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Политическая карта мира и мировые природные ресурсы

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?aoa?ao

ia oaio: «Iieeoe/aneay ea?oa ie?a e ie?iaua i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu»

IIEEOE*ANEAss EA?OA IE?A

Iieeoe/aneay ea?oa ie?a yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey iieeoe/aneie
aaia?aoee. Nia?aiaiiay iieeoe/aneay ea?oa — yoi ia canouaoay «ea?oeiea»,
a ?acoeueoao aeeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, io?aaeathuaai ?acaeoea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee ia aeaiiii yoaia enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey.

OEIIEIAEss NO?AI

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iieeoe/aneie ea?oa ian/eouaaaony i?eaeeceoaeueii
230 ainoaea?noa e oa??eoi?ee, ec ieo 192 — noaa?aiiua.

Ii ?acia?ai oa??eoi?ee auaeaeythony 7 iaeaieaa e?oiiuo no?ai (iei ei2):
?inney (17,1), Eaiaaea (10,0), EI? (9,6), NOA (9,4), A?aceeey (8,5),
Aano?aeey (7,7), Eiaeey (3,3).

Ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey oaeaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue 7 iaeaieaa e?oiiuo
ainoaea?noa (iei /ae.): EI? (1227), Eiaeey (943), NOA (264), Eiaeiiacey
(200), A?aceeey (161), ?inney (148), ssiiiey (125).

I?aaiecaoeey Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee (III) ?acaeaeyao ana ainoaea?noaa ia
yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoua e ?acaeaathueany. I?e yoii e?eoa?eai neoaeeo
aeooaaie iieacaoaeue aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (AII). AII —
yeiiiie/aneee iieacaoaeue, au?aaeathuee niaieoiioth noieiinoue
iio?aaeaiiuo ianaeaieai oiaa?ia e oneoa, ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie e
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ca au/aoii i?eaueae eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee. E ?acaeoui
no?aiai ioiinyo i?eia?ii 60 ainoaea?noa. Eo a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e iiaea?oiiu:

a) «Aieueoay naia?ea» — NOA, ssiiiey, Aa?iaiey, O?aioeey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Eoaeey, Eaiaaea. Ia ieo i?eoiaeeony aieaa 50% ie?iaie
i?iiuoeaiiie e aieaa 25% naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. AII ia aeooo
ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao a ieo 15—30 oun. aeiee.;

a) iaiaa e?oiiua no?aiu — yoi ana inoaeueiua aa?iiaeneea no?aiu (e?iia
Eei?a, Ynoiiee, Eaoaee, Eeoau e ?yaea auaoeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai), a
oaeaea Aano?aeey, Iiaay Caeaiaeey, THA?, Ec?aeeue, Oo?oeey. Eo
iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay iiuue iaiiiai neaaaa, oioy AII ia aeooo
ianaeaiey ii/oe oaeie aea, eae e o «Aieueoie naia?ee»;

a) no?aiu, aoiaeyuea a Niae?oaeanoai Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa (NIA), a
oaeaea Ynoiiey, Eaoaey, Eeoaa e ?yae auaoeo aa?iiaeneeo
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. Yoe ainoaea?noaa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniuouaatho
aeoaieee yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, aucaaiiue ia?aoiaeii io
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie. AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey
o yoeo no?ai iaiiiai ieaea — 1—4 oun. aeiee.

E /eneo ?acaeaathueony no?ai ioiinyo ana inoaeueiua ainoaea?noaa, a
eioi?uo i?iaeeaaao aieaa 75% ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a. Iie i/aiue ?aciua,
ii oneiaii eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 4 iiaea?oiiu:

a) no?aiu n?aaeia?acaeoiai eaieoaeecia: A?aaioeia, A?aceeey, Aaianoyea,
Iaeneea, *eee,

Eei?, Neiaaio?, ?anioaeeea Ei?ay, Aiieiia e ae?. — anaai ieiei 12
ainoaea?noa. AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey — 3—20 oun. aeiee.;

a) iaooayenii?oe?othuea no?aiu: Naoaeianeay A?aaey, Eoaaeo, IAY, E?ai,
A?oiae e ae?. — anaai 16 ainoaea?noa, a eioi?uo ?acaeoua
eaieoaeenoe/aneea ioiioaiey ni/aoathony n naiuie i?eieoeaiuie oi?iaie
oicyenoaiaaiey; aeaaiaea?y i?eoieo «iaooaaeieea?ia» ia aeooo ianaeaiey
caeanue i?eoiaeeony 5—23 oun. aeiee.;

a) ionoathuea no?aiu — naiay aieueoay iiaea?oiia — aieaa 90 ainoaea?noa,
o eioi?uo aeooaaie iieacaoaeue AII — io 500 aei 3500 aeiee. A yoo a?oiio
aoiaeyo oaeea e?oiiua ainoaea?noaa, eae EI?, Eiaeey, Eiaeiiacey, Ia?o,
Iaeaecey, Aaeiao, Aaeiay, Iaa?eoaiey, Oeaeaee e ii. ae?.;

a) iaeiaiaa ?acaeoua no?aiu, o eioi?uo aeooaaie iieacaoaeue AII ia
i?aauoaao 500 aeiee. E yoie a?oiia III ioiineo 46 ainoaea?noa n
ianaeaieai /ooue aieaa 400 iei /ae. — Aoaaienoai, Aaiaeaaeao, Oaicaiey,
Ieaa?, Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea Eiiai, Eaiai, Eaiey, Iaaeaaanea?, Iicaiaee,
*aae, Niiaee, Yoeiiey e ae?.

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE NO?IE E AINOAeA?NOAAIIIA ONO?IENOAI

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy oi?iaie i?aaeaiey —
?anioaeeeaineie e iiia?oe/aneie. Nae/an a ie?a ian/eouaaaony aieaa 140
?anioaeee. I?e ?anioaeeeaineii no?ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?eaiaioo, a eniieieoaeueiay — i?aaeoaeuenoao. I?e yoii
?acee/atho i?aceaeaioneoth ?anioaeeeo, aaea i?aceaeaio iaaeaeai
cia/eoaeueiie eniieieoaeueiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth a ?aieao
eiinoeoooeee, e ia?eaiaioneoth ?anioaeeeo, aaea ?ieue i?aceaeaioa
iaiiiai iaiueoa eee aai aiiaua ia nouanoaoao. Ia?aui eeoeii a oaeeo
no?aiao yaeyaony i?aiuea?-ieieno?.

Iiia?oe/aneay oi?ia i?aaeaiey eiaao iaiueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea. N?aaee
iiia?oee iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athony eiinoeoooeeiiiua iiia?oee, aaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?eaiaioo, eniieieoaeueiay —
i?aaeoaeuenoao, a aeanoue iiia?oa e?aeia ia?aie/aia eiinoeoooeeae;
iiia?o — neiaiee/aneia, ii ii/eoaaiia eeoei. Aai aeanoue ia?aaeaaony ii
ianeaaenoao. Oaeeo iiia?oee nae/an /ooue aieaa 20, a oii /enea 10 — a
Aa?iia: Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aaeueaey, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Ethenaiao?a, Ii?aaaey,
Oaaoeey, Eniaiey, Iiiaei, Eeooaiooaei, Aeaiey. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei
aaniethoiuo iiia?oee, aaea aeanoue iiia?oa oaeaea ia?aaeaaony ii
ianeaaenoao, e oiio aea a aai ?oeao nin?aaeioi/aia e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay e
eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue. Oaeiau Naoaeianeay A?aaey, IAY, Iiai, Eaoa?,
A?oiae. Aaeeinoaaiiue i?eia? oaie?aoe/aneie iiia?oee, a eioi?ie iiia?o —
aeooiaiia eeoei, — Aaoeeai.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy oi?iaie
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey no?ai: oieoa?iie e
oaaea?aoeaiie. A oieoa?iii ainoaea?noaa nouanoaoao aaeeiay eiinoeoooeey,
aaeeiay eniieieoaeueiay e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue.
Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiay aaeeieoea iaaeaeaia eeoue
iacia/eoaeueiuie eniieieoaeueiuie ooieoeeyie. Aieueoeinoai ainoaea?noa —
oieoa?iua. Oaaea?aoeaiia ainoaea?noai ia?yaeo n aaeeiie eiinoeoooeeae e
aaeeiie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth eiaao a naiai
ninoaaa aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu (noauaeou
oaaea?aoeee), eioi?ua oaeaea eiatho nianoaaiiua caeiiiaeaoaeueiua,
eniieieoaeueiua e noaeaaiua i?aaiu aeanoe, i?e/ai ooieoeee oaaea?aeueiuo
e ianoiuo aeanoae /aoei ?aca?aie/aiu eiinoeoooeeae. Nae/an a ie?a 21
oaaea?aoeey, io?aaeathuay eae iaoeeiiaeueiua (?inney, Eiaeey,
Oaaeoea?ey, Aaeueaey, Eaiaaea, Ieaa?ey, N?TH), oae e
enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneea (NOA, Aano?ey, Aa?iaiey, A?aceeey, Iaeneea,
Aaianoyea, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeey) iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noa.

IE?IAUA I?E?IAeIUA ?ANO?NU ACAEIIAeAENOAEA IAUANOAA E I?E?IAeU

Aaia?aoe/aneay iaiei/ea, eee i?e?iaea, — yoi oa noa?a, a eioi?ie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ana eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeu. Ie?oaeathuay, eee
aaia?aoe/aneay, n?aaea — yoi oa /anoue i?e?iaeu, n eioi?ie /aeiaa/aneia
iauanoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii acaeiiaeaenoaoao ia aeaiiii yoaia
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. Oaeei ia?acii, ie?oaeathuay n?aaea — yoi ia
oieueei aaia?aoe/aneay, ii e enoi?e/aneay eaoaai?ey, eciaiythuayny ai
a?aiaie.

A aeaaiea a?aiaia /aeiaae caieiaeny ioioie, ?uaieianoaii,
i?eniinaaeeaaynue e i?e?iaea, ii ia aeaeieciaiyy aa. Iiyoiio ie?oaeaaoay
aai n?aaea auea e?aeia ia?aie/aiiie.

Ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie a inaiaiee i?e?iaeu naycai n i?iiuoeaiiie
?aaiethoeeae, ia/aaoaeny 300 eao iacaae n iiiaioa nicaeaiey ia?iaie
iaoeiu.

E iaeiiaoe, ia/aei XX a. naycaii n aeeyieai, eioi?ia ieacuaaao ia
i?e?iaeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey (IO?) — io aeoaei ieaaia aei
aa?oieo neiaa aoiinoa?u. A oneiaeyo ?aceiai oaaee/aiey ieioiinoe
ianaeaiey e aeaaeaiey ia i?e?iaeo oicyenoaaiiua iaa?ocee noaee
i?aauoaoue niiniaiinoue i?e?iaeiuo nenoai e naiii/euaieth. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiyaeeenue aeaa acaeiinaycaiiua i?iaeaiu: ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Naaiaeiy iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aeeeaoayny iiiaea noieaoey yiioa
yenoaineaiiai inaiaiey ieaiaou, o. a. aiaea/aiea a oicyenoaaiiue iai?io
ana iiauo i?ino?ainoa, aeaoaauo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, caeai/eaaaony, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, a ?acaeouo no?aiao. O/aiua i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi anee
yeiiiiii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu ieaiaou, oi iie niiniaiu oaeiaeaoai?eoue
ianaeaiea Caiee, aeaaea n o/aoii aai ?inoa a aoaeouai. Oaeei ia?acii,
aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aoiaea e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieth.

Caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu — iaaeaeaoaeueiia eciaiaiea aa naienoa a
?acoeueoaoa aio?iiiaaiiiai iinooieaiey ?acee/iuo aauanoa e niaaeeiaiee.
Aeaaiue enoi/iee caa?yciaiey — aica?auaiea a i?e?iaeo iooiaeia, eioi?ua
ia?acothony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa.

Caa?yciaiea ii/a i?ienoiaeeo, ai-ia?auo, a ?acoeueoaoa ia?ooaiey caiaeue
i?e ai?iuo ?ac?aaioeao, iniaaiii ioe?uouo, e no?ieoaeuenoaa; ai-aoi?uo,
i?iiuoeaiiuie e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie iooiaeaie — iaoaeeaie,
oaeia?aieyie, yaeioeieeaoaie, ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie; a-o?aoueeo, a
?acoeueoaoa iaeiieaiey auoiaiai ioni?a, iniaaiii iieeia?iuo iooiaeia.

Caa?yciaiea aeae?inoa?u naycaii n ?aciuie i?e/eiaie. Ai-ia?auo, yoi
oaieiaia caa?yciaiea i?e na?ina a aiaeiaiu aiae, eniieueciaaiiuo aeey
ioeaaeaeaiey ia OYN e AYN, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue i?eaiaeeo e
oiaiueoaieth niaea?aeaiey eenei?iaea e «oeaaoaieth» aiaeu. Ai-aoi?uo,
oeie/aneia caa?yciaiea a ?acoeueoaoa na?ina a aiaeiaiu iooiaeia
ai?iiaeiauaathuae, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie e oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, ieo?aoia, oinoaoia, oaeaaiaei?iaeia. A-o?aoueeo,
aeieiae/aneia caa?yciaiea iee?ii?aaieciaie, a oii /enea aieaciaoai?iuie,
iiiaaeathueie a aiaeiaiu ni noieaie oeie/aneie, oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie,
ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo oicyenoa.

?anoao caa?yciaiea Ie?iaiai ieaaia, iniaaiii i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiia e
aioo?aiieo ii?ae. I?aaeaea anaai ?a/ue eaeao i iaooyiii caa?yciaiee.
Aeaaiua enoi/ieee iaooyiiai caa?yciaiey — na?in aaeeanoiuo aiae,
i?iiuaea oaieia noaeia, ia?aaicyueo iaooue (30%), iinooieaiea
iaooai?iaeoeoia n eiioeiaioia (40%), eaoano?iou oaiea?ia (12%).

Aeaaiua enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u — acaaoaiiua /anoeoeu e
aaciia?aciua aauanoaa. I?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ieiaoa?eaeia,
ai?iiaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaoaeeo?aey — iniiaiua enoi/ieee
ay?icieae. Aieueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho niaaeeiaiey na?u,
oaeaaiaei?iaea e acioa, ia?acothueany i?e naeeaaiee oiieeaa ia
o?ainii?oa e OYN.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie neiaeeeenue o?e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey io?aiu
i?e?iaeu. Ia?aia — nicaeaiea ?aciiai ?iaea i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee, oaa?ee
ii ia?a?aaioea ioni?a, ?aeoeueoeaaoeey caiaeue e o. ae. Aoi?ia, iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiia iai?aaeaiea — i?eiaiaiea iiaie i?e?iaeiio?aiiie oaoiieiaee,
iniiaaiiie ia aiaae?aiee aaciooiaeiuo eee iaeiiooiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa.
Yoio aa?eaio ia i?inoi oiaiueoaao, a i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao caa?yciaiea
n?aaeu, ii o?aaoao aieueoeo oeiainiauo cao?ao. O?aouea — aeoaiei
i?iaeoiaiiia, iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiia ?aciauaiea «a?yciuo» i?iecaiaenoa.

I?E?IAeIUA ?ANO?NU

Yoi aiaaonoaa i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua /aeiaa/anoai eniieuecoao aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo iio?aaiinoae. ?ano?nu ?aniieiaeaiu ia?aaiiia?ii, e
caianu eo iaiaeeiaeiau, iiyoiio ioaeaeueiua no?aiu eiatho ?acee/ioth
?ano?niiaania/aiiinoue, o. a. niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aaee/eiie i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia e ?acia?aie eo eniieueciaaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoea
«?ano?niiaania/aiiinoue» ia oieueei i?e?iaeiia, ii e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia. Iii au?aaeaaony eeai eiee/anoaii eao, ia
eioi?ua aeieaeii oaaoeoue aeaiiiai ?ano?na, eeai aai caianaie ia aeooo
ianaeaiey.

Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia oiieeaiua, ?oaeiua,
ia?oaeiua, oeie/aneea e no?ieiaoa?eaeu. Ana iie ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee
iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo. Iauai aeiau/e iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo n 1950 a. oaaee/eeny
a 3 ?aca. Naaiaeiy ?ino iio?aaeaiey ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoaao i?e?ino aai ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania.

Oaieueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey caieiatho 15% oa??eoi?ee ieaiaou, ec ieo
aieueoa 1/2 i?eoiaeeony ia eaiaiiue oaieue. ?acaaaeaiiua caianu
ninoaaeytho anaai 8% io iaueo. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai anao oaieueiuo
?ano?nia nin?aaeioi/aii a Naaa?iii iieooa?ee.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth ?acaaaeaiiuo
caiania iaooe e i?e?iaeiiai aaca, /oi iauyniyaony ioe?uoeai iiauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee e ia?aaiaeii /anoe iauaaaieiae/aneeo caiania a
eaoaai?eth ?acaaaeaiiuo. ?acaeoua no?aiu iaania/aiu iaooueth
i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 10 eao, ?acaeaathueany — ia 100— 200 eao, a aacii —
ia ianeieueei aieueoee ia?eiae. Ec anao ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania iaooe e
aaca ia nooa nin?aaeioi/aii 70% , ia oaeueoa — 30%.

O?ai oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a caiiie ei?a. Aiaaoaeoea ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iaoiaeyony a Aano?aeee, THA?, Ieaa?a, A?aceeee, Eaiaaea, NOA, Iaieaee,
?innee.

?oaeiua iieaciua eneiiaaiua naycaiu n ooiaeaiaioaie ae?aaieo ieaooi?i e
ueoia, a oaeaea neeaae/aouie iaeanoyie, aaea i?enoonoaotho aeoaeiiua
?aceiiu caiiie ei?u.

Iiiaea aeaeu ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey naaiaeiy neeueii enoiuaiu. *aeiaa/anoai noieo ia ii?iaa
iai?ioiiai eniieueciaaiey iiiaeo ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Caiaeueiua ?ano?nu yaeythony en/a?iaaiuie, ii aiciaiiaeyaiuie.
Iaania/aiiinoue eie /aeiaa/anoaa ii?aaeaeyaony ie?iaui caiaeueiui
oiiaeii, ninoaaeythuei 13,4 ie?ae aa.

A no?oeoo?a caiaeueiiai oiiaea ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee (iaoie, naaeu),
aeathuea 88% i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, caieiatho anaai 11%.
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey a n?aaeiai caieiatho 34% anaai
caiaeueiiai oiiaea ie?a; caiee, caiyoua eanaie, — 30%, i?e/ai
iaeaieueoay aeiey eania nin?aaeioi/aia a THaeiie Aia?eea — 52%. Aeiey
caiaeue, caiyouo iino?ieeaie, ninoaaeyao 2%, a Aa?iia — aei 5%,
iaeniieuecoaiuo caiaeue — 34% caiaeueiiai oiiaea.

No?oeoo?a caiaeueiiai oiiaea ia inoaaony iinoiyiiie. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
/aeiaa/anoai aaaeao ai?ueao ca ?anoe?aiea caiaeue, i?eaiaeiuo aeey
aeecie, a n ae?oaie — i?ienoiaeeo aeaa?aaeaoeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee ec-ca enoiuaiey caiee, y?icee ii/a, canieaiey, caaiea/eaaiey,
iionouieaaiey, io/oaeaeaiey caiaeue aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Aiaeiua ?ano?nu, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie i?aniua aiaeu, yaeythony
en/a?iaaiuie, ii aiciaiiaeyaiuie e ninoaaeytho anaai 2,5% io anae
aeae?inoa?u. Iaiueoa anaai eo niaea?aeeony a ?aeao (77 oun. ei3),
yaeythueony aeaaiui enoi/ieeii i?aniie aiaeu aeey /aeiaa/anoaa.
Iaeaieueoee noiia?iue aiaeiaie iauai ?a/iiai noiea i?eoiaeeony ia
aceaoneea ?aee. Ii iauaio aiaeiaiai ?a/iiai noiea n?aaee no?ai ie?a 1-a
ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo A?aceeee, 2-a — no?aiai NIA. Ie?iaia iio?aaeaiea
aiaeu ?anoao e?aeia auno?i e ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 4500 ei3/aiae. Aeaaiue
iio?aaeoaeue aiaeu — naeueneia oicyenoai (ieiei 70%, i?e/ai ii/oe ana
iio?aaeaiea aacaica?aoiia), i?iiuoeaiiinoue (20%), eiiioiaeueiia
oicyenoai (6%) e aiaeio?aieeeua (4%). Ii iaania/aiiinoe aiaeiuie
?ano?naie ia aeooo ianaeaiey ia 1-i ianoa noieo Aano?aeey, aeaeaa n
aieueoei io?uaii eaeoo THaeiay Aia?eea e NIA, ia iineaaeiai ianoa —
Acey. ?ino iio?aaeaiey aiaeu i?e iaeciaiiuo ?ano?nao ?a/iiai noiea
nicaeaao ?aaeueioth oa?ico aicieeiiaaiey aeaoeoeeoa i?aniie aiaeu. Eae
iiaeii ?aoeoue aiaeioth i?iaeaio? Ai-ia?auo, oiaiueoeoue aiaeiaieinoue
i?iecaiaenoa, nie?aoeoue iioa?e aiaeu. Ai-aoi?uo, iino?ieoue
aiaeio?aieeeua, ?aaoee?othuea noie ?ae, /oi oaaee/eei au ie?iaua ?ano?nu
noiea ia 25%. A-o?aoueeo, ia?aa?ineoue /anoue ?a/iiai noiea. Iaeiaei
iiiaea no?aiu ioeacaeenue io iiaeiaiuo i?iaeoia ii yeiiiie/aneei e
yeieiae/aneei niia?aaeaieyi.

Aeieiae/aneea ?ano?nu, aeeth/athuea eaniua e ae?oaea ?anoeoaeueiua
?ano?nu, ?uaiua ?ano?nu, ?ano?nu iooiiai e ii?neiai caa?y, yaeythony
en/a?iaaiuie, ii aiciaiiaeyaiuie. Eaniua ?ano?nu oa?aeoa?ecothony aeaoiy
iieacaoaeyie: ?acia?aie eaniie ieiuaaee (3,8 ie?ae aa — 30% ieiuaaee
nooe) e caianaie ae?aaaneiu ia ei?ith (350 ie?ae i3). Aaeaaiaeii caianu
ae?aaaneiu ia ei?ith oaaee/eaathony ia 5,5 ie?ae i3, ii ii/oe noieueei
aea ninoaaeyao aaeaaiaeiay caaioiaea eana. Eana ie?a ia?acotho aeaa
iiyna — naaa?iue e thaeiue. Naaa?iue iiyn iaoiaeeony a ciia oia?aiiiai e
/anoe/ii noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa, aaea ainiiaenoaotho oaieiua eana.
Caeanue iauay ieiuaaeue eana ia oiaiueoaaony, ca eneeth/aieai ?innee.
THaeiue iiyn iaoiaeeony a ciia o?iie/aneiai e yeaaoi?eaeueiiai eeeiaoa,
aaea ainiiaenoaotho aeaaeiua aa/iicaeaiua yeaaoi?eaeueiua eana, ieiuaaee
eioi?uo eaoano?ioe/anee nie?auathony ec-ca au?oaee. Oaeei ia?acii,
aaeaaiaeii a ie?a ieiuaaeue eana nie?auaaony ia 0,6%. Ia?u ii
?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth eaniuo ?ano?nia inoathony e?aeia
aeooaeueiuie.

Aa?ieeeiaoe/aneea ?ano?nu — yoi, eae i?aaeei, oaiei e aeaaa. Oaiei
ii?aaeaeyaony noiiie aeoeaiuo oaiia?aoo? auoa 10 °N ca aiae, a oneiaey
oaeaaeiaiiinoe iau/ii oa?aeoa?ecothony eiyooeoeeaioii oaeaaeiaiey,
caaenyuei io niioiioaiey eiee/anoaa inaaeeia e enia?yaiinoe.

?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu — yoi iauaeou eee yaeaiey i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a oeaeyo ioaeuoa e ea/aiey: ii?neea iiaa?aaeuey,
aeeaiieniua ianoa, ?aeiiu ai?iiai oo?ecia, iaiyoieee i?e?iaeu, enoi/ieee
ieia?aeueiuo aiae e ea/aaiuo a?ycae. ?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu oaeaea iiaoo
auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu enoi?e/aneeie e iaii?eaeueiuie iauaeoaie.

Yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu (e?iia oiieeaiuo), aeeth/athuea yia?aeth Nieioea
e aao?a, aaioa?iaeueiua e aeae?iyia?ai?ano?nu, yaeythony iaen/a?iaaiuie.
Nieia/iay yia?aey, aeinoeaathuay iiaa?oiinoe Caiee, ecia?yaony
eieinnaeueiie aaee/eiie. Aa oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue a ionouiiuo
no?aiao o?iieeia. Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie aao?iaie yia?aee, ecaeaaia
eniieuecoaiie /aeiaaeii a no?aiao oia?aiiiai iiyna, — aa iaiinoiyinoai.
Iiyoiio eniieueciaaiea yoeo ?ano?nia naea?aeeaaaony eo ieceie
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth. Ie?iaie aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae
ioeaieaaaony ii/oe a 10 o?ei eAo«/, ec eioi?uo eniieuecoaony anaai 21%.
Iaeaieueoay noaiaiue inaiaiiinoe aeae?iyia?aiiioaioeeaea a ca?oaaaeiie
Aa?iia — 70%, a 65% anaai iainaiaiiiai aeae?iyia?aiiioaioeeaea
i?eoiaeeony ia ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Iaeaieaa aiaaoua
aeae?iyia?ai?ano?naie no?aiu: EI?, ?inney, NOA, Cae?, Eaiaaea, A?aceeey.
Aaioa?iaeueiua ?ano?nu — yoi yia?aey oa?iaeueiuo aiae eee ai?y/aai ia?a.
Ieiia?ii a eniieueciaaiee yoeo ?ano?nia yaeyaony Eneaiaeey; e?iia oiai,
yia?aey caiiuo iaae? eniieuecoaony a ?innee (ia Eai/aoea), Eoaeee, Iiaie
Caeaiaeee, ssiiiee.

?ano?nu Ie?iaiai ieaaia aeeth/atho ieia?aeueiua, aeieiae/aneea e
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu. Ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu — yoi i?aaeaea anaai
ii?neay aiaea, niaea?aeauay i?aeoe/anee ana oeie/aneea yeaiaiou, ii
ec-ca ieceie eiioeaio?aoeee eo aeiau/a ia?aioaaaeueia, ca eneeth/aieai
nieae iao?ey, iaaiey e a?iia. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiatho caianu iaooe e
aaca a oaeueoiauo ciiao. A yeaaoi?eaeueiuo e o?iie/aneeo aeoaieiaiaeiuo
?aeiiao ieaaia ia?iiiua ieiuaaee iie?uou aeaeaci-ia?aaioeaauie
eiie?aoeeyie, ii eo i?iiuoeaiiay aeiau/a iiea yeiiiie/anee
ia?aioaaaeueia.

Aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu ieaaia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecothony a
aeaea yia?aee i?eeeaia e ioeeaia. Iaeaieueoeie ?ano?naie i?eeeaiie
yia?aee iaeaaeatho ?inney, O?aioeey, Eaiaaea, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aano?aeey,
A?aaioeia, NOA. Iaeaieaa oeaiiue iiuo ii eniieueciaaieth i?eeeaiuo aiei
eiaao O?aioeey.

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