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Природный потенциал России

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Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

Ii aeenoeeieeia «Yeiiiieea i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey»

ii oaia: «I?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae ?innee (nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e
ia?niaeoeaiay ioeaiea)»

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

I?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae ?innee

Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea i?e?iaeiiai ?ano?na ?innee

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

Aaaaeaiea

?inney eiaao iiuiue e ?aciiia?aciue i?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae,
niiniaiue iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiua iauaiu nianoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey e
yenii?oa. No?aia iaoiaeeony ia ia?aii ianoa a ie?a ii caianai
aieueoeinoaa i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, a oii /enea ii caianai i?e?iaeiie –
aaca, oaey, aeaeaciuo ?oae, ?yaea oeaaoiuo e ?aaeeeo iaoaeeia, a oaeaea
ii caianai caiaeueiuo, aiaeiuo e eaniuo ?ano?nia.

Iaee/ea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia yaeyaony aeaaiui oneiaeai ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee. I?e?iaeii-?ano?niue
iioaioeeae ii?aaeaeyaony niaieoiiinoueth anao aeaeia i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoiu e eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo a
iaic?eiii aoaeouai aiciiaeii ii oaoie/aneei e?eoa?eyi. Ninoaa, aaee/eia
iioaioeeaea, cia/eiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?ano?nia ni a?aiaiai
iaiythony, iiyoiio eo ioeaiea anaaaea enoi?e/anee ioiineoaeueia. I?e
inaiaiee e?oiiuo enoi/ieeia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aicieeatho e?oiiua
i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u, oi?ie?othony oicyenoaaiiua eiiieaenu e
yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu. I?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae ?aeiia ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia aai ?uii/ioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth e ianoi a oa??eoi?eaeueiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. ?aciauaiea, oneiaey aeiau/e e oa?aeoa?
eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aeeytho ia niaea?aeaiea e oaiiu
?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

I?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae ?innee

Ana i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu eiatho aeaa iniiaiuo i?eciaea – i?ienoiaeaeaiea
(i?e?iaeiue) e eniieueciaaiea (yeiiiie/aneee). A niioaaonoaee n ieie
neiaeeeanue eo aeaieiay eeanneoeeaoeey.

Ii i?e?iaeiie eeanneoeeaoeee auaeaeytho: ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu (iieaciua
eneiiaaiua); caiaeueiua, aiaeiua, aeieiae/aneea, eeeiaoe/aneea
(nieia/iia oaiei e naao, inaaeee); ?ano?nu yia?aee i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia
(nieia/iiai eceo/aiey, aioo?aiiaai oaiea caiee, aao?a e o.ae.).

I?eciae i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeiiieiyaony i?eciaeii en/a?iaaiinoe e
aiciaiiaeiinoe ?ano?nia, /oi aaaeii n iiceoeee io?aiu i?e?iaeu,
aiciiaeiinoae ainnoaiiaeaiey e oaaee/aiey caiana, ii?aaeaeaiey no?aoaaee
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. Ii yoei i?eciaeai auaeaeythony:

– en/a?iaaiua,

a oii /enea aiciaiiaeiua (?anoeoaeueiinoue, caian ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a
ii/aa, caian aiaeu a ?aeao e ica?ao, aiaeiaie e iiaecaiiue noie,
?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?) e iaaiciaiiaeiua (ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu,
iiaecaiiua aiaeu, ii/aaiiue neie);

– iaen/a?iaaiua

aiciaiiaeiua (yia?aey nieioea, aao?a, oaeo/eo aiae, ieaaia, i?eeeaia e
ioeeaia, caianu ieaaie/aneie aiaeu, einie/aneea ?ano?nu e o.ae.).

A iniiaa yeiiiie/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa caeiaeaii eo
i?aeiouanoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea a io?aneyo oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena
no?aiu.

Ii yoei i?eciaeai auaeaeythony ?ano?nu:

· iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea i?iiuoeaiiinoe (oiieeai,
iaoaeeu, aiaeu, ae?aaaneia, ?uaa) e naeueneiai oicyenoaa (ii/aa, aiaeu
aeey i?ioaiey, ei?iiaua ?anoaiey, i?iiuneiaua aeeaioiua);

· iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u, e oii /enea i?yiiai iio?aaeaiey (ieoueaaay
aiaea, aeeei?anoouea ?anoaiey e i?iiuneiaua aeeaioiua) e einaaiiiai
(iai?eia?, eniieueciaaiea aeey ioaeuoa caeaiuo ianaaeaeaiee e aiaeiaiia)

A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie ?acaaaeaiiinoe caianu a ?innee
iiae?acaeaeythony ia /aou?a eaoaai?ee: A, A, N(1), N(2). A – yoi caianu,
eco/aiiua e ?acaaaeaiiua n iaeaieueoae aeaoaeueiinoueth; A e N(1) –
caianu, ?acaaaeaiiua n ioiineoaeueii iaiueoae aeaoaeueiinoueth; N(2) –
caianu, ioeaiaiiua i?aaeaa?eoaeueii. E?iia caiania yoeo eaoaai?ee,
eioi?ua iiaen/eouaathony iau/ii ii ioaeaeueiui ianoi?iaeaeaieyi,
auaeaeythony i?iaiiciua caianu (oi anoue i?aaeiieaaaaiua, iaeco/aiiua)
aeey ioeaiee iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae iiauo ?oaeiuo cii eee
?aeiiia, aannaeiia e ia?niaeoeaiuo oa??eoi?ee. Noiia?iua caianu iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo ?aeiia, aannaeia, ?anioaeeee eee no?aiu a oeaeii (oi anoue
ana caianu, eco/aiiua eee ?acaaaeaiiua, a oaeaea i?iaiiciua)
iauaaeeiythony a iauaaaieiae/aneea caianu.

Ii naiaio oicyenoaaiiiio cia/aieth caianu iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo aeaeyony
ia aeaa a?oiiu:

a) aaeainiaua (eiiaeeoeeiiiua) – yoi oa caianu, eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo
yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?acii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ytho
i?iiuoeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi eae ii ea/anoao nu?uey, oae e ii
ai?iioaoie/aneei oneiaeyi yenieoaoaoeee;

a) caaaeainiaua (iaeiiaeeoeeiiiua) – yoi oa caianu, eniieueciaaiea
eioi?uo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yeiiiie/anee iaoeaeaniia?acii aneaaenoaea
iaeie iiuiinoe caeaaeae. ieceiai niaea?aeaiey oeaiiiai eiiiiiaioa,
iniaie neiaeiinoe oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eiaiaiey
i/aiue neiaeiuo i?ioeannia ia?a?aaioee, ii eioi?ua a aeaeueiaeoai iiaoo
auoue iauaeoii i?iiuoeaiiiai inaiaiey.

Iniai aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu. Ii oa?aeoa?o
eniieueciaaiey ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu aeaeyony ia o?e a?oiiu:
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneea (iaooue, i?e?iaeiue aac, oaieue, oi?o, ai?th/ea
neaioeu); iaoaeei?oaeiua – ?oaeu /a?iuo, oeaaoiuo, ?aaeeeo e
aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia; iaiaoaeee/aneea (ia?oaeiua), a eo /enea aiaoeou,
oinoi?eou, ?acee/iua niee, nethaea, a?aoeo, anaano, no?ieoaeueiia
nu?uea).

Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea i?e?iaeiiai ?ano?na ?innee

Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aeeth/aao o/ao iiiaeanoaa
oaeoi?ia (yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, oaoie/aneeo,
yeieiai-aaia?aoe/aneeo), eioi?ua iaoneiaeeaatho i?ino?ainoaaiiua
?acee/ey e cia/eiinoue i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aeey aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea. I?e yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiea eo eniieuecothony neaaeothuea
ia?aiao?u: ianooaa ianoi?iaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeyaiue aai noiia?iuie
caianaie; ea/anoai iieaciiai eneiiaaiiai, aai ninoaa e naienoaa, oneiaey
yenieoaoaoeee; iiuiinoue ieanoia e oneiaey caeaaaiey; oicyenoaaiiia
cia/aiea; aiaeiaie iauai aeiau/e.

N?aaee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aieueoia cia/aiea aeey iaania/aiey ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa, aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa eiatho
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu. Aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth ?aciauaiey
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia yaeyaony ia?aaiiia?iinoue eo ?aciauaiey
ii oa??eoi?ee no?aiu. Iniiaiay /anoue aaieiae/aneeo caiania oiieeaa
?aniieiaeaia a ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao no?aiu, aaea nin?aaeioi/aii 85% caiania
i?e?iaeiiai aaca, 65% caiania iaooe e 93% anao caiania oaey no?aiu.

?aciauaiea iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. ?inney ?aniieaaaao
cia/eoaeueiuie caianaie iaooe e aaca. Iniiaiua eo caeaaee ?aniieiaeaiu a
Caiaaeii-Neae?neie, Aieai-O?aeueneie, Oeiaii-Ia/i?neie iaooaaaciiiniuo
i?iaeioeeyo, a oaeaea ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca e Aeaeueiai Ainoiea.

Caiaaeii-Neae?neay iaooaaaciiiniay i?iaeioeey. A i?aaeaeao
Caiaaeii-Neae?neie ieciaiiinoe ioe?uoi 300 iaooyiuo e aaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe
?aniieiaeaiu a Niaaeiaianeii iaooyiii ?aeiia, aaea auaeaeythony
Naiioei?neia, Onoue-Aaeueneia, Iaaeiineia, Ieaeiaaa?oianeia,
Ninieinei-Niaaoneia, No?aooneia, Aeaenaiae?ianeia, Oaaei?ianeia e ae?.
Aoi?ui iaooyiui ?aeiiii Caiaaeiie Neae?e yaeyaony
Oaeinei-E?aniieaieineee, eioi?ue ?aniieiaeai a 500 ei naaa?iaa Othiaie,
aaea iaeaieaa e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey – Oaeineia e E?aniieaieineia.

Caianu caiaaeii-neae?neie iaooe oa?aeoa?ecothony ?yaeii aeaaii?eyoiuo
iieacaoaeae: ioiineoaeueii iaaeoaieei caeaaaieai i?iaeoeoeaiuo ieanoia
(aei 3 oun. i); aunieie eiioeaio?aoeeae caiania; ioiineoaeueii
ianeiaeiuie oneiaeyie ao?aiey neaaaeei, aunieei eo aeaaeoii. Iaooue
ioee/aaony aunieei ea/anoaii. Iia eaaeay, iaeina?ienoay, oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aieueoei auoiaeii eaaeeo o?aeoeee e niaea?aeaieai iiiooiiai aaca,
yaeythuaainy oeaiiui oeie/aneei nu?ueai. Ii iauaiai aeiau/e iaooe
Caiaaeiay Neae?ue caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a no?aia.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiie Neae?e ?aniieiaeaiu e iniiaiua caianu
i?e?iaeiiai aaca no?aiu. Ec ieo aieaa iieiaeiu iaoiaeeony ia Othiaineii
Naaa?a i?aeiouanoaaiii a o?ao aaciiiniuo iaeanoyo. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua
aaciaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey: O?aiaieneia, ssiao?aneia, Caiiey?iia,
Iaaeaaaeuea, Iaaeuineia, Oacianeia ioe?uou a Oaciai-Io?iaeneie
aaciiiniie iaeanoe ia naaa?a Othiaineie iaeanoe a ssiaei-Iaiaoeeii
aaoiiiiiii ie?oaa. Aanueia ia?niaeoeaiu ssiao?aneia e Eaaieianeia
ianoi?iaeaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai aaca.

Aa?acianeay aaciiiniay iaeanoue, ?aniieiaeaiiay aaeece O?aea, aeeth/aao
Ioiaeineia, Ea?eineia, Iio?iineia e ae?oaea ianoi?iaeaeaiey aaca. A
o?aoueae aaciiiniie iaeanoe – Aanthaaineie. eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a Oiineie
iaeanoe, naiuie e?oiiuie ianoi?iaeaeaieyie yaeythony Iueueaeaeeineia,
Eoaeiaoeeia, Onoue-Neeueaeineia.

Aieai-O?aeueneay iaooaaaciiiniay i?iaeioeey caieiaao iaoe?ioth
oa??eoi?eth iaaeaeo Aieaie e O?aeii e aeeth/aao oa??eoi?eth Oaoa?noaia e
Aaoei?oinoaia, Oaeio?oneie ?anioaeeee, a oaeaea Na?aoianeoth,
Aieaia?aaeneoth, Naia?neoth, Ano?aoaineoth, Ia?ineoth iaeanoe e thaeioth
/anoue I?aiao?aneie. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe –
?iiaoeiineia, Aeueiaoueaaneia a Oaoa?noaia, Oeaiianeia. Ooeiaceineia,
Eoeiaaaaneia a Aaoei?oinoaia, Iooaiianeia, Ia?aiiaeneia a Naia?neie
iaeanoe, ss?eineia a Ia?ineie iaeanoe e ae?. Aieueoei aeinoieinoaii yoeo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee yaeyaony n?aaieoaeueii iaaeoaieia caeaaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo
iaooaiiniuo ai?eciioia – io 1,5 aei 2,5 oun. i. Iaooue i?iaeioeee
ioee/aaony iiauoaiiie na?ienoinoth. A oi aea a?aiy iia niaea?aeeo
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai eaaeeo oaeaaiaeia. Ii n?aaiaieth n
caiaaeiineae?neie iaooueth a iae aieueoa ia?aoeia, anoaeueoaiia e niie,
/oi ineiaeiyao aa ia?a?aaioeo e nieaeaao ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.
Naaanoieiinoue aa aeiau/e iaauniea, oae eae iaooue aeiauaaaony a
iniiaiii oiioaiiui niiniaii.

Aaeeee caianu i?e?iaeiiai aaca ia O?aea. A I?aiao?aneie iaeanoe a
i?iiuoeaiioth ?ac?aaioeo aaaaeaii I?aiao?aneia aacieiiaeainaoiia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea n ia?a?aaioeie 45 ie?ae. eoaiiao?ia. Aeaaii?eyoiia
aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ianoi?iaeaeaiey aaeece e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo
oeaio?ia no?aiu ia O?aea e a Iiaieaeuea niinianoaiaaei nicaeaieth ia aai
aaca i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. Inaaeaaaony e?oiiia aacieiiaeainaoiia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea a Ano?aoaineie iaeanoe.

Oeiaii-Ia/i?neay iaooaaaciiiniay i?iaeioeey caieiaao iaoe?ioth
oa??eoi?eth ?anioaeeee Eiie e Iaiaoeeiai aaoiiiiiiai ie?oaa
A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe. Aieueoay /anoue ?acaaaeaiiuo e i?iaiiciuo
caiania yoie i?iaeioeee ?aciauaia a ioiineoaeueii iaaeoaieeo
(800–3300 i) e oi?ioi eco/aiiuo aaieiae/aneeo eiiieaenao. Caeanue
ioe?uoi aieaa 70 iaooyiuo, aaciauo e aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.
Iaooue naaa?iuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee eaaeay, ca eneeth/aieai iaooe Oneineiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiey, iaeina?ienoay, ia?aoeienoay n aunieei niaea?aeaieai
aaiceiiauo o?aeoeee.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe: Oneineia, Aicaeneia, Oooeineia,
Iaoieineia, Oa?ueyoeineia, Oaieeineia e ae?. Caianu aaca iaoiaeyony a
iniiaiii ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee Eiie. E?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey aaca –
Aoeoueneia, Aaneeeiaaeeia, Aie-Aiaeneia, Aeaeaaieneia.

Iaooaaaciiiniua iaeanoe Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca caieiatho oa??eoi?eth
E?aniiaea?neiai e Noaa?iiieueneiai e?aaa. *a/aineie e Eiaooneie
?anioaeee, Aeaaanoaia Ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca auaeaeythony aeaa
iaooaaaciiiniua iaeanoe: Aeaaanoaineay e A?iciaineay. A?iciaineay
?aniieiaeaia a aannaeia ?. Oa?ae. Iniiaiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe e aaca:
Iaeaiaaeneia, Ai?aai?neia, Aoaea?ianneia. Aeaaanoaineay iaeanoue oyiaony
oe?ieie iieinie io iiaa?aaeuey Eanieeneiai ii?y a caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee
aei Ieia?aeueiuo Aiae, a a thaeiie /anoe aa a?aieoeu i?ioiaeyo ii
i?aaeai?ueyi Aieueoiai Eaaeaca e ioaaouaatho oa??eoi?eth Naaa?iie
Inaoee, *a/aineie e Eiaooneie ?anioaeee, Aeaaanoaia Aaaeiaeoea
iaooaaaciiiniua ianoi?iaeaeaiey Aeaaanoaia – Iaoa/eaeeineia, A/eno,
Ecaa?aaoneia. E?oiiia ianoi?iaeaeaiea aaca a ?anioaeeea – Aeaaanoaineea
iaie.

A i?aaeaeao Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca ?aniieiaeaiu Noaa?iiieueneay e
E?aniiaea?neay iaooaaaciiiniua iaeanoe. A Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa e?oiiuie
ianoi?iaeaeaieyie aaca yaeythony Naaa?i-Noaa?iiieueneia e
Iaeaaeaaeeineia, a E?aniiaea?neii e?aa – Eaieia?aaeneia, Iaeeiineia,
Noa?iieineia e Aa?acaineia.

?acaaaeaii ianoi?iaeaeaiea iaooe a Ainoi/iie Neae?e – Ia?eianeia. Ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea iaeaieaa e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe iaoiaeyony ia
Naoaeeia (Y??e, THaeiay Ioa e ae?.). A aannaeia ?. Aeethy ia oa??eoi?ee
?anioaeeee Naoa ioe?uoi 10 aaci-eiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ec ieo
?ac?aaaouaathony Onoue-Aeetheneia, N?aaeia-Aeetheneia, Ianoaoneia.
Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao ioe?uoea e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee aaca e iaooe a
oaeueoiaie ciia Aa?aioeaaa ii?y, aaea ioe?uou Ooieiaoianeia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea aaca e I?e?aceiiiia e Ian/aiiica?neia ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iaooe.

A aeeaeaeoae ia?niaeoeaa iaia/aiu ?aaiou ii aiaea/aieth a oicyenoaaiiue
iai?io ianoi?iaeaeaiee aaca iieoino?iaa ssiae, ianoi?iaeaeaiee
i?e?iaeiiai aaca Ainoi/iie Neae?e (E?aniiy?neee e?ae e E?eooneay
iaeanoue) e inaiaieth A?aeaeeineiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai aaca a
Oeiaii-Ia/i?neie iaooaaaciiiniie i?iaeioeee.

?aciauaiea oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. ?inney caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a
ie?a ii ?acaaaeaiiui caianai oaey. Ia aa oa??eoi?ee ?aniieiaeaii 23%
ie?iauo caiania oaey. Eiathony oaee ?acee/iiai oeia: aio?aoeeou, ao?ua e
eienothueany. Aio?aoeeou e ao?ua oaee neoaeao yia?aaoe/aneei oiieeaii e
nu?ueai aeey oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Eienothueany oaee eniieuecothony
a ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneiai oiieeaa a /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee.

Oaieueiua ?ano?nu ?aciauathony ii oa??eoi?ee no?aiu ia?aaiiia?ii. Ia
aeieth ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia i?eoiaeeony 93%, a ia aa?iiaeneoth /anoue – 7%
anao caiania no?aiu. Aaaeiui iieacaoaeai yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee oaieueiuo
aannaeiia yaeyaony naaanoieiinoue aeiau/e. Iia caaeneo io niiniaa
aeiau/e, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue oaooiui eee ea?uea?iui (ioe?uoui),
no?oeoo?u e oieueiu ieanoa, iiuiinoe ea?uea?a, ea/anoaa oaey, iaee/ey
iio?aaeoaey eee aeaeueiinoe ia?aaicee. Iaeaieaa ieceay naaanoieiinoue
aeiau/e oaey a Ainoi/iie Neae?e, iaeaieaa aunieay – a ?aeiiao
Aa?iiaeneiai Naaa?a.

Cia/aiea oaieueiiai aannaeia a yeiiiieea ?aaeiia caaeneo io eiee/anoaa e
ea/anoaa ?ano?nia, noaiaie eo iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e i?iiuoeaiiie
yenieoaoaoeee, ?acia?ia aeiau/e, iniaaiiinoae
o?ainii?oii-aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey. Oaieueiua aannaeiu ainoi/iuo
?aeiiia ?innee iia?aaeatho aa?iiaeneoth /anoue ii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei
iieacaoaeyi, /oi iauyniythony niiniaii aeiau/e oaey a yoeo oaieueiuo
aannaeiao. Ioe?uoui niiniaii aeiauaathony oaee Eainei-A/eineiai,
Eociaoeeiai, THaeii-sseooneiai, E?eooneiai aannaeiia.

Ao?ua oaee caeaaatho a iniiaiii ia O?aea, a Ainoi/iie Neae?e, a
Iiaeiineiauea. Eaiaiiua oaee, a oai /enea e eienothueany, caeaaatho a
Eociaoeeii, Ia/i?neii e THaeii-sseooneii aannaeiao. Iniiaiuie oaieueiuie
aannaeiaie yaeythony Ia/i?neee, Eociaoeeee, Eainei-A/eineee,
THaeii-sseooneee e Iiaeiineiaiue aannaeiu.

Ia/i?neee oaieueiue aannaei ?aniieiaeai a Naaa?iii yeiiiie/aneii ?aeiia
ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee Eiie e Iaiaoeeiai aaoiiiiiiai ie?oaa
A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe. Iauay ieiuaaeue aannaeia ninoaaeyao 100 oun.
ei2. Aaeainiaua caianu ninoaaeytho 210 ie?ae. o. Oaee aannaeia
ioee/athony aunieei ea/anoaii e oaieioai?iie niiniaiinoueth 4–7,8 oun.
eeae. Ieiei iieiaeiu caiania i?eoiaeeony ia eienothueany oaee. Aeoaeia
caeaaaiey a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 470 i. Aeiau/a aaaeaony oaooiui
niiniaii. Iiuiinoue ieanoia ninoaaeyao io 0,7 aei 1 i. Aeaa o?aoe anao
caiania e iniiaiay /anoue aeiau/e i?eoiaeeony ia Eioeineia,
Ai?eooeineia. Aa?aaoi?neia ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Ai?ii-aaieiae/aneea oneiaey
aeiau/e – neiaeiua aneaaenoaea cia/eoaeueiie aiaeiiiniinoe oaeaiiniie
oieue e aa/iie ia?ceiou. Iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaeyie oaeae aannaeia
yaeythony Naaa?iue e Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue ?aeiiu no?aiu.

Eociaoeeee aannaei iaoiaeeony a Caiaaeii-Neae?neii yeiiiie/aneii ?aeiia
ia oa??eoi?ee Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe. Ieiuaaeue aannaeia ninoaaeyao 70 oun.
ei2. Aaeainiaua caianu oaey ninoaaeytho 600 ie?ae. o. Oaee caeaaatho ia
aeoaeia io 300 aei 600 i. Iiuiinoue ieanoia aeinoeaaao 6 – 14 i, a a
?yaea iano – 25 i. Aannaei ?aniieaaaao aieueoeie caianaie oaeae
?acee/iuo ia?ie – io ao?uo aei aio?aoeeoia. Aieueoay /anoue anao caiania
i?eoiaeeony ia oeaiiua eienothueany oaee. Oaee aannaeia eiatho, eae
i?aaeei, ioiineoaeueii iaaunieoth cieueiinoue (4–16% O ieceia
niaea?aeaiea na?u (io 0,3 aei 0,65%), oinoi?a Iie oa?aeoa?ecothony
aunieie oaieioai?iie niiniaiinoueth – 7–8,5 oun. eeae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aeiau/a oaey aaaeaony oaooiui e ioe?uoui niiniaaie.

Ii caianai iiuiinoe e ea/anoao oaeae Eociaoeeiio aannaeio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
iaeii ec ia?auo iano n?aaee oaieueiuo aannaeiia ie?a Iniiaiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie eociaoeeeo oaeae yaeythony O?ae, Oeaio?, Aieai-Ayoneee
yeiiiie/aneee ?aeii.

Eainei-A/eineee ao?ioaieueiue aannaei ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee
E?aniiy?neiai e?ay Ainoi/iineae?neiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiia e
Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe Caiaaeiie Neae?e. Aannaei auoyioo aaeieue
O?ainneae?neie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie iaaeno?aee ia 800 ei. Yoi oieeaeueiue
a ie?a aannaei ii caianai oaeae aeey ioe?uoie aeiau/e.
Iaua-aaieiae/aneea caianu oaeae aei aeoaeiu 600 i ninoaaeytho 610 ie?ae.
o, aei aeoaeiu 1800 i – 1200 ie?ae. o. Oaee aannaeia eiatho
n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieoth cieueiinoue – 8–6% e oaieioai?ioth niiniaiinoue
– 2,8–4,6 oun. eeae. Ii oaee niaea?aeao cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeaae
(aei 48%), /oi i?eaiaeeo e eo auno?iio ieeneaieth, a oaeaea iaeaaeatho
niiniaiinoueth naiiaicai?aoueny. Yoi aeaeaao eo iai?eaiaeiuie aeey
aeeeoaeueiiai o?aiaiey e ia?aaicee ia aeaeueiea ?annoiyiey. Iiuiinoue
ieanoia ninoaaeyao io 14 aei 70 i, a a ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao aeinoeaaao
100 i. Ieanou oaey ?aniieiaeaiu ai?eciioaeueii e aeecei e iiaa?oiinoe.
Aannaei eiaao aeaaii?eyoiua ai?ii-aaieiae/aneea oneiaey ?ac?aaioee, /oi
iaania/eaaao eo ieceoth naaanoieiinoue.

A aannaeia auyaeaii 24 ianoi?iaeaeaiey, a oii /enea 11 e?oiiaeoeo.
Iniiaiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey: Eoaoneia, Aa?acianeia, Aiaioieueneia,
Iaca?ianeia e E?oa-Ai?iaeeineia. Eainei-A/eeneea oaee yeiiiie/anee
auaiaeii eniieueciaaoue eae oiieeai ia yeaeo?inoaioeeyo, nicaeaaaoue eo
ii ianoo aeiau/e oaey e ia?aaeaaaoue iieo/aiioth yeaeo?iyia?aeth. Eo
oaeaea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey iieo/aiey aeeaeeiai oiieeaa e
oeie/aneiai nu?uey. Ia eo aaca no?iyony e?oiiua oaieiaua yeaeo?inoaioeee
e nicaeaaony Eainei-A/eineee oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiiieaen.

THaeii-sseooneee oaieueiue aannaei ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee
Naoa (sseooey) Aeaeueiaainoi/iiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiia Aaeainiaua
caianu oaey ninoaaeytho 40 ie?ae., o. Oaee, a iniiaiii eienothueany,
ioee/athony aeinoaoi/ii aunieei ea/anoaii. Iie oa?aeoa?ecothony
iacia/eoaeueiui niaea?aeaieai oinoi?a, iecei na?ienoua. Iaeiaei
cieueiinoue eo auniea – 18–20% e aeey ecaioiaeaiey iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
eiena eo iaaei iaiaauaoue. Oaieioai?iay niiniaiinoue ninoaaeyao 8,5 oun.
eeae Aeoaeia caeaaaiey ieanoia – 300 i, /oi iicaieyao aeiauaaoue eo
ioe?uoui niiniaii, iiuiinoue ieanoia – 25–27 i. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua
ianoi?iaeaeaiey aannaeia – Ia?thia?eineia e *oeueiaeaineia.

Iiieii oaieueiuo aac iaua?inneeneiai cia/aiey ?ano?naie oaeae
?aniieaaatho e ioaeaeueiua ?aaeiiu. Oae, a Oeaio?aeueiii yeiiiie/aneii
?aeiia eiaaony Iiaeiineiaiue ao?ioaieueiue aannaei, ia O?aea –
Eecaeianeee, *aeyaeineee, THaeii-O?aeueneee aannaeiu, a Ainoi/iie Neae?e
– E?eooneee, Ieioneineee, Oeoaoaineee, Ooiaonneee, ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea
– Ao?neineee, No/aineee, ?ae/eoeineee, Eaineee aannaeiu. Oaee eiathony
ia ino?iaa Naoaeei.

?aciauaiea aaaeiaeoeo aeaeaci?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. AEaeaci?oaeiua
?ano?nu ?innee i?aaenoaaeaiu ao?uie, e?aniuie (eee aaiaoeoiauie
?oaeaie), iaaieoiuie aeaeaciyeaie (eee iaaiaoeoiauie ?oaeaie) e ae?.
Ea/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea eo ?acee/ia. Eiathony caianu eae aaaeiuo
aeaeaciuo ?oae, aaea niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 25–40%,
oae e aiaaouo n niaea?aeaieai aeaeaca aei 68%.

AEaeaci?oaeiua ?ano?nu ia?aaiiia?ii ?aciaoaiu ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee.
Iniiaiay /anoue caiania aeaeaciuo ?oae i?eoiaeeony ia aa?iiaeneoth
/anoue no?aiu. Iaeaieueoea ?acaaaeaiiua caianu nin?aaeioi/aiu a
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiii, O?aeueneii, Caiaaeiineae?neii e
Ainoi/iineae?neii yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiao.

A aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu iaeaieaa e?oiiui yaeyaony aeaeaci?oaeiue
aannaei Eo?neie iaaieoiie aiiiaeee (EIA). Ii iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee
Aaeai?iaeneie, Eo?neie e /anoe/ii Ai?iiaaeneie iaeanoae
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiiai ?aeiia, a oaeaea I?eianeie iaeanoe
Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiia Aannaei caieiaao ieiuaaeue ieiei 180 oun. ei2.

Aaeainiaua caianu aeaeaciuo ?oae ninoaaeytho ieiei 43,4 ie?ae., o. ?oaeu
EIA ninoiyo i?aeiouanoaaiii ec aeaeacenouo eaa?oeeoia (niaea?aeaiea
aeaeaca a n?aaeiai – 32%) e aiaaouo aaiaoeoiauo ?oae (niaea?aeaiea
aeaeaca 56–62%). Aeoaeia caeaaaiey eieaaeaony io 30 aei 500 i.
I?iiuoeaiiay aeiau/a aeaeaciuo ?oae aaaeaony a Aaeai?iaeneie e Eo?neie
iaeanoyo, aaea iaoiaeeony iniiaiay /anoue caiania aiaaouo ?oae
(ianoi?iaeaeaiea sseiaeaaneia, Ieoaeeianeia, Eaaaaeeineia e
Noieeaineia). ?oaeu EIA oa?aeoa?ecothony iiiaieiiiiiaioiui ninoaaii.
E?iaey e ane?uoiua ii?iaeu i?aaenoaaeaiu ieia?aeueii-no?ieoaeueiui
nu?ueai, aniiiiaaoaeueiuie iaoa?eaeaie aeey iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, aieneoaie e ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie ai?ii-oeie/aneiai
nu?uey. Aeae?iaaieiae/aneea oneiaey yenieoaoaoeee aannaeia neiaeiua, oae
eae ?oaeu ia?ae?uou iiuiie oieuae neeueii iaaiaeiaiiuo inaaei/iuo
ii?iae. Aeiau/a ?oaeu inouanoaeyaony iiaecaiiui e ioe?uoui niiniaaie.

Ianoi?iaeaeaiey Io?iaineie iaeanoe e ?anioaeeee Ea?aeey eiatho caianu
iaaiaaioiauo, oeoaiiiaaiaoeoiauo ?oae e aeaeacenouo eaa?oeeoia. ?oaeu
i?e iaaunieii niaea?aeaiee aeaeaca (28–32%) oi?ioi iaiaauathony.
Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey a Io?iaineie iaeanoe – 1-a Eiaaei?neia
e Ieaiaai?neia, a Ea?aeee – Einoi-ioeoneia. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey O?aea
oyioony oe?ieie iieinie n naaa?a ia tha ia?aeeaeueii O?aeueneiio ai?iiio
o?aaoo. Iie ?aciaoaiu ia oa??eoi?ee Naa?aeeianeie, Ia?ineie, *aeyaeineie
e I?aiao?aneie iaeanoae.

Ia Naaa?iii O?aea caeaaee aeaeaciie ?oaeu nin?aaeioi/aiu a Naaa?iie e
Aiaineaaneie a?oiiao ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ia N?aaeiai O?aea – a
Oaaeei-Eooaeineie e Ea/eaia?neie a?oiiao, ia THaeiii O?aea – a
Aaeaeueneie e I?nei-Oaeeeianeie a?oiiao ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Iniiaiay /anoue
caiania aeaeaciuo ?oae O?aea (70%) nin?aaeioi/aia a Ea/eaia?neie a?oiia
a Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe, aaea caeaaatho oeoaii-iaaiaoeoiaua ?oaeu. Iie
ioiinyony e aaaeiui, ii eaaeiiaiaaoeiui, niaea?aeao a n?aaeiai ieiei 17%
aeaeaca, a oaeaea aaiaaeee e iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai a?aaeiuo
i?eianae (na?u e oinoi?a). Ianoi?iaeaeaiey ?ac?aaaouaathony ioe?uoui
niiniaii e yaeythony nu?ueaaie aacie iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee
N?aaeiaai O?aea.

AEaeaci?oaeiua ?ano?nu O?aea e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie cia/eoaeueii
au?aaioaeenue. Oae, en/a?iaiu ?ano?nu ianoi?iaeaeaiee ai? Iaaieoiay e
Aeaaiaeaoue. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy /anoue ?oaeiiai nu?uey iinooiaao
ia O?ae ec ae?oaeo ?aeiiia no?aiu.

A Caiaaeiie Neae?e aaaeiaeoea aeaeaci?oaeiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
?aniieiaeaiu a Ai?iie Oi?ee (Eaia?ianeay iaeanoue) e Ai?iii Aeoaa
(Aeoaeneee e?ae). Eo caianu ninoaaeytho aieaa 1 ie?ae. o. ?oaeu Ai?iie
Oi?ee iaaiaoeoiaua. N?aaeiaa niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca a ieo iaoiaeeony a
i?aaeaeao 40–50%. Iniiaiay /anoue caiania ?oae ai?iie Oi?ee
nin?aaeioi/aia a Oaie?oaonneii, Oaooaaieueneii, Oaeuineii e ae?oaeo
ianoi?iaeaeaieyo. ?oaea aeiauaaaony eae ioe?uoui, oae e iiaecaiiui
niiniaaie. Aeiauaaaiua ?oaeu yaeythony nu?ueaaie aacie Eociaoeeiai
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa e Caiaaeii-Neae?neiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
caaiaea. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaaiaoeoiauo ?oae a Caiaaeiie Neae?e auyaeaiu e
ia oa??eoi?ee Aeoaeneiai e?ay (Eiaeia e Aaei?aoeeia ianoi?iaeaeaiey).

Aaeainiaua caianu aeaeaciuo ?oae Ainoi/iie Neae?e ninoaaeytho aieaa 4
ie?ae. o. Eo ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaoiaeyony a I?eaeaa?uea, Eociaoeeii
Aeaoao, a Oaeanee e a Caaaeeaeuea.

A E?aniiy?neii e?aa iaoiaeeony Aeaa?i-Ieoneee aannaei. N?aaeiaa
niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca a ?oaea aeinoeaaao 40%. ?oaeu a iniiaiii
ooaiieaaeea, neiaeiiiaiaaoeiua. 11 aeaieaa e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
aannaeia – Ieaeia-A eaa?neia e Eoeiaeineia.

Aiaa?i-Eeeineee aannaei a E?eooneie iaeanoe aeeth/aao aeaa e?oiiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiey – Ei?ooiianeia e ?oaeiiai?neia. ?oaeu eiatho iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea ieene iaaiey e ieene eaeueoeey, /oi iicaieyao ioiineoue eo
e naiiieaaeei e eaaeiiaiaaoeiui. ?ac?aaaouaathony a iniiaiii ioe?uoui
niiniaii.

A E?aniiy?neii e?aa ?aniieiaeaiu oaeaea oaeea e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
aeaeaciuo ?oae, eae Aaaeaineia, Oaeneia, E?aeineia, E?aniieaiaineia.
Eiaaony ?yae ianoi?iaeaeaiee a E?eooneie e *eoeineie iaeanoyo.

Ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea ianoi?iaeaeaiey aeaeaciuo ?oae auyaeaiu ia thaa
Oaaa?ianeiai e?ay, a Aio?neie iaeanoe, I?eii?neii e?aa, a ?anioaeeea
Naoa. Iniiaiay eo /anoue (80%) ?aniieiaeaia a THaeiie sseooee a
THaeii-Aeaeaineii e *a?i-Oieeineii aeaeaci?oaeiuo ?aeiiao. Caeanue
caeaaatho ?oaeu iaaiaoeoiaua n niaea?aeaieai aeaeaca 41–53% e
aeaeacenoua eaa?oeeou, eaaeiiaiaaoeiua n niaea?aeaieai aeaeaca 28%.
?ac?aaaouaathony a iniiaiii ioe?uoui niiniaii.

?aciauaiea ianoi?iaeaeaiee ?oae oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia. ?inney ?aniieaaaao
e?oiiuie caianaie ?oae oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia. Ioee/eoaeueiie eo
iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony /?acau/aeii ieceee i?ioeaio niaea?aeauaainy a
ieo iaoaeea. Iiyoiio ?oaeu ii/oe anao oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia iiaeaa?aathony
iaiaauaieth. Iniiaiua caianu ?aciaoathony ia oa??eoi?ee O?aea, Caiaaeiie
e Ainoi/iie Neae?e, Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e ae?oaeo ?aeiiia no?aiu.

Caeeth/aiea

?inney, eiay ia?iiioth oa??eoi?eth, ioee/aaony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai
i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee e oeaiiaeoeie caianaie i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.
Yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea yoeo ?ano?nia aeey ?innee o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue:
eiaiii eo yenii?o iicaieyao oaea?aeeaaoue ia ieaao ?inneeneoth
yeiiiieeo, eiaiii aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi naaanoieiinoue yia?ai?ano?nia a
no?aia ieaea, /ai ia ie?iaii ?uiea, yeiiiie/aneee niaae a ?innee a
iineaaeiea aiaeu aue iaiaa ?aceei, /ai a ae?oaeo ?anioaeeeao auaoaai
Nithca. Iaeiaei iaeuecy caauaaoue, /oi caianu iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo
ioithaeue ia aani?aaeaeueiu, e iiiaea enoi/ieee oaea aeecee e
enoiuaieth. *anoi aeiau/a eneiiaaiuo iaaaoeaii aeeyao e ia ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo. Oaeei ia?acii, yaeyynue iainii?eiui yeiiiie/aneei eicu?ai
?innee, iie ianoo e oeaeue ?yae i?iaeai, aac ?aoaiey eioi?uo iaaiciiaeii
nio?aieoue oeaiiaeoea ?ano?nu aeey iioiieia.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

1. I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu e ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ?innee. I., 2001.

2. 1. Ii?iciaa O.O., Iiaaaeeia I.I., Oeiia N.N. Aaia?aoey ?innee. I.,
2000.

3. 5. Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey ?innee. 2-ia ecaeaiea Ii?iciaie O.O.I.,
2001.

4. 1. Aaaeeiaa A.A. Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey e ?aaeiiaeenoeea. I.:
Aa?aea?eee, 2001.

5. 2. ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: Oaieen, 2001.

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