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Природные ресурсы России

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I?E?IAeIUA ?ANO?NU ?INNEE

IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ?innee.

a) Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu

a) Caiaeueiua ?ano?nu

a) Aiaeiua ?ano?nu

a) Eaniua ?ano?nu

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu – iniiaa onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ?innee

Aaaaeaiea

I?E?IAeIUA ?ANO?NU – niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu,
eniieuecoaiuo eee iioaioeeaeueii i?eaiaeiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey
/aeiaaeii. E /eneo I.?. ioiinyony caiey, iaae?a, eana, aiaeu, aicaeooiia
i?ino?ainoai, ?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?. Niaeanii no. 9 Eiinoeoooeee
?O caiey e ae?oaea I.?. eniieuecothony e io?aiythony a ?O eae iniiaa
aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe ia?iaeia, i?iaeeaathueo ia niioaaonoaothuae
oa??eoi?ee. Yoe ?ano?nu iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny a /anoiie, ainoaea?noaaiiie,
ioieoeeiaeueiie e o.i. nianoaaiiinoe.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu – yoi n?aaenoaa e nouanoaiaaieth, aac eioi?uo /aeiaae
ia iiaeao aeeoue e eioi?ua ii iaoiaeeo a i?e?iaea. Yoi aiaea, ii/au,
?anoaiey, aeeaioiua, ieia?aeu, eioi?ua iu eniieuecoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eee a ia?a?aaioaiiii aeaea. Iie aeatho iai ieuo, iaeaaeaeo, e?ia,
oiieeai, yia?aeth e nu?uea aeey ?aaiou i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ec ieo /aeiaae
nicaeaao i?aaeiaou eiioi?oa, iaoeiu e iaaeeeaiaiou. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu
?ano?nia, iai?eia? ieia?aeueiua, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oieueei iaeei ?ac
(oioy iaeioi?ua iaoaeeu e iiaoo neoaeeoue aoi?e/iui nu?ueai). Oaeea
aeaeu ?ano?nia iacuaathony en/a?iaaiuie eee iaaiciaiiaeiuie ?ano?naie.
Iie eiatho eiia/iua caianu, iiiieiaiea eioi?uo ia Caiea i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi ia nouanoaoao oaeeo oneiaee, a
eioi?uo iie ia?aciaaeenue ieeeeiiu eao iacaae, a ai-aoi?uo, nei?inoue
ia?aciaaiey iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo iaecia?eii iaaeeaiiaa, /ai ?anoiaeiaaiea
eo /aeiaaeii.

Ae?oaea aeaeu ?ano?nia, oaeea, iai?eia?, eae aiaea, «aica?auathony»
i?e?iaea niiaa e niiaa, neieueei au iu eo ie eniieueciaaee. Yoe ?ano?nu
iacuaathony aiciaiiaeiuie eee iinoiyiiuie ?ano?naie. Iie
aini?iecaiaeyony a anoanoaaiiuo i?ioeannao, i?ienoiaeyueo ia Caiea, e
iiaeaea?aeeaathony a iaeioi?ii iinoiyiiii eiee/anoaa, ii?aaeaeyaiii eo
aaeaaiaeiui i?e?inoii e ?anoiaeii (i?aniay aiaea a ?aeao, eenei?iae
aoiinoa?u, ean e ae?.).

*anoi auaaao i/aiue o?oaeii i?iaanoe a?aieoeo iaaeaeo aiciaiiaeiuie e
iaaiciaiiaeiuie ?ano?naie. Oae, iai?eia?, ?anoaiey e aeeaioiua, anee eo
eniieueciaaoue ?anoi/eoaeueii, ia caaioynue i iineaaenoaeyo, iiaoo
en/aciooue n eeoea Caiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a yoii ieaia eo iiaeii
ioianoe e iaaiciaiiaeiui ?ano?nai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?anoeoaeueiue e
aeeaioiue ie? iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth e naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth e i?e
?acoiiii eniieueciaaiee iiaeao auoue nio?aiai. Oaeei ia?acii, a
i?eioeeia yoe ?ano?nu aiciaiiaeiu.

Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e i ii/aao. I?e ?aoeeiiaeueiii aaaeaiee
oicyenoaa ii/au iiaoo ia oieueei nio?aiyoueny, ii aeaaea e oeo/oaoueny e
iiauoaoue naia ieiaei?iaeea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia?acoiiia
eniieueciaaiea ii/a i?eaiaeeo e iaaeaieth eo ieiaei?iaeey, a y?icey
/anoi oece/anee oie/oiaeaao ii/aaiiue neie, iieiinoueth niuaay aai. Oi
anoue, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aiciaiiaeiinoue eee iaaiciaiiaeiinoue
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai e iei /aeiaaea.

Cae/an /aeiaae a naiae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe inaiee ii/oe ana
aeinooiiua e ecaanoiua aio aeaeu ?ano?nia, eae aiciaiiaeiuo, oae e
iaaiciaiiaeiuo.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ?innee

Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu

A ioee/ea io aiciaiiaeiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua i?e eo i?aaeeueiii
eniieueciaaiee ieacuaathony i?aeoe/anee iaenoiueiuie, iieaciua
eneiiaaiua iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eeoue iaeei ?ac, iinea /aai iie
en/acatho. Yoe ?ano?nu iaaica?aoeiu. Oaiiu eo ia?aciaaiey iaecia?eii
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai oaiiu aeiau/e. Iiyoiio ia i?ioyaeaiee aoaeouae enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa iio?aaothony, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, iienee n?aaenoa e
iaoiaeia aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iaaiciaiiaeiuo ?ano?nia, a
oii /enea e iaoiaeia ia?a?aaioee aoi?e/iiai nu?uey.

I aaaeiinoe ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia iiaeii noaeeoue ii eo ?aciiia?aceth e
iiiainoi?iiiaio eniieueciaaieth a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie.

Iaeioi?ua ieia?aeu noieue aea aaaeiu aeey aeecie e caei?iauey ethaeae,
eae aicaeoo e aiaea. Iiaa?aiiay nieue, iai?eia?, aac eioi?ie ia iiaeao
iaoiaeeoueny /aeiaae, auea iauaeoii iaiaia ia anai i?ioyaeaiee
/aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. Iia noaea e aaaeiaeoei i?iiuoeaiiui nu?ueai – aa
caianu a caiiie ei?a e a ieaaia i/aiue aaeeee e /aeiaa/anoai ?aniieaaaao
yoei ?ano?nii a eciaeeee.

Eia/a ianoieo aeaei n ieia?aeueiui oiieeaii e iaoaeeaie. Iiiaea ec ieo
ia yaeythony ie eciaeeueiuie, ie aeaoaauie e iioiio aeieaeiu
iaoiaeeoueny iiae io?aiie eae en/acathuee aeae ?ano?nia.

Oaiiu yenieoaoaoeee caiiuo iaae? onei?ythony ec aiaea a aiae. Iacia/aiea
io?aiu caiania iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaania/eoue
?aoeeiiaeueiia e iieiia eo eniieueciaaiea, i?aaeoi?aaeeoue ii?/o e
i?ana/ue iiiuoee naiiaieueiie aeiau/e, nio?aieoue o/anoee iaae?,
i?aaenoaaeythuea iao/iue, eoeueoo?iue eioa?an. Iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue
?aoeoaeueiua ia?u e nie?auaieth iioa?ue i?e aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.
Anee i?e aeiau/a aeanyoeia ieeeeiiia oiii oa?yaony oioy au aeiey
i?ioeaioa iieaciiai eneiiaaiiai, oi oaeoe/aneea iioa?e ninoaayo aeanyoee
oiii, a ia ?acaaaeeo e iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou aoaeoo cao?a/aiu
ia?iiiua noiiu.

?ac?aaioea iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo aeieaeia aanoenue oae, /oiau ii
aiciiaeiinoe iieiinoueth eniieueciaaoue oeie/aneea yeaiaiou, ia
aua?anuaaoue a ioaae aeaaea aaaeiua ?oaeu, aei eiioea en/a?iuaaoue
ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Ioaeii nio?aiyoue iieaciua eneiiaaiua a i?ioeanna
o?ainii?oe?iaee e ianoai ia?a?aaioee. Aua ia?aaeee aieueoea iioa?e
eaiaiiiai oaey i?e iiaecaiiuo iiaea?ao, ia ai?ueao n ieie cao?a/eaathony
aieueoea n?aaenoaa. Cia/eoaeueiu iioa?e i?e aeiau/a, iaiaauaiee e
ia?a?aaioea ?oae oeaaoiuo e ?aaeeeo iaoaeeia. Caeanue oa?ythony iniiaiua
iaoaeeu e niioonoaothuea eiiiiiaiou.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie o?aaiaaieyie e io?aia iaae? e eo
?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth yaeyaony iaeaieaa iieiia ecaea/aiea ec
iaae? e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea caiania iniiaiuo e niaianoii n
ieie caeaaathueo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo e niaea?aeaueony a ieo eiiiiiaioia;
iaaeiiouaiea a?aaeiiai aeeyiey ?aaio, naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai iaae?,
ia nio?aiiinoue caiania iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo; io?aia iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo
io caoiieaiey, iiaea?ia e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, nieaeathueo eo ea/anoai e
oeaiiinoue ianoi?iaeaeaiey; i?aaeioa?auaiea caa?yciaiey iaae? i?e
iiaecaiiii o?aiaiee iaooe, aaca e eiuo iaoa?eaeia.

Caiaeueiua ?ano?nu

Ii/aa – iiaa?oiinoiue ieiaei?iaeiue neie caiiie ei?u, nicaeaiiue iiae
niaieoiiui aeeyieai aiaoieo oneiaee: oaiea, aiaeu, aicaeooa,
?anoeoaeueiuo e aeeaioiuo i?aaieciia, iniaaiii iee?ii?aaieciia.
Ii/aaiiua ?ano?nu yaeythony iaeiie ec naiuo iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aaeiinueie
iaania/aiey aeecie ia Caiea. Iaeiaei eo ?ieue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iaaeiioeaieaaaony. Ii/aa eae yeaiaio aeinoa?u i?ecaaia iaania/eoue
aeioeie/aneoth n?aaeo aeey /aeiaaea, aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee. Oieueei
ii/aie iiaoo auoue iaania/aiu iieiioeaiiua oneiaey aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, ei?ia aeey aeeaioiuo. Iaiouaieaiuie ooieoeeyie ii/aa
eae i?e?iaeiiai oaea yaeyaony iaeiieaiey aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia e
?aaoee?iaaiea aiaeiiai aaeaina, eiioeaio?aoeey yeaiaioia ieoaiey
?anoaiee, ia?aciaaiea e iaania/aiea /enoiou iiaecaiiuo aiae.

I?e eioaineaiii eniieueciaaiee caiee iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei aeoiaoue i
oii, eae aieueoa o iaa acyoue, ii e iaeiia?aiaiii caaioeoueny e ia
oaaee/aiee ieiaei?iaeey ii/au. Caiaeueiue oiiae ?innee ninoaaeyao 1709,7
iei.aa. Ieiei 1100 iei. aa caiaeue iaoiaeeony a ciia aa/iie ia?ceiou.
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey caieiatho oieueei 13% ieiuaaee
caiaeueiiai oiiaea no?aiue eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e nie?auaieth. Ca
iineaaeiea 25 eao ieiuaaee naeueoicoaiaeee nie?aoeeenue ia 33 iei. aa,
ianiio?y ia aaeaaiaeiia aiaea/aiea a naeueneioicyenoaaiiue iai?io iiauo
caiaeue. Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie oiaiueoaiey caeueoicoaiaeee yaeythony
iiyaeaiea y?icee ii/a, iaaeinoaoi/ii ?aaeaiaioe?oaiue ioaiae caiaeue
aeey ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae, caoiieaiea, iiaeoiieaiea e
caaiea/eaaiea, ca?anoaiea eanii e eonoa?ieeii. E oaeoi?ai,
niinianoaothuei ?ac?ooaieth ii/a, ioiinyony oaeaea iiaecaiiua e ioe?uoua
?ac?aaioee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.

Ii ioeaieai iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee, ii/au naeueoicoaiaeee oa?ytho
aaeaaiaeii ieiei 1,5 ie?ae. o ieiaei?iaeiiai neiy aneaaenoaea i?iyeaaiey
y?icee. Oa?iei «y?icey» i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai aeaaiea erodere –
?acuaaeaoue. Y?icey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?ac?ooaiea e niin ii/aaiiiai
iie?iaa (eiiaaea e ii/aiia?acothueo ii?iae) iioieaie aiaeu eee aao?ii.
I?e yoii ?ac?ooaaony naiue ieiaei?iaeiue aa?oiee neie ii/au. I?eaiu
ai?ueau n y?iceae ii/a aanueia ?aciiia?aciu e caaenyo io
ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo e aa?iyeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee. Iie aeieaeiu
inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa aiaae?aiey ciiaeueiuo nenoai caieaaeaeey:

a ?aeiiao ?ani?ino?aiaiey aao?iaie y?icee – ii/aicaueoiua naaiiai?iou n
iieiniui ?aciauaieai iinaaia, niaaicaaea?aeaiea, cae?aieaiea e iaeanaiea
ianeia, au?aueaaiea iieacaueoiuo eaniuo iiein;

a ?aeiiao ?ani?ino?aiaiey aiaeiie y?icee – ia?aaioea ii/a e iinaaia
naeueoiceoeueoo? iiia?ae neeiiia, eiioo?iay aniaoea, oe?aieaiea
iaoioiiai neiy e ae?oaea niiniau ia?aaioee, oiaiueoathuea noie
iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae;

a ai?iuo ?aeiiao – ono?ienoai i?ioeainaeaauo nii?oaeaiee, iaeanaiea,
caeoaeaiea neeiiia, ?aaoee?iaaiea auiana neioa, nio?aiaiea ai?iuo eania.

A caaea/o ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eeoinoa?u aoiaeyo cae?aieaiea e
inaiaiea ianeia. Ianeaie iacuaatho ?uoeua iaeinaycaiiua ioeiaeaiey,
ninoiyuea ec ca?ai ieia?aeia (i?aeiouanoaaiii eaa?oea). Cae?aieaiea
ianeia i?iecaiaeeony niiniaii iaoaie/aneeo caueo, aeooiecaoeeae
(iie?uoea ianeia yioeueneae aeooia, oeaiaioe?othuei iiaa?oiinoiue neie
ia aeoaeio 0,8 – 1 ni. Nieioiay ei?ea oniaoii i?ioeainoieo aao?ai aeaa
aiaea). Cae?aieaiiua ianee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey eani?acaaaeaiey,
naaeiaiaenoaa, aeiia?aaea?noaa, aao/aaiaenoaa e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Inooaiea caaiei/aiiuo caiaeue oaaee/eaaao ?ano?nu ii/a. Aieioa
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oeaiiua caiaeueiua oaiaeuey. Iinea inooaiey iie
eniieuecothony iiae ?acee/iua naeueoiceoeueoo?u, a oaeaea aeey
au?aueaaiey eana e aeiau/e oi?oa. Ii/au inooaiiuo aieio ieiaei?iaeiu, a
ieo iaeaieeaaaony aieueoia eiee/anoai aieiieeneio, acioa e ae?oaeo
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa. Ii nieioiia inooaiea aieio iiaeao iaianoe a?aae
(i?eia?ii oiio yaeyaony nieioiay iaeei?aoeey, i?eaaaeoay e iea/aaiui
?acoeueoaoai), iiyoiio nouanoaotho ?acee/iua niiniau ?aaoee?iaaiey
aiaeiiai ?aaeeia i?e inooaiee aieio, ia aeiioneathuea io?eoeaoaeueiuo
iineaaenoaee, iai?eia?, nicaeaiea aiaeiaiia a aa?oiaueyo ?ae e aieinoae
aeey oaea?aeaiey aiaeu.

Ia ainnoaiiaeaiea ii/a iai?aaeaia ?aeoeueoeaaoeey caiaeue. ?acaeoea
ioe?uoiai niiniaa aeiau/e iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ?acei oaaee/eei eiee/anoai
oa??eoi?ee, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aathony ?ac?ooaieth. Ainnoaiiaeaiea
oa??eoi?ee inouanoaeyaony a /aou?ao iai?aaeaieyo: aeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey (caieaaeaeea, naaeiaiaenoai), iiae
eaniua ianaaeaeaiey, iiae aiaeiaiu, iiae aeeeeuiia e eaieoaeueiia
no?ieoaeuenoai. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aeoeueoeaaoeey
iooai eani?acaaaeaiey.

Aiaeiua ?ano?nu

Aiaea – iniiaa aeecie ia Caiea e aa ?iaeeia. E niaeaeaieth, iaeeea aiaeu
oieueei eaaeouaany, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeae?inoa?a – naiay oiieay
iaiei/ea Caiee, iioiio /oi ia aiaeo ai anao aa ninoiyieyo e ai anao
noa?ao i?eoiaeeony iaiaa 0,001 iannu ieaiaou. I?e?iaea ono?iaia oae, /oi
aiaea iinoiyiii iaiiaeyaony a aaeeiii aeae?ieiae/aneii e?oaiai?ioa e
io?aia aiaeiuo ?ano?nia aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny a naiii i?ioeanna
eniieueciaaiey aiae iooai aeeyiey ia ioaeaeueiua caaiuey e?oaiai?ioa
aiaeu. Iio?aaiinoe a aiaea aic?anoatho ec aiaea a aiae. Iniiaiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie aiaeu yaeythony i?iiuoeaiiinoue e naeueneia oicyenoai.
I?iiuoeaiiia cia/aiea aiaeu i/aiue aaeeei, oae eae i?aeoe/anee ana
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ioeannu o?aaotho aieueoiai aa eiee/anoaa. Iniiaiay
ianna aiaeu a i?iiuoeaiiinoe eniieuecoaony aeey iieo/aiey yia?aee e
ioeaaeaeaiey. Aeey yoeo oeaeae ea/anoai aiaeu ia eiaao aieueoiai
cia/aiey, iiyoiio iniiaie nie?auaiey aiaeiaieinoe i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iai?ioii-iiaoi?iia aiaeiiieueciaaiea, i?e eioi?ii
iaeiaaeaeu caa?aiiay ec enoi/ieea aiaea eniieuecoaony iiiaie?aoii,
«oaaee/eaay» oai naiui caianu aiaeiuo ?ano?nia e nieaeay eo caa?yciaiea.
Iaeaieueoeie «aiaeiiio?aaeoaeyie» n?aaee i?iiuoeaiiuo io?aneae yaeythony
/a?iay iaoaeeo?aey, oeiey, iaooaoeiey e oaieiyia?aaoeea. Ia?aoiae n
i?yiioi/iiai ia iiaoi?iia aiaeiniaaaeaiea iicaieyao nie?aoeoue iauaiu
aiaeiiio?aaeaiey ia OYN a 30-40 ?ac, ia iaeioi?uo oeie/aneeo e
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoeyo – a 20-30 ?ac, ia i?iecaiaenoaa
oa??inieaaia – a 10 ?ac. Aieueoay /anoue «i?iiuoeaiiuo» aiae eaeao ia
ioeaaeaeaiea iaa?aaathueony aa?aaaoia. Caiaia aiaeiiai ioeaaeaeaiey
aicaeooiui a oeie/aneii e iaooaoeie/aneii i?iecaiaenoaao, iaoeiino?iaiee
e iaoaeeiia?aaioea, ia OYN e a aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
nie?aoeea au caeanue iio?aaeaiea aiaeu ia 70-80%. Aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe
nie?auaiey ia?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?anoiaeia aiaeu eiathony e a
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiii oicyenoaa. Anai oi?ioi ecaanoii, eae aaeeee
ooa/ee ec iaeni?aaiuo e?aiia, ae?oaie naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneie a?iaoo?u, ec
ia?oaeiuo aiaeii?iaiaeiuo naoae. A iineaaeiai neo/aa i?e/eiie ooa/ae
ca/anooth yaeythony auno?ieciaoeaathueany o?oau, e caiaia eo ia
aeieain?i/iuo yiaee?iaaiiua o?oau e o?oau ec noaeeiia?aciuo iaoa?eaeia n
iiauoaiiie aioeei??iceiiiinoueth iicaieeee au iaiiiai nieceoue ?anoiae
aiaeu.

Eaniua ?ano?nu

Eana – iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai ia?iaea, enoi/iee iieo/aiey ae?aaaneiu e
ae?oaeo aeaeia oeaiiiai nu?uey, a oaeaea noaaeeece?othuee eiiiiiaio
aeinoa?u. Iie eiatho i/aiue aieueoia ynoaoe/aneia e ?ae?aaoeeiiiia
(ainnoaiiaeoaeueiia) cia/aiea. ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea e
nio?aiaiea eania a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eia?aoaao aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee e O?aea, aaea nin?aaeioi/aiu n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoea eaniua ?ano?nu e iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey no?aiu. Aeey
oii?yaei/aiey iieueciaaiey eanaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai cia/aiey e
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey enoiuaiey ae?aaaniuo caiania a iaeieaniuo ?aeiiao eana
?acaeaeaiu ia o?e a?oiiu. E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony eana, auiieiythuea
i?aeiouanoaaiii neaaeothuea ooieoeee: aiaeiio?aiiua, caueoiua
(i?ioeaiy?iceiiiua), naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea e icaei?iaeoaeueiua
(ai?iaeneea eana, eana caeaiuo cii aie?oa ai?iaeia).

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia ioiinyony eana a ?aeiiao n aunieie ieioiinoueth
ianaeaiey e ?acaeoie naoueth o?ainii?oiuo iooae, eiathuea caueoiia e
ia?aie/aiii yenieoaoaoeeiiiia cia/aiea, a oaeaea eana n iaaeinoaoi/iuie
eaninu?ueaauie ?ano?naie, aeey nio?aiaiey caueoiuo ooieoeee eioi?uo,
iai?a?uaiinoe e iaenoiueiinoe iieueciaaiey ei o?aaoaony aieaa no?iaee
?aaeei eaniiieueciaaiey.

E o?aoueae a?oiia ioiinyony eana iiiaieaniuo ?aeiiia, eiathuea
i?aeiouanoaaiii yenieoaoaoeeiiiia cia/aiea e i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
iai?a?uaiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a
ae?aaaneia aac oua?aa caueoiuo naienoa yoeo eania. A eanao o?aoueae
a?oiiu aaaeouaa ianoi caieiaao eniieueciaaiea oeaeaauo ?ano?nia (a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ae?aaaneiu). A naaoa nia?aiaiiuo aii?inia io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eaniuo ?ano?nia
aieueoia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao inaiaiea eania o?aoueae a?oiiu,
niaa?oainoaiaaiea eaniyenieoaoaoeee e ia?a?aaioee ae?aaaneiu,
aeaeueiaeoaa iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ianaaeaeaiee, yooaeoeaiia
eniieueciaaiea iiai/iuo i?iaeoeoia eana. Nicaeaiea e?oiiuo
eanii?iiuoeaiiuo eiiieaenia ia Naaa?i-Caiaaea e a Ainoi/iie Neae?e, ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea iicaieeei aiaea/ue a yenieoaoaoeeth e?oiiua eaniua
ianneau n ia?anoieiuie e niaeuie ianaaeaeaieyie, auaeaeioa caaea/o
ia?aae eaniui oicyenoaii e eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth caiaiu noa?uo eania
iiauie. Aieueoia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea
ae?aaaniiai nu?uey. Aai iniiaie yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai oaoiieiae/aneie
oeaiu, eioi?ia iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue ae?aaaneio, a oaeaea iooiaeu
eanicaaioiaie e eaniieeaiey a ea/anoaa enoiaeiiai nu?uey aeey
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iecaiaenoaa ae?aaaniuo ieeo.

Auno?i ?anoao e ?ae?aaoeeiiiia cia/aiea eania, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ianoao n
?acaeoie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, ieiei aieueoeo ai?iaeia. ?ae?aaoeeiiiay
oeaiiinoue eania ii?ie i?aainoiaeeo noieiinoue iieo/aaiie io ieo
ae?aaaneiu. I?e neiieaiee a eanao ioaeuoathueo aicieeaao ?ae?aaoeeiiiay
iaa?ocea. Yoi iiaeao ieacaoueny iianiui aeey i?iaeieaeaiey anoanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey e ii?iaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey eaniuo ianneaia, aeiaaioeaiicia.
Anee o/anoie eana neeueii iia?aaeaeai auoaiouaaieai ii/au, aai ioaeii
eneeth/eoue ec iieueciaaiey ia 3-5 eao e aieaa. Ioaeii ouaoaeueii
auiieiyoue ana i?aaeea i?ioeaiiiaea?iie io?aiu, cai?auaoue i?iaoeee,
ioaeuo e nai? a?eaia e yaiae a iieiaeuo eaniianaaeaeaieyo.

N ?acaeoeai o?aaiecaoeee ia?iiiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho caeaiua
ianaaeaeaiey a ai?iaeao. Caeaiua ianaaeaeaiey – ae?aaanii-eonoa?ieeiaay,
oeaaoi/iay e o?aayienoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, yeaiaiou aeaaiono?ienoaa
icaeaiaiiuo oa??eoi?ee – yaeythony yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii yeieiae/aneie
caueou ai?iaea, iie iiauoatho eiioi?oiinoue, ynoaoe/iinoue ai?iaeneie
n?aaeu, iiaoo ia 20% e aieaa oiaiueoeoue neeo ai?iaeneiai ooia, oae eae
neoaeao i?aa?aaeie aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey caoeiauo aiei. Caeaiua
ianaaeaeaiey iauaai iieueciaaiey ia iiaoo auoue i?eaaoece?iaaiu eee
naeaiu a a?aiaeo e yaeythony iauaai?iaeneie ioieoeeiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoueth aac i?aaa eciaiyoue iacia/aiea yoeo oa??eoi?ee e
io/oaeaeaiee /anoe eo iiae ae?oaea oeaee. Iaaeiionoeiu ethaua oi?iu
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiinyuea iaainiieieiue a?aae caeaiiio
oiiaeo ai?iaea.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu – iniiaa onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ?innee

Iniiaiay caaea/a a ii?aaeaeaiee ianoa e ?iee i?e?iaei?ano?niiai
iioaioeeaea a yeiiiieea aoaeouaai naycaia n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
eniieueciaaoue aai eiiieaenii e ?aoeeiiaeueii, a oaeaea nio?aieoue
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu aeey aoaeoueo iieieaiee.

Caeanue iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei iiiaioia:

i?aeoeea oicyenoaiaaiey iineaaeieo 5-6 eao iieacaea, /oi ?aaoee?othuoth
?ieue ainoaea?noaa, a oii /enea e a ii?aaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee eniieueciaaiey e io?aiu ?ano?nia, iaaei oneeeoue iooai
aei?aaioee e aeiiieiaiey niioaaonoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e
ii?iaoeaiie aacu;

aie?oa eco/aiey, aini?iecaiaenoaa e io?aiu i?e?iaei?ano?niiai eiiieaena
nin?aaeioi/ai ia?iiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae, eioi?ue aeieaeai
auoue ia oieueei nio?aiai, ii e ?acaeo, ia?ai?eaioe?iaai ia nicaeaiea
iiauo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa e oaoiieiaee, iniaaiii a iaeanoe
?aoeeiiaeueiiai e eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e iiauo
?ano?nia;

aanue i?e?iaei?ano?niue iioaioeeae iiaeeaaeeo eaaeano?e?iaaieth e o/aoo,
ianii?oecaoeee, ioeaiea naaiaeiyoiaai ninoiyiey;

i?aaenoieo i?aeoe/anee caiiai nicaeaoue yeieiae/aneoth eiaeono?eth – io
iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie aei ?aaeecaoeee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoyo,
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia oieueei ia eiiieaeniia e aieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea
i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey e ?ano?nia, ii e ia io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
ia?a?aaioeo iooiaeia e ono?aiaiea iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaeiieaoeony e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie.

Aiai?y ia eniieueciaaiee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, iaeuecy caauaaoue ia eo
o/aoa. Iniiaiie iaoaieci e iniiaiie iaoiaee/aneee i?eai – iiieoi?eia
ninoiyiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ii ii?aaeaeaiiie noaia e iiiaieeaoo?a e a
niioaaonoaee n aeiaaeueiie nenoaiie iiieoi?eiaa. ?inney, n aa
no?aoaae/aneei e aaiiieeoe/aneei iieiaeaieai, ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny a
noi?iia io ie?iauo ?ano?niuo i?iaeai.

Ieienoa?noaii I?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey ?innee iiaeaioiaeai i?iaeo
eiioeaioeee Ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa,
eniieueciaaiey e io?aiu i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, iaeia?aiiue ia canaaeaiee
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 31.07.1997 a., ii?aaeaeythuee no?aoaae/aneie
oeaeueth ainoaea?noaa a yoie iaeanoe nicaeaiea i?aaiauo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
iao/iuo e nioeeaeueiuo iniia i?e?iaei?ano?niuo ioiioaiee aeey
iaania/aiey onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ?innee, oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa aeecie e
?ano?niie aeinoaoi/iinoe aeey ianoiyuaai e aoaeouaai iieieaiee.

Caaea/e ainoaea?noaaiiie no?aoaaee i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey:

yooaeoeaiia iaania/aiea ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa eae nianoaaiieea
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ?innee ii eo eniieueciaaieth, aini?iecaiaenoao e
io?aia ia aaca niaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo,
yeiiiieei-ii?iaoeaiuo, iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneeo e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oicyenoaaiiuo iiaeoiaeia e ia?ii?eyoee;

oiaiueoaiea ?ano?niaieinoe yeiiiieee, nie?auaiea cao?ao i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee;

eniieueciaaiea aiciiaeiinoae i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioeeaea n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee, a oii /enea aeey i?aiaeieaiey oaeouaai
e?ecena e auaiaea ?innee a /enei ia?aaeiauo iinoeiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai;

niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a
i?e?iaeii-?ano?niie noa?a (eiio?ieue, eeoeaice?iaaiea, ?ano?niue
aoaeeo);

nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo iaoaieciia ?ano?niiieueciaaiey n
o/aoii ?inneeneie niaoeeoeee e iiauoaiea aeiee ieaoaaeae ca
eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia a athaeaeaou anao o?iaiae;

?aoaiea aii?ina nianoaaiiinoe ia i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu e i?aaa ec yoiai
auoaeathuea;

o/ao ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae e i?ei?eoaoia a ioiioaiee ?aaeiiia ni
niaoeeoe/aneeie oneiaeyie oicyenoaiaaiey.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U

«Yeieiaey», o/aaiia iiniaea, iiae iauae ?aaeaeoeeae i?io.
N.A.Aiaiethaiaa – I., «Ciaiea», 1997.

I.ss.Eaiaoaa, «Iiea ia iicaeii…». – I., «Iieiaeay aaa?aeey», 1991.

A.A.Aaeea?, «Yecaiai ?acoia». – I., «Iuneue», 1988.

«Yeieiaey Iineau», Aeaia?oaiaio ii aeaeai ia/aoe e eioi?iaoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iineau. – I., 1996.

I.O.Aeiia?aaeiaa, «I?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea». – I., 1994.

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