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Природа и население Армении

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I?E?IAeA E IANAEAIEA A?IAIEE

Aaaaeaiea

A?iaiee – naie iniaue e iaiiaoi?eiue iaeee. Iia neiaii aeaiueia –
no?iaay aaee/anoaaiiay e?anioa eioi?ie, o?iiooa aeaai?iaeiie naaeeiie
ae?aaiinoe. A ii?ueiu ia «eeoea» – naeaeaoaeuenoai iiiaino?aaeaeueiiai
i?ioeiai, eiaaea A?iaiee i?eoiaeeeinue ionoaeaaoue naie caiee e nayooth
o?enoeaineoth aa?o. Io iaa enoiaeeo oi ioae?ia niieienoaea, /oi
iicaieyao iuouaoue naay caeanue, aoaeoi a ae?oaii ecia?aiee: ia/eiaaoue
oeaieoue enoeiiue niune aeecie e /oanoaiaaoue aa?iiie/iia neeyiea n
i?e?iaeie, n naiie aeeciueth. Io/aai aea? Iiaeao auoue, iioiio /oi
eiaiii ionthaea e ia/aeanue AEECIUe? Aaaeue niaeanii aeaeaeneie eaaaiaea
eiaiii e a?iyineie ai?a A?a?ao (n 1920 aiaea iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee
Oo?oeee) i?e/aeee ciaiaieoue Iiaa Eia/aa, nio?aieaoee caiioth aeeciue
iinea Anaie?iiai iioiia.

Iiyoiio iooaoanoaea a A?iaieth iiaeii niaei iacaaoue iooaoanoaeai e
enoieai. Yoi eae iaeiiie/anoai, aiciiaeiinoue i?eeiniooueny e nayouia. A
nayouo iano caeanue aeaenoaeoaeueii iiiai – o?aiu, iiianou?e, iaeoaee –
ana yoi aiai?eo i iacuaeaiinoe o?enoeaineie aa?u ia?iaea, i ai?aeinoe ca
oi, /oi A?iaiey ia?aie i?eiyea o?enoeainoai a ea/anoaa ioeoeeaeueiie
?aeeaee.

Naaiaeiy a no?aia nicaeathony ana oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey oo?ecia:
no?iyony ainoeieoeu, iiaea?iece?othony ai?iieuaeiua eo?i?ou Aaiaaeci?,
Oeaoeaaeci?, Aeeeeaeai, Aieaaai, aaeueiaieiae/aneee eo?i?o A?cie,
nicaeathony oo?enoe/aneea eiiieaenu ia Naaaia. Caeanue, a A?iaiee, au
iiaeaoa iaeoe ioaeuo ia ethaie aeon – io ai?iieuaeiuo eaoaiee e ?aooeiaa
aei ?uaaeee a ai?iuo ?aeao, oeaeaaiuo aaii o enoi/ieeia, ioiou, eaoaiey
ia ai?iuo aaeineiaaeao…

Ii iniaaiii ethayo A?iaieth enoeiiua oeaieoaee eoeueoo?iiai oo?ecia. Eo
iaieo nthaea iio?ynathuay e?anioa i?e?iaeu, anoanoaaiiue ioaeuo,
yecioeea aeeciaiiiai oeeaaea ai?oeaa, ainoai?eeinoai e oeaainieuenoai
a?iyineiai ia?iaea e oieeaeueiay ae?aaiyy enoi?ey eoeueoo?a a?iyi,
eioi?oth iie noiaee nio?aieoue /a?ac ouny/aeaoey. Iiauaaoue a ianoao,
aaea i?ioeaaoaee aaeeeea oeeaeeecaoeee, i?ioiaeeee e?iaii?ieeoiua
n?aaeaiey, niaa?oaeenue enoi?e/aneea niauoey ie?iaie aaaeiinoe – yoi ee
ia ia/oa ethaiai iooaoanoaaiieea.

Aea, o A?iaiee naiy iaiiaoi?eiay yecioeea. A noa?eiiuo oea?eayo e
caieao, aunieiai?iuo ica?ao e ?aeao, a aaee/anoaaiiuo neaeao, a
aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiuo eaiueiiao nie?uou ouny/e enoi?ee e iiiaeanoai
caaaaeie.

Ieaaea a ie?a iao oaeeo ai?, oaeie ae?aaiae enoi?ee, oaeeo i?ae?aniuo
aeaineeo aeac, oaeiai aiaeanoaaiiiai eiiueyea e naiiai oiieiai a ie?a
oeaaa. «Naiia aeoniia iyni – ia einoyo, naiay eo/oay caiey – ia eaiiyo»,
– oae aiai?yo a?iyia i?i naith no?aio, e aiai?yo i?aaeeueii.

A?iaiey – ae?aaiaeoay no?aia – anaaaea iaoiaeeeanue ia ia?ae??noea
iooae, niaaeeiythueo Aa?iio e Aceth. Yoi ia oieueei ia?aia a ie?a
o?enoeaineia ainoaea?noai e iaeia ec naiuo ?aiieo ia Caiea no?ai aiiaua
– oaea a IX-VI aa. aei i. y. ia oa??eoi?ee A?iaiee nouanoaiaaei iiuiia
ainoaea?noai O?a?oo. N oao ii? ana yiioe, i?ieaoeaoeany iaae yoie
ae?aaiae caieae, inoaaeee ia iae naie neaaeu. Iiyoiio ii eiee/anoao
iaiyoieeia enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u yoa no?aia iiaeao n/eoaoueny iaeiie ec
naiuo eioa?aniuo a Noa?ii Naaoa. Ia c?y A?iaieth iacuaatho «iocaai iiae
ioe?uoui iaaii». Caeanue nia?aiu «?acaaeeiu» ii/oe anao ae?aaiaeoeo
oeeaeeecaoeee Noa?iai Naaoa, iiiai/eneaiiua iaiyoieee eneonnoaa e
a?oeoaeoo?u aeaeatho no?aio o?aieeeuai e yeniiceoeeae oaaeaa?ia
eoeueoo?u i?ioeiai.

A?iaiey (ii-a?iyinee Aeanoai), ?anioaeeea A?iaiey (Aeanoaie
Ai?aiaooothi), ainoaea?noai ia caiaaea Acee, a Caeaaeacuea. Aei 1991
aoiaeeea a ninoaa NNN?, n 1992 – iacaaeneiay ?anioaeeea. Ieiuaaeue 29,8
oun. ea. ei. Auoiaea e ii?th ia eiaao. A?aie/eo ia naaa?a n A?oceae, ia
caiaaea e thai-caiaaea – n Oo?oeeae, ia thaa – n E?aiii, ia thai-ainoiea
– n Iaoe/aaaineie ?anioaeeeie, aoiaeyuae a ninoaa Aca?aaeaeaeaia, ia
ainoiea – n iniiaiie oa??eoi?eae Aca?aaeaeaeaia. Iauay i?ioyaeaiiinoue
a?aieoe 1254 ei.

A?iaiey. Noieeoea – A?aaai. Ianaeaiea: 3326 oun. /aeiaae (2003).
Ieioiinoue: 101 /aeiaae ia 1 ea. ei. Niioiioaiea ai?iaeneiai e
naeueneiai ianaeaiey: 68% e 32%. Ieiuaaeue: 29,8 oun. ea. ei. Naiay
aunieay oi/ea: ai?a A?aaaoe (4090 i iaae o.i.). Naiay ieceay oi/ea: 350
i. Ainoaea?noaaiiue ycue: a?iyineee. Iniiaiay ?aeeaey: o?enoeainoai.
Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea: 10 iaeanoae e noieeoea
ai?iae A?aaai ia i?aaao iaeanoe. Aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea: ae?ai.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?acaeiee: Aeaiue ?anioaeeee – 28 iay. Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeii: «Iaoa Io/ecia».

I?E?IAeA

?aeueao ianoiinoe. A?iaiey – ai?iay no?aia (i?eia?ii 90% aa ieiuaaee
iaoiaeeony ia aunioao aieaa 1000 i iaae o.i.). Iia ?aniieiaeaia a
i?aaeaeao naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe A?iyineiai iaai?uey, a n naaa?a e
ainoiea ieaeieaia o?aaoaie Iaeiai Eaaeaca. A oeaio?aeueiie /anoe no?aiu
a noaoe?ioiii iai?aaeaiee i?ioyioeanue iieina aoeeaie/aneeo ai?,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo neaai ?an/eaiaiiuie n?aaeiaaunioiuie e aunieeie eaaiauie
ieaoi e ueoiaeaeiuie ianneaaie. A yoie iieina eiaaony iiiaeanoai eiionia
iiooooeo aoeeaiia. E ueoiaeaeiui ianneaai i?eo?i/aiu naiua aunieea
ai?iua aa?oeiu – A?aaaoe (4090 i), Aaeaeaae (3597 i) e Aa?aeaien (3522
i). ?aee, aa?ouea ia/aei ia ueoiaeaeiuo ianneaao, au?aaioaee aeoaieea
eaiueiiu.

Ia naaa?a e thai-ainoiea i?aiaeaaeatho n?aaeiaaunioiua
neeaae/aoi-aeuaiaua ai?u, ?an/eaiaiiua aonoie naoueth aeieei, iiiaea ec
eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeytho aeoaieea ouaeuey. THai-caiaaeiay A?iaiey
iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ieineie A?a?aoneie ?aaieiu, iiaa?oiinoue eioi?ie
neiaeaia aeethaeaeueiuie e ica?ii-aeethaeaeueiuie ioeiaeaieyie.

Oa??eoi?ey A?iaiee i?eo?i/aia e ciia iieiaeie aeueieeneie neeaae/aoinoe,
a eioi?ie i?iaeieaeathony nia?aiaiiua ai?iia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu. Ia
yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho /anoua caieao?ynaiey (Eaieiaeaineia 1926,
Caiaaco?neia 1931, A?aaaineia 1937 e iniaaiii ?ac?ooeoaeueiia Nieoaeneia
1988).

Iieaciua eneiiaaiua. Iaae?a A?iaiee aiaaou ?oaeiuie iieaciuie
eneiiaaiuie. Ia naaa?a e ainoiea no?aiu eiathony aiaaoua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iaaeiie ?oaeu (Aeaaa?aee, Eaoai), ia thai-ainoiea iieeaaeaia
(Aeanoaea?oneia ianoi?iaeaeaiea), a oeaio?aeueiuo e thai-ainoi/iuo
?aeiiao – aeaeaciie ?oaeu (?acaeaineia, Aaiayineia e Naa?aioeneia
ianoi?iaeaeaiey), ia naaa?a Aooaeueneia, ia thai-ainoiea Eaoaineia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea iieeiaoaeee/aneeo ?oae. E?iia oiai, eiathony
i?iiuoeaiiua caianu aethieieaauo iaoaeeiiauo neaieoia, a oaeaea aa?eoa n
i?eianueth cieioa e na?aa?a, ianoi?iaeaeaiey naeioea, oeeiea, ia?aaioea,
cieioa, ieaoeiu, no?ueiu, ?oooe, iuoueyea. Ano?a/athony ?aaeeicaiaeueiua
iaoaeeu aenioo, aaeee, eiaeee, naeai, oaeeee, oaeeo?, ?aiee. Ooou
(i?aiaeaaue, aeaeoue, ?iciaue, /a?iue), i?aii?, o?aaa?oeiu, ecaanoiyee,
eioi?uie neiaeaiu ai?u A?iaiee, yaeythony i?ae?aniuie no?ieoaeueiuie e
ioaeaei/iuie iaoa?eaeaie. N?aaee iieoae?aaioeaiiuo e iiaeaei/iuo eaiiae
auaeaeythony aaao, yoia, aiaoeno, aa?eee, yoiio, ianeaeeai, iieen,
ae?thca. Ecaanoiu ie. 7500 enoi/ieeia i?aniie e 1300 ieia?aeueiie aiaeu,
iiiaea ec eioi?uo eniieuecothony a aaeueiaieiae/aneeo oeaeyo (Aeaea?ioe,
A?cie, Aeeeeaeai, Aaeie, Aieaaai, Naaai e ae?.).

Eeeiao. A?iaiey ?aniieiaeaia a noao?iie/aneie ciia. Eeeiaoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe no?aiu ii?aaeaeyao aa ai?iue ?aeueao. *aoei au?aaeaia
aa?oeeaeueiay eeeiaoe/aneay iiyniinoue. Inaaeee a oa/aiea aiaea
auiaaeatho e?aeia ia?aaiiia?ii. Iaeneioi inaaeeia i?eoiaeeony ia aanio e
ia/aei eaoa.

Ia A?a?aoneie ?aaieia (a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie iaoiaeeony A?aaai) e a
aannaeia ?. A?ia eeeiao nooie eiioeiaioaeueiue n aea?eei eaoii (n?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a ethey 26° N, iaeneiaeueiay 42° N), oieiaeiie ceiie (n?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y –4° N) e iaeui eiee/anoaii inaaeeia (350 ii ca aiae).

A ieceiai?ueyo, i?eiueathueo n naaa?a e ainoiea e A?a?aoneie ?aaieia,
eeeiao oia?aiii nooie n oaieui eaoii (n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a ethey 20° N),
oieiaeiie ceiie (n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y –7° N) e iaeeueiuie
inaaeeaie (aei 640 ii a aiae).

A n?aaeiaai?ueyo oeaio?aeueiie /anoe no?aiu (auniou 1500–1800 i), eeeiao
oia?aiiue, n oaieui eaoii (n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a ethey 18–20° N) e
oieiaeiie ceiie (n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y –10° N) n iaeeueiuie
niaaiiaaeaie; n?aaeiyy aiaeiaay noiia inaaeeia 760 ii.

A n?aaeiaai?ueyo ia naaa?a e thai-ainoiea no?aiu eeeiao oia?aiii-oaieue,
aeaaeiue (n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y –4–0° N, ethey +18–19° N, n?aaeiaa
aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia 600–700 ii).

Ia e?aeiai thai-ainoiea e naaa?i-ainoiea, ia aunioao iaiaa 1500 i,
eeeiao nooie noao?iie/aneee n i?iaeieaeeoaeueiui aea?eei eaoii (n?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a ethey 24° N) e iyaeie aanniaaeiie ceiie (n?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y 0° N). N?aaeiaa aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia 300–400
ii. Ia aunioao 1800–3000 i eeeiao oia?aiii oieiaeiue (n?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y –12° N, ethey +10 N), aeaaeiue (n?aaeiaa aiaeiaia
eiee/anoai inaaeeia 800–900 ii).

A aunieiai?ueyo eeeiao oieiaeiue (n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y –14° N,
ethey +10° N), aeaaeiue (n?aaeiaa aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia aieaa 800
ii). Ceiie a A?iaiee /anoi auiaaeaao niaa, eioi?ue a n?aaeiaai?ueyo e
aunieiai?ueyo aeinoeaaao iiuiinoe 30–100 ni e nio?aiyaony
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy.

Aiaeiua ?ano?nu. Aieueoeinoai ?ae i?eiaaeeaaeeo aannaeio naiie aeeeiiie
?aee A?iaiee A?aen, oaeouae aaeieue a?aieoe n Oo?oeeae e E?aiii e
aiaaeathuae a ?.Eo?o ia oa??eoi?ee Aca?aaeaeaeaia. E?oiiua i?eoiee
A?aena ia oa??eoi?ee A?iaiee – Aoo?yi, Eanao, ?acaeai, A?ia e Ai?ioai.
?aee Aeaaaae, Aanoaa e Aooi – i?aaua i?eoiee Eo?u, aiaaeathuae a
Eanieeneia ii?a. *anoue a?iyineeo ?ae i?eiaaeeaaeeo aiaeinai?iiio
aannaeio ic. Naaai. Ieoaiea ?ae niaaeiia, aeiaeaeaaia e a?oioiaia. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia eaoa e ceiie o?iaaiue ?ae cia/eoaeueii iiieaeaaony.

Ia oa??eoi?ee A?iaiee iaoiaeyony aeanyoee iaeeiaiaeiuo ica?. Naiia
e?oiiia ica?i Naaai i?eo?i/aii e iaaeai?iie eioeiaeia ia ainoiea no?aiu.
O?ac ica?a ninoaaeye 1914 i iaae o.i., ieiuaaeue – 1417 ea. ei. Iinea
?aaeecaoeee aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneiai i?iaeoa a 1948 ieiuaaeue Naaaia
nie?aoeeanue aei 1240 ea. ei, a o?iaaiue nieceeny ia 15 i. Aiineaaenoaee
aai o?iaaiue iiieceeny aua ia 6–7 i.

Ii/au. Ii/aaiiue iie?ia A?iaiee iano?ue. Ii/au ?acaeou i?aeiouanoaaiii
ia aoeeaie/aneeo ii?iaeao. Ia ioiineoaeueii ieceeo aunioao
?ani?ino?aiaiu ai?ii-ao?ua e ai?ii-eaooaiiaua ii/au, ianoaie, a aeieeia
A?aena, – nieiioeu e nieii/aee. A n?aaeiai iiyna ai? oe?iei
i?aaenoaaeaiu ai?iua /a?iicaiu, a ia aieueoeo aunioao ano?a/athony
ai?ii-eoaiaua ii/au.

?anoeoaeueiue ie?. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a A?iaiee eiatho noaiiua
e iieoionouiiua oi?iaoeee. Ia aieaa ieceeo y?onao ?aeueaoa ?acaeou
iieuiiua iieoionouie e ano?a/athony ia?aie/aiiua a?aaeu nieyieiauo e
aoeeeaeii-aeaeocaoiiauo ionouiue. A n?aaeiai ai?iii iiyna aeiieie?otho
ceaeiaua e ?aciio?aaii-ceaeiaua noaie, eioi?ua n aunioie niaiythony
eoaiauie noaiyie e aeueieeneeie eoaaie. A ia/aea 1990-o aiaeia iiae
eanaie auei iaiaa 12% ieiuaaee no?aiu. I?eo?i/aiu iie a iniiaiii e
naaa?i-ainoi/iui e thai-ainoi/iui ?aeiiai. Ia naaa?i-ainoiea
?ani?ino?aiaiu oe?ieieenoaaiiua eana n i?aiaeaaeaieai aeoaa, aoea e
a?aaa e iaaieueoei o/anoeai eeiu, eeaia, ynaiy, ia thai-ainoiea – aieaa
ena?ioeeueiua aeoaiaua eana. A ninoaaa eaniianaaeaeaiee /anoi
ano?a/athony oiiieue e a?aoeeee i?ao, aeeeea ieiaeiaua aea?aauey e
eonoa?ieee (yaeiiy, a?ooa, /a?aoiy, neeaa, eecee, oeiiaiee).
Cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee ia aoeeaie/aneeo ieaoi caieiatho eeoaiiua
?anoeoaeueiinoe eaiaiiua ?innuie. Oei?a A?iaiee ian/eouaaao ie. 3200
aeaeia, ec ieo 106 yiaeaieeia. A?a?aoneay ?aaieia yaeyaony oeaio?ii
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ioaieoeu e ?yaea ae?oaeo eoeueoo?iuo ceaeia.

AEeaioiue ie?. Oaoia A?iaiee aeeth/aao 76 aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo, 304
aeaea ioeoe, 44 aeaea i?aniueathueony, 6 aeaeia caiiiaiaeiuo, 24 aeaea
?ua e ie. 10 oun. aaniicaiii/iuo. A iieoionouiyo iiiai/eneaiiu a?ucoiu
(noneee, oooeai/ee, neaiuo, ian/aiee, iieaaee) e i?aniueathueany (aaaia,
/a?aiaoa, ath?ca, aaaethea), ano?a/athony noaiiie eio, ooanoue aae. A
i?ea?aaeiuo ca?ineyo ?.A?aen aiaeyony ?unue, eaiuoiaue eio, eaaai, oaeae
e iiiaeanoai ioeoe. Oaoia noaiiuo ?aeiiia eiaao noiaenoai n
iieoionouiiie, e?iia oiai, oai /anoi ano?a/athony cayoe e eeneoea, ?aaea
– aiee e aa?noe. Aeey noaiae oeaio?aeueiuo e caiaaeiuo ?aeiiia
oa?aeoa?ai oeuiue caa?ae ia?aaycea, a aeey thaeiuo e thai-ainoi/iuo
?aeiiia – aacia?iaue eicae e iooeii. A ai?ao naaa?i-ainoiea aiaeyony
einoey, eoieoea, ?unue, aaeea, eaniie eio, ano?a/aaony iaaeaaaeue;
eio?iaeooee?iaaiu iyoienoue e aeaai?iaeiue ieaie. A ai?iuo eanao
thai-ainoiea iaeoatho ?unue, eaniie eio, eoieoea, aacia?iaue eicae,
iooeii, eaaai, ano?a/athony iaaeaaaeue, einoey, eaiia?ae. A A?iaiee
aiacaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua aeaeu ioeoe: aeo?aaeue (iaoeeiiaeueiue neiaie
no?aiu, ii-a?iyinee – e?oie), aeno, eo?iiaoea, ia?aiae, oaoa?aa, i?ae,
a?eo, oea?, ia ic. Naaai – ooee e /aeee. A Naaaia aiaeyony oeaiiay
i?iiuneiaay ?uaa eooai (naaaineay oi?aeue), o?aioee, ona/,
eio?iaeooee?iaai eaaeiaeneee nea. A aeieeiao ?ae ia thaa no?aiu
eio?iaeooee?iaaia ioo?ey.

Ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ca iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea a A?iaiee auee
naaaeaiu eana ia ieiuaaee aieaa 30 oun. aa, /oi i?eaaei e aeoeaecaoeee
y?iceiiiuo i?ioeannia, ia?ooaieth yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, ?acaeoeth
i?ioeannia iionouieaaiey, a oii /enea a aannaeia ic. Naaai. ?ac?ooaiu
ianoiiaeoaiey iiiaeo e?oiiuo ieaeiieoathueo e ioeoe, a ?acoeueoaoa
nieceeanue eo /eneaiiinoue e oaaee/eeenue iiioeyoeee a?ucoiia e a?aaeiuo
ianaeiiuo.

E?oiiaeoaa e eiathuaa aaaeiia yeiiiie/aneia e ?ae?aaoeeiiiia cia/aiea
a?iyineia ica?i Naaai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy n/eoaaony ciiie yeieiae/aneiai
aaaenoaey. Eniieueciaaiea aai aiae a e??eaaoeeiiiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo
oeaeyo i?eaaei e cia/eoaeueiiio nieaeaieth aai o?iaiy. Iiiaaeaiea a
aeaaoi?eth caa?yciaiiiai iooiaeaie i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee noiea ?yaea
?ae i?eaaei e yao?ioeeaoeee ica?a, aai «oeaaoaieth» e aeaaee iiiaeo
aeaeia ?ua, a /anoiinoe e nie?auaieth iiioeyoeee naaaineiai eooaia.
Oaia?ue yoio aeae caianai a E?anioth eieao. I?eiyoa aeieain?i/iay
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia ii nianaieth ica?a Naaai. Ia?aii/a?aaeiay
caaea/a naiaeeony e ainnoaiiaeaieth Ai?ioaineiai aiaeio?aieeeua e
no?ieoaeuenoao Ai?ioaineiai ooiiaey, ii eioi?iio a ic. Naaai aoaeao
iinooiaoue aaeaaiaeii 190 iei. eoa. i i?aniie aiaeu. Yoi iicaieeo
iiaeiyoue o?iaaiue ica?a ia ianeieueei iao?ia. A aieaa ioaeaeaiiie
ia?niaeoeaa ieaie?oaony caaa?oaiea no?ieoaeuenoaa i/enoiuo noaioeee a
i?iiuoeaiiuo ai?iaeao Ia?ooie, Aa?aeaien e Aaaa?, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
aannaeia ica?a Naaai. I?aaeiieaaaaony auaeaeeoue n?aaenoaa ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai ia?ea Naaai.

Iaaeaaii?eyoiay yeieiae/aneay ianoaiiaea neiaeeeanue a ie?anoiinoyo
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa «A?iyineay iaaeue» a Aeaaa?aee,
Aaiaaeci?neiai oeie/aneiai eiiaeiaoa e ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia.
Ec-ca ionoonoaey ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee yooaeoeaiinoue ia?a?aaioee
?oaeiiai nu?uey ninoaaeyao anaai 25%. I?e yeno?aeoeee ec iaai iaaee,
iieeaaeaia, cieioa a iooiaeao inoathony oaeea oeaiiua eiiiiiaiou, eae
na?aa?i, ieeaeue, ieaoeiieaeu, na?a, aeaeaci, ieneaeu iaoaeeia.

IANAEAIEA

Ii aeaiiui ia?aiene ianaeaiey 2003, a A?iaiee ec ioeoeeaeueii
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo 3326 oun. /aeiaae, oaeoe/anee i?iaeeaaee 3003 oun.
/aeiaae (a 1989 /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyea 3,3 iei., a 1979 – 3,7
iei.). A 1989 ia aeieth yoie/aneeo a?iyi i?eoiaeeeinue 93,3%. Iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiuie iaiueoeinoaaie auee aca?aaeaeaeaioeu (2,6%), eo?aeu
(1,7%) e ?onneea (1,6%). E?iia oiai, a A?iaiee aeeee oe?aeioeu (0,3%),
anne?eeoeu (0,2%), a?aee (0,1%), a oaeaea aa?ae, a?oceiu, aaei?onu,
iieyee, iaioeu, eeoiaoeu (0,2%). A ?acoeueoaoa yoie/aneeo eiioeeeoia
1989–1993 ii/oe ana aca?aaeaeaeaioeu iieeioee no?aio, a 200 oun. a?iyi n
oa??eoi?ee Aca?aaeaeaeaia ia?anaeeeenue a A?iaieth. Ca iineaaeiea 10 eao
no?aio iieeioee i?eia?ii 955 oun. /aeiaae, i?aeiouanoaaiii a?iyia, a
oaeaea aca?aaeaeaeaioeu, eo?aeu-ionoeueiaia, a?aee, ?onneea, oe?aeioeu,
aa?ae, anne?eeoeu. Aeiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa nieceeanue aei 3%.
N?aaee ieo aeiieie?otho aceaeu e eo?aeu. Eiaaony iaaieueoay iaueia
?onneeo-iieieai – iioiieia iaeiie ec naeo aeooiaiuo o?enoeai,
i?aneaaeiaaaoeony a ?innee e ia?anaeeaoeony a A?iaieth a 19 a.

Aic?anoiay a?oiia aei 15 eao ninoaaeyao 21,1% ianaeaiey, io 15 aei 65
eao – 68,3%, noa?oa 65 eao – 10,6%. Ii ninoiyieth ia 2003 ?iaeaeaaiinoue
ioeaieaaeanue a 12,57 ia 1000 ianaeaiey, nia?oiinoue – 10,16 ia 1000,
eiyooeoeeaio yiea?aoeee – 3,87 ia 1000. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo
aeaiiioeyoeey no?aiu (0,21% a 2001). Eiyooeoeeaio ieaaeai/aneie
nia?oiinoe – 40,86 ia 1000 iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Iaeeaeaaiay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie – 66,68 eao (ioae/ei – 62,41, aeaiuei –
71,17).

sscue. A?iyineee ycue ioiineony e naiuea eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia.
Eeanne/aneee a?iyineee ycue (ae?aaiaa?iyineee a?aaa? – ienueiaiiue ycue)
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecoaony oieueei a aiaineoaeaiee. Nia?aiaiiue
eeoa?aoo?iue a?iyineee ycue eiaao aeaa iniiaiuo aaoae:
ainoi/ii-a?iyineee ycue (iacuaaaiue oaeaea a?a?aoneei), ia eioi?ii
aiai?yo aeeoaee A?iaiee e a?iyia, i?iaeeaathuea a ae?oaeo no?aiao NIA e
a E?aia, e caiaaeii-a?iyineee ycue, ia eioi?ii aiai?yo a?iyia, aeeaouea
eee ?iaeeaoeany a Oo?oeee. A?iyineee aeoaaeo aue nicaeai i?inaaoeoaeai,
o/aiui, iiiaoii Ian?iiii Iaooioeai a 405–406.

?aeeaey. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey A?iaiee – o?enoeaia.
A?iyia auee ia?auaiu a o?enoeainoai a 301 aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe
A?eai?ey I I?inaaoeoaey (a?i. A?eai? Eonaai?e/, aiineaaenoaee aue
i?e/eneai e eeeo nayouo). A?iaiey noaea ia?aie no?aiie a ie?a, i?eiyaoae
o?enoeainoai a ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee. Oioy A?iyineay
aiinoieueneay oea?eiaue (eiiaaea aa iacuaatho ii eiaie A?eai?ey I
A?iyii-A?eai?eaineie) ecia/aeueii auea naiinoiyoaeueiie, iia
iiaeaea?aeeaaea nayce n ae?oaeie o?enoeaineeie oea?eaaie aieioue aei
Oaeeeaeiineiai (451) e Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai (553) Anaeaineeo niai?ia, a
caoai nio?aieea oaniua nayce oieueei n iiiioeceoneeie oea?eaaie –
Eiioneie (Aaeiao), Yoeiineie e sseiaeoneie (Ne?ey) (). A?iyineoth
aiinoieueneoth oea?eiaue aicaeaaeyao aa?oiaiue iao?ea?o e eaoieeein anao
a?iyi (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy – Aa?aaei II), ?aceaeaioeey eioi?iai n 1441
iaoiaeeony a Y/ieaaeceia. Eaoieeeinaoo anao a?iyi a Y/ieaaeceia
oi?iaeueii iiae/eiythony Eeeeeeeneee Eaoieeeinao (?aceaeaioeey a
1293–1930 iaoiaeeeanue a a.Nen (nia?. a.Eicai, Oo?oeey), a n 1930 – a
a.Aioeeean (Eeaai)) e aeaa iao?ea?oee (Ea?onaeeineay, iniiaaiiay a 1311,
e Eiinoaioeiiiieueneay, iniiaaiiay a 1461), a oaeaea 36 aia?oee (8 – a
A?iaiee, 1 – a Iaai?iii Ea?aaaoa, inoaeueiua – a oao no?aiao ie?a, aaea
eiathony a?iyineea iaueiu).

N 12 a. iaiiiai/eneaiiay /anoue a?iyi noaea i?eciaaaoue aa?oiaainoai
?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e Iaiu ?eineiai. A 1740 iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua
aeiieieeaineeie ienneiia?aie I?aeaia Eenona (eacoeoia) iie
iauaaeeieeenue a A?iyineoth eaoiee/aneoth oea?eiaue n iao?ea?oae
?aceaeaioeeae a a.Aae?oo (Eeaai). Eae e A?iyineay aiinoieueneay
oea?eiaue, iia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo ainoi/iuo oea?eaae, ia?yaeu e
eeoo?aey eioi?uo niaa?oathony ia a?iyineii ycuea. A ia?eiae
nouanoaiaaiey NNN? A?iyineay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue iiaeaa?aaeanue
i?aneaaeiaaieyi, e oieueei a 1991 a A?iaiee aiiaue aue ioe?uo
eaoiee/aneee i?aeeia?eao a a.Athi?e (auaoee Eaieiaeai). A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy a no?aia ian/eouaaaony 180–220 oun. a?iyi-eaoieeeia, eioi?ua
ianaeytho a iniiaiii naaa?iua ?aeiiu A?iaiee.

?ani?ino?aiaieth i?ioanoaioecia n?aaee a?iyi niinianoaiaaee aia?eeaineea
ienneiia?u-eiia?aaaoeeiiaeenou, i?eauaoea a A?iaieth ec Ainoiia a 1830.
Auee nicaeaiu e nouanoaotho aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie iiiai a?iyineeo
i?ioanoaioneeo eiia?aaaoeee, eioi?ua i?iaiaeyo ienneiia?neoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. A A?iaiee aeaenoaotho iyoeaeanyoieee (ie. 25 oun.
/ae.), Naeaeaoaee Eaaiau (ie. 7,5 oun. /ae.), A?iyineay aaaiaaee/aneay
oea?eiaue (ie. 5 oun. /ae.), o?enoeaia-oa?eciaou (ie. 3 oun. /ae.),
aaaiaaeueneea o?enoeaia-aaioenou (ie. 2 oun. /ae.) (), Oea?eiaue Eenona
O?enoa nayouo noaeiiai aeiy (ii?iiiu; io 1,5 aei 2 oun. /ae.),
aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai aeiy (0,8 oun. /ae.). Ec ae?oaeo o?enoeai
i?aaenoaaeaiu ianoi?eaia, eioi?ua aeecee ii naiei aeiaiaoai e
iiiioeceoai (ie. 6 oun. /ae.) e iieieaia (ie. 5 oun. /ae.) –
i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeiiai ec oa/aiee aeooiaiiai o?enoeainoaa a ?onneii
noa?iia?yae/anoaa. I?aaineaaiua a A?iaiee iiae/eiaiu Iineianeie
iao?ea?oee, iaeiaei ii /eneaiiinoe iie onooiatho iieieaiai. Aieueoay
/anoue aeeaoueo a A?iaiee i?aaineaaiuo e iieieai nin?aaeioi/aiu ia
naaa?a no?aiu, a oi a?aiy eae aieueoeinoai i?ioanoaioia ianaeytho
e?oiiua ai?iaea.

N?aaee eo?aeia aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueioth iaueio ia?acotho aceaeu
(eaceaeu), ?aeeaeiciua aa?iaaiey eioi?uo aeeth/atho yeaiaiou
ci?iano?ecia, eneaia e aieiecia). Eaceaeu ianaeytho, i?aaeaea anaai,
naeueneea ?aeiiu a ai?ao A?aaaoea, e naaa?i-caiaaeo io A?aaaiA. Niaeanii
aeaiiui ia?aiene ianaeaiey a 1989 eo eiee/anoai aeinoeaaei 51,9 oun.
/ae., ii ii iineaaeiei ioeaieai, iii ninoaaeyao 30–40 oun.

A ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca eneai a A?iaiee aue
?ani?ino?aiai a iniiaiii n?aaee aca?aaeaeaeaioeaa e eo?aeia, iaeiaei a
?acoeueoaoa ea?aaaoneiai eiioeeeoa aieueoeinoai ionoeueiai auei
auioaeaeaii inoaaeoue no?aio. Iaeaieaa e?oiiay ionoeueiaineay iaueia,
aeeth/athuay eo?aeia, e?aioeaa e auoiaeoeaa ec no?ai Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea,
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nio?aieeanue oieueei a A?aaaia. Ionoeueiaineay
eo?aeneay iaueia, i?aaeaea anaai a ?aeiia Aaiayia, ian/eouaaao anaai
ianeieueei nioai /aeiaae, aieueoeinoai ec ieo i?eiaaeeaaeao e noiieoai
oaoeeoneiai oieea. Ia ainoiea e naaa?a no?aiu, aeaaiui ia?acii a
i?ea?aie/iuo naeaieyo, aeeaoo iaaieueoea a?oiiu
ionoeueiai-aca?aaeaeaeaioeaa, a a ai?iaeao ian/eouaaaony aieaa 200 /ae.
aaoaeoia.

A A?iaiee nouanoaotho oaeaea iaiiiai/eneaiiua e?eoiaeoneay e ycu/aneay
iaueiu. Ian/eouaaaony oaeaea 0,5–1 oun. iineaaeiaaoaeae eoaeaecia.

Ioiioaiea a iauanoaa e aieueoeinoao ?aeeaeiciuo iaiueoeinoa
aeaienoaaiiia. Eiinoeoooeey aa?aioe?oao naiaiaeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, a
o./. i?aai eniiaaaeiaaoue ethaoth ?aeeaeth eeai ia eniiaaaeiaaoue
ieeaeie, a nouanoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao ?acaeaeaiea
oea?eae e ainoaea?noaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a A?iaiee aeaenoaoao 57
?aeeaeiciuo i?aaiecaoeee, ioe?uou neiaaiaa, a oaeaea oea?eae e
iieaeueiua aeiia ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeiciuo iaiueoeinoa. Aianoa n oai, ca
A?iyineie aiinoieueneie oea?eiaueth caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieai noaoon
iaoeeiiaeueiie oea?eae a?iyineiai ia?iaea, a oaeaea iaeiaeaiu
ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey (iai?eia?, cai?ao ia i?icaeeoeci) ia
?aeeaeicioth naiaiaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo eiioannee.

 Ai?iaea. Noieeoea A?iaiee ai?iae A?aaai iniiaai a 8 a. aei i.y. A iai
i?iaeeaatho 1258 oun. /aeiaae (2002). Aoi?ia ianoi ii /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey caieiaao ai?iae Aaiaaeci? (n 1935 ii 1992 Ee?iaaeai) n
ianaeaieai 147 oun. /aeiaae. A ai?iaea Athi?e (n 1924 ii 1992 Eaieiaeai)
i?iaeeaatho 125 oun. /aeiaae. Aei aeaeaa?y 1988 ii aue aoi?ui ii
aaee/eia ai?iaeii A?iyineie NN?, ii neeueii iino?aaeae ai a?aiy
Nieoaeneiai caieao?ynaiey. Iaeei ec ae?aaiaeoeo ai?iaeia A?iaiee
Aaaa?oaiao ian/eouaaao 66 oun. aeeoaeae, ?aeiiiue oeaio? ?acaeai – 63,8
oun.

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