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Природа и экономика Киргизии

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I?e?iaea e yeiiiieea Ee?aecee

EE?AECEss (ee?aec. Eu?aucnoai), ?anioaeeea Ee?aecey, ainoaea?noai a
Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. A?aie/eo n Eacaonoaiii ia naaa?a, Eeoaai – ia
ainoiea e thai-ainoiea, Oaaeaeeeenoaiii – ia thai-caiaaea e Ocaaeenoaiii
– ia caiaaea. N 1936 ii 1991 no?aia aoiaeeea a ninoaa NNN? ia i?aaao
nithciie Ee?aecneie Niaaoneie Nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?anioaeeee. 31 aaaonoa
1991 auea i?iaicaeaoaia iacaaeneiinoue Ee?aecee.

I?e?iaea

?aeueao ianoiinoe. Ee?aecey – ai?iay no?aia. Aoeueoay /anoue Ee?aecee
aoiaeeo a ai?ioth nenoaio Oyiue-Oaiy, e oieueei e?aeiee thai-caiaae
ioiineony e Iaie?i-Aeath. Aunoay oi/ea – iee Iiaaaeu, eee
Aeaeaiaeo-*ieono (7349 i), ?aniieiaeaia a Oyiue-Oaia ia ainoiea no?aiu,
ia a?aieoea n Eeoaai. Iiiaea o?aaou Oyiue-Oaiy – Oaeanneee Aeaoao,
Ee?aecneee, Ethia?e-Aea-Oii, Oa?neae-Aea-Oii e ae?. – eiatho
i?aeiouanoaaiii noaoe?ioiia i?inoe?aiea. E?oiiue Oa?aaineee o?aaao
i?eaioe?iaai n naaa?i-caiaaea ia thai-ainoie, a o?aaao Eaeoae-Oii – n
thai-caiaaea ia naaa?i-ainoie (aaeieue a?aieoeu n Eeoaai), n
aaeeinoaaiiui ia?aaaeii a i?aaeaeao Oyiue-Oaiy Oi?oaa?o (3752 i).
Iaaeaeo o?aaoaie Ethia?e-Aea-Oii e Oa?neae-Aea-Oii iaoiaeeony iaaeai?iay
aiaaeeia, aeii eioi?ie caiyoi e?oiiui ica?ii Ennue-Eoeue, o.i.
«Ee?aecneei ii?ai». E naaa?o io Ee?aecneiai o?aaoa ?aniieiaeaia
i?aaeai?iay *oeneay aiaaeeia, iaeaieaa inaiaiiay e aonoiianaeaiiay
/anoue ?anioaeeee. Iaoe?iay Oa?aaineay aiaaeeia caoiaeeo a i?aaeaeu
Ee?aecee eeoue ia?eoa?e/aneeie /anoyie. A ee?aecneie /anoe Iaie?i-Aeay
i?aiaeaaeatho noaoe?ioiua yeaiaiou ?aeueaoa – Aeaeneee o?aaao, Aeaeneay
aeieeia, Oo?eanoaineee e Caaeaeneee (aunoay oi/ea – iee Eaieia, 7134 i)
o?aaou. A ainoi/iie /anoe Caaeaeneee o?aaao ia?anaeaaony Iaie?neei
o?aeoii o ia?aaaea Eucue-A?o. A aa?oiai y?ona ai? ?acaeoi ieaaeaiaiea.
Niaaiaay eeiey ?aniieaaaaony ia aunioao ie. 3 ei ia ia?eoa?e/aneeo
o?aaoao e 4,0–4,5 ei – ia aioo?aiieo o?aaoao. I?aaenoaaeaiu ?aciua oeiu
eaaeieeia. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ec ieo – aeaiae?eoiaua (THaeiue Eiueue/ae
aeeeiie 59,5 ei e Naaa?iue Eiueue/ae – 38,2 ei), eiathuea ianeieueei
eaaeieeia-i?eoieia. E?iia oiai, ?ani?ino?aiaiu aeieeiiua, ea?iaua e
aeny/ea eaaeieee, a oaeaea oa?aeoa?iua aeey Oyiue-Oaiy eaaeieee ieineeo
aa?oei. Oyiue-Oaiue aiaao aiaeiuie ?ano?naie e yaeyaony iniiaiui
iinoaaueeii aeaae aeey ie?oaeathueo a?eaeiuo ?aaiei.

Aiaeiua ?ano?nu. A i?aaeaeao Ee?aecee ian/eouaaaony aieaa 3000 ica?, a
oii /enea aeeaiieniia ica?i Ennue-Eoeue – iaeii ec iaeaieaa aeoaieeo a
ie?a (iaeneiaeueiay aeoaeia 668 i). E?oiiua ?aee – *o, Ia?ui e Oaean –
aa?oo ia/aei a aunieiai?ueyo. *o i?ioaeaao ia naaa?a, ii iae ia
i?ioyaeaiee 145 ei i?ioiaeeo a?aieoea Ee?aecee e Eacaonoaia. ?aea Ia?ui,
neeaaynue n ?.Ea?aaea?ueae, ia?acoao Nu?aea?ueth, eioi?ay oa/ao ia
ainoie, a Oa?aaineoth aeieeio. Oaean ae?aie?oao naaa?i-ainoi/ioth
Ee?aeceth.

Eeeiao. A Ee?aecee eiioeiaioaeueiue eeeiao. Caiaaeiua e naaa?iua neeiiu
ai? iieo/atho aieueoa inaaeeia. Eiee/anoai inaaeeia oaaee/eaaaony n
aunioie aei 5000 i. Ia aoeueoeo aunioao inaaeee auiaaeatho a aeaea
niaaa, e aeaaea eaoii aiciiaeiu caii?icee. N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay noiia
inaaeeia ia naaa?iuo neeiiao ie. 750 ii, ia thai-caiaaeiuo neeiiao
Oa?aaineiai o?aaoa – 950 ii, a ia naaa?i-ainoi/iuo – 230 ii.

N?aaeiea oaiia?aoo?u yiaa?y eieaaethony io –2° aei –8° N a aeieeiao e io
–8° aei –20° N a n?aaeiaaunioiuo ai?ao. A aunieiai?ueyo n?aaeiea
yiaa?neea oaiia?aoo?u – ie. –28° N. Ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao Ee?aecee, e?iia
aunieiai?ee, ceiie /anoi auaatho iooaiaee. Eaoi aea?eia e nooia, ni
n?aaeieie oaiia?aoo?aie ethey a aeieeiao 20–27° N, a n?aaeiaai?ueyo
15–17° N, a a aunieiai?ueyo 5° C e ieaea.

?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?. Oei?a Ee?aecee ioee/aaony aieueoei
?aciiia?aceai, i?e/ai ia iaiaa 1/4 anao aeaeia yiaeaieee. Aeey
Oyiue-Oaiy oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea eaniiai iiyna ec oyiueoaineie aee, eioi?ue
auoa niaiyaony ca?ineyie a?/e e noaaeueieeneeie eoaaie. A naaa?iii
ai?iii ia?aieaiee Oa?aaineie aeieeiu ianoaie nio?aieeenue i?aoiieiaeiua
eana (ec a?aoeeiai i?aoa). A aunieiai?ueyo ?ani?ino?aiaiu noaaeueieeneea
e aeueieeneea eoaa, eniieueciaaaoeany ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao iiae
eaoiea ianoaeua aeey iaaoe. Ia naiuo aunieeo o?iaiyo ?aeueaoa oe?iei
?acaeo noaieaaeueiue iiyn n eaiaiiuie ?innuiyie e niaaeieeaie.
O?aayienoua ?anoaiey oai e?aeia iaei/eneaiiu, iau/iu ioe e eeoaeieee.

A i?aaeai?ueyo ?ani?ino?aiaiu yoaia?iaua ionouie, iieoionouie e nooea
noaie, auoa niaiythueany eonoa?ieeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth e
?aaeeieanueyie.

A aunieiai?ueyo iaeoatho ai?iue eicae oaea, ai?iue aa?ai a?oa?, aa?n,
eaiaiiay eoieoea, e?aniue aiee, na?ue e e?aniue ai?iua no?ee. A eaniii
ai?iii iiyna ?ani?ino?aiaiu einoey, aiee, ai?iinoae, eaaai, ?unue, ao?ue
iaaeaaaeue, eeneoea, eoieoea. Aeey noaiiuo i?aaeai?iuo ?aeiiia e
i?eeaaathueo ?aaiei oa?aeoa?iu iiiai/eneaiiua aeaeu a?ucoiia, aeeth/ay
aeaeoiai noneeea, aieueoiai oooeai/eea, e?aniioainooth ian/aieo,
?acee/iua i?aniueathueany, ec eiiuoiuo – aeaeae?ai, ec ioeoe –
eo?iiaoee, ae?ioa e ae?.

Ianaeaiea

Ii aeaiiui ia?aiene 1989, iauaa ianaeaiea Ee?aecee ninoaaeyei 4291 oun.
/aeiaae (a 1979 – 3529 oun.). E 1998 /enei aeeoaeae ?anioaeeee aic?inei
aei 4665 oun. /aeiaae. Iaeioi?ia caiaaeeaiea ?inoa ianaeaiey a 1989–1995
naycaii n yiea?aoeeae ?onneeo e ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaei?aiiuo
ia?iaeia, iaoneiaeaiiie iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuie o?aieyie e yeiiiie/aneeie
i?e/eiaie. Naiia aieueoia /enei iieeioaoeo no?aio i?eoiaeeony ia 1993
(144 oun.) e 1994 (78 oun.). A ?an/aoa ia 1000 aeeoaeae ?iaeaeaaiinoue
ninoaaeyao 22,2, a nia?oiinoue 8,6. Ec-ca yiea?aoeee i?e?ino ianaeaiey
aaeaaiaeii nie?auaaony ia 0,05%. Aieaa 40% ianaeaiey – iieiaea 15 eao.

Noieeoea no?aiu, Aeoeae, yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei ai?iaeii Ee?aecee, aaea a
1989 i?iaeeaaei 616 oun. /aeiaae. Iineieueeo aoeueoay /anoue
?onneiycu/iuo iea?aioia oacaeaao ec ai?iaeia, e 1998 /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey Aeoeaea nieceeanue aei 608 oun. /aeiaae. Aoi?ie ii aaee/eia
ai?iae – Io, eiaao ianaeaiea 213 oun. /aeiaae. 67% anaai ianaeaiey
i?iaeeaaao a naeueneie ianoiinoe, 33% – a ai?iaeao.

Yoie/aneee ninoaa. ssae?i ianaeaiey Ee?aecee ninoaaeytho ee?aecu –
ia?iae, i?eiaaeeaaeauee e oth?eneie a?oiia. A 1989 eo /eneaiiinoue
ninoaaeyea 2248 oun. /aeiaae, eee 52,4% anaai ianaeaiey, a a ethia 1998
– 2737 oun. /aeiaae, eee 58,6%. Ee?aecu i?iaeeaatho ia anae oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu e i?aiaeaaeatho a aieueoeinoaa naeueneeo ?aeiiia. *eneaiiinoue e
oaeaeueiue aan ?onneeo ca aiaeiae/iue ia?eiae nie?aoeeenue n 923 oun.
(21,5%) aei 786 oun. /aeiaae (17,1%). Aieueoeinoai ?onneeo i?iaeeaatho a
ai?iaeao. Oaaee/eeanue /eneaiiinoue ocaaeia (n 554 oun. aei 644 oun.
/aeiaae), neiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo a iniiaiii a Ioneie iaeanoe. N?aaee
ae?oaeo yoie/aneeo a?oii, eiathueo cia/eoaeueioth /eneaiiinoue (io 30
aei 100 oun. /aeiaae), neaaeoao oiiiyiooue oe?aeioeaa, iaioeaa, oaoa?,
eacaoia, aeoiaai, oeao? e oaaeaeeeia. N?aaee iieeioaoeo no?aio iinea
1991 aieueoeinoai ninoaaeyee ?onneea e i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo neaayineeo
ia?iaeia.

Ee?aecu. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea Ee?aecee ii?aaeaeeei oa?aeoa?
oi?ie?iaaiey ee?aecneiai yoiina. Iaeaieaa ae?aaieie ec yoiiia?acothueo
yaeythony ieaiaia naeia e onoiae, ianaeyaoeo Oyiue-Oaiue a I ouny/aeaoee
aei i.y. Ai I ouny/aeaoee i.y. ia oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee aeeee ?acee/iua
oth?eneea ieaiaia (oth?aaoe, ea?aoee, ea?aeaieaeneea oth?ee). A 11–14
aa. /a?ac oa??eoi?eth Ee?aecee i?ioiaeeee aieiu iea?aoeee ia?iaeia ec
aeoaei Oeaio?aeueiie Acee (ea?aeeoae, iiiaieu, oaoa?u e ae?.). Eae
aaeeiue yoiin ee?aecu aunooiatho n 16 a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, iiieii 2,7
iei. ee?aecia, i?iaeeaathueo a ?anioaeeea, i?eia?ii 300 oun. aeeaoo a
Ocaaeenoaia, Eacaonoaia, Oaaeaeeeenoaia e ?innee, aua 300 oun. – a Eeoaa
(a Neiueoecyi-Oeao?neii aaoiiiiiii ?aeiia) e ia ii?aaeaeaiiia oi/ii
/enei a Aoaaienoaia (ia Iaie?a). Iaaieueoea a?oiiu ee?aecia i?iaeeaatho
a Iiiaieee, Oo?oeee e Iaeenoaia. Aei iiyaeaiey a N?aaeiae Acee eneaia,
i?eianaiiiai a?aaneeie caaiaaaoaeyie a 8 a., iniiaioth ?ieue a
?aeeaeiciie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie ia?iaea ea?aee oaiaiu. Iaeioi?ua
ee?aecu i?eiyee ionoeueiainoai a 8 a., iaeiaei ia?auaiea anaai ia?iaea a
oeaeii caaa?oeeinue eeoue a 19 a.

Ee?aecneee ycue i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ee?aecnei-eui/aeneie (naaa?i-ainoi/iie)
a?oiia oth?eneeo ycueia e oanii naycai n eacaoneei. A naiie Ee?aecee
?acee/atho naaa?ioth e thaeioth a?oiiu aeeaeaeoia. Ia?aiia/aeueii
a?aoe/aneoth iniiao ee?aecneie ienueiaiiinoe ninoaaeye a?aaneee aeoaaeo;
a 1926 aue inouanoaeai aa ia?aaiae ia eaoeineee aeoaaeo, a a 1940
iineaaeiee aue caiaiai ?onneei. A 1992 ii eieoeeaoeaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa aue
i?iaicaeaoai aica?ao e eaoeineiio aeoaaeoo. Iaeiaei oeiainiaua
o?oaeiinoe caiaaeeytho yoio i?ioeann, iiyoiio ee?eeeeoea e ?onneee ycue
i?iaeieaeatho eiaoue oe?ieia oiaeaeaiea a no?aia.

Ocaaee noaee naeeoueny ia oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee iinea caaiaaaiey aa
Eieaiaeneei oainoaii a ia/aea 19 a. A 19–20 aa. iaaeaeo ee?aecaie e
ocaaeaie i?ienoiaeeee noieeiiaaiey ia iaoeeiiaeueiie ii/aa; iineaaeiea
eiioeeeou oaeiai ?iaea ioiinyony e 1990. Iaeaieaa neiaeiie inoaaony
neooaoeey a Ioneie iaeanoe. Ia naaa?a, aeec a?aieoeu n Eacaonoaiii,
nin?aaeioi/aiu eacaoneea iinaeaiey. Aoeueoay /anoue oeao?ia,
i?iaeeaathueo ia oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee, iea?e?iaaea ec Eeoay iinea
ia?aciaaiey EI? a 1949. Oai, aaea ocaaee, eacaoe eee oeao?u ninoaaeytho
aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey, ia eo ?iaeiii ycuea ecaeathony aacaou e aaaeaony
i?aiiaeaaaiea a oeieao.

?onneea ia/aee naeeoueny a Ee?aecee iinea caaiaaaiey ?inneae naaa?iie
/anoe no?aiu a 1861. E 1876 auea i?eniaaeeiaia oaeaea aa thaeiay /anoue,
e oiaaea aea oaaee/eeny i?eoie ?onneeo ia?anaeaioeaa. Oea?neia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?acaeaaaei ei caiee ee?aecia, /oi iaiaeiie?aoii
i?eaiaeeei e nou/eai ianoiiai ianaeaiey n ?onneeie. Iaeaieaa na?ueaciia
ec oaeeo noieeiiaaiee i?iecioei a Aiaeeaeaia a 1916.

?onneee ycue a Ee?aecee yaeyaony ycueii iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauaiey. A
1989 auee i?eiyou ?aoaiey, noaaeaoea ee?aecneee ycue a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia
iieiaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e ?onneiio. Aianoa n ae?oaeie i?iyaeaieyie
aioe?onneeo iano?iaiee yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi iiiaea ?onneiycu/iua
aeeoaee iieeioee no?aio. Oai ia iaiaa ?onneay aeeanii?a – naiay e?oiiay
ec iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa a Ee?aecee, iia nin?aaeioi/aia aeaaiui
ia?acii a Aeoeaea.

Ae?oaea iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa. N?aaee ae?oaeo yoie/aneeo a?oii
neaaeoao iacaaoue iaioeaa, eioi?ua auee aeaii?oe?iaaiu ec Iiaieaeuey ai
a?aiy Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Oioy o iaioeaa eiathony naie oeieu e aacaou,
iiiaea ec ieo iinea iauyaeaiey iacaaeneiinoe Ee?aecee yiea?e?iaaee ia
enoi?e/aneoth ?iaeeio. Oaaeaeeee, e?aiiycu/iue ia?iae, nin?aaeioi/aiu a
iniiaiii a ?aeiiao, i?eiueathueo e a?aieoea Oaaeaeeeenoaia. Eeoaeneea
ionoeueiaia – aeoiaaia – aia?aua iiyaeeenue ia oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee a
1877, iinea ?aca?iia aeoiaaineiai ainnoaiey a Eeoaa. Iie aei neo ii?
aiai?yo ia aeeaeaeoa eeoaeneiai ycuea.

Yeiiiieea Eu?aucnoaia

Ee?aecey – eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iay no?aia. Iinea 1991 yeiiiieea
Ee?aecee anooieea ia iooue ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee. I?e niaaoneie aeanoe
Ee?aecey a iniiaiii neoaeeea enoi/ieeii nu?uey, eioi?ia ioi?aaeyeinue ia
ia?a?aaioeo a ae?oaea ?aaeiiu NNN?. Aei eiioea 1991 ?anioaeeea ia iiaea
naiinoiyoaeueii yenii?oe?iaaoue e eiii?oe?iaaoue oiaa?u e anooiaoue a
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey n ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie. A na?aaeeia 1990-o
aiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai noaei aeoeaii aanoe ia?aaiai?u i caeeth/aiee
oi?aiauo niaeaoaiee n ae?oaeie no?aiaie e i nicaeaiee niaianoiuo
eiiiaiee a oaeeo iaeanoyo, eae ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, noaieino?iaiea,
?acaaaeea e yeieoaoaoeey yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia.

Iinea i?eia?aoaiey iacaaeneiinoe a 1991a. Eu?aucneay ?anioaeeea
i?enooieea e ia?aeeaeueiiio ia?aoiaeo e aeaiie?aoe/aneie nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Iano?iaiea auei
iioeienoe/iui. Eu?aucnoai iienuaaeny eae «ino?iaie aeaiie?aoee»
Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, ca?aaioaa iaeia?aiea ni noi?iiu IAO e Anaie?iiai
Aaiea. Aeiii?u e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua einoeooou aiciaa?aaeeee
no?aoaaeth ?aoi?i eueaioiuie e?aaeeoaie e a?aioaie, yaeaoeieny aaniiui
aeiiieiaieai e athaeaeaoo. N 1992 ii 2000 aa. Eu?aucnoai iieo/ee 1,7
ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia a ea/anoaa aiaoiae iiiiue a yeaeaaeaioa 370
aeieea?ia ia /aeiaaea.

Oai ia iaiaa, ia?aoiae ieacaeny iaeaaeei, ?acoeueoaou aa?uee?iaaeenue.
Iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue o?e oacu.

N 1991 ii 1995 aa. – ino?ia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e aeioiaeia niaiaei
n ?aceei ?inoii /enea ethaeae, aeinoeaoeo /a?ou aaaeiinoe (ieiei 50%
ianaeaiey), ia?aaainoai aeia?eioeyoeeae, ca eioi?uie iineaaeiaaea
ia?aiia/aeueiay iae?iyeiiiie/aneay noaaeeecaoeey.

N 1996 ii 1999 aa. iaaethaeaeanue yeiiiie/aneay noaaeeecaoeey, ?ino
i?ienoiaeee a ia?aie/aiiuo naeoi?ao (naeueneia oicyenoai, cieioiaeiau/a
e yia?aaoeea). Oai ia iaiaa, aunieee athaeaeao e iie?uoea athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa naeaeaee yeiiiieeo /?acau/aeii oycaeiie. I?ienoaaeoee a 1998
– 1999 aa. e?ecen aiciee a iniiaiii ii i?e/eia iaaaea ?inneeneiai ?oaey.

N 2000 ii 2002 aa. iaaethaeaaony i?iaeieaeathueeny ?ino, caiaaeeaiea
eioeyoeee, nie?auaiea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa, noaaeeecaoeey eo?na iaiaia
aaetho, ii i?e yoii ia?anoaao i?iaeaia aiaoiaai aeieaa. Aiaeec ?inoa,
i?iaaaeaiiue IAO, iieacae, /oi ca naiue eao n iiiaioa ia/aea ?inoa AAI n
1996 a. eu?aucneay yeiiiieea ?inea a n?aaeiai ia 4.7% a aiae a ?aaeueiii
ecia?aiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yeiiiieea ia?aaeeaaao iaeioi?ua ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
o?oaeiinoe:

Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey enoi/ieeia ?inoa. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino a Eu?aucnoaia
iiaeao noaoue onoie/eaui, oieueei anee ii aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue n?aco ai
iiiaeo, a ia a ianeieueeeo, eae nae/an, naeoi?ao yeiiiieee. Yoi aeieaeii
naeaeaoue yeiiiieeo eoaea iaiaa oycaeiie e aiaoiei iio?ynaieyi, eioi?uo
neeoeii iiiai aeey oaeie iaaieueoie e i/aiue ioe?uoie yeiiiieee. Yoi
oaeaea oaa?aaeao io iiaoi?aiey neooaoeee 2002 aiaea, eiaaea ian/anoiue
neo/ae a cieioiaeiauaathuae eiiiaiee «Eoioi?» a eoia n aeiaeaeeeaui
aiaeii (iaaeaaii?eyoiui aeey yenii?oa yeaeo?iyia?aee e ?acaeoey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa) i?eaaee e io?eoeaoaeueiiio ?inoo AAI.

Oaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee. Eiaanoeoeee a iniiaiie eaieoae a 2002 a.
ninoaaeee oieueei 17% AAI, /oi i/aiue iaei aeey ?acaeaathuaeny no?aiu,
iaoeaeaiiie ia 5-6% aaeaaiaeiue ?ino AAI. Aei neo ii? no?aia iieaaaeanue
ia eaieoae, aeeoioee?iaaiiue a i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae, eioi?ue a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy i/aiue auno?i aii?oece?oaony. Yoi iniaaiii i/aaeaeii a oaeeo
iaeanoyo, eae naeueneia oicyenoai, e??eaaoeey, aei?iae, naoe
yia?ainiaaaeaiey, nioeeaeueiay eio?ano?oeoo?a e o.ae. Aaaeii caiaoeoue,
/oi oaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa
iauaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eeeiaoa a no?aia. Yoi caaea/a
iaiiiai neiaeiaa, /ai ?aaeecaoeey ianeieueeeo e?oiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia (a no?aia ia oae iiiai iiaeiaiuo aiciiaeiinoae), oioy yoi e
nicaeano onoie/eaoth iniiao aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iiaeiaiiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eeeiaoa iaaiciiaeii aeinoe/ue oieueei
i?e iiiiue /enoi yeiiiie/aneeo ia?, caeanue iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeaiea
eiiieaeniuo aeaenoaee a noa?ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey,
aaciianiinoe e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

?anoe?aiea yenii?oa. Oceee aioo?aiiee ?uiie canoaaeyao eneaoue iooe
auoiaea eu?aucneeo i?iaeoeoia ia ?uiee ae?oaeo no?ai. Aeey yoeo oeaeae
iniaoth aaaeiinoue i?eia?aoaao onoaiiaeaiea niioaaonoaothuaai
?aaeiiaeueiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ia?aoaiiua aii?inu a?aieoe e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ai acaeiiioiioaieyo n
ninaaeyie ia?aie/eaatho aeinooi e iiaui iioaioeeaeueiui ?uieai e
naea?aeeaatho onoie/eaoth aeiau/o e eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.
Ionoonoaea iaaeeaaeauaai ?aaeiiaeueiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a Oeaio?aeueiie
Acee ?acee/iuie niiniaaie aeeyao ia aiciiaeiinoe ?aoaiey ino?uo i?iaeai
?aaeiia, naycaiiuo n iaania/aieai aiaeie, yia?aeae, ?acaeoeai
eio?ano?oeoo?u aei?ia. Yoi aeeyao ia yeiiiieeo Eu?aucneie ?anioaeeee e
ae?oaeo no?ai, a oaeaea iaaoaii neacuaaaony ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaea,
iaania/aiee aaciianiinoe e naiaiaeu ia?aaeaeaeaiey ethaeae.

?acaeoea iaeeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana e naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Yoe naeoi?a
yaeythony iaeaieaa aaaeiuie n oi/ee c?aiey nie?auaiey aaaeiinoe, oae eae
aieueoeinoai aiciiaeiinoae caiyoinoe e iieo/aiey aeioiaea
neiioeaio?e?iaaiu eiaiii a yoie yeiiiie/aneie noa?a.

?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a ea?atho cia/eioth ?ieue /a?ac
niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth /anoiiai naeoi?a, iaania/eaay i?e yoii oeaeaaia
?aciauaiea eiathueony ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?ano?nia ia ioaeaeu iaeaieaa
oycaeiuo a?oii ianaeaiey.

?ino yeiiiieee Eu?aucneie ?anioaeeee a ia?aii eaa?oaea 2004 a. aeinoea
5,7 i?ioeaioa, aeaiiino?e?oy onoie/eaue ?ino, ia/aaoeeny a i?ioeii
aiaeo. Naiue nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aian iaeaieaa
aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueeny naeoi? oneoa. Iiieii aeiau/e cieioa ia
ianoi?iaeaeaiee «Eoioi?», ia aeieth eioi?ie i?eoiaeeony 1,1 i?ioeaioa
i?e?inoa AAI, i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ia ioiinyuaany e cieioo,
oaeaea aeaiiino?e?iaaei i?iaeieaeathueeny ?ino. Ianiio?y ia yoi, iauee
o?iaaiue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee inoaaaeny ieceei, n aaeeinoaaiiui iuooeiui
oaaee/aieai a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee a
yia?ai-au?aaaouaathuee naeoi?. Nio?aiyeny ieceee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee, i?e
yoii iio?aaeoaeueneea oeaiu (n ia?oa ii aeaeaa?ue) aic?inee eeoue ia 1,3
i?ioeaioa, iinea iiauoaiey ia 5,6 i?ioeaioa a /aoaa?oii eaa?oaea 2003
a., naycaiiiai n ia?aaiyie a eiii?oa iaooai?iaeoeoia e ioaieoeu.
?aaeueiue yooaeoeaiue iaiaiiue eo?n e ?aaeueiue iaiaiiue eo?n niia e
aeieea?o inoaaaeenue ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiuie, n i?eciaeaie
iacia/eoaeueiiai nieaeaiey a eiioea ia?oa. Naeueaei aiaoiaai n/aoa
oaeoueo iia?aoeee, io?aaeay cia/eoaeueiue ?ino eiii?oa, auei
io?eoeaoaeueiui, a ioee/ea io iieiaeeoaeueiiai naeueaei a ia?aii
eaa?oaea 2003 a. Iiceoeaiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie ?acaeoey yenii?oa a ia?aii
eaa?oaea yaeeinue oaaee/aiea yenii?oa, e?iia cieioa e iaooai?iaeoeoia
aeey aiaiiie aacu. Iauai eiii?oa aic?in ia 57 i?ioeaioia, oioy e a
n?aaiaiee n aai ieceei o?iaiai a ia?aii eaa?oaea 2003 a. Iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiui auei oaaee/aiea iauaia eiii?oa iaooai?iaeoeoia e
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia. Aeaoeoeeo eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
nie?aoeeny aei 0,9 i?ioeaioa AAI a n?aaiaiee n 1,3 i?ioeaioa a ia?aii
eaa?oaea 2003 a. N?aaeiyy iany/iay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, oa?aeoa?ecoaiay
naciiiuie eieaaaieyie, oaaee/eeanue ia 6,1 i?ioeaioa a ?aaeueiii
au?aaeaiee, ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aui eaa?oaeii 2003 a., e ninoaaeea a
n?aaeiai 44 aeieea?a NOA.

Naeueneia oicyenoai. Iniiao naeueneiai oicyenoaa Ee?aecee ninoaaeyao
aeeaioiiaiaenoai (iaoeaaiaenoai, iiei/ii-iyniia neioiaiaenoai,
eiiaaiaenoai). Iiae iaai ioaaaeaii 85% anao naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee.

Iiaieiauea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo ii n?aaiaieth n 1991
nouanoaaiii nieceeinue. Oae, iai?eia?, iiaieiauea (a oun. aieia)
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa ninoaaeyei a 1991 – 1205,2, a a 1996 – 869,
iaaoe e eic niioaaonoaaiii 9972,5 e 4274,8, eioaaeae – 312,6 e 308,1.
I?iecioei oaeaea iiiaie?aoiia nieaeaiea iiaieiauey ioeoeu n 13914,5 oun.
aieia a 1991 aei 2031,5 oun. aieia a 1996.

N 1991 ii 1996 iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
ninoaaeei ia iaiaa 20%. Oae, iai?eia?, iyna (a aeeaii aana) a 1991 auei
i?iecaaaeaii 424,5 oun. o, a a 1996 – 323,3 oun. o, iieiea
niioaaonoaaiii 1134,4 oun. o e 882,3 oun. o, yeoe – 663,2 iei. oo. e
159,4 iei. oo., oa?noe – 36,5 oun. o e 12,1 oun. o. Ia/eiay n 1996
ioia/aaony iaaieueoie ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. A
1996 iyna i?iecaaaeaii ia 0,6% aieueoa, /ai a 1995, iieiea – ia 2,1%,
yeoe – ia 8,6%. Ec-ca nie?auaiey iiaieiauey iaaoe e oooaeoaiey eo
ii?iaeiuo ea/anoa i?iecaiaenoai oa?noe ca oio aea aiae nieceeinue ia
18,3%. Oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iaeoeoeee a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iauyniythony
i?iaaaeaieai aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie auee nicaeaiu 31
oun. e?anoueyineeo e oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa, ie. 700 i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
eiiia?aoeaia e ie. 150 iauaaeeiaiee e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa.

Ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea neacaeny ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
naeueneiai oicyenoaa a iniiaiii ec-ca au?inoeo oeai ia oaeia?aiey e
iai?oaeiaaiea. Iaiaoeaoeany a iineaaeiea aiaeu iieiaeeoaeueiua
oaiaeaioeee naycaiu n i?eaaoecaoeeae eieoiciie nianoaaiiinoe.

A oeaeii iinea 1991 i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa. Oae a 1996 auei nia?aii (a oun. o) ca?ia
1423,7, a oii /enea ioaieoeu – 1040,5 (a 1991 – 1445,5 e 464,8
niioaaonoaaiii), ea?oioaey – 562,4 (1991 – 326,3), iaiuae – 368,6 (1991
– 392,4), ieiaeia e yaiae – 85,0 (1991 – 85,3), oeiiea-nu?oea – 73,1
(1991 – 63,4), aao/aauo – 30,0 (1991 – 54,2), aeiia?aaea – 19,0 (1991 –
29,3), oaaaea – 17,9 (1991 – 49,3). Iaeiaei n 1995 ii anai ia?a/eneaiiui
eoeueoo?ai eaeao ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa, a iniiaiii ca n/ao i?iaeoeoeee
/anoiiai naeoi?a.

Yia?aaoeea. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii yeaeo?iyia?aee a Ee?aecee yaeythony
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee. I?iecaiaeeiie a no?aia yia?aee aeinoaoi/ii aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ioaeae nianoaaiiie oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e yenii?oiuo
iinoaaie.

A yiaa?a 1993 i?aaeoaeuenoai Aeaaaa noi?ioee?iaaei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a aii?inao yia?aaoeee neaaeothuei ia?acii:
aeiaaaeaiea aiaeiaie aeiau/e oaey aei 3,5 iei. o (/oi i?eaeeceoaeueii
?aaii iauaio aeiau/e a 1989); aeoeaiay ?acaaaeea ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe n
i?eaea/aieai eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia; nicaeaiea ieienoa?noaa yia?aaoeee,
caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony eii?aeeiaoeey yoeo ?aaio. E?iia oiai,
i?aaeiieaaaaony cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea iiuiinoe AYN ia ?.Ia?ui a
Aeaeaeaeaaaaeneie iaeanoe.

Ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ee?aecey ?aniieaaaao e?oiiuie
ianoi?iaeaeaieyie eaiaiiiai oaey, no?ueiu, ?oooe, o?aia, oeeiea, ieiaa,
aieueo?aia, naeioea, ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia, aieeanoiieoa,
iaoaeeiiauo neaieoia. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey no?ueiu neaayony aunieei ea/anoaii
nu?uey. A 1992 auei ioe?uoi e?oiiia ianoi?iaeaeaiea cieioa a Eoioi?a
(oeaio?aeueiay Ee?aecey). Caianu iaoaeea ioeaieaathony a 5,5 oun. o, /oi
noaaeo Ee?aeceth ia naaeueiia ianoi a ie?a ii caianai cieioa.
I?aaeoaeuenoaii iiaeienai eiio?aeo i ?ac?aaioea yoiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey n
eaiaaeneie ai?iiaeiauaathuae eiiiaieae «Eiiaei».

Oyaeaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Iaeaieaa auno?i ?acaeaathony ?acee/iua io?anee
noaieino?iaiey, aeeth/ay i?iecaiaenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo noaieia,
eioi?ua, ia?yaeo n iai?oaeiaaieai e caianiuie /anoyie, i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iaeaieaa oeaiiua noaouee yenii?oa. I?iecaiaeyony oaeaea
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?anniaia
iai?oaeiaaiea, aeaeaciua e noaeueiua o?oau, naeueneioicyenoaaiiia
iai?oaeiaaiea (i?aeiouanoaaiii o?aeoi?a e i?iiaoiia iai?oaeiaaiea).
Ee?aecey yaeyaony oaeaea e?oiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeai no?ieiaoa?eaeia
(aeaeaciaaoii e anaioeaiaioiua e?iaaeueiua iaoa?eaeu).

Ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iiaeae cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe a oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oae eae i?ae?aoeeenue iinoaaee ec ae?oaeo auaoeo
nithciuo ?anioaeee. Iiaeienaiu niaeaoaiey ia yeiiiie/aneii
nio?oaeie/anoaa n aieueoeinoaii no?ai NIA, eioi?ua aeieaeiu i?eaanoe e
aeeeoaeueiie noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee ?anioaeeee.

O?ainii?o. Ec-ca ai?iiai ?aeueaoa ?acaeoea aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai e
o?oaii?iaiaeiiai o?ainii?oa ia?aie/aii. I?ioyaeaiiinoue aeaeaciuo aei?ia
ie. 370 ei. Iie yaeythony i?iaeieaeaieai aeaeaciuo aei?ia ninaaeieo
ainoaea?noa e ia naaa?a neaaeotho ec Eacaonoaia aei Aeoeaea e aeaeaa aei
Aaeue/u (aua. ?uaa/uea) ia naaa?i-caiaaeiii iiaa?aaeuea Ennue-Eoey, a
oaaeea ec Ocaaeenoaia – e Ioo e Aeaeaeae-Aaaaeo ia ainoiea Oa?aaineie
aeieeiu.

Iniiaiie aeae o?ainii?oa – aaoiiiaeeueiue. I?ioyaeaiiinoue aaoiaei?ia –
ie. 40 oun. ei. Iaeaieueoay aonoioa eo naoe ia naaa?a, a eioeiaeia ica?a
Ennue-Eoeue, e a Oa?aaineie aeieeia. A ai?ao Oyiue-Oaiy i?ieiaeaii
ianeieueei no?aoaae/anee aaaeiuo aaoiaei?ia. Iaeia ec ieo niaaeeiyao
e?oiiua oeaio?u no?aiu – Aeoeae e Io /a?ac ia?aaaeu Othc-Aooo (3586 i) e
Aea-Aaeue (3184 i), ae?oaay neaaeoao io Aaeue/u a Ia?ui e aeaeaa e
aunieiai?iiio ica?o *aou?-E?eue e /a?ac ia?aaae Oi?oaa?o (3752 i) a EI?,
o?aouey aaaeao ec ai?iaea Io ia Iaie? (Iaie?neee o?aeo). Ca ia?eiae n
1991 ii 1997 iauai ia?aaicie a?ocia iacaiiui o?ainii?oii iauaai
iieueciaaiey nieceeny ni 103,3 iei. o aei 14,3 iei. o, a ia?aaicie
iannaaee?ia – n 609,8 iei. /aeiaae aei 374,1 iei. Ia ica?a Ennue-Eoeue
inouanoaeyaony noaeioiaenoai. Iaaeaeo Aeoeaeii (ec ay?iii?oa «Iaian») e
iaeanoiuie oeaio?aie iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aicaeooiia niiauaiea. Ii
oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee i?ioiaeyo aacii?iaiaeu Aooa?a – Oaoeaio – Aeoeae –
Aeia-Aoa e Iaeee-Nae – Aeaeaeae-Aaaae – Ea?a-Noo – Io.

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