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Приземные метеорологические наблюдения 8 августа

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5

Казанский государственный университет

Факультет географии и экологии

ПРИЗЕМНЫЕ МЕТЕОРОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ

(8 августа)

Выполнила

студентка 271 группы

Клевлеева Тамила

Казань 2008

Оглавление

Введение

Суточный ход температуры поверхности почвы

Суточный ход температуры воздуха

Суточный ход упругости водяного пара

Суточный ход относительной влажности

Суточный ход атмосферного давления

Суточный ход направления и скорости ветра

Заключение

Список литературы

Приложение

Введение

Цель работы – изучить суточный ход метеовеличин по данным
метеорологической станции 19.08.2007

К метеорологическим величинам относятся температура и влажность воздуха,
атмосферное давление, скорость и направление ветра и др. К ним
присоединяются величины, непосредственно не отражающие свойств атмосферы
или атмосферных процессов, но тесно связанные с ними. Таковы температура
почвы или поверхностного слоя воды, испарение, высота и состояние
снежного покрова и т.п.

На метеорологических станциях основного типа регистрируются следующие
метеорологические величины, которые будут рассмотрены в данной работе:

§ Температура на поверхности почвы и на нескольких глубинах в почве.

§ Температура воздуха на высоте 2 метра над земной поверхностью.

§ Атмосферное давление.

§ Влажность воздуха – абсолютная (давление водяного пара) и
относительная влажность.

§ Ветер – горизонтальное движение воздуха на высоте 10-12 метров над
земной поверхностью. Измеряется его скорость и определяется направление,
откуда он дует.

Для измерения этих метеорологических величин используют
метеорологические приборы, которые устанавливаются на площадке станции
под открытым небом. Только приборы для измерения атмосферного давления
(барометры) устанавливаются в закрытом помещении станции, так как
разница между давлением воздуха под открытым небом и внутри помещения
ничтожна мала (практически отсутствует).

Приборы для определения температуры и влажности воздуха защищают от
действия солнечной радиации, от осадков и порывов ветра, и для этого их
помещают в будках особой конструкции. Отсчеты по приборам делаются
наблюдателем в установленные сроки наблюдений. На станциях
устанавливаются также самопишущие приборы, дающие непрерывную
автоматическую регистрацию важнейших метеорологических величин (особенно
температуры и влажности воздуха, атмосферного давления и ветра).
Самопищущие приборы нередко конструируют так, что их приемные части,
помещенные на площадке или на крыше здания, имеют электрическую передачу
к пишущим частям, установленным внутри здания.

Наблюдения за ветром, температурой и влажностью производятся на разных
уровнях над почвой, начиная от нескольких сантиметров.

Для приземных метеорологических наблюдений применяются переносные
походные приборы, в особенности психрометр Ассмана и ручной анемометр, а
также электрические термометры и переносные актинометрические приборы.
Практикуют микроклиматические съемки с одновременными наблюдениями в
ряде точек местности.

Суточный ход температуры поверхности почвы

В течение суток поверхность почвы непрерывно, разными способами теряет
либо поглощает тепло. Через земную поверхность тепло передается вверх (в
атмосферу) и вниз (в почву). На поверхность почвы поступает суммарная
радиация и встречное излучение атмосферы, а так же тепло поступает путем
турбулентной теплопроводности. Теми же способами земная поверхность
излучает тепло в атмосферу. Приходящее тепло распределяется в тонком
верхнем слое, который сильно нагревается. На поверхности почвы
температура при отдаче тепла падает быстро: тепло, накопленное в тонком
верхнем слое, быстро из него уходит без восполнения снизу.

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Рис.№1 График суточного хода температуры поверхности почвы

Алгебраическая сумма всех приходов и расходов тепла на земной
поверхности должна быть равно нулю, однако это не значит, что
температура поверхности почвы не меняется. Если передача тепла
направлена вниз, то тепло из атмосферы остается в деятельном слое почвы,
что приводит к увеличению его температуры. При передаче в атмосферу,
тепло уходит из деятельного слоя, понижая тем самым его температуру.

Температура поверхности в течение имеет свой максимум, который
проявляется в 13-14ч, и минимум, наблюдающийся через полчаса после
восхода солнца. В нашем случае (рис.№1) происходит именно так:
наименьшая температура поверхности 19°С приходится на 6ч утра – время,
примерно после восхода летний период. В это время отдача тепла из
верхнего слоя почвы эффективным излучением уравновешивается возросшим
притоком суммарной радиации, вследствие чего радиационный баланс
поверхности почвы становится равным нулю; а нерадиационный баланс
незначителен. Потом температура постепенно растет до своего наибольшего
значения в местный полдень. Радиационный баланс остается положительным
до вечера, однако можно заметить, что температура поверхности почвы
падает. Это связано с увеличившимися теплопроводностью и испарением
воды.

Максимальные температуры на поверхности почвы обычно выше, чем в
воздухе, поскольку днем солнечная радиация нагревает почву, а уже от неё
нагревается воздух. Это видно на исследуемом случае: максимум
температуры поверхности почвы (49°С) выше, чем максимум температуры
воздуха (32,8°С) в этот же день. Ночные минимумы, наоборот, на
поверхности почвы ниже, чем в воздухе, так как прежде почва
выхолаживается эффективным излучением, а от нее охлаждается воздух. 19
августа минимум температуры поверхности почвы составлял 19°С, а минимум
температуры воздуха – 21,2°С.

Исследования проводились в августе, поэтому разница между суточным
максимумом и суточным минимумом – суточная амплитуда температуры – в
исследуемом случае достаточно высока (30оС). Солнечная радиация у земной
поверхности велика днем, а ночью наблюдается эффективное излучение.
Следовательно, судя по большой амплитуде, день был безоблачным.

Суточный ход температуры воздуха

Температура поверхности почвы влияет на температуру воздуха. Обмен
теплом происходит при непосредственном соприкосновении тонкой пленки
воздуха с земной поверхностью вследствие молекулярной теплопроводности.
Далее обмен происходит внутри атмосферы за счет турбулентной
теплопроводности, которая является более эффективным механизмом
теплообмена, так как перемешивание воздуха в процессе турбулентности
способствует очень быстрой передаче тепла из одних атмосферных слоев в
другие.

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c00000000000000180000000c000000ffffff00180000000c000000ffffff00190000000
c00000000000000250000000c00000004000080250000000c0000000d000080220000000
c000000ffffffff460000003400000028000000454d462b2a40000024000000180000000
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000000000000000040000002d01020007000000fc020000ffffff000000040000002d010
300040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010000050000000
102ffffff0005000000090200000000040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002
701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010000050000000102ffffff000
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0000000000000000000040000002d0104001c000000fb02f3ff000000000000bc0200000
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600040000002d010500040000002d010600040000002d010500040000002d01060004000
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c0100000700000016042601e5010000000007000000fc020000ffffff000000040000002
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3021a004000040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010600040000002701f
fff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002d010100040000002d010700050000000
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0002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010600040000002701ffff030000001e000
40000002d010400040000002d010100040000002d010700050000000102ffffff0005000
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100000000000000040000002d01080004000000f001010008000000fa020000010000000
0008000040000002d01010004000000f00107000400000004010d0004000000020102000
80000002503020040008e00720098000a00000025030300720098008c009d00a600a1001
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3008e00400091003d008e0040008b00040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002
d010600040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002d01070004000
0002d0101000500000001020000000005000000090200008000040000002c01000007000
0001604f700da0117003d00050000001402980072000400000004010d000400000002010
2000e00000024030500720095007500980072009b007000980072009500040000002d010
200040000002d010300040000002d010600040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002
d010400040000002d010700040000002d010100050000000102000000000500000009020
0008000040000002c010000070000001604f700da0117003d00050000001402a100a6000
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300a100a6009e00040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010600040000002
701ffff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002d010700040000002d01010005000
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7003d00050000001402a600d8000400000004010d0004000000020102000e00000024030
500d800a300db00a600d800a900d500a600d800a300040000002d010200040000002d010
300040000002d010600040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002
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c010000070000001604f700da0117003d000500000014028f000b010400000004010d000
4000000020102000e000000240305000b018c000e018f000b01920008018f000b018c000
40000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010600040000002701ffff030000001
e00040000002d010400040000002d010700040000002d010100050000000102000000000
5000000090200008000040000002c010000070000001604f700da0117003d00050000001
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6003e0189003b0186003e018300040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010
600040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002d010700040000002
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0008000040000002c0100000700000016042601e50100000000040000002d01020004000
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0002d010500040000002d010700040000002d010100050000000102ffffff00050000000
90200000000040000002c0100000700000016042601e50100000000040000002d0102000
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70000001b042201e0010500050007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d0101000
40000002d01020004000000f0010900040000002d010600040000002701ffff030000001
e0005000000010200000000050000000902ffffff00040000002c0100000700000016042
601e50100000000040000002701ffff030000001e0005000000010200000000050000000
902ffffff00040000002701ffff030000001e0005000000010200000000050000000902f
fffff00050000000902ffffff0005000000010200000000040000002d010100040000002
d010600040000002701ffff030000000000

Рис №2 График суточного хода температуры воздуха.

Как видно на рис№2 в течение суток воздух нагревается и охлаждается от
земной поверхности, приблизительно повторяя изменения температуры
воздуха (см. рис.1) с меньшей амплитудой. Можно даже заметить, что
амплитуда суточного хода температуры воздуха меньше амплитуды изменения
температуры почвы примерно на 1/3. Температура воздуха начинает
повышаться в то же время, что и температура поверхности почвы: после
восхода солнца, а максимум ее уже наблюдается в более поздние часы, а
нашем случае в 15ч, а потом начинает понижаться.

Как уже отмечалось ранее, максимум температуры поверхности почвы выше,
чем максимум температуры воздуха (32,8°С). Это объясняется тем, что
солнечная радиация прежде всего нагревает почву, от которой уже потом
нагревается воздух. А ночные минимумы на поверхности почвы ниже, чем в
воздухе, так как почва излучает тепло в атмосферу.

Суточный ход упругости водяного пара

Водяной пар непрерывно поступает в атмосферу путем испарения с водных
поверхностей и влажной почвы, а также в результате транспирации
растениями. При этом в разных местах и в разное время он поступает в
атмосферу в различных количествах. От земной поверхности он
распространяется вверх, а воздушными течениями переносится из одних мест
Земли в другие.

Упругостью водяного пара называют давление водяного пара. Водяной пар,
как всякий газ, создает определенное давление. Давление водяного пара
пропорционально его плотности (массе в единице объема) и его абсолютной
температуре.

picscalex900100090000035d1b00000a001610000000001610000026060f002220574d4
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0454d460000010080220000da01000006000000000000000000000000000000000400000
00300002c010000e1000000000000000000000000000000e0930400e86e0300460000002
c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db01000000600000006
0000000460000005c00000050000000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e4009000
c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f2
14007000c00000000000000044000000c00000000000000180000000c000000000000001
90000000c000000ffffff00140000000c0000000d000000120000000c000000020000002
100000008000000220000000c000000ffffffff2100000008000000220000000c000000f
fffffff0a0000001000000000000000000000002100000008000000190000000c000000f
fffff00180000000c00000000000000140000000c0000000d000000300000000c0000000
f000080260000001c0000000100000000000000000000000000000000000000250000000
c0000000100000027000000180000000200000000000000ffffff0000000000250000000
c00000002000000250000000c00000007000080250000000c00000000000080220000000
c000000ffffffff0a0000001000000000000000000000002100000008000000250000000
c00000002000000250000000c00000001000000190000000c000000ffffff00180000000
c00000000000000250000000c00000007000080250000000c00000000000080220000000
c000000ffffffff0a0000001000000000000000000000002100000008000000250000000
c00000002000000250000000c00000001000000190000000c000000ffffff00180000000
c00000000000000250000000c00000007000080250000000c00000000000080220000000
c000000ffffffff2100000008000000250000000c00000002000000250000000c0000000
1000000190000000c000000ffffff00180000000c000000000000001e000000180000000
000000000000000eb01000026010000520000007001000003000000f3ffffff000000000
00000000000000090010000000000cc0000000041007200690061006c002000430079007
200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064760008000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000d0000000000000068dd1300da9a00309
895aa00ecdd130014000000289f0030ecdd13009895aa00140000004edb0030ecdd13009
895aa000a000000dcde1300e4df13006adc00306cdf130001000000d98b367e00003c7e0
f01000044dc1300ccb3367ea7b3367e470000006cdf13000000000080000000010000000
000000014dc130068dc1300c4de13005704397e0000000000000000000000000b6300308
9a401300000000000000000b2010000000000000d020a0a00000000000000000d020a0ad
801011b9895aa00f3ffffff000000006476000800000000250000000c000000030000005
20000007001000004000000f3ffffff000000000000000000000000bc020000000000cc0
000000041007200690061006c00200043007900720000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000006476000800000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000d0000000000000068dd1300da9a00309895aa00ecdd130014000000289f0030e
cdd13009895aa00140000004edb0030ecdd13009895aa000a000000dcde1300e4df13006
adc00306cdf130001000000d98b367e00003c7e0f01000044dc1300ccb3367ea7b3367e4
70000006cdf13000000000080000000010000000000000014dc130068dc1300c4de13005
704397e0000000000000000000000000b63003089a401300000000000000000b20100000
00000000d020a0a00000000000000000d020a0ad801011b9895aa00f3ffffff000000006
476000800000000250000000c00000004000000250000000c0000000d000080250000000
c00000004000000250000000c0000000d000080250000000c00000004000000250000000
c0000000d000080250000000c00000004000000250000000c0000000d000080250000000
c00000004000000250000000c00000007000080250000000c00000000000080250000000
c0000000d000080220000000c000000ffffffff2100000008000000250000000c0000000
4000000250000000c00000002000000250000000c00000001000000190000000c000000f
fffff00180000000c000000000000001e000000180000000000000000000000eb0100002
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c00000005000000280000000c0000000100000027000000180000000100000000000000f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Рис. №3 График суточного хода упругости водяного пара.

Наблюдения проводились в глубине материка в теплое время года, поэтому
график показывает двойной суточный ход (рис№3). Первый минимум в таких
случаях наступает после восхода, как и минимум температуры.

Почва начинает нагреваться после восхода Солнца, повышается ее
температура, и, как следствие, возрастает испарение, а значит, растет
давление пара. Это тенденция происходит до 9ч, пока испарение
преобладает над переносом пара снизу в более высокие слои. К этому
времени в приземном слое уже устанавливается неустойчивая стратификация,
и конвекция получает достаточное развитие. В процессе конвекции
возрастает интенсивность турбулентного перемешивания, устанавливается
перенос водяного пара в направлении его градиента, снизу вверх. Отток
водяного пара снизу не успевает компенсироваться испарением, что
приводит к уменьшению содержания пара (и, следовательно, давления) у
земной поверхности к 12-15 часам. А уже потом, давление начинает расти,
так как конвекция ослабевает, а испарение с нагретой почвы еще велико, и
растет содержание пара. После 18ч испарение уменьшается, поэтому
давление падает.

Суточный ход относительной влажности

Содержание водяного пара в воздухе называют влажностью воздуха. Мерой
влажности является парциальное давление водяного пара и относительная
влажность. Очень часто воздух содержит водяного пара меньше, чем нужно
для насыщения при данной температуре. Степень близости воздуха к
состоянию насыщения характеризуют относительной влажностью.
Относительная влажность – отношение фактического давления пара к
давлению насыщенного пара при данной температуре, выраженное в
процентах:
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Суточный ход относительной влажности f зависит от суточного хода
фактического давления пара e и от суточного хода давления насыщенного
пара E. Но E находится в прямой зависимости от суточного хода
температуры. Давление пара e в общем меняется в суточном ходе не очень
значительно; гораздо резче меняется вместе с температурой давление
насыщенного пара. Поэтому суточный ход относительной влажности с
достаточным приближением обратен суточному ходу температуры. При падении
температуры относительная влажность растет, при повышении температуры –
падает.

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643010000000000010048e4000000000200000000200000d0030000d0230000010000006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c00000002000000250000000c00000001000000190000000c000000ffffff00180000000
c00000000000000250000000c00000007000080250000000c00000000000080220000000
c000000ffffffff0a0000001000000000000000000000002100000008000000250000000
c00000002000000250000000c00000001000000190000000c000000ffffff00180000000
c00000000000000250000000c00000007000080250000000c00000000000080220000000
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00000000000000090010000000000cc0000000041007200690061006c002000430079007
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c00000005000000250000000c00000001000000190000000c00000000000000180000000
c000000000080001e000000180000003e00000017000000e0010000f70000001b0000001
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Рис. №4 График суточного хода относительной влажности.

Максимум относительной влажности (70%) в данном случае совпадает с
суточным минимумом температуры – перед восходом Солнца. Минимум (28%)
наблюдается в 15ч. Такое понижение с 6ч до 15ч связано с тем, что в
результате турбулентного переноса пара вверх е внизу уменьшается, а
вследствие роста температуры воздуха Е увеличивается. Поэтому
прослеживается большая амплитуда суточных колебаний относительной
влажности – 31%. Такая тенденция в эти часы особенно характерна для
дневных колебаний относительной влажности внутри материков.

Суточный ход атмосферного давления

Всякий газ производит давление на ограничивающие его стенки, т.е.
действует на эти стенки с какой-то силой давления, направленный
перпендикулярно к стенке. Числовое значение этой силы давления,
отнесенной к единице площади, и называют давлением. Давление газа
обусловлено движениями его молекул, той «бомбардировкой», которой они
подвергают стенки. При возрастании температуры и сохранении объема газа
скорости молекулярных движений увеличиваются и давление растет. Если
мысленно выделить какой-то объем внутри атмосферы, то воздух в этом
объеме испытывает давление извне на воображаемые стенки, ограничивающие
данный объем, со стороны окружающего воздуха. Со своей стороны воздух
изнутри объема оказывает такое же давление на окружающий воздух.
Выделенный объем может быть сколь угодно малым и в пределе сводится к
точке. Таким образом, в каждой точке атмосферы имеется определенное
атмосферное давление.

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50000000c000000020000005400000094000000130000005e00000021000000b40000000
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fffffff2100000008000000250000000c00000004000000250000000c000000050000002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c000000ffffff001e000000180000000000000000000000eb01000026010000220000000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9001a0008000000fa0200000000000000000000040000002d0107000500000014021a005
900050000000102ffffff000500000013021a00d601050000001302f400d601050000001
302f40059000500000013021a005900050000001302f4005900040000002d01040005000
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700000016042101e00105000500040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010
600040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002d010100040000002
d010700050000000102ffffff00050000000902ffffff00040000002c010000070000001
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c000500000014026f00590007000000fc020000000080000000040000002d01070005000
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0002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010400040000002d010700040000002d0108000
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a01170056000500000014023e0086000400000004010d0004000000020102000e0000002
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d010300040000002d010600040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d01040004000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Рис.№5 График суточного хода атмосферного давления.

Периодические изменения давления определяются его суточным ходом. Кривая
суточного колебания давления, как правило, имеет 2 минимума и 2
максимума. Хотя в рассметриваемом случае (рис№5) выражен только один
максимум – в районе 3ч, это вызвано охлаждением воздуха. Снижение
давления к 12-15ч объясняется нагреванием воздуха, так как совпадает с
суточным максимумом его температуры (рис№2). Далее давление снова
начинает падать до 18ч, после чего снова возрастает. Влияние
непериодических изменений на упругие суточные колебания атмосферы не
позволяют в течение суток достичь атмосферному давлению второго
максимума.

Причинами суточного хода давления являются: суточный ход температуры
воздуха; собственные упругие колебания атмосферы, возбуждаемые суточными
колебаниями температуры; приливные волны в атмосфере, усиливаемые
резонансом с ее собственными колебаниями.

Суточный ход направления и скорости ветра

Ветром называют движение воздуха относительно земной поверхности. Говоря
о направлении ветра, имеют в виду направление, откуда он дует. Указать
это направление можно, назвав либо точку горизонта, откуда дует ветер,
либо угол, образуемый направлением ветра с меридианом места, т.е. его
азимут. Направление ветра определяется с помощью флюгера, вращающегося
около вертикальной оси. Под действием ветра флюгер принимаем положение
по направлению ветра.
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5

Рис.№6 Направление и скорость ветра

Масштаб для скорости: 1мм=1м/с

Изменение в течение суток интенсивности турбулентного перемешивания
приводит к суточному ходу ветра. Так, в ночное время суток обычно
турбулентное перемешивание ослаблено, наблюдается инверсия. С восходом
Солнца увеличивается термическая неустойчивость, усиливается
турбулентность, и, как следствие, увеличивается взаимодействие между
нижними медленными и более высокими быстрыми слоями. Воздух
перемешивается, поэтому сверху вниз приходит воздух, который обладает
большей скоростью и большим отклонением от направления барического
градиента. Как видно из рис№6 к 9ч ветер меняет направление и набирает
скорость 1м/с. К 15ч скорость ветра достигает своего суточного
максимума. При этом в 9 и 12с направление ветра склонялось к ЮВ и ВЮВ. А
набрав максимальную суточную скорость ветер меняет направление на ЮЮЗ.
Вслед за уменьшением интенсивности турбулентности взаимодействие между
нижними и более высокими слоями снижается, практически прекращаясь
ночью. И уже в 18-21ч ветер дует южную сторону. А после полуночи
скорость сводится к нулю.

Преобладает направление к северу, однако при этом направлении скорость
ветра равна нулю. Кроме северного повторяется направление Ю. Амплитуда
суточного изменения скорости ветра составляет 3м/с.

Заключение

Проанализировав все данные, можно судить о погоде 19.08.2007.
Максимальная температура воздуха составляла 32,8оС в 15ч, а наименьшая –
21,2оС в предрассветное время. Судя по высокой температуре воздуха и
большой амплитуде температуры поверхности почвы (30оС) этот день был
жарким и ясным.

Суточный максимум почвы наблюдался в полдень (49оС), когда почва
поглощала наибольшее количество тепла; а суточный минимум, как и у
температуры воздуха в 6ч, перед рассветом, когда радиационный баланс
становится равным нулю.

За счет изменения в течение суток температуры и интенсивности
турбулентного перемешивания, мы наблюдаем двойной суточный ход
абсолютной влажности – упругости водяного пара. Максимумы суточного
изменения приходятся на 6ч, когда только начинает прогреваться земная
поверхность и в послеполуденные часы. А максимумы в 9ч и 3ч.

Относительная влажность изменяется обратно пропорционально изменению
температуры, поэтому суточный максимум относительной влажности совпадает
с минимумом температуры. Также можно проследить, что день был довольно
сухим, так как средняя относительная влажность в этот день равна 48%.

Наименьшее давление наблюдается в 3ч, а наименьшее в 18ч. Судя по неявно
выраженному правильному суточному ходу с 2 парами экстремумов, можно
предположить, что 19 августа на упругие колебания атмосферы оказывали
некое влияние непериодические изменения давления.

Максимальная скорость ветра в этот день достигает 3 м/с в 15ч. В
утренние и ночные часы прослеживалось безветрие. Доминирующее
направление можно считать Ю, так как в направлении С скорость ветра была
нулевой.

Таким образом, можно сказать, что 19 августа – это был ясный, сухой и
жаркий, маловетреный день

Список использованной литературы

1. Селиверстов Ю.П., Бобков А.А. Землеведение: Учебное пособие для
студентов вузов. – Москва: Издательский центр «Академия»,2004

2. Хабутдинов Ю.Г., Шанталинский К.М. Метеорология и климатология:
Учебное пособие. – Казань, Издательство Казанского университета, 2000.

3. Хромов С.П., Петросянц М.А. Метеорология и климатология: Учебник. –
Москва: Издательство Московского университета, 2001.

4. meteo-geofak.narod.ru/programs/geologi.htm

5. www.geogr.msu.ru/GeoSite/docs/Surkova.pdf

Приложение

Табл.1

Время

Температура поверхности почвыТемпе

ратура воздухаУпругость

водяного параОтноси

тельная влажность, %Атмосферное давлениеНаправ-

ление ветраСкорость ветра,
м/с21272815,4411008,1180102625,316,8521008,50032222,918,4661008,60061921
,517,6701008,10094327,819,6521008,11101124930,414,8341007,81402154732,81
4281007,6200318291816,7381007,21802

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