
ec-ca ionoonoaey o iineaaeieo aeinoaoi/iiai iauaia n?aaenoa. Ioaeaeueiua
oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey iiaoo auoue iiceoeaii eniieueciaaiu a i?ioeanna
?aeiino?oeoeee yia?aaoeee aeaiiie a?oiiu no?ai.

2. Aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue O?A

Aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue O?A ia/aea auoiaeeoue ec
i?iaeieaeaaoaainy ianeieueei eao ia?eiaea niaaea. I?aaei?eyoey
aaoiiiaeeueiie eiaeono?ee noaee ?acaeaaoueny aieaa aeeiaie/ii,
i?iecaiaenoai noaei aea/a, aic?inea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeenue n?iee ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey iiauo iiaeaeae aaoiiiaeeae e
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oaaee/eeny i?eoie eiaanoeoeee. Oae, a
1996 aiaeo a aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea auei aeiiieieoaeueii aeiaeaii 14,2
ie?ae. ia?ie, o. a. ia 25% aieueoa, /ai a 1995 aiaeo, a ca 1997 aiae
iauai eiaanoeoeee oaaee/eeny aua ia 13%.

Oieueei anneaiiaaiey ia IEIE? a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaeee 13,6 ie?ae. ia?ie
(ia 50% aieueoa, /ai a 1990 aiaeo). I?e yoii /enei ?aai/eo iano a
iaiaoeeie aaoieiaeono?ee n 1991 aiaeo oaaee/eeinue ia 14 oun. iano e
aeinoeaei 670 oun. /aeiaae, /oi niioaaonoaoao aaeaaiaeiiio ?inoo
i?eia?ii ia 3%. Anee nio?aieony aeinoaoi/ii aunieee o?iaaiue ni?ina ia
eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee a ie?a, iauaiu i?iaeaae iaiaoeeie aaoiiiaeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeinoeaioo a 1998 aiaeo ?aei?aeiiai o?iaiy e ninoaayo
4,95 iei. oooe eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae, ia?ae?ua ?aei?aeiua iieacaoaee 1992
aiaea, eiaaea auei auiouaii 4,86 iei. iaoei.

I?iecaiaenoai iaiaoeeeo aaoiiiaeeae cia/eoaeueii auno?aa ?acaeaaaony ca
a?aieoeae, aaea oieueei ca aoi?oth iieiaeio 1997 aiaea i?e?ino ninoaaee
13%. ?acaeoea naoe nai?i/iuo e iieiiianooaaiuo i?iecaiaenoa iaiaoeeeo
aaoiiiaeeae ii anaio ie?o ea?aeeiaeueii eciaiaieei no?oeoo?o
nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo nianoaaiii aaoiiiaeeueiuie oe?iaie e
noaiiae?yae/eeaie, i?iecaiaeyueie ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee e eiiiiiaiou
iniiaiuo nenoai aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee.

Noaiiae?yae/eeai ia eiieo?niie iniiaa ia?aaeaiu caeacu ia i?iecaiaenoai
ia ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia ?acee/iuo aaoiiiaeeueiuo nenoai, eae oi –
aeao/eeia, na?aiae?innaeae, aeeoioeyoi?ia e o. ae., a oeaeuo iiaeoeae,
iai?eia? iaiaeae i?eai?ia, ?oeaaiai oi?aaeaiey n na?aii?eaiaeaie,
oiieeaiuo nenoai e o. i., eioi?ua aoaeoo iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinooiaoue ia
nai?i/iua eiiaaea?u aaoiiiaeeueiuo oe?i. Oaeea caeacu iiaoo auiieieoue
oieueei e?oiiua oe?iu-noaiiae?yae/eee, oeia «Aio» . A ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecieaeao eiioeaio?aoeey caeacia aaoiiiaeeueiuo oe?i o ianeieueeeo
iiuiuo noaiiae?yae/eeia. Yoi iicaieeo iineaaeiei ?anoe?eoue auione
aaoiiiaeeueiuo iiaeoeae aei ianooaaia e?oiiina?eeiiai e ianniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi niioaaonoaaiii i?eaaaeao e nieaeaieth oeai ia
aeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth e aeano ei aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue iiiaieeaoo?o
iiaeiaiuo ecaeaeee. Oe?iu-noaiiae?yae/eee aoaeoo no?aieoueny aieaa
aeoeaii aiaae?youe a i?iecaiaenoai aaoiiiaeeueiuo iiaeoeae iiaaeoea
oaoiieiaee, nicaeaiiua eae eie naieie, oae e a eiiia?aoeee n ae?oaeie, a
oii /enea ca?oaaaeiuie, oe?iaie, i?aaeaea anaai ec no?ai, aaea aoaeoo
?aniieaaaoueny iaiaoeeea aaoiiiaeeueiua i?aaei?eyoey. I?e yoii iiuiue
noaiiae?yae/ee, eioi?ue aoaeao ?aaioaoue n?aco ia ianeieueei
aaoiiiaeeueiuo oe?i, niiaeao aeey nieaeaiey nianoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae
i?eaeaeaoue aieaa iaeeea ?aaeiiaeueiua oe?iu aeey iinoaaee ioaeaeueiuo
eiiiiiaioia aaoiiiaeeueiuo iiaeoeae.

Ca n/ao oaeie no?oeoo?u ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoeeay
aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue niiaeao iaania/eoue iinoaaeo ia ?uiie ii
i?eaieaiui oeaiai aaoiiiaeeae, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui
o?aaiaaieyi eiie?aoiiai caeac/eea, /oi, ii iiaieth yenia?oia, a
aeeaeaeoea aiaeu noaiao iniiaiui oaeoi?ii a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ia
ie?iaii aaoiiiaeeueiii ?uiea.

3. Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue caieiaao aaaeiia ianoi a aa?iaineie yeiiiieea
e yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo ?aaioiaeaoaeae: ia ia/aei 1998 aiaea ia
aieaa /ai 1800 oeie/aneeo (a iniiaiii n?aaeieo) i?aaei?eyoeyo
o?oaeeeenue ieiei 500 ouny/ /aeiaae (4-a ianoi a i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii
eiee/anoao ?aai/eo iano). Ii iau?io auionea oeie/aneeo oiaa?ia O?A noieo
ia o?aoueai ianoa a ie?a iinea NOA e ssiiiee.

A 1997 aiaeo oeie/aneia i?iecaiaenoai Aa?iaiee oaaee/eeinue ia 6% (186
ie?ae. aei i?ioea 177 ie?ae. aei a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo). I?e yoii aioo?e
no?aiu (ieiei 55% iauaai iauaia) ?ino ninoaaee eeoue 1,5%, a oi a?aiy
eae ia ca?oaaaeiuo oeeeaeao – aieaa 12%. Oaeei ia?acii, eae e a 1996
aiaeo, i?iaeieaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa e?oiiaeoeo
oeie/aneeo eiioea?iia O?A ca a?aieoeae i?e iacia/eoaeueiii i?e?inoa
auionea oeie/aneeo oiaa?ia ia iaeeeo e n?aaeieo aa?iaineeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo a iniiaiii ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie. Oaiiu
?inoa oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aa?iaiee a 1997 aiaeo (6%) i?aauneee
n?aaeiea oaiiu ii i?iiuoeaiiinoe a oeaeii (4,5%).

Aeeiaie/iue ?ino oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?A a 1997 aiaeo aue
iaoneiaeai ?yaeii oaeoi?ia, n?aaee eioi?uo yenia?ou auaeaeytho
iiceoeaiia ?acaeoea eiiuthieoo?u ia aaaeiaeoeo ca?oaaaeiuo ?uieao
(Caiaaeiay Aa?iia, NOA, ssiiiey); ieceee eo?n iaiaoeeie ia?ee; oi?ioay
eiiuthieoo?a a aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e a ia?a?aaioea ieanoiann;
e, ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue, i?ioeann iaeiieaiey caiania o
iio?aaeoaeae.

Iniiaiua iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eoiaeyony ia
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneea ecaeaeey (19%), i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaie/aneie oeiee (17%),
ieanoiannu e ecaeaeey ec ieo (15%), eaee e e?anee (8%), iithuea
n?aaenoaa e n?aaenoaa ooiaea ca eiaeae (8%).

*oi eanaaony o?iaiy oeai ia oeie/aneea oiaa?u, oi a 1997 aiaeo oeaiu
i?iecaiaeeoaeae inoaeenue i?aeoe/anee aac eciaiaiee ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii: ii ioeaieai Nithca oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?A,
eiaeaen oeai ia oeie/aneea ecaeaeey aic?in anaai ia 1,5%.

E?oiiaeoeie i?iaeooeaioaie oeie/aneeo ecaeaeee a Aa?iaiee ii eoiaai 1996
aiaea auee eiioea?iu «Oaono» (9-a ianoi n?aaee 500 e?oiiaeoeo
i?aaei?eyoee O?A), AANO (12), «Aaea?» (13), «Oaieae» (36), «Aeaaonna»
(42), «Ia?e» (67), «I?ieoa? e Ayiae» (70), «Aa?eiaa?» (77).

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee caieiaao aaaeouea iiceoeee ia
ie?iaii ?uiea oeie/aneeo oiaa?ia. Ii aeaiiui aeo?iaea «Oi?/oi», a 1997
aiaeo o?e aa?iaineeo oeie/aneeo eiioea?ia – «Oaono», «AANO» e «Aaea?»
aioee a iyoa?eo e?oiiaeoeo ie?iauo i?iecaiaeeoaeae oeie/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee, caieiay, niioaaonoaaiii, ianoa n o?aoueaai ii iyoia (iinea
«Aeth Iii» e «Aeao Eaieee», iaa NOA).

Ii aeaiiui ca 1997 aiae, a oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aa?iaiee i?iecioea
ia?anoaiiaea nee; ia ia?aia ianoi auoae AANO(iai?io 56 ie?ae. aei,
eiee/anoai caiyouo – 103 oun. /ae.); aoi?ui noae «Aaea?» (iai?io 55
ie?ae. aei, eiee/anoai caiyouo – 145 oun. /ae.); «Oaono» ia?aianoeeny ia
o?aouea ianoi (iai?io 52 ie?ae. aei, eiee/anoai caiyouo – 118 oun.
/ae.). I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?A
ninoaaeyao ii ioeaieai yenia?oia, ieiei 80% io o?iaiy NOA. Anoanoaaiii,
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aieueoie i?ia?ann a yoie iaeanoe aeinoeaiooue
aa?iaineeie i?iaeooeaioaie. Oae, iai?eia?, ia i?aaei?eyoeyo eiioea?ia
«Aaea?» i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea au?inea n 1993 aiaea ii ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ia 50%. Ca iineaaeiea 8 eao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a
aa?iaineie oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oaaee/eeanue ia 40%.

ss?ei au?aaeaiiay iai?aaeaiiinoue oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?A ia
ca?oaaaeiua ?uiee (aieaa 45% i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaioe?iaaii ia yenii?o)
iauyniyao oniaoiia ?acaeoea aiaoiae oi?aiaee oeie/aneie i?iaeoeoeeae. A
1997 aiaeo aa?iaineee yenii?o yoeo oiaa?ia i?aaunee o?iaaiue
i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea ia 13% e aeinoea 117 ie?ae. aei, a eiii?o – ia 10%
(68 ie?ae. aei). Eae e ?aiaa iniiaiuie oi?aiauie ia?oia?aie Aa?iaiee ii
oeie/aneei oiaa?ai auee no?aiu Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca (54% iauaai iauaia
oeie/aneiai yenii?oa, eee 63 ie?ae. aei e 65% eiii?oa – 44 ie?ae. aei),
aceaoneea no?aiu (niioaaonoaaiii 13% e 9%), Naaa?iay e Oeaio?aeueiay
Aia?eea (ii 11%).

Aaaeouea iiceoeee a oeie/aneie oi?aiaea o?aaeeoeeiiii caieiaao O?aioeey
(21% eiii?oa e 19% yenii?oa oeie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee O?A), Ieaea?eaiaeu
(niioaaonoaaiii 19% e 13%), Aaeueaey/Ethenaiao?a (18% e 11%),
Aaeeeia?eoaiey (15% e 14%), Eoaeey (10% e 15%), Aano?ey (4% e 8%).

Ia no?aiu Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu (OeAA) i?eoiaeeony ieiei 8%
aa?iaineiai yenii?oa e 4% eiii?oa. Iniiaiuie oi?aiauie ia?oia?aie O?A a
yoii ?aaeiia yaeythony Iieueoa (30% yenii?oa oeii?iaeoeoeee O?A a no?aiu
OeAA a 1997 a. e 21% eiii?oa); *aoey (niioaaonoaaiii 19% e 26%); ?inney
(18% e 17%); Aaia?ey (12% e 11%), Neiaaeey (4% e 11%).

A oeie/aneii yenii?oa O?A a yoe no?aiu i?aiaeaaeatho ieanoiannu e
ecaeaeey ec ieo, oiaa?u i?aaie/aneie oeiee, oa?iaoeaaoe/aneea ecaeaeey,
aeoaeeueiua e e?anyoea aauanoaa. A eiii?oa iniiaiia ianoi caieiatho
ieanoiannu e ecaeaeey ec ieo, i?iaeoeoeey i?aaie/aneie oeiee,
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneea ecaeaeey.

A 1997 a. aue ioia/ai iooie eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ec Aa?iaiee. I?e
yoii, ii iiaieth Oaaea?aeueiiai Nithca ?aaioiaeaoaeae oeie/aneie
i?iuoeaiiinoe, ia neaaeoao oioneaoue ec aeaeo, /oi o. i. «aeiaaeueiua
ea?iee» n?aaee aa?iaineeo i?aaei?eyoee naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth ca
?oaaaeii a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa nicaeatho iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa aioo?e
no?aiu. *oi aea eanaaony nie?auaiey i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, oi,
eae n/eoaao Nithc, ia?yaeo ni neeyieai iaeioi?uo n?aaeieo e iaeeeo (n
iaeeiaeiaui i?ioeeai aeayoaeueiinoe) aa?iaineeo i?aaei?eyoee, ia yoi
iiaeeyee ?anoouay noieiinoue o?oaea e aunieee o?iaaiue iaeiaiaiai
iaeiaeaiey a Aa?iaiee.

Ii iiaiei yenia?oia, a 1998 aiaeo iaeeaeaeny cia/eoaeueiue ?ino i?yiuo
eiaanoeoeee aa?iaineeo oeie/aneeo eiioea?iia a oeie/aneoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Yoi iniaaiii eanaaony aceaoneiai
?aaeiia, aaea ii i?iaiicai, iio?aaeaiea oeie/aneeo oiaa?ia a aeeaeaeoea
aeanyoue eao iiaeao aic?anoe ii/oe a aeaa ?aca. Eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey
iieaeoo a ?acaeoea iaooaoeiee, i?iecaiaenoai nu?uey aeey oa?iaeieiaee,
oaeia?aiee, n?aaenoa caueou ?anoaiee.

A O?A iieiaeeoaeueii ioeaieaatho ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiiioe no?aiu a 1998 aiaeo. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi oeie/aneay
eiiuthieoo?a 1998 aiaeo neiaeeony aieaa aeaaii?eyoii, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai
aiaeo. Yoe ioeaiee iniiauaathony i?aaeaea anaai ia i?iaeieaeathueony
aunieeo oaiiao ?acaeoey aiaoiae oi?aiaee O?A oeie/aneie i?iaeoeoeeae, a
oaeaea ia oaiaeaioeee oaaee/aiey aa?iaineiai yenii?oa a oeaeii,
aneaaenoaea iiieaeaiiiai eo?na iaiaoeeie ia?ee. Aioo?e no?aiu
iaeeaeaaony ?ino oeie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa iinea canoiy a i?aaeuaeouea
aiaeu.

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue O?A – iaeaieaa i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia ca?oaaaeiua
?uiee io?aneue aa?iaineie yeiiiieee, – iiyoiio iia a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie ?acaeaaaony iiae aeeyieai ni?ina ec-ca ?oaaaea. Nianoaaiiinoue
aa?iaineeo oeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee ca ?oaaaeii ioeaieaaeanue ia ia/aei
1997 aiaea noiiie aieaa 57 ie?ae. aei. N na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia yoio
iieacaoaeue au?in ii/oe aaeaia.

Neeueiay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iai?aaeaiiinoue oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
iicaieyao aa?iaineei i?aaei?eyoeyi eniieueciaaoue aeecinoue ca?oaaaeiuo
?uieia aeey oe?aieaiey naieo eiieo?aioiuo iiceoeee, /oi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, niinianoaoao oaaee/aieth i?iecaiaenoaa a Aa?iaiee.

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia, Naaa?iay Aia?eea e ssiiiey a iaic?eiii aoaeouai
inoaioony iaeaieaa e?oiiuie ?uieaie nauoa aeey i?iaeoeoeee aa?iaineeo
oeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee, ii e 2010 aiaeo ia ia?aaeiee ieai auaeaeiaony
aceaoneee ?aaeii, o. e. i?e?ino ianaeaiey e oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey aoaeoo caeanue a aeaa ?aca auoa, /ai a inoaeueiii ie?a.

Iiyoiio aeey nio?aiaiey eiieo?aioiuo iiceoeee aa?iaineei oeie/aneei
i?aaei?eyoeyi i?eaeaony a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue naie
yenii?o e i?aaeaea anaai ca?oaaaeiua eiaanoeoeee ia Aceth. Eiia/ii,
cia/eoaeueioth aeieth naieo iio?aaiinoae aceaoneea no?aiu aoaeoo
oaeiaeaoai?youe ca n/ao aioo?aiiaai i?iecaiaenoaa, iaeiaei oaeay
ia?ai?eaioaoeey iicaieeo aa?iaineei oe?iai ia oieueei nio?aieoue, ii e
oe?aieoue naie iiceoeee ia aceaoneeo ?uieao.

Niaoeeaeueiue Oiiae oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oeiaine?iaae a Aa?iaiee, a
1997 aiaeo ?aaioo 1900 iao/iuo nio?oaeieeia ia iauoth noiio 24 iei. aei.
N?aaee ?aaio, oeiaine?oaiuo oiiaeii auee oaeea, eae «iiaua iaoa?eaeu»,
«noi?aiieaeoey?iay oeiey eeaoee» . N?aaenoaa ec Oiiaea ?ani?aaeaeyeenue
ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi (a iei. aei): iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea
?aaiou – 12,3; iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia – 5,5; eioi?iaoeea – 2,4;
i?i/aa – 0,4.

Anee aiai?eoue ia iaueo aeiaeaieyo oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aa?iaiee a
iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, oi iie au?inee a 1996 aiaeo ia 27%,
a 1997 aiaeo – ia 6%, aeinoeaioa o?iaiy 10,9 ie?ae. aei. Cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue iioea ia ?ac?aaioeo e enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe iiauo iaaeeeaiaioia
(4,8 ie?ae. aei), a oaeaea n?aaenoa caueou ?anoaiee (anaai n
iaaeeeaiaioaie ia yoe oeaee iioei aieaa 50% anao cao?ao).

N nicaeaieai Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai nithca (AAN) n yiaa?y 1999 aiaea
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey iaaeaeo no?aiaie-o/anoieoeaie Aa?iiaeneiai nithca (AN)
oaeoe/anee i?aa?aoeony ai aioo?aiithth oi?aiaeth. Eciaiaiey a
niioiioaiee aaetho ia aoaeoo i?e yoii ea?aoue ieeaeie ?iee, io /aai a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue auea?atho i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia yenii?o oeie/aneea
i?aaei?eyoey, aeey oeie/aneie io?anee a oeaeii aicieeaao ia?iiiue
«aioo?aiiee» ?uiie – naiue e?oiiue a ie?a.

Oaea ia ia/aei 1997 aiaea oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ai Aa?iiaeneiai
nithca aeinoeaea iai?ioa 450 ie?ae. aeieea?ia, iia?aaeea oeie/aneea
aeaaiou NOA (373 ie?ae. aeiee.) e ssiiieth (216 ie?ae. aeiee.). Cia/aiea
oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a aa?iiaeneii ianooaaa iiae/a?eeaaao e oaeie
oaeo, /oi iia caieiaao a AN aoi?ia ianoi n?aaee ia?aaaouaathueo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe iinea ieuaaeoniaie (ia oeieth iaaeaao 11% iauaai iai?ioa
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee).

*oi eanaaony oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?A, oi ia aa aeieth i?eoiaeeony
26% iai?ioa anae aa?iiaeneie oeiee. Ni cia/eoaeueiui io?uaii aeaeaa
neaaeotho O?aioeey (19%), Aaeeeia?eoaiey e Eoaeey (ii 12%). E eiaiii
oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue O?A iieo/eo iaeaieueoea auaiaeu io nicaeaiey
AAN, iineieueeo en/aciao oaeie aa?uea?, eae ?acieoea a eo?nao aaetho
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. Yoi aeaaii?eyoii neaaeaony eae ia yenii?oiuo, oae e
ia eiii?oiuo naeaeeao oeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee. Aieaa oiai, iiyayony
aeieain?i/iua i?aeiouanoaa aeey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aa?iiu
aneaaenoaea aoaeouaai noaaeeueiiai eo?na aa?i ii ioiioaieth e aaethoai
iniiaiuo aiaoiaoi?aiauo ia?oia?ia aia aa?iiaeneiai ?aaeiia.

N yenii?oiie eaioie 45% (aeiey ca?oaaaeiiai iai?ioa a io?anee)
aa?iaineay oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue eiaao iaeaieueooth yenii?oioth
i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue. Aeey n?aaiaiey: ia?aaaouaathuea io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a oeaeii eiatho yenii?oioth eaioo 32%. N o/aoii aea
oeie/aneeo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua einaaiii, o. a. /a?ac iioiaoth oi?aiaeth
nauaathony ca ?oaaaeii, o?iaaiue aiaoiaoi?aiaie iai?aaeaiiinoe
oeie/aneie io?anee iiauoaaony ii/oe aei 60%.

Ieiei iieiaeiu (44%) aa?iaineiai yenii?oa oeie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee eaeao a
10 aa?iiaeneeo no?ai-/eaiia AN, eioi?ua yaeythony ia?aii/a?aaeiuie
eaiaeeaeaoaie aeey anooieaiey a AAN (naiua e?oiiua eiii?oa?u – O?aioeey,
Eoaeey e Ieaea?eaiaeu), /oi i?eaaaeao e iaeioi?iio nieaeaieth (aei 56%)
cenii?oiie aeiee oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?A, caaeneiie io
aioo?eaa?iiaeneeo aaethoiuo iaiaiiuo eo?nia. A Aaeeeia?eoaieth,
Oaaoeeth, Aeaieth, A?aoeeth – o. a. a oa no?aiu, eioi?ua i?eniaaeeiyony
e AAN ai aoi?oth i/a?aaeue, eaeoo 12% auaica. Aeaiiui no?aiai
iio?aaoaony aieueoa a?aiaie, /oiau i?eaycaoue naie aaethou e aa?i a
?aieao aoi?iai yoaia nicaeaiey Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai nithca e
ecaaaeaoue neeoeii neeueiuo eieaaaiee eo?nia iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho.

*oi eanaaony aeieea?a NOA, oi eieaaaiey eo?na aa?i ii ioiioaieth e iaio
aoaeoo, eae i?aaeei, iaiueoa, /ai eieaaaiey eo?nia ioaeaeueiuo
aa?iiaeneeo aaetho. Aaeeiay aa?iiaeneay aaethoa noaiao iie?aoueny ia
cia/eoaeueii aieueoaa iiiaoa?iia i?ino?ainoai, /ai iuia nouanoaothuea
iaoeeiiaeueiua aaethou, e noiaao oai naiui aani?ae?iaaoue eae i?eoie,
oae e iooie eaieoaeia. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai neaaeaony ia aa?iaineeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo, iineieueeo iaiaoeeay ia?ea – iaeia ec iaeaieaa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiuo aaetho aeey nicaeaiey aaethoiuo ?aca?aia e
eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Ii iiaen/aoai Aa?iaineiai einoeoooa yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee,
iniaaiii neeueii ia eciaiaiea iaiaiiuo eo?nia ?aaae?oao ca?oaaaeiue
ni?in ia oeie/aneea oiaa?u. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiay ?aaeueiay ?aaaeueaaoeey
iaiaoeeie ia?ee ia 1% ii ioiioaieth e aaethoai 18 i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo
no?ai i?eaaaeao e nie?auaieth ni?ina ia 1,3%. A oao aea naiuo oneiaeyo
ni?in ia aa?iaineea oiaa?u oiaaeao oieueei ia 0,7%. Oiaiueoaiea ?enea
?aaaeueaaoeee iaiaoeeie ia?ee a nayce n anooieaieai O?A a EAC
aeaaii?eyoii iiaeeyao ia oeie/aneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiieo?aioeee oeai. Iaiaa au?aaeaiu i?aeiouanoaa
aeaeinoe oeai i?e eiii?oa: a Aa?iaiee ?aaaeueaaoeey aa?iaineie ia?ee ia
1% iiauoaao eiii?oiue ni?in oieueei ia 0,25%.

I?e cia/eoaeueiii aeiieie?iaaiee no?ai Aa?iiaeneiai nithca a aa?iaineii
eiii?oa oeie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee (ia iaiaa aeaoo o?aoae eiii?oa O?A
i?eoiaeeony ia yoe no?aiu) aaaaeaiea aa?i i?eianao oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe eae ieieioi e?aoein?i/iua i?aeiouanoaa. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
aaethoiua eo?nu a ?aieao Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai nithca, enoiaey ec
iiuoa i?ioeuo eao, iiaeaa?aeaiu iacia/eoaeueiui eieaaaieyi. N ae?oaie, e
yoi aeieaeii iiieiaoueny a ?an/ao i?aaeaea anaai – eiii?oiua oeaiu ca
oeie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth caaenyo a aunoae noaiaie io aeieea?a NOA. a
yoeo oneiaeyo aeey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia aeeeoaeueioth
ia?niaeoeao iiaoo aicieeiooue aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey a nayce n aaaaeaieai
aa?i – iauae aaethou iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia a ?aieao AAN.

Yoe iaauaiey aiieia ?aaeenoe/iu: anee a aoaeouai ana 15 /eaiia AN
aieaeoo a AAN, oi aeiey aa?i ai acaeiiuo ?an/aoao i?aauneo, ii ioeaieai,
40%. I?e oaeaeueiii aana aeieea?a NOA a ?acia?a 48% a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
aa?i aoeaaeueii noaiao ianooiaoue aeieea?o ia iyoee. Aieaa oiai, ii
iaeioi?uei aeieain?i/iui ioeaieai, aeiey aa?i a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
?an/aoao iiaeao auoue auoa, /ai noiia?iay aeiey nouanoaothueo iuia
aaetho no?ai AN, iineieueeo au?anoao ni?in ia aa?i ni noi?iiu o?aoueeo
no?ai.

Ia yoii neaiaeece?otho naaiaeiy no?aiu Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu.
E?iia oiai «ii?iaiaua» e iiaua eiaeono?eaeueiua no?aiu Ainoi/iie Acee,
?an/aoiie aaethoie eioi?uo aei neo ii? inoaaony aeieea? NOA, iiaoo
/anoe/ii ia?aeeth/eoueny ia aa?i. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi oae aea iinooiyo
no?aiu-cenii?oa?u yia?aiiineoaeae e nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
aeeeoaoa aaethou NOA. Naycaiiia n yoei nie?auaiea ?eneia iaiaiiuo eo?nia
aeaaii?eyoiaa anaai neaaeaony ia oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Oaea aei nicaeaiey Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai nithca oeie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee iiaea auea?aoue io aeinoeaiooie noaaeeecaoeee
aaethoiuo eo?nia iioaioeeaeueiuo no?ai-o/anoieoe nithca, a /anoiinoe,
iooai nie?auaiey ecaea?aeae ii aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi e ia?ai ii
iiaeaea?aeaieth aaethoiuo eo?nia e oiaiueoaiey aei ieieioia ?enea
iioa?ue ia iaiaiiuo eo?nao iaaeaeo aeaoaie caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoia,
iinoaaie e ieaoaaeae. Aaaeiuie aeey ca?oaaaeiuo i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee
yaeythony aeieain?i/iua i?aeiouanoaa noaaeeueiinoe iaiaiiiai eo?na e
aaciianiinoe ieaie?iaaiey ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoee.

Aaaaeaiea aa?i iaeiia?aiaiii i?eaaaeao eae e iaino?aieth eiieo?aioeee
aneaaenoaea oaaee/aiey o?ainia?aioiinoe oeai a ?aieao aa?iiaeneiai
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, oae e e ?inoo eiieo?aioiiai aeaaeaiey ni noi?iiu
o?aoueeo no?ai. Yoi auciaao iieeoe/aneoth iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoey ia?
ii aa?iiiecaoeee niioaaonoaothueo noaiaea?oia a oae iacuaaaiuo
«aa?ino?aiao» e iiauneo aeaaeaiea ia i?aaei?eyoey n oeaeueth iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.

3. Iaoaeeo?aey Aa?iaiee

*a?iay iaoaeeo?aey – a i?ioeii iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae
niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aioea n na?aaeeiu 70-o aiaeia a /enei
no?oeoo?ii-e?eceniuo, n o?oaeii, ianiio?y ia aunieee oaoie/aneee e
oaoiieiae/aneee o?iaie, auaea?aeeaathueo iaaeaeoia?iaeioth
eiieo?aioeeth. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey nae/an eniieuecoao i?eaiciia nu?ue?,
iiyoiio, iiaua oeaio?u /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee ?aniieiaeaiu ia aa?aao ii?y,
oi anoue a ii?oiauo ai?iaeao. Aa?iaiey a ia/aea 90-o auieaaeyea 31,0
iei. oiii /oaoia. Noaee, auieaaeyeinue 40,8 iei. oiii a aiae. Noieiinoue
yenii?oa ninoaaeyea 2,6 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia, a eiii?oa – 2,5 ieeeea?aea
aeieea?ia. I?aeoe/anee aanue auieaaeyaiue /oaoi eniieuecoaony a naiie
Aa?iaiee. Ii/oe any noaeue auieaaeyaony eenei?iaeii-eiiaa?oa?iui e
yeaeo?iieaaeeueiui niiniaaie.

Iniiaiua oeaio?u /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee – yoi ?o?neee i?iiuoeaiiue ?aeii,
Naa?a?theai e aai ie?anoiinoe, A?aiai, O?aieoo?o-ia-Iaeia, A?aiaeaiao?a.
Caaiaeu iieiiai oeeeea anoue oaeaea a Naa?neie iaeanoe, A?aiaia,
Caeueoeaeooa?a e Iniaa?thea. Oeaio?ia i?aaeaeueiie iaoaeeo?aee e
i?ieaoiuo caaiaeia iaiiiai aieueoa.

Oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey ?aaioaao, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia eiii?oiii ia?ae/iii
nu?uea, a oaeaea nianoaaiiii e eiii?oiii eiia oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia; a nayce
n yoei ?aciauaiea aa i?aaei?eyoee ii?aaeaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii
oaeianoaaie e aeaoaaeciie iiaeaica nu?uey e iaania/aiiinoueth
niioaaonoaothueie yia?ai?ano?naie. Iiyoiio nae/an iiyaeeenue iiaua
i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u ia iiaa?aaeuea ii?ae. Iniiaiua oeaio?u: Aaeea,
?aeioaeueaeai, Aaiao?a, ?o?neee i?iiuoeaiiue ?aeii. Auieaaea /a?iiaie
iaaee nin?aaeioi/aia ii/oe iieiinoueth a Aaiao?aa e Ethiaia,
?aoeie?iaaiiie – a ieo aea, a oaeaea a Iniaa?thea, Ethaaea, Oaooooaaeoa.

4. Aaeaoeeiiiay e einie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee

Aaeaoeeiiiay e einie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaeuyaeyao iaeaunoea
o?aaiaaiey e i?aaei?eyoeyi-niaaeieeai e yaeyaony ieiia?ii nia?aiaiiuo
oaoiieiaee ai iiiaeo noa?ao. Aeaaiaea?y e?oiiui i?ia?aiiai eiiia?aoeee
(«Ay?iaon». «A?eaia») iia neoaeeo iioi?ii aa?iiaeneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
iaaeaeo i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie.

5. Aa?iaineay yeaeo?iieea

Aa?iaiey caiaoii ionoa?o io NOA ii yeaeo?iieea, a ii ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea
onooiaao e ssiiiee. O?aaeeoeeiiiua ?aeiiu yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – THai-Caiaae e THa. Caeanue iaoiaeyony ooaa-eaa?oe?u
e?oiiaeoeo eiioea?iia – «Neiain», «AYA – Oaeaooieai» e «Aio». Eo
iniiaiua iao/ii-i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u e aieiaiua i?aaei?eyoey. E?oiiuie
oeaio?aie yeaeo?ioaoieee e yeaeo?iieee yaeythony Ithioai, Ith?iaa?a,
Y?eaiaai. O?aieoo?o-ia-Iaeia, Ooooaa?o.

Aaeaoeeiiiay e einie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaeuyaeyao iaeaunoea
o?aaiaaiey e i?aaei?eyoeyi-niaaeieeai e yaeyaony ieiia?ii nia?aiaiiuo
oaoiieiaee ai iiiaeo noa?ao. Aeaaiaea?y e?oiiui i?ia?aiiai eiiia?aoeee
(«Ay?iaon». «A?eaia») iia neoaeeo iioi?ii aa?iiaeneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
iaaeaeo i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie.

6. E?aeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee

E?aeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eae e ae?oaea io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aa?iaiee,
auniei?acaeoa, oioy nae/an cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeeny ?uiie nauoa, iiyoiio
oaiiu ?inoa cia/eoaeueii nieceeenue. No?aia auioaeaeaia aaiceoue oeaie e
iaoaue a aieueoii eiee/anoaa. I?iaeoeoeey noa?eiiuo oaenoeeueiuo ?aeiiia
e oeaio?ia aie?oa ?o?a (E?aoaeueae, «Aa?aaoen Eaiae», Ithinoa?eaiae) e
ia thaa (Aoanao?a e naaa?i-ainoie Aaaa?ee) ieacaeenue iiae aeaaeaieai
oeaiae «ec ?aoi?ou» – oeie/aneeo, e i?aaeaea anaai neioaoe/aneeo
aieieii. Iniiaiua oeaio?u e?aeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – yoi ai?iaea caiaaea
Aa?iaiee, ?o?neee i?iiuoeaiiue ?aeii, tha Aa?iaiee, ainoie Aa?iaiee,
Aa?eei.

Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue aace?oaony ia i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
a? ia?a?aaioea, iiyoiio iia i?aaenoaaeaia oaeeie io?aneyie eae
ieaiaa?aiea, aeiiaeaeea e ae?. Aeiiaeaeea ?acaeoi a aeieeia ?aeia e e
caiaaeo io iaai. A Aa?iaiee i?iecaiaeeony ieiei 4000 ni?oia ieaa;
ieaiaa?aiiua caaiaeeee anoue ai iiiaeo iaeeeo ai?iaeao. Iaeiaei o?aoue
ieaa eae?o ia yenii?o. ?aeineea e Iicaeueneea aeiia?aaeiua aeia ecaanoiu
e ca i?aaeaeaie no?aiu. Aeieeio Iicaey ni ciaiaieouie aeiia?aaeieeaie,
iacuaatho «aeiiie aei?iaie».

7. O?ainii?o Aa?iaiee

Iineieueeo Aa?iaiey ?aniieiaeaia a naiii oeaio?a Aa?iiu, aa aonoay
o?ainii?oiay naoue ia oieueei ianeoaeeaaao iio?aaiinoe aa nianoaaiiie
auniei?acaeoie, ia?aaeiaie yeiiiieee, ii e iaania/eaaao nayce n
ninaaeieie no?aiaie. A nayce aieueoie eioaineaiinoueth oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae n ninaaeyie a iauai a?ociiai?ioa anao aeaeia o?ainii?oa aaeeea
aeiey o?aina?aie/iuo ia?aaicie. A noiia?iii a?ociiai?ioa iniiaioth ?ieue
ea?aao aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o (ieiei 2/3), ca eioi?ui neaaeotho
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue (ieiei 1/6), aioo?aiiee aiaeiue (ieiei 1/7),
o?oaii?iaiaeiue (ieiei 3,5%). A iannaaee?iiai?ioa aua aieueoa aeiey
aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa (aieaa 9/10) e iaiueoa aeiey
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai (ieiei 6%).

?ino aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa a iannaaee?iiai?ioa iauyniyaony ?inoii
/enea eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, eioi?ia
i?aauneei a Aa?iaiee a 2003 a. 44,9 iei. a a a?ociia?aaiceao –
yeiiiie/iinoueth e oaeianoaaie aeinoaaee a?ocia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu a Aa?iaiee n 30-o aiaeia o?aaeeoeeiiii oaeaeytho
aieueoia aieiaiea ?acaeoeth naoe aaoiaei?ia aunoaai eeanna – aaoino?aae,
ia eiathueo ia?ana/aiee ia iaeiii o?iaia, iauay i?ioyaeaiiinoue eioi?uo
i?eaeeceeanue e 12 oun. ei. Ec iauae i?ioyaeaiiinoe aeaeaciuo aei?ia
yeaeo?eoeoee?iaaii ieiei 2/5. A oneiaeyo ninouanoaiaaiey O?A e AAe? a
iaieo ainoaea?noaao i?ei?eoaoiui auei iai?aaeaiea Naaa? – THa,
iaania/eaathuaa nayce ii?neeo ii?oia n aeoaeiiuie ?aeiiaie. Iinea
iauaaeeiaiey Aa?iaiee iaeaieaa i?ei?eoaoiui noaei oe?ioiia iai?aaeaiea.

Caiaaeiiaa?iaineea aaoiaaiu iai?yioth, /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiioth a?aieoeo
naycaiu n aiaeiae/iuie naoyie aaoino?aae a Aeaiee, Ieaea?eaiaeao,
Aaeueaee, O?aioeee e Aano?ee; iia?aie/iue eiio?ieue ia a?aieoeao iaaeaeo
no?aiaie AN aue iinoaiaiii eeeaeaee?iaai.

?aei yaeyaony aeaaiie aiaeiie o?ainii?oiie a?oa?eae Aa?iaiee,
ioee/athueeny ?iaiui e niieieiui oa/aieai. Ii noaeioiaeai aieioue aei
?aeioaeueaeaia (/ooue auoa Aacaey). Ia ?aeia iaoiaeeony ?yae e?oiiuo
ii?oia, a oii /enea Aeoenao?a – e?oiiaeoee a ie?a ?a/iie ii?oiaue
eiiieaen n a?ociiai?ioii 40– 55 iei. o a aiae, E?euei, Ea?en?oy,
Ethaeaeanoaoai, Iaiaaei. Iicaeue noaeioiaeai ia anai i?ioyaeaiee aei
Eioa?eiaee (O?aioeey), naycuaay aa n Naa?neei eiaeono?eaeueiui ?aeiiii a
O?A. Iaeea? noaeioiaeai aei Ooooaa?oa e /ooue auoa ii oa/aieth.

Iauay i?ioyaeaiiinoue aioo?aiieo aiaeiuo iooae ia oa??eoi?ee Aa?iaiee –
ieiei 6,8 oun. ei. Aonoioa eo aieueoa a Ainoi/iie Aa?iaiee, ii
i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue aieueoa a Caiaaeiie. Noiia?iue aiaeiaie iauai
ia?aaicie ninoaaeyao iau/ii 230–260 iei. o, ec eioi?uo aieaa 2/3
i?eoiaeeony ia iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aaicee. Aaaeiaeoea eaiaeu –
N?aaeiaaa?iaineee (ii eioi?iio inouanoaeyaony iaaeaannaeiiaay naycue ?ae
Aa?iaiee, aiaaeathueo a Naaa?iia ii?a), Aei?oioiae – Yin, ?o?neea
eaiaeu, naycuaathuea i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u ?o?a n ?aeiii, Yeueaneee
iaaiaeiie eaiae, aeathuee i?yiie auoiae i?iiuoeaiiiio thai-ainoieo
Ieaeiae Naeniiee e Aaiao?ao, e Iaei–Aeoiae.

Ii?neie oeio Aa?iaiee ii iauaio oiiiaaeo iaoiaeeony a ie?a a o?aoueae
aeanyoea, ii ii oiiiaaeo eiioaeia?iaiciuo noaeia onooiaao oieueei NOA,
Iaiaia e Oaeaaith. Noiia?iue a?ociiai?io aa?iaineeo ii?neeo ii?oia
ninoaaeyao aieaa 200 iei. o a aiae. E?oiiaeoee ii?neie ii?o Aa?iaiee –
Aaiao?a, n aiaeiaui a?ociiai?ioii a 65–80 iei. o a aiae e aieaa. Aeaaiue
iaooyiie ii?o – Aeeueaaeueinoaoai. I?i/ea e?oiiaeoea ii?neea ii?ou –
A?aiai n aaaiii?oii A?aiaioaoai, Yiaeai e ?inoie.

Aaeaoeeiiiue o?ainii?o ai aiaoieo niiauaieyo ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue, /ai
ai aioo?aiieo. Aeiey aaeaoeeiiiiai o?ainii?oa a iaania/aiee
aiaoiaoi?aiauo ia?aaicie Aa?iaiee ninoaaeyao ii aano eeoue 0,1%, ii ii
noieiinoe – ieiei 10%. Ana e?oiiaeoea y?ia?i/iua oeaio?u ?aniieaaatho
iiaeecinoe ay?iii?oaie. Ec 16 eiathueony a Aa?iaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ay?iii?oia aaaeiaeoea iaoiaeyony ai O?aieoo?oa-ia-Iaeia, a
Aethnnaeueaei?oa, Ithioaia e Aaiao?aa.

E?oiiaeoee ai anae eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iia e iniiaiie a Aa?iaiee
ay?iii?o, iaoiaeeony ai O?aieoo?oa-ia-Iaeia. E?oiiaeoeie iinea
O?aieoo?oneiai yaeythony ay?iii?ou Aethnnaeueaei?oa e Ithioaia. Aaaeouay
aaeaoeeiiiay eiiiaiey Aa?iaiee – «Ethooaaica». E Aa?eei, e O?aieoo?o –
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua ai?iaea n i?aiaeaaeaieai iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ooieoeee, e ?acaeoea eo ay?iii?oia naycaii i?aaeaea anaai n ?inoii
«o?aoe/iie noa?u», aic?anoaieai ?iee a iauae ea?a?oee ai?iaeia Aa?iaiee
e anae Aa?iiu.

A iauaaeeiaiiie Aa?iaiee iauay aeeeia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iooae aeinoeaea
44 oun. ei. Yoi ea?aao iniaoth ?ieue, eae aeey aioo?aiiaai oo?ecia, oae
e aeey aiaoiaai.

Aaaeiui iiaiaaaaeaieai aeey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa O?A noaei
oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea nei?inoiuo iannaaee?neeo iiacaeia oeia
«Eioa?-Neoe-Yeni?ann», ia iiiaeo iai?aaeaieyo iooiaeyuea a /anu
«ieeiauo» iaa?ocie a n?aaeiai n /aniaui eioa?aaeii. Aeaaiaea?y
eiioi?oaaaeueiinoe e oi?ioei oaoie/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai oaeea
yeni?annu, aac inoaiiaie acaeyuea iaaeaeo oeaio?aie e?oiiuo ai?iaeia,
ninoaaeytho na?ueacioth eiieo?aioeeth aaeaoeeiiiiio o?ainii?oo ia
?annoiyieyo aei 800 ei. I?aeoe/anee ana aei?iae i?eniiniaeaiu aeey
aeaeaeaiey aunieinei?inoiuo iiacaeia (aei 280 ei//).

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019