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Почвы, растительность и животный мир России

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Ii/au, ?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie? ?innee

A ioee/ea io Naaa?iie Aia?eee, aaea eciaiaiey a ?anoeoaeueiii iie?iaa
caaenyo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie io eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?iuo oneiaee, a
THaeiie Aia?eea n aa aunieeie oaiia?aoo?aie oa?aeoa? ?anoeoaeueiinoe
caaeneo aeaaiui ia?acii io noaiaie oaeaaeiaiey. Aieueoia eiee/anoai
nieia/iiai oaiea iicaieyao ?anoaieyi thaeiiai iaoa?eea aa-aaoe?iaaoue a
oa/aiea anaai aiaea ii/oe iianaianoii. Eae e a Ao?eea, aeaaiui oaeoi?ii,
ii?aaeaeythuei aeeeoaeueiinoue aaaaoaoeee, yaeyaony noaiaiue
oaeaaeiaiey. Iineaaeiyy a aea?eii iiyna oiaiueoaaony ia io ieaaiia a
aeoaue iaoa?eea, a io yeaaoi?a e o?iieeai, e eeoue a noao?iieeao ?acei
aunooiatho ?acee/ey iaaeaeo i?eieaaie/aneeie e aioo?eiaoa?eei-auie
oa??eoi?eyie. A nayce n yoei iniiaiua eaniua ianneau a THaeiie Aia?eea
iaeaaatho i?eyeaaoi?eaeueiua iaeanoe. Aeaaeiiyeaaoi?eaeueiua eana
(aeeae), a oii /enea aeeae n e?aoeei canooeeaui ia?eiaeii
(eenoiiaaeii-aa/iicaeaiua eana), e ionniiiua eana iie?uaatho Aiaciieth e
i?eeaaathuea neeiiu Aiae e iaai?ee. Eeeiao yoeo iaeanoae ia i?aoa?iae
nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee n eiioea iaciciy. E oei?a i?eyeaaoi?eaeueiie
Aia?eee ii naiaio ninoaao, aeeth/athuaio naaiaieee, ieaoiiaua e o. i.,
yaeyaony inoaoeii iaeiie ec ae?aaiaeoeo oei? ia Caiea. Iia ninoieo ec
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaio?iie/aneie oei?u, oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?ie ia/aeinue n
iaeiaiai eee n eiioea th?neiai ia?eiaea, o. a. oiaaea, eiaaea aua
nouanoaiaaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiua nayce n Ao?eeie e ae?oaeie /anoyie
aeiioaoe/aneie Aiiaeaaiu. Iiyoiio 12% ?iaeia aeaoaeieueiuo ?anoaiee
yaeythony iaueie aeey Iaio?iie/aneie e Iaeaio?iie/aneie iaeanoae.
Aeeeoaeueiay eciee?iaaiiinoue THaeiie Aia?eee a o?aoe/iia a?aiy
iaoneiaeea aunieee yiaeaieci aa oei?u. Yiaeaie/iu eee eiatho a THaeiie
Aia?eea oeaio? naiaai aeaeiaiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia oieueei iiiaea ?iaeu
?anoaiee, ii aeaaea oeaeua naiaenoaa (eoaoei/aoua — Marcgraviaceae,
a?iiaeeaaua — Bromeliaceae e ae?. ). Io iaio?iie/aneie aea?ioeeueiie
oei?u i?iecioea, ii-aeaeeiiio, oei?a naaaii, ai?iio?iie/aneeo eania e
aeaaea io/anoe ena?ioeeueiay oei?a iieoionouiue. Aeaeu eaeoonia, aaaa e
a?iiaeeaauo, iai?eia?, ia?aiia/aeueii aicieeee ai aeaaeiiyeaaoi?eaeueiuo
eanao; yeieiae/anee i?eniiniaeyynue e aeaeieciaiyynue, iie i?iieeee e ia
caiaaeiia ionouiiia iiaa?aaeuea, e a iieoionouie A?aaioeiu, e ia
iaaeaiaeeeneea ieaoi. I?aeiouanoaaiii a aeaea yieoeoia iie oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu a Aiaciiee e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. I?eyeaaoi?eaeueiua eana
yaeeenue, oaeei ia?acii, aaaeiaeoei oeaio?ii oi?ie?iaaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa THaeiie Aia?eee, aieueoay /anoue eioi?ie aoiaeeo a
Iaio?iie/aneoth oei?enoe/aneoth iaeanoue. Ii/oe noieue aea ae?aaiae
yaeyaony oei?a naaaii e ?aaeeieanee. Iie ?aniieaaathony e naaa?o e thao
io aeaaeiiyeaaoi?eaeueiuo e ionniiiuo eania ia ?aaieiao e ieineiai?ueyo
ainoiea iaoa?eea aei 30° th. o., a ia caiaaea — iaaeaeo 0—5° th. o.,
caieiay ieiuaaeue i?eia?ii ?aaioth aeeayi e ionniiiui eanai.

Naaaiiu e ?aaeeieanuey aiiaue onooiatho ianoi aeaaeiui eaniui oi?iaoeeyi
ia ainoi/iuo, iaaao?aiiuo neeiiao iaai?ee e noao?iie/aneei aa/iicaeaiui
niaoaiiui (oaieii-eenoaaiiui) eanai— a aieaa i?ioeaaeiuo, aunieeo
?aeiiao A?aceeueneiai iaai?uey iaaeaeo 24—30° th. o. Aeaaeiua eana
iie?uaatho e neeiiu thaeiuo Aiae, e thao io 38° th. o. Aei 46° th. o.
iie ninoiyo ec aa/iicaeaiuo eenoaaiiuo e oaieiuo ii?iae (aaieaeeay). Ia
caiaaeiuo, iaaao?aiiuo neeiiao eana aieaa aonoua, ia ainoi/iuo —
?ac?aaeaiiae e eiatho i?eianue eenoiiaaeiuo aeaeia. Ia e?aeiai thaa
Iaoaaiineeo Aiae ia caiaaeiuo neeiiao iie ia?aoiaeyo i niaoaiiua,
eenoiiaaeii-aa/iicaeaiua noaaioa?eoe/aneea eana, a ia ainoi/iuo— a
i?aeiouanoaaiii eenoiiaaeiua. A nayce n oai, /oi a /aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy
thaeiua Aiaeu ii/oe iieiinoueth ia?ae?uaaeenue eaaeieeaie, canaeaiea
yoiai io?acea ai? i?iecioei n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
oeaio?ii ?ani?ino?aiaiey oei?u a thaeiua Aiaeu iinea ieaaeaiaiey
yaeeenue noao?iie/aneea Aiaeu n?aaeiaai *eee, aaea ai a?aiy ieaaeaiaiey
nouanoaiaae ?yae oaaaeeu, iicaieeaoeo nio?aieoueny iiiaei ?aeeeoai Oai
eiathony a?aaeu ?aeeeoiaie iaaeiaie iaeueiu (YaJaea specfatitfis],
/eeeeneie a?aoea?ee (Araucaria itnbricata var, araucana) e o. i., n Aiae
n?aaeiaai *eee i?iaeaeaaeenue ia tha thaeiue aoe (Nothofagus), aea?oea
(Fitzroya cupressoides var. patagontca). E naaa?o io 38° th. o. (aei
32°), eae e ia ae?oaeo iaoa?eeao, ia caiaaea THaeiie Aia?eee aeaaeiua
eana niaiythony aeanoeieenoiuie (n?aaeecaiiiii?neeie) eanaie e
eonoa?ieeaie. Iieiaeua oeiu eoaiai-noaiiie, iieoionouiiie e ionouiiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe i?aiaeaaeatho a noao?iieeao ia ainoiea iaoa?eea, a oii
/enea ia ainoi/iuo neeiiao Aiae. ?ani?ino?aiaiu eonoa?ieeiaua
iieoionouie e a Iaoaaiiee, eaaeauae aua thaeiaa a aeiaeaeaaie oaie Aiae;
?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia Iaoaaiiee oaeaea noi?ie?iaaeny eeoue a
iineaeaaeieeiaia a?aiy ec aioa?eoe/aneie oei?u. Iaoaaiiey e tha *eee
ioiinyony e Aioa?eoe/aneie oei?enoe/aneie iaeanoe. I/aiue iieiaeui
yaeyaony ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia iaaeai?iuo ieaoi e caiaaeiuo neeiiia
Oeaio?aeueiuo Aiae. Iaaeaaiea iiaeiyoey yoiai o/anoea e /aoaa?oe/iua
ieaaeaiaiey aucaaee cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey eeeiaoa e ?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa. A o?aoe/iia a?aiy oai nouanoaiaaea iaci-oeeueiay o?iie/aneay
oei?a, a nae/an ainiiaenoaotho ai?ii-noaiiua, iieoionouiiua e ionouiiua
oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe. A nayce n iieiaeaieai THaeiie Aia?eee
i?aeiouanoaaiii a ieceeo oe?ioao, a iae i?aiaeaaeatho ?acee/iua oeiu
eaoa?eoiuo ii/a. AEa?eei eaniui iaeanoyi n iinoiyiiuie e iaeeueiuie
inaaeeaie naienoaaiiu iiiaecieaiiua eaoa?eoiua ii/au, eioi?ua o?oaeii
ioaeaeeoue io i/aiue iiuiie ei?u auaao?eaaiey. A iaeanoyo n naciiiui
oaeaaeiaieai oeie/iu e?aniua, ei?e/iaai-e?aniua e e?anii-ao?ua ii/au.

Cia/eoaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiatho ae?aaiea aeaeacenoua ei?u.
I?ioeannu eaoa?eoecaoeee aua i?iyaeythony ai aeaaeiuo noao?iieeao ia
ainoiea iaoa?eea, aaea oa?aeoa?iu e?aniicaiu e e?aniiaaoi-/a?iua ii/au
i?a?ee. Aeaeaa e caiaaeo, eae e a Naaa?iie Aia?eea, iie
iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythony na?i-ei?e/iaauie ii/aaie e na?icaiaie, a ia
e?aeiai caiaaea—ei?e/iaauie ii/aaie. Oeiu ii/a i?ioeaaeiuo oia?aiiuo
oe?io i?aaenoaaeaiu ao?uie eaniuie ii/aaie — ia caiaaea, eaooaiiauie e
ao?uie, ionouiii-noaiiuie — ia ainoiea. A Aiaeao /aoei au?aaeaia
aunioiay iiyniinoue n ai?iuie oeiaie ciiaeueiuo ii/a. Eiio?anou
i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee e iniaaiiinoe iaeaiaaia?aoe/aneiai ?acaeoey THaeiie
Aia?eee iaoneiaeee aiaaonoai e naiaia?acea aeeaioiiai ie?a. Oaoia
iaoa?eea oaeaea ioee/aaony aieueoei yiaeaieciii, /oi iicaieeei /aoei
auaeaeeoue Iaio?iie/aneia ciiaaia?aoe/aneia oea?noai n aaeeinoaaiiie
Iaio?iie/aneie iaeanoueth. Yiaeaie/iu o?e naiaenoaa io?yaea iaiieiicoauo
(a?iiaiinoeu, io?aaueaaeu e eaieaoeu), oe?ieiiinua iaacueyiu, ?oeie?ueua
(aaiie?u), a?ucoiu (ii?neea naeiee, aaooe, oeioeeeu), oeaeua io?yaeu
ioeoe (no?aonu-iaiaeo, oeiaio e aiaoeeiu, a oaeaea a?eou, ooeaiu, 500
aeaeia eieea?e, iiiaea ?iaeu iiioaaaa e ae?. ) Ec i?aniueathueony
oa?aeoa?iu yiaeaie/iua eaeiaiu, yua?eoeu-eaoaiu e oaeaau-aia, n?aaee ?ua
— yeaeo?e/aneee oai?ue, aeaiyeiaeu-oauay ne?aia e i?i/ea. Iniaui
?aciiia?aceai e yiaeaieciii (3400 aeaeia ec 5600) ioee/athony ianaeiiua.
Eeoue a ieaenoioeaia a THaeioth Aia?eeo ec Naaa?iie ia?anaeeeenue e
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeenue yaoa? e ioia, neoinu, auae?u, oaie?u, iaea?e e
eaiu. A THaeiie Aia?eea ionoonoaoao oeaeue ?yae aeeaioiuo, oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia ae?oaeo iaoa?eeao (oceiiinua iaacueyiu, ii/oe iao
ianaeiiiyaeiuo, iaei eiiuoiuo). Yeieiae/aneea oneiaey ionouiii-noaiiuo
i?ino?ainoa e i?ioeaaeiuo eania thaeiuo Aiae ?acei ioee/iu io aea?eeo
naaaii e eania aieaa naaa?iuo /anoae iaoa?eea. Iiyoiio nouanoaaiii
ioee/aaony e aeeaioiue ie? yoeo oa??eoi?ee. THaeiua ?aeiiu
iauaaeeiythony a *eeeenei-Iaoaaiineoth ciiaaia?aoe/aneoth iiaeiaeanoue,
naaa?iua — a A?aceeueneoth.

Iauea caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey ii/a, ?anoeoaeueiinoe e aeeaioiiai ie?a

Aeiaaiiua eiiiiiaiou — ?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie? e aeieiniue
eiiiiiaio — ii/au ioee/athony io ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiuo eiiiiiaioia
i?e?iaeu oai, /oi /a?ou eo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeythony oaeeie
iniaaiiinoyie aeeauo i?aaieciia, eae niiniaiinoueth aini?iecaiaeeoue
naaa iiaeiaiuo, ia?aiauaoueny a i?ino?ainoaa, i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e
oneiaeyi nouanoaiaaiey, ia?aciauaaoue niiauanoaa.

AEeaua i?aaieciu /ooei ?aaae?otho ia eciaiaiea oneiaee naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey, o.a. yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee, i?aaeaea anaai ia eciaiaiey
eeeiaoa.

Oaieue e aeinoaoi/ii aeaaeiue eeeiao iaeaiaaia e ia/aea iaiaaia
niinianoaiaae nouanoaiaaieth a Naaa?iie Aa?acee iuoiie e aiaaoie eaniie
?anoeoaeueiinoe. Ia aieueoae /anoe oa??eoi?ee iaoae no?aiu auee
?ani?ino?aiaiu ai?aaeueiua eenoiiaaeiua oe?ieieenoaaiiua eana n
o/anoeaie aa/iicaeaiuo ?anoaiee (ainiiaenoaiaaea oo?aaeneay oei?a) n
niioaaonoaothuei eiiieaenii aeeaioiuo e oeiaie ii/a. THa aa?iiaeneie
/anoe (i?eia?ii aei oe?iou Aieaia?aaea) caieiaee noao?iie/aneea eana
(iieoaaneay oei?a), a ninoaaa eioi?uo i?aiaeaaeaee aa/iicaeaiua ?anoaiey
(aieioiue eeia?en, ie?o, aa/iicaeaiue aeoa, iaaiieey e ae?.); n?aaee ieo
ano?a/aeenue e eenoiiaaeiua aea?aauey (a?aoeeee i?ao e ae?.). A ninoaa
aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey aoiaeeee noao?iie/aneea e o?iie/aneea aeaeu
(oaie?u, naaeacoaue oea? e ae?.).

A oa/aiea iaiaaia oneeeaaeanue aeeooa?aioeeaoeey eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee,
/oi io?aceeinue ia ii/aao, ?anoeoaeueiinoe e aeeaioiii ie?a. Oneeaiea
nooinoe eeeiaoa ai aioo?aiieo ?aeiiao iaoa?eea a nayce n iiaeiyoeai
ai?iuo nii?oaeaiee Aeueieenei-Aeiaeaeneiai iiyna iaoneiaeei iiyaeaiea
noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe e aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia naaa?, oae eae o?aau
enia?ytho e iio?aaeytho iaiueoa aeaae, /ai ae?aaaniay ?anoeoaeueiinoue.
Iiae noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth oi?ie?othony ii/au, a ia?aciaaiee
eioi?uo aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?aao aea?iiaue i?ioeann, a ianaeyee noaie
aeeaioiua ioe?uouo i?ino?ainoa.

Aeaeueiaeoaa iioieiaeaiea eeeiaoa a ieeioeai-/aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy,
iiaeaeoaa ca niaie ia?aciaaiea eaaeieeiauo iie?iaia, aucaaei auiaaeaiea
oaieiethaeauo ?anoaiee ec oo?aaeneiai eiiieaena, a eioi?ii o/anoaiaaee e
oaieiua. Yoi i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth oeie/iuo oaaaeiuo eania, aeeceeo e
nia?aiaiiui. Oeaio?ii oi?ie?iaaiey oaiiioaieiie oaeae yaeeenue thaeiua
?aeiiu Neae?e. Iicaeiaa neae?neea oaieiua ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu
?ani?ino?aieeenue ia caiaae a i?aaeaeu Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu e ia
tha Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, a aianoa n ieie — e eiiieaen aeeaioiuo,
naycaiiuo n oaieiuie eanaie.

E ia/aeo /aoaa?oe/iiai ia?eiaea ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee oaea nouanoaiaaee
aiaeiae anao iniiaiuo i?e?iaeiuo cii, e?iia ooiae? e a?eoe/aneeo
ionouiue.

I?iaeieaeaaoaany a /aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy iioieiaeaiea eeeiaoa iiaeaeei ca
niaie ia?aciaaiea eaaeieeiauo iie?iaia. Iaeiaei iaoiaeee eneiiaaiie
oei?u e oaoiu, a oaeaea nii?iai-iueueoeaaie aiaeec ioeiaeaiee
iieacuaatho, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai /aoaa?oe/iiai ia?eiaea a
Oeaio?aeueiie sseooee i?iec?anoaee oaaaeiua eana n oa?aeoa?iui aeey ieo
eiiieaenii aeeaioiuo. A ioiineoaeueiie aeecinoe io e?ay eaaeieea auee
?ani?ino?aiaiu o/anoee oaieiuo e aeaaea niaoaiiuo eania e ia oa??eoi?ee
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aceii iioieiaeaiee a?yae ee niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iioieiaeaiea auei aeinoaoi/ii iinoaiaiiui (ieaaiui),
iiyoiio aeaaea i?e aieueoii aeeaiaciia nieaeaiey oaiia?aoo? iiiaea
?anoaiey e aeeaioiua noiaee (oniaee) i?eniiniaeoueny e eciaieaoeiny
oneiaeyi nouanoaiaaiey e ia iieeioee naieo iano iaeoaiey eeai
ia?aianoeeenue ia iaaieueoea ?annoiyiey.

Iioieiaeaiea eeeiaoa a aunieeo oe?ioao i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth e caeanue a
ia/aea /aoaa?oe/iiai ia?eiaea o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. O?aau ia
oieueei aeiaieuenoaothony iaiueoei eiee/anoaii aeaae, /ai aea?aauey, ii
e eo/oa ia?aiinyo ceiiea oieiaea, aaaaoaoeey eo i?ioaeaao a iaiueoee
io?acie a?aiaie, a ionthaea e i?e iaiueoai eiee/anoaa oaiea ca aanue
ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee. A oi aea a?aiy o?aau aeatho iiiai naiyi. A
eaaeieeiaua ia?eiaeu o?aayienoua i?ino?ainoaa (“oieiaeiua noaie”)
?aniieaaaeenue aaeece a?aieoe eaaeieea.

Aaaeiui oeaio?ii ?ani?ino?aiaiey e nio?aiaiey iaoe?iuo o?aayienouo
i?ino?ainoa (noaiae eee ooiae?i-noaiae) auea Aa?eiaey — ia?iiiay,
eeoaiiay eueaea nooa, nouanoaiaaaoay a eaaeieeiaua yiioe ia ianoa
oaeueoia ii?ae Aa?eiaiaa, *oeioneiai e Aioi?oa, a oaeaea i?eii?neeo
ieciaiiinoae sseooee e Aeynee. Iia eiaea nooie e oieiaeiue eeeiao:
n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a yiaa?y auea ieaea -40°N, ethey — ia auoa 10°N, a
aiaeiaay noiia inaaeeia — ia iaiaa 150 ii. Caeanue ainiiaenoaiaaea
o?aayienoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue e oieiaeiethaeaay oaoia — aeciiu e
aa?aethaeu, iaoeaauee e naeaaee, naaa?iua ieaie e yee, eaiieiae e
ocei/a?aiiua iieaaee, ianoeu e a?eoe/aneea noneeee.

Eaaeieeiaua yiioe — a?aiy oi?ie?iaaiey ooiae?. Ii iiaieth A.E. Oieia/aaa
(1927, 1954), ?iaeeiie oei?u ooiae? neaaeoao n/eoaoue ai?u
Naaa?i-Ainoiea. Ciieiae oiaea n/eoatho yoio ?aeii ?iaeeiie ooiae?iaie
oaoiu. A ia?eiaeu ionooiaiey eaaeieeia a i?eii?neeo ?aeiiao aeinoaoi/ii
ieceea oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa ni/aoaeenue n aieaa cia/eoaeueiui
oaeaaeiaieai, /oi iaoneiaeei niaio o?aayienouo niiauanoa
iioiai-eeoaeieeiauie e eonoa?ie/eiauie ooiae?aie.

N ia?eiaeaie ianooiaiey e nie?auaiey eaaeieea, n yiioaie ieaaeaiaiee e
iaaeeaaeieeiaee, io?aaeathueie eeeiaoe/aneea eciaiaiey, naycaiu
iea?aoeee aeeauo i?aaieciia, iaoneiaeaoea ai?eciioaeueiua ia?aiauaiey
a?aieoe ?acee/iuo niiauanoa, a oii /enea e niiauanoa aunieiai ?aiaa
(oeiia ?anoeoaeueiinoe e naycaiiuo n ieie eiiieaenia aeeaioiuo), a
oaeaea niaoaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo oei? e oaoi, nio?aiaiea
?aeeeoia e iiaia aeaeiia?aciaaiea. Oea iea?aoeey aeaeia ia oieueei a
ia?eaeeiiaeueiii iai?aaeaiee, ii e n caiaaea ia ainoie, eeai n ainoiea
ia caiaae. AEeaua i?aaieciu iinoaiaiii inaaeaaee iiaua, inaiaiaeeaoeany
io eaaeieeia eee ai a?aiy ?aa?annee ii?ae o/anoee.

Ana yoi iaoneiaeei aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia ?aciiia?acea e iano?ioo ii/a,
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa e aeeaioiiai ie?a iaoae no?aiu.

Oaea aiai?eeinue i ?aaeoeee aeeauo i?aaieciia ia eciaiaiea oneiaee
iaeoaiey, eee yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee. Iie aea ii?aaeaeythony eeeiaoii,
i?aaeaea anaai niioiioaieai oaiea e aeaae, iaiueoa — noaiaiueth
eiioeiaioaeueiinoe, a oaeaea eeoiaaiiie iniiaie, o.a. noano?aoii,
oa?aeoa?ii ?aeueaoa. Eeoiaaiiay iniiaa ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao oaiei e aeaao,
e?iia oiai, iia neoaeeo enoi/ieeii ieia?aeueiuo yeaiaioia ieoaiey aeeauo
i?aaieciia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ?aciauaiea ii/a, ?anoeoaeueiinoe e
aeeauo i?aaieciia a iaeaieueoae noaiaie aeeytho eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey,
eciaiaiea eioi?uo iiae/eiaii oe?ioiie ciiaeueiinoe, a a ai?ao — aunioiie
iiyniinoe.

A nayce n yoei iniiaiie caeiiiia?iinoueth ?aciauaiey ii/a,
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa e aeeaioiiai ie?a ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee yaeyaony
oe?ioiay ciiaeueiinoue, a a ai?ao — aunioiay iiyniinoue.

A oi aea a?aiy eciaiaiea eiioeiaioaeueiinoe eeeiaoa i?e aeaeaeaiee n
caiaaea ia ainoie, a oaeaea ?acee/iay aaieiae/aneay enoi?ey (a oii /enea
/aoaa?oe/iay enoi?ey) e?oiiuo oaeoiie/aneeo no?oeoo? i?eaaee e
naeoi?iinoe (i?iaeioeeaeueiinoe) a ?aciauaiee ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa e aeeaioiiai ie?a.

Ciiaeueiinoue e naeoi?iinoue (i?iaeioeeaeueiinoue) — aeaa iniiaiua
caeiiiia?iinoe a ?aciauaiee yoeo eiiiiiaioia. Ana o?e ?anniao?eaaaiuo
eiiiiiaioa oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie, ana o?e a /?acau/aeii neeueiie
noaiaie caaenyo io eeeiaoa. Iie ia?aaeei ?anniao?eaathony aianoa, eae
yoi naeaeaii e a aeaiiii ?acaeaea i?e iaci?a eo eciaiaiey a
iaiaai-/aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy. *anoi iu aiai?ei i ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiii
iie?iaa, i?e yoii iacuaay eeoue ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ii iiae?acoiaaay e
noi?ie?iaaaoeeny iiae iae oei ii/a, e niioaaonoaothuee ae eiiieaen
aeeaioiuo. Iaeiaei iaaeaeo ieie anoue e aanueia nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey:
aeeaioiue ie? — iaeaieaa iiaeaeaeiue eiiiiiaio, a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
naycaiiue n ?anoeoaeueiinoueth e, a iniiaiii, /a?ac iaa e n ae?oaeie
eiiiiiaioaie; ii/au — iaeaieaa caaeneiu io eeoiaaiiie iniiau;
?anoeoaeueiinoue — naiue y?eee eiaeeeaoi? anaai eiiieaena i?e?iaeiuo
oneiaee, nicaeathuee aai c?eoaeueiue ia?ac.

Eaaeaeue ec o?ao eiiiiiaioia eiaao e naie iniaaiiinoe, naie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua /a?ou, eaaeaeue yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiui eiiiiiaioii
i?e?iaeu.

Ii/au

Oneiaey ii/aiia?aciaaiey. Ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea ii/a oanii naycaii ni
anaie inoaeueiuie eiiiiiaioaie i?e?iaeu. A.A. Aeieo/aaa iacaae ii/ao
“ca?eaeii e i?iecaaaeaieai eaiaeoaooa”, iiae/a?eioa oai naiui, /oi iia
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii acaeiiaeaenoaey anao eiiiiiaioia e, eae a ca?eaea,
io?aaeaao yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea. Ana eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeu o/anoaotho a
oi?ie?iaaiee ii/a, iiyoiio ana iie auee iacaaiu A.A. Aeieo/aaaui a
ea/anoaa oaeoi?ia ii/aiia?aciaaiey; e iei aea auee aeiaaaeaiu oaeoi?
a?aiaie e aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi
iniiaaoaeue aaiaoe/aneiai ii/aiaaaeaiey A.A. Aeieo/aaa yaeyaony
iaeiia?aiaiii e iaeiei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia o/aiey i eaiaeoaooa
(eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey). O/aiea i ii/aao ?innee A.A. Aeieo/aaa aia?aua
eceiaeee a naiai eeanne/aneii o?oaea “?onneee /a?iicai” (1883).

Eco/aiea ii/a iaoae no?aiu i?iaeieaeeee iiiai/eneaiiua o/aieee e
iineaaeiaaoaee Aeieo/aaaa: I.I. Neae?oeaa, N.N. Iaono?oaa, I.A.
Einou/aa, E.Ae. Aeeiea, E.E. I?anieia, A.I. Aunioeeee, A.A. Iieuiia,
E.I. Aa?aneiia, I.A. Aeacianeay, A.A. Eiaaea, A.I. O?eaeeaiae e ae?.

O?oaeaie ii/aiaaaeia onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii/aaiiue iie?ia ?innee
oaeeaeoaeueii iano?. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi iao ie iaeiiai eiiiiiaioa
i?e?iaeu, eioi?ue au ia aeeye ia ii/au, a eaaeaeue ec ieo aanueia
eciai/ea a i?ino?ainoaa. Iniaaiii neeueiia aeeyiea ia ii/aiia?aciaaiea
ieacuaatho eeeiao, ?anoeoaeueiinoue e ai?iua (iaoa?eineea) ii?iaeu, a ia
?aciauaiea ii/a i/aiue aaeeei aeeyiea ?aeueaoa. Ionthaea e ia?iiiay
iano?ioa ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa.

Iai?aaeaiiinoue e eioaineaiinoue ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeiu ii/a caaenyo io yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia (cao?ao
oaiea ia ii/aiia?aciaaiea), aiaeiiai ?aaeeia ii/a, iinooieaiey i?aaieee
a ii/ao e nei?inoe aa ?aceiaeaiey, eiee/anoaa iee?ii?aaieciia,
o/anoaothueo a i?ioeannao ii/aiia?aciaaiey. Ana yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee a oie
eee eiie noaiaie caaenyo io eeeiaoa, iiyoiio ana iie a naiuo iaueo
/a?oao iaia?oaeeaatho ciiaeueiinoue.

A naaa?iie /anoe no?aiu ?acaeoea ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia
eeieoe?oaony i?aaeaea anaai yia?aaoe/aneeie ?ano?naie. Ia?anoaiea oaiea
i?e aeaeaeaiee n naaa?a ia tha aea/ao ca niaie oaaee/aiea i?aaieee,
iinooiathuae n aaeaaiaeiui niaaeii a ii/ao, e eiee/anoaa
iee?ii?aaieciia, o/anoaothueo a aa ia?a?aaioea; iiyoiio aic?anoaao
eioaineaiinoue ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia e eiee/anoai aoiona a
ii/aao. Iioeiaeueiua oneiaey aeey ii/aiia?aciaaiey nicaeathony a iieina
iaeo?aeueiiai aaeaina oaiea e aeaae, iiyoiio caeanue oi?ie?othony naiua
ieiaei?iaeiua, aiaaoua aoionii ii/au — /a?iicaiu.

I?e aeaeueiaeoai i?iaeaeaeaiee e thao i?ioeannu ii/aiia?aciaaiey oaea
eeieoe?othony iaaeinoaoeii aeaae. Eiaiii n yoei naycaii oiaiueoaiea
i?e?inoa aeiiannu e, eae neaaenoaea, ana iaiueoaa iinooieaiea i?aaieee,
a ionthaea e nie?auaiea eiee/anoaa iee?ii?aaieciia, ieoaoaeueiie n?aaeie
aeey eioi?uo neoaeeo i?aaie/aneia aauanoai. Nie?auaaony e noiia?iay
cao?aoa yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu, oae
eae iniiaiay eo /anoue (aei 95%) ?anoiaeoaony ia enia?aiea ii/aaiiie
aeaae, a aeaae a ii/aao i?e i?iaeaeaeaiee e thao noaiiaeony ana iaiueoa
e iaiueoa. Oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa aeaae i?e aic?anoaiee oaiia?aoo?
iaoneiaeeaaao iaaieueooth aeoaeio i?iia/eaaiey a?oioa e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeoth iiuiinoue ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey.

Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey a niaieoiiinoe n eiee/anoaii iee?ii?aaieciia
ii?aaeaeytho eioaineaiinoue aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia, a eo
iai?aaeaiiinoue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io oeiia aiaeiiai
?aaeeia ii/a.

I?iiuaiie ?aaeei iaoneiaeeaaao auiin aieueoeinoaa oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia
ec ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey, o.a. i?aiaeaaeaiea auuaea/eaaiey; i?e iai?iiuaiii
?aaeeia auiinyony eeoue iaeaieaa iiaeaeaeiua yeaiaiou e i?ienoiaeeo
iaeiieaiea aoiona; auiioiie ?aaeei niinianoaoao iaeiieaieth iiaeaeaeiuo
niaaeeiaiee, o.a. canieaieth ii/a. Yoe iniiaiua oeiu aiaeiiai ?aaeeia
ii/a niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa i?e aeaeaeaiee n naaa?a ia tha, o.a.
iaia?oaeeaatho ciiaeueiinoue a naiai ?ani?ino?aiaiee.

Canoieiue ?aaeei, eae e i?iiuaiie, oa?aeoa?ai aeey aoieaeiiai eeeiaoa,
ii i?e yoii ii /aua iaia?oaeeaaao i?eo?i/aiiinoue e aeai?anneyi
?aeueaoa. Iniaaiii oe?iei yoio ?aaeei ?ani?ino?aiai ia ieceeo ?aaieiao n
aeeceei caeaaaieai a?oioiauo aiae. Ia?ceioiue ?aaeei oeie/ai aeey
ooiae?, ii ca Aienaai i/aiue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai e a oaeaa. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaa iineaaeieo oeia, nio?aiyy a naiai ?ani?ino?aiaiee
ciiaeueiinoue eae iniiaioth caeiiiia?iinoue, iaia?oaeeaatho e
ii?aaeaeaiiua /a?ou naeoi?iinoe.

Ciiaeueiinoue a ?acaeoee ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia ii?aaeaeyao
?aciauaiea oeiia ii/a ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee. A oeaeii ciiaeueiinoue ii/a
au?aaeaia aeinoaoi/ii io/aoeeai, /oi iaoneiaeaii aieueoie ieiuaaeueth
no?aiu, cia/eoaeueiie i?ioyaeaiiinoueth oa??eoi?ee n naaa?a ia tha,
eiiiaeoiinoueth nooe e i?aiaeaaeaieai ?aaieiiiai ?aeueaoa. Iniaaiii y?ei
iia i?iyaeyaony a ii/aaiiii iie?iaa Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie e
Caiaaeii-Neae?neie ?aaiei. A oi aea a?aiy a ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao, aaea
i?aiaeaaeatho aieaa cia/eoaeueiua auniou, a /anoi e ai?iue ?aeueao, aaea
?ani?ino?aiaia iiiaieaoiyy ia?ceioa, ciiaeueiinoue ianeieueei
caoooaauaaaony.

Iniiaiua oeiu ii/a ?innee. Ana ?aciiia?acea oeiia ii/a ii?aaeaeyaony
niioiioaieai iniiaiuo ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia: aeaaaiai,
iiaecieiia?aciaaiey, aea?iiaiai (aoioniiaeiieaiey), iaeeiaiey
(ia?aciaaiey aoi?e/iuo aeeienouo ieia?aeia), nieaiaeiieaiey (canieaiey),
oi?oiiaeiieaiey (aieioiiai). Ia ?aaieiao i?e aeaeaeaiee n naaa?a ia tha
niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa neaaeothuea oeiu ii/a.

A?eoe/aneea ii/au oi?ie?othony ia iaaunieeo ieaoi e ieceeo aa?aaao
a?eoe/aneeo ino?iaia, ia o/anoeao, eeoaiiuo eueaea. Iie i/aiue iieiaeu,
neaai ?acaeou e ?ani?ino?aiaiu o?aaiaioa?ii. Cia/eoaeueiua i?ino?ainoaa
eeoaiu aeaaea i?eieoeaiuo ii/a. A?eoe/aneea ii/au oa?aeoa?ecothony
neaaiaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui oei?i/aiiui i?ioeeai e aunieie neaeaoiinoueth.
Aa?oiea ai?eciiou niaea?aeao iiiai iiaeaeaeiiai aeaeaca. Oa?aeoa?ia
aanueia iaeay eioaineaiinoue auuaea/eaaiey Na e Iae, ia?acothueony i?e
auaao?eaaiee ia?ae/iuo ieia?aeia. Auuaea/eaaieth i?aiyonoaoao iaeia
eiee/anoai inaaeeia e aeeceia caeaaaiea ia?ceiou, iiyoiio ii/au
iaeaeaciaiu n iiaa?oiinoe, a ianoaie aeaaea nieii/aeiaaou. Iaeaaiea aeey
ieo ia oeie/ii, aeaeeii, ia noieueei ec-ca iaeiai eiee/anoaa inaaeeia e
neaeaoiinoe, neieueei ec-ca ionoonoaey caiaoiuo eiee/anoa i?aaie/aneiai
aauanoaa (I.A. Aeacianeay, E.I. Aa?aneiia, 1960).

THaeiaa a?eoe/aneeo ii/au niaiythony ooiae?iauie, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeaiu
/aou?ueiy iiaeoeiaie: a?eoiooiae?iauie aoioniauie aeaaaaouie,
ooiae?iauie aeaaauie oeie/iuie, ooiae?iauie eeethaeaeueii-aoioniauie
iiiaecieaiiuie (ooiae?iaua iiaeao?u), oi?oyienoi- e oi?oyii-aeaaauie
ooiae?iauie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai caeanue ooiae?iai-aeaaaue oei
ii/aiia?aciaaiey, i?iyaeythueeny ia aeeienouo e noaeeienouo ii?iaeao
iiae niieiooie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth. E?eiaaiiua yaeaiey, niinianoaothuea
?acaeoeth i?ioeannia io/aiey, iyoiiia?aciaaiey, nieeoetheoeee,
ia?aciaaieth o?auei, ia?ooatho i?aaeeueiinoue a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
aaiaoe/aneeo ai?eciioia, aieioue aei aeeth/aiey iaeieo a ae?oaea e
iia?aaaiey, iiyoiio ii/aaiiue i?ioeeue neaai aeeooa?aioee?iaai.

Aeey oeie/iuo ooiae?iauo ii/a oa?aeoa?ii y?eia i?iyaeaiea aeaaaiai
i?ioeanna e caiaaeeaiiia ?aceiaeaiea ?anoeoaeueiiai iiaaea n
ia?aciaaieai a?oaiai aoiona. Oi?ie?othueany naaa?iaa a?eoiooiae?iaua
aoioniaua aeaaaaoua ii/au iau/ii a ieieiaeueiie noaiaie ia?aoaeaaeiaiu e
iaeaaiu. Aeey ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa oa?aeoa?ia eiiieaeniinoue, naycaiiay n
iieeaiiaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie, aicieeathueie a ?acoeueoaoa ia?ceioiuo
i?ioeannia. A oneiaeyo cao?oaeiaiiiai iooiea aeaae ia?acothony
oi?oyienoi-aeaaaua, a a thaeiuo ?aeiiao, aaea auoa oaiia?aoo?u e:
i?ienoiaeeo aieaa auno?ue i?e?ino ioa, oi?ie?othony oi?oyii-aeaaaua
ii/au. A ianoao, aaea oneiaey ae?aiaaea eo/oa (ia ian/aiuo ii?iaeao eee
a oneiaeyo ?an/eaiaiiiai ?aeueaoa), a thaeiie ooiae?a e eaniooiae?a
oi?ie?othony eeethaeaeueii-aoioniaua iiiaecieaiiua ii/au. Ia uaaienoii
noano?aoa i?e aeoaieii caeaaaiee ia?ceiou eee i?e aa ionoonoaee iie
iiaoo aiana ia eiaoue i?eciaeia ia?aoaeaaeiaiey e iaeaaiey.

Ooiae?iaua ii/au iaeiiiuiu, ioee/athony iaeui niaea?aeaieai aoiona
(2-5%), a ninoaaa eioi?iai ?acei i?aiaeaaeatho ooeueaieeneiou (aei 70%),
e iiauoaiiie eeneioiinoueth, auua-ei/aiiinoueth io eaaei?anoai?eiuo
nieae e ea?aiiaoia.

Iiaecieenoua ii/au — naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a ?innee oei ii/a. Iie
oi?ie?othony iiae oaieiuie e niaoaiiuie eanaie a oneiaeyo
iieiaeeoaeueiiai aaeaina aeaae (Eoae = 1,1-1,3). I?aiaeaaeaiea inaaeeia
iaae enia?aieai iaania/eaaao i?iiuaiie ?aaeei ii/a a oa/aiea
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea. I?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiue
auiin oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia ec aa?oieo ai?eciioia ii/au, iiyoiio aeey
iiaecieenouo ii/a oa?aeoa?ai ai?eciio auiuaaiey (A2). Eaaei?anoai?eiua
niaaeeiaiey auiinyony ca i?aaeaeu ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey, a iaiaa
iiaeaeaeiua iieooi?iua ieeneu iaeaieeaathony a ieaeiae /anoe i?ioeey,
aaea oi?ie?oaony ai?eciio aiuaaiey (eeethaeaeueiue).
Iiaecieiia?aciaaoaeueiue i?ioeann a /enoii aeaea i?ioaeaao iiae iieiaii
oaiiioaieiuo eania n iioiaui iaii/aaiiui iie?iaii eee ia?oaiiie?iaiuo.
Aicieeathuea a yoeo oneiaeyo iiaecieenoua ii/au e iiaecieu iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iu aeey n?aaeiae oaeae. Aeey ieo oeie/iu /aoeay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ia ai?eciiou, iaeay iiuiinoue aoioniaiai ai?eciioa
(1-3 ni) eee aai ionoonoaea (a iiaecieao), iaeia eiee/anoai aoiona, a
ninoaaa eioi?iai i?aiaeaaeatho ooeueaieeneiou, e eeneay ?aaeoeey
ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a.

I?e a?aiaiiii ecauoi/iii iiaa?oiinoiii oaeaaeiaiee i?ioeann
iiaecieiia?aciaaiey ineiaeiyaony aeaaaui i?ioeannii. A oaeeo oneiaeyo
ia?acothony aeaaai-iiaecieenoua ii/au, iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua aeey
naaa?iie oaeae n aa aieaa no?iaui eeeiaoii eee aeey iecei n iaaeoaieei
caeaaaieai a?oioiauo aiae.

Iiaecieenoua eeethaeaeueii-aoioniaua e
eeethaeaeueii-aeaeacenoi-aoioniaua ii/au ano?a/athony aeaaiui ia?acii a
naaa?iie oaeaa e i?eo?i/aiu e uaaienoui, ian/aiui ii?iaeai. Ia yoii
aaaeiii iniiaaieyie noano?aoa iaeaaeathuea iiauoaiiie iiaeaeaeiinoueth
ooeueaieeneiou ia?acotho i?aeiouanoaaiii i?aaii-aethieieaaua e
i?aaii-aeaeacenoua niaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua ia?aiauathony a eeethaeaeueiue
ai?eciio, ie?aoeaay aai a io?enoi-?aeaaue eee oaiii-ei?e/iaaue oeaao.
Oaeei ia?acii, a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa a yoeo ii/aao
ioia/athony aeaa iaeneioia — a aa?oiae /anoe e a eeethaeaeueiii
ai?eciioa.

A thaeiie oaeaa e niaoaiiuo eanao, aaea oaaee/eaaaony iinooieaiea
?anoeoaeueiiai niaaea a ii/ao e ana aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao iiaae o?aa, a
ia ioia, ?anooueo iiae iieiaii eana, ?ani?ino?aiaiu
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua ii/au. I?e eo oi?ie?iaaiee ia iiaecieenoue
i?ioeann iaeeaaeuaaaony aea?iiaue (aoioniiaeiieaiea). Oaaee/eaathony
caianu aoiona e iiuiinoue aoioniaiai ai?eciioa.

A oaeaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu iiaecieenoi-aieioiua ii/au, naycaiiua ni niaiie
i?iiuaiiai ?aaeeia canoieiui e iaiai?io, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao iinoiyiiia
ni/aoaiea iiaecieenoiai e aieioiiai i?ioeannia. A i?ioeea yoeo ii/a ia
oieueei i?iyaeyaony iaeaaiea, eae a aeaaai-iiaecieenouo, ii e ia?acoaony
a aa?oiae /anoe i?ioeey oi?oyienoi-aoioniaue ai?eciio. A oneiaeyo
iinoiyiiiai ecauoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey oi?ie?othony aieioiua ii/au:
oi?oyiua e oi?oyii-aeaaaua (oi?oyii-aieioiua), oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a
eaniuo ciiao.

A ?aeiiao ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiiaieaoiae ia?ceiou iiae eanaie ?acaeaathony
naiaia?aciua oaaaeii-ia?ceioiua ii/au. Iniaaiiinoe ii/aiia?aciaaiey
caeanue naycaiu n ieceeie oaiia?aoo?aie a?oioia, /ai iaoneiaeaii
caiaaeeaiea i?ioeannia oeie/aneiai auaao?eaaiey e ?aceiaeaiey i?aaieee.
Iiyoiio a aa?oiai ai?eciioa ii/a iaeaieeaaaony ieioi ?aceiaeeaoaany
i?aaie/aneia aauanoai — a?oaue aoion. Iiiaieaoiyy ia?ceioa neoaeeo
aiaeioii?ii, iiyoiio i?e aa iaaeoaieii caeaaaiee neaiciiai i?iiuaaiey
ii/aaiiie oieue ia i?ienoiaeeo. A ia?eiaeu oayiey niaaa e auiaaeaiey
inaaeeia ii/aa i?iiuaaaony, ii auianaiiua niaaeeiaiey aeeoioee?othony a
iaaeia?ceioiii neia, a a aacaeiaeaeiua ia?eiaeu iie aianoa n ii/aaiiie
aeaaie iiaeoyaeaathony e iiaa?oiinoe, iiyoiio caeanue iao ai?eciioa
auiuaaiey (iiaecieenoiai). Aaeaaiaeiia i?iia?caiea ii/a i?eaiaeeo e
ia?aiaoeaaieth ii/aaiiie iannu (eae ecaanoii, aiaea i?e caia?caiee
?anoe?yaony). Ii yoei i?e/eiai oaaaeii-ia?ceioiua ii/au oa?aeoa?ecothony
neaai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui ii/aaiiui i?ioeeai. Oayiea ia?ceiou
iaoneiaeeaaao aieaa eee iaiaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia ia?aoaeaaeiaiea
ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey eee aai ieaeiae /anoe, n /ai naycaii iaee/ea a
oaaaeii-ia?ceioiuo ii/aao i?eciaeia iaeaaiey.

Oaaaeii-ia?ceioiua ii/au iiae?acaeaeythony ia ianeieueei iiaeoeiia.
Iaeaieaa y?ei /a?ou aeaiiiai ii/aaiiiai oeia i?iyaeythony a
oaaaeii-ia?ceioiuo eeneuo ii/aao. Oai, aaea iaaethaeaaony aieaa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia ia?aoaeaaeiaiea, ?acaeou aeaaoaaaeii-ia?ceioiua
ii/au. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iu iie aeey naaa?iuo ?aeiiia, aaea iiuiinoue
aeayoaeueiiai neiy iaea e ia?aoaeaaeiaiiui ieacuaaaony aanue ii/aaiiue
i?ioeeue. Ano?a/athony yoe ii/au e a aieaa thaeiuo ?aeiiao ia
aeaaiianuuaiiuo a?oioao oyaeaeiai iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa, a
ica?ii-oa?iiea?noiauo iiieaeaieyo. Ia ii/aiia?acothueo ii?iaeao, aiaaouo
iniiaaieyie (eanniaeaeiuo noaeeieao, ecaanoiyeao), oi?ie?othony
oaaaeii-ia?ceioiua iaeo?aeueiua (iaeaaua) ii/au. Iniaaiii oeie/iu iie
aeey Oeaio?aeueiie sseooee.

A oneiaeyo oi?ioaai ae?aiaaea ia eaaeeo e eaiaienoi-uaaienouo a?oioao,
aeaaiianuuaiiinoue eioi?uo iaaaeeea, oi?ie?othony iiaeao?u. Io ae?oaeo
iiaeoeiia oaaaeii-ia?ceioiuo ii/a iie ioee/athony ionoonoaeai i?eciaeia
iaeaaiey. Iiaeao?u ?acaeaathony ia ii?iaeao, aiaaouo ia?ae/iuie neaai
auaao?aeuie ieia?aeaie, i?aaeaea anaai ia a?aieoao eee ii?iaeao, aiaaouo
aeaeaciniaea?aeaueie ieia?aeaie. Iniaaiii aieueoea ieiuaaee iiaeao?u
caieiatho iiae eanaie a ai?ao THaeiie Neae?e e Naaa?i-Ainoiea, a oaeaea
a iaeaieaa ?an/eaiaiiuo ?aeiiao N?aaeianeae?neiai ieineiai?uey.

Ia aieaa eee iaiaa ieioiuo ecaanoiyeao (a a aacia?ceioiuo ?aeiiao e ia
?uoeuo ea?aiiaoiuo ioeiaeaieyo) iiae eanaie ?acaeaathony
aea?iiai-ea?aiiaoiua (aea?iiai-ia?aaiieiua) e aea?iiai-aeaaaua ii/au.
Ea?aiiaoiay iaoa?eineay ii?iaea aeaaea a oneiaeyo i?iiuaiiai ?aaeeia
iaania/eaaao iaee/ea eaeueoeey a ii/aa, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao iaeo?aeueioth
(neaaieeneoth) ?aaeoeeth ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a, neaaoth iiaeaeaeiinoue
aoiona e i?aiaeaaeaiea a aai ninoaaa aoieiiauo eeneio. I?ienoiaeeo
iaeiieaiea aoiona a aa?oiae /anoe ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey, iiyoiio aea?iiaua
ii/au eiatho oi?ioi ?acaeoue aoioniaue ai?eciio. Aanueia /anoi aea?iiaua
ii/au iaeaaeatho neaai au?aaeaiiuie i?eciaeaie iiiaecieeaaiey. I?e
aeeceii caeaaaiee a?oioiauo aiae iiae aeaaeiuie ?aciio?aaii-ceaeiauie
eoaaie oi?ie?othony aea?iiai-aeaaaua (oaiiioeaaoiua aeaaaua) ii/au.

Iiae oe?ieieenoaaiiuie e oaieii-oe?ieieenoaaiiuie eanaie thaa Aeaeueiaai
Ainoiea, a thaeiie /anoe Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe, ia Eaaeaca
iiyaeythony ao?ua eaniua ii/au. Iie oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo i?iiuaiiai
aiaeiiai ?aaeeia, oaieiai e aeaaeiiai eaoa. Oaeea oneiaey aeaaii?eyoiu
aeey auno?iai auaao?eaaiey ia?ae/iuo ieia?aeia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
ii/au, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo aunaiaiaeaeaiea aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa aeaeaca, ea?athuaai aeoeaioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee ii/aaiiiai
iiaeiuathuaai eiiieaena e i?eaeathuaai ao?ue iooaiie ii/aaiiiio
i?ioeeth. Oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii oi?ie?iaaiey ao?uo eaniuo ii/a yaeyaony
iaeeiaiea, o.a. i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey aoi?e/iuo aeeienouo ieia?aeia,
i?ioaeathuee iaeaieaa aeoeaii a n?aaeiae /anoe ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey.
Aoi?e/iua ieia?aeu ia?acothony eae ec i?iaeoeoia auaao?eaaiey ia?ae/iuo
ieia?aeia, oae e ec i?iaeoeoia ieia?aeecaoeee i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeia.
I?ioeeue ao?uo eaniuo ii/a neaai aeeooa?aioee?iaai ia aaiaoe/aneea
ai?eciiou. Ia ii?iaeao oyaeaeiai iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa yoe ii/au neeueii
ia?aoaeaaeiaiu, iiyoiio a ieo ia?aaeei iaaethaeathony yaeaiey
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaeaaiey.

A ai?ao thaa Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, THaeiie Neae?e e O?aea iiae
thaeii-oaaaeiuie eanaie n o/anoeai eenoaaiiuo aea?aaueaa e o?aayiui
iie?iaii ?ani?ino?aiaiu ao?i-oaaaeiua ii/au, ia?aoiaeiua iaaeaeo
aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie e ao?uie eaniuie.

A eaninoaiiie ciia, aaea aaeain aeaae aeecie e iaeo?aeueiiio,
?ani?ino?aiaiu na?ua eaniua ii/au, ia?aciaaiea eioi?uo naycaii n
oe?ieieenoaaiiuie, a a aceaoneie /anoe — n iaeeieenoaaiiuie eanaie.
Caeanue ineaaaaatho i?ioeannu auiina niaaeeiaiee, oa?aeoa?iua aeey
iiaecieenouo ii/a, e oneeeaaaony aea?iiaue i?ioeann. Io
aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/a na?ua eaniua ioee/athony aieueoae iiuiinoueth
aoioniaiai ai?eciioa, aieueoei eiee/anoaii aoiona e aieaa ?aaiiia?iui
aai ?ani?aaeaeaieai ii i?ioeeth, eiathuaio i?eciaee iiiaecieeaaiey. Iie
yaeythony ia?aoiaeiuie iaaeaeo aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie ii/aaie e
/a?iicaiaie. A naaa?iie /anoe, aaea eiyooeoeeaio oaeaaeiaiey aeecie e
aaeeieoea, iie aieueoa ianoo /a?ou, naienoaaiiua ii/aai eana
(naaoei-na?ua e nianoaaiii na?ua), a thaeiie — /a?ou noaiiuo ii/a
(oaiii-na?ua).

Oaeay aeaienoaaiiinoue a i?e?iaea na?uo eaniuo ii/a ii?iaeeea aeiioaco
N.E. Ei?aeeineiai (80-a aiaeu XIX a.), niaeanii eioi?ie na?ua eaniua
ii/au anoue i?iaeoeo aeaa?aaeaoeee /a?iicaiia iiae eanaie. Yoa aeiioaca
aeieaia a?aiy auea ainiiaenoaothuae, iaeiaei nae/an aieueoeinoai
enneaaeiaaoaeae iiaeaea?aeeaaao oi/eo c?aiey A.A. Aeieo/aaaa i ia?ae/iii
i?ienoiaeaeaiee na?uo eaniuo ii/a, yaeythueony ciiaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie
eaninoaie. Aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai iieiaeaiey neoaeao nia?aiaiiua
i?ioeannu ii/aiia?aciaaiey iiae aeoaiauie eanaie a thaeiie eaninoaie,
aaaeouea e oi?ie?iaaieth oaiii-na?uo eaniuo ii/a, aeeceeo ii no?iaieth e
naienoaai e auuaei/aiiui /a?iicaiai.

Iiae noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth a eaninoaiiie ciia e a noaiyo
ainiiaenoaotho /a?iicaiu. Iie oyioony nieioiie iieinie io caiaaeiuo
a?aieoe no?aiu aei i?aaeai?ee Aeoay (ainoi/iaa ano?a/athony eeoue
ioaeaeueiuie ianneaaie). A oi?ie?iaaiee /a?iicaiia aaaeouoth ?ieue
ea?aao aea?iiaue i?ioeann. Aiaeiue ?aaeei /a?iicaiiuo ii/a iai?iiuaiie,
a aiaaoay noaiiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue aaeaaiaeii iinoaaeyao a ii/ao
aieueoia eiee/anoai i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, iiyoiio /a?iicaiu
ioee/athony aunieei niaea?aeaieai aoiona. I?ioeeue /a?iicaiia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony oi?ioi ?acaeoui oaiiui aoioniaui neiai
eiieiaaoi-ca?ienoie no?oeoo?u e iaee/eai ea?aiiaoiiai ai?eciioa.

Oei /a?iicaiiuo ii/a iiae?acaeaeyaony ia iyoue iiaeoeiia: iiiaecieaiiua,
auuaei/aiiua, oeie/iua, iaueiiaaiiua e thaeiua /a?iicaiu, eioi?ua
niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa n naaa?a ia tha ii ia?a ia?anoaiey aeaoeoeeoa
aeaae. Ia?aua o?e iiaeoeia ?acaeou a eaninoaiiie ciia, aeaa iineaaeieo —
a naaa?iie /anoe noaie. Anee a iiiaecieaiiuo e auuaei/aiiuo /a?iicaiao
aua i?enoonoaotho iaeioi?ua i?eciaee i?iiuaaiey, au?aaeathueany a
iaee/ee ai?eciioa aiuaaiey eeenoie o?aeoeee e iieooi?iuo ieeneia,
neaaieeneie ?aaeoeee aoioniaiai neiy e ionoonoaeai a iai ea?aiiaoia, oi
a oeie/iuo /a?iicaiao iaeaieaa iieii i?iyaeyaony aea?iiaue i?ioeann e
iaeaieaa aunie i?ioeaio aoiona (8- 12%). *a?iicaiu iaueiiaaiiua e
thaeiua oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo iaiueoaai oaeaaeiaiey, iie niaea?aeao
aieueoa ea?aiiaoia, ai?eciio eo iaeiieaiey eaaeeo ia iaiueoae aeoaeia, a
a thaeiuo /a?iicaiao a aieaa aeoaieeo /anoyo i?ioeey iaia?oaeeaaaony
i?enoonoaea aeina. Caianu aoiona a iao?iaii neia iinoaiaiii aic?anoatho
io iiiaecieaiiuo /a?iicaiia e oeie/iui, a io ieo e thaeiui oiaiueoathony
a aeaa ?aca.

I?e iaaeoaieii caeaaaiee a?oioiauo aiae (aei 3-5 i) a oneiaeyo neaaiai
ae?aiaaea iiaa?oiinoe, eeai a iiieaeaieyo ?aeueaoa, oi?ie?othony
eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au. Eo aiaeiue ?aaeei a iaeioi?ua ia?eiaeu
(iai?eia?, i?e aanaiiai niaaioayiee, eiaaea o?iaaiue a?oioiauo aiae
iiauoaaony eee ia?acoaony aa?oiaiaeea) a?aiaiii i?eia?aoaao /a?ou
canoieiiai eee auiioiiai, /oi iaoiaeeo naia io?aaeaiea a niaoeeoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoyo ii/a. Ii aoioniaiio i?ioeeth iie aeecee e /a?iicaiai, oioy
iiaoo niaea?aeaoue ianeieueei aieueoa aoiona, ii, iiaeiaii eoaiaui
ii/aai, eiatho a ieaeiae /anoe i?ioeey i?eciaee iaeaaiey. A n?aaeiae e
aeaaea a aa?oiae /anoe i?ioeey ia?aaeei i?ineaaeeaaaony aicaeaenoaea
i?ioeannia canieaiey — ?annieaiey. Iiyoiio eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au
/anoi auaatho nieiioeaaaouie, inieiaeaeuie eee ?aaea — nieii/aeiaaouie.
Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a /a?iicaiiie ciia ia/eiatho ea?aoue canieaiiua
ii/au. Iie i?aaenoaaeaiu nieiaeyie e nieiioeaie, cia/eoaeueii ?aaea —
nieii/aeaie.

A nooeo noaiyo e iieoionouiyo ?ani?ino?aiaiu eaooaiiaua ii/au. Iie
caieiatho a ?innee iaaieueoea ieiuaaee e ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia thai-ainoiea
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu, a N?aaeiai e Ainoi/iii I?aaeeaaeacuea, ia
Eoeoiaeeineie ?aaieia e a iaeioi?uo iaaeai?iuo eioeiaeiao THaeiie
Neae?e. Eaooaiiaua ii/au oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo aeaoeoeeoa aeaae e
?ac?aaeaiiiai ceaeiaiai e iieuiii-ceaeiaiai o?aainoiy. Iinooieaiea
?anoeoaeueiuo inoaoeia a yoe ii/au iaiueoa, /ai a /a?iicaiao, a a
oneiaeyo aieaa oaieiai aanaiiaai ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiay
aoieoeeaoeey e ieia?aeecaoeey i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. Iiyoiio eaooaiiaua
ii/au niaea?aeao iaiiiai iaiueoa aoiona, /ai /a?iicaiu, e eiatho
iaiueooth iiuiinoue. Auiin eaaei?anoai?eiuo nieae i?ienoiaeeo ia
iaiueooth aeoaeio, /ai a /a?iicaiao. Ea?aiiaoiue ai?eciio iaoiaeeony ia
aeoaeia 30-60 ni io iiaa?oiinoe e niaea?aeeo iaeeueiua neiieaiey
ea?aiiaoia. Aeoaieea ai?eciiou eaooaiiauo ii/a niaea?aeao iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai eaaei?anoai?eiuo nieae. Ai iiiaeo ianoao eaooaiiaua ii/au
nieiioeaaaou. Eaooaiiaua ii/au aeaeyony ia o?e iiaeoeia:
oaiii-eaooaiiaua, eaooaiiaua e naaoei-eaooaiiaua.

A thaeiie /anoe I?eeaniey, aaea a?eaeiinoue eeeiaoa aua auoa,
?ani?ino?aiaiu ao?ua ionouiii-noaiiua ii/au. Eo i?ioeeue aua aieaa
oei?i/ai. Iie i/aiue aaaeiu aoionii (iaiaa 2%), iau/ii aneeiatho n
iiaa?oiinoe, ii iaeneioi ea?aiiaoia niaea?aeeony a iiaeaoioniaii
ai?eciioa; ii/oe iinoiyiii iaia?oaeeaatho i?eciaee nieiioeaaaoinoe i?e
iaaeoaieii caeaaaiee aeiniaiai ai?eciioa. Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
neaaie auuaei/aiiinoe ii/a, /oi niioaaonoaoao nooinoe eeeiaoa yoeo
?aeiiia.

N?aaee eaooaiiauo e ao?uo ionouiii-noaiiuo ii/a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu
nieiioeu, ?aaea — nieii/aee, a a ieineeo aeai?anneyo — caiaaeeiao, eee
eeiaiao, a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiiai a?oioiaiai eee iiaa?oiinoiiai
oaeaaeiaiey — eoaiai-eaooaiiaua ii/au.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiua oeiu ii/a iaia?oaeeaatho a naiai ?aciauaiee ii
oa??eoi?ee ?innee oi?ioi au?aaeaiioth ciiaeueiinoue. Ii ia?yaeo n yoei
aeinoaoi/ii io/aoeeai i?ineaaeeaathony e naeoi?iua ?acee/ey ii/aaiiiai
iie?iaa, naycaiiua n eciaiaieai eeeiaoa, ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
ii/aiia?acothueo ii?iae e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia ii/aiia?aciaaiey n caiaaea ia
ainoie. Oae, a oaeaa Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu i?ae?anii
i?ineaaeeaaaony niaia ii iiaeciiai aeaaiiaecieenouo e
iiaecieenoi-aieioiuo ii/a iiaecieenouie e aeaeaa aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie.
A Caiaaeiie Neae?e ai anao iiaeciiao aieueoea ieiuaaee caieiatho
aieioiua ii/au, oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaaiiaecieenoua e
iiaecieenoi-aieioiua ii/au, a ia aeieth ae?aie?iaaiiuo ciiaeueiuo
iiaecieenouo e aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/a i?eoiaeeony eeoue ieiei
/aoaa?oe oa??eoi?ee. A N?aaeiae Neae?e ?acei aeiieie?otho
oaaaeii-ia?ceioiua ii/au, i?aaenoaaeaiiua ?aciuie iiaeoeiaie. Eeoue ia
e?aeiai thai-caiaaea ?ani?ino?aiaiu aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua ii/au.

A eaninoaiiie ciia Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu ni/aoathony na?ua eaniua
ii/au n iiiaecieaiiuie, auuaei/aiiuie e oeie/iuie /a?iicaiaie. A
eaninoaie Caiaaeiie Neae?e ana yoe ii/au ia?aoiaeyo ia iiae/eiaiiia
iieiaeaiea, a aeiieie?otho eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au a ni/aoaiee n
ii/aaie canieaiiiai ?yaea: nieiaeyie, nieiioeaie e nieii/aeaie. I?e/eia
yoiai e?iaony a iaeuo ioiineoaeueiuo aunioao, neaaie ae?aie?iaaiiinoe
oa??eoi?ee e canieaiiinoe iaoa?eineeo ii?iae.

I?iaeioeeaeueiinoue oi?ioi au?aaeaia e a /a?iicaiiuo ii/aao. Oaea ia
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieia i?ineaaeeaaaony oiaiueoaiea iiuiinoe
aoioniaiai ai?eciioa e oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey aoiona a /a?iicaiao io
caiaaeiuo a?aieoe ?innee e I?aaeo?aeueth, /oi naycaii n oneeaieai
eiioeiaioaeueiinoe, oiaiueoaieai aeoaeiu i?iia/eaaiey a?oioa e
nie?auaieai ia?eiaea aeoeaiie aoieoeeaoeee. A Caiaaeiie Neae?e e iaeie
iiuiinoe e iiauoaiiiio niaea?aeaieth aoiona aeiaaaeyaony oe?iei ?acaeoay
caeanue nieiioeaaaoinoue e inieiaeaeinoue /a?iicaiia.

Ii/au ai?. Ii naiei aaiaoe/aneei naienoaai ai?iua ii/au niioaaonoaotho
ii/aaiiui oeiai ?aaiei. Iaeiaei ana ai?iua ii/au eiatho iaeioi?ua iauea
/a?ou, ioee/athuea eo io niioaaonoaothueo oeiia ?aaiei: ana iie
iaeiiiuiu, eaiaienoiuaaienoua, aiaaou ia?ae/iuie, neaai auaao?aeuie
ieia?aeaie. Ia eiatho aiaeiaia ia ?aaieiao eeoue ii/au noaaeueieeneeo e
aeueieeneeo eoaia.

Ai?ii-eoaiaua ii/au ia?acothony a oieiaeiii e aeaaeiii eeeiaoa
aunieiai?ee i?e iiauoaiiie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee iiae eoaaie e ca?ineyie
eonoa?ieeia. Aeey ai?ii-eoaiauo ii/a oa?aeoa?iu oi?ioi au?aaeaiiue
oaiiue aoioniaue ai?eciio (eiiaaea oi?oyienoue), eeneay ?aaeoeey
ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a, iauay auuaei/aiiinoue ii/aaiiie oieue, neaeaoiinoue
e iaaieueoay iiuiinoue. Ano?a/athony ai?ii-eoaiaua ii/au a ai?ao
Eaaeaca, Aeoay e i/aiue iaaieueoeie o/anoeaie ia THaeiii O?aea.

Iniiaiie caeiiiia?iinoueth eciaiaiey ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa a ai?ao yaeyaony
aunioiay iiyniinoue. Iia au?aaeaia oai eo/oa, /ai aieueoa aunioa ai?.
Iaeiaei e oe?ioiia iieiaeaiea ai? aeeyao ia ?aciiia?acea ii/a. *ai
naaa?iaa ?aniieiaeaiu ai?u, oai iaeiiia?aciaa ii/aaiiue iie?ia a eo
i?aaeaeao, oae eae iaai? ii/aaiiuo iiynia ia/eiaaony n oiai ciiaeueiiai
oeia ii/a, eioi?ue ?acaeo ia ?aaieiao o iiaeiiaeey ai?. Iiyoiio eae au
ie auee auniee ai?u Naaa?i-Ainoiea, ie/aai eiiai, e?iia ai?iuo
oaaaeii-ia?ceioiuo e ai?ii-ooiae?iauo ii/a, a eo i?aaeaeao ia
ano?aoeoue. *ai thaeiaa ?aniieiaeaiu ai?u e /ai iie auoa, oai iieiaa e
?aciiia?aciaa iaai? ii/a ia eo neeiiao.

Iaeaieaa ?aciiia?aciu ai?iua ii/au Eaaeaca — naiie aunieie e naiie
thaeiie ai?iie nenoaiu ?innee. A caiaaeiie /anoe io iiaeiiaeee ai?
niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa neaaeothuea aunioiua ii/aaiiua iiyna:
i?aaeeaaeacneea ea?aiiaoiua neaaiauuaei/aiiua /a?iicaiu onooiatho ianoi
iiiaecieaiiui /a?iicaiai e na?ui eaniui ii/aai e caoai ao?ui
ai?ii-eaniui n iyoiaie ai?ii-iiaecieenouo a oaiiioaieiuo eanao, aua auoa
?acaeou ai?ii-eoaiaua ii/au. A iaiaa oaeaaeiaiiie ainoi/iie /anoe ai?
ao?ua ionouiii-noaiiua ii/au niaiythony ai?iuie eaooaiiauie, caoai
ai?iuie ei?e/iaauie iiae ena?ioeoiuie eanaie e eonoa?ieeaie, auoa —
ao?uie ai?ii-eaniuie, ai?iuie eoaiai-noaiiuie e, iaeiiaoe,
ai?ii-eoaiauie.

Nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey a ii/aaiiii iie?iaa iaaethaeathony a ni?iuo
nenoaiao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia aeeceeo oe?ioao, ii a ?aciuo /anoyo no?aiu,
o.a. a no?oeoo?a aunioiie iiyniinoe ii/a i?ineaaeeaaaony aeeyiea
naeoi?iinoe. Oae, a Neoioy-Aeeia, ?aniieiaeaiiii ia oe?ioao Eaaeaca, ii
a iaeanoe aeaeueiaainoi/iiai ionniia, ai anao aunioiuo iiynao
iaia?oaeeaaaony iaeaeaciaiea ii/a: ao?ua ai?ii-eaniua ii/au caeanue
niaiythony ao?i-oaaaeiuie ii/aaie, a auoa — ai?iuie iiaeao?aie
oaaaeii-ia?ceioiuie.

Ii/aaiiua ?ano?nu. Iaeaieaa aaaeiia naienoai, eioi?ia /aeiaae oeaieo a
ii/aao e no?aieony eniieueciaaoue, — ieiaei?iaeea, o.a. niiniaiinoue
ii/au nicaeaaaoue o?iaeae ?anoaiee. Ieiaei?iaeea iaoneiaeaii iaee/eai a
ii/aao i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa — aoiona, eee ia?aaiiy. Aeaaiaea?y
ieiaei?iaeeth, ii/au yaeythony aaee/aeoei i?e?iaeiui aiaaonoaii.

Naiuie ieiaei?iaeiuie ii/aaie yaeythony /a?iicaiu, oi?ie?othueany a
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo aeey aoioniiaeiieaiey. Eiaiii a yoeo ii/aao caianu
aoiona a iao?iaii neia ii/au iniaaiii aaeeee. A oeie/iuo /a?iicaiao iie
aeinoeaatho 709 oe/aa (Eiiiiiaa I.I., 1963). A auuaei/aiiuo /a?iicaiao
caianu aoiona oiaiueoathony (512 oe/aa), aua caiaoiaa iie nieaeathony a
na?uo eaniuo ii/aao (215 oe/aa), a a iiaecieenouo ia aeinoeaatho e 100
oe/aa. Oaeei ia?acii, e naaa?o caianu aoiona oiaiueoathony, nieaeaaony e
ieiaei?iaeea ii/a aneaaenoaea aic?anoaiey eo auuaei/aiiinoe e oaaee/aiey
caaiei/aiiinoe, o.a. ia?aoaeaaeiaiey.

E thao io oeie/iuo /a?iicaiia caianu aoiona oaeaea oiaiueoathony: a
/a?iicaiao iaueiiaaiiuo iie ninoaaeytho 426 oe/aa, a thaeiuo — 391
oe/aa, oaiii-eaooaiiauo — 229 oe/aa. A naaoei-eaooaiiauo ii/aao caianu
aoiona nie?auathony aei 116 oe/aa, a ao?uo ionouiii-noaiiuo — aei 62
oe/aa. Nieaeaiea ieiaei?iaeey ii/a a nooeo noaiyo e iieoionouiyo
iaoneiaeaii ia oieueei oiaiueoaieai caiania aoiona, ii e canieaieai
ii/a.

N caianaie aoiona oanii naycaia anoanoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ii/a,
eioi?ay iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia aaee/eiie aiaeiaiai i?e?inoa aeiiannu ia
aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee. Ia iiaecieenouo e aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/aao
aeiianna ninoaaeyao 45-85 oe/aa, ia /a?iicaiao — 90-137 oe/aa, ia
eaooaiiauo nieaeaaony aei 40 oe/aa. Anoanoaaiii, /oi iaeaaeathuea
aunieei anoanoaaiiui ieiaei?iaeeai /a?iicaiu oaea aeaaii ?aniaoaiu. Iuia
nauoa 50% iaoie ?innee ?aciauaii ia /a?iicaiao. Ieiei 15% iaoie
i?eoiaeeony ia na?ua e ao?ua eaniua ii/au e i?eia?ii noieueei aea — ia
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua e iiaecieenoua. *ooue aieaa 10% iaoie i?eo?i/aii e
eaooaiiaui, aeaaiui ia?acii oaiii-eaooaiiaui ii/aai.

Iiae aeeyieai aeeeoaeueiie ia?aaioee ii/au iinoaiaiii oa?ytho caianu
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, no?oeoo?a eo ?ac?ooaaony. No?aiynue iiaeiyoue
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue caieaaeaeey, /aeiaae aeeaaeuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue o?oae a
ia?aaioeo ii/au, aiineo a iaa oaeia?aiey, eniieuecoao niaoeeaeueiua
aa?ioaoie/aneea i?eaiu, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo no?aieony eciaieoue iiiaea
aaaeiua naienoaa ii/a a ioaeiii aeey iaai iai?aaeaiee. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
iiiaea ieoeueoo?aiiua ii/au noaee aieaa ieiaei?iaeiuie, /ai eo
aeaanoaaiiua aiaeiae.

Anoanoaaiiua ?ano?nu ?anoe?aiey iaoie a ?innee ii/oe en/a?iaiu, iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii iiauoaoue yooaeoeaiia ieiaei?iaeea ii/a.

?anoeoaeueiinoue

Aeey oa??eoi?ee ?innee, iaeaaeathuae aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai
eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee e ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa, oa?aeoa?iu neiaeiua
ni/aoaiey ?acee/iuo oeoioeaiicia, ia?acothueo ?aciua oeiu
?anoeoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei iaaiciiaeii iauynieoue ana ?aciiia?acea
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa e neiaeiinoue oei?enoe/aneiai ninoaaa oieueei
nia?aiaiiuie i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie.

Naith ?ieue a yoii nua?aee e i?e?iaeiua oneiaey i?ioeuo yiio, eiaaea ia
oa??eoi?ee ainiiaenoaiaaee eiua ?anoeoaeueiua oi?iaoeee, io eioi?uo
nio?aieeenue ?acee/iua aeaeu ?anoaiee e aeaaea oeaeua a?oiie?iaee.
Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeaea aeeyiea aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, oioy aai
oiaea ia anaaaea oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue aeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeii.

Oei?a. A ninoaaa oei?u ?innee ian/eouaaaony aieaa 11 oun. ninoaeenouo
?anoaiee, nauoa 10 oun. aeaeia aiaei?ineae e ieiei 5 oun. aeaeia
eeoaeieeia. Iniaaiii iiiai a?eaia, eo aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea auoa anao
ia?a/eneaiiuo a?oii ?anoaiee, aianoa acyouo. Ec oeaaoeiauo ?anoaiee ia
oa??eoi?ee iaoae no?aiu iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiu neiaeiioeaaoiua, aiaiaua,
ceaee. Eaaeaeia ec yoeo naiaenoa ian/eouaaao nauoa ouny/e aeaeia. Ii
ianeieueei nioai aeaeia aeeth/atho oaeea naiaenoaa, eae e?anoioeaaoiua,
?icioeaaoiua, ethoeeiaua, aaicaee/iua, inieiaua. I?aaenoaaeoaeae anao
yoeo naiaenoa iiaeii ano?aoeoue io ooiae?u aei ionouie, io caiaaeiuo
a?aieoe no?aiu aei ainoi/iuo, io ieceeo ?aaiei aei aunieiai?ee.

Oei?enoe/aneay ianuuaiiinoue (aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea) oa??eoi?ee
aic?anoaao n naaa?a ia tha, ii a ionouiyo ianeieueei nieaeaaony ec-ca
a?eaeiinoe. Oaaee/eaaaony iia e io ?aaiei e ai?ai. Aiaaonoai oei?u
ai?iuo iaeanoae iauyniyaony ?aciiia?aceai yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee
(yeieiae/aneeo ieo) e iiiaie?aoiie eo niaiie ia ei?ioeeo ?annoiyieyo.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ?anoeoaeueiinoue ai? aieaa onoie/eaa e ?aceei
eciaiaieyi oneiaee aiaoiae n?aaeu. A ia?eiaeu ?acee/iuo eaoaeeeciia ai?u
yaeythony “oaaaeeuaie aeecie”, iiyoiio eo oei?a ianuuaia ?aeeeoaie —
ae?aaieie aeaeaie, nio?aieaoeieny aei iaoaai a?aiaie n aieaa eee iaiaa
ioaeaeaiiuo aaieiae/aneeo yiio. Iaeaieaa “noa?uie” ?aeeeoaie a iaoae
no?aia yaeythony ?anoaiey, nio?aieaoeany n iaiaaia e aeaaea n iaeaiaaia.
E eo /eneo ioiinyony: ae?aaiaeaeiay ei?aeneay eaa /icaiey, iaii?ioieee
/enoion ei?e/iaaue e iiieeay /oanoaeoaeueiay a I?eaio?uea e I?eii?uea,
oen yaiaeiue ia Eaaeaca, eonoa?iee aie/ayaiaeiee Nioee a iaeiauo ai?ao
N?aaeia?onneie aicauoaiiinoe.

Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?anoaiee i/aiue
?acee/ii. Anoue aeaeu, eioi?ua ?anooo ii/oe iianaianoii eee ano?a/athony
ia aieueoae /anoe oa??eoi?ee no?aiu, eae iai?eia? ineia, aa?aca
ai?iaeaa/aoay, ninia iaueiiaaiiay eee ceae oei/ae, ano?a/athueeny
aieioue aei “noaiiuo ino?iaia” a ooiae?ao Naaa?i-Ainoiea. Ae?oaea aeaeu
eiatho aieaa ia?aie/aiiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, iai?eia? eenoaaiieoea
neae?neay eee eaae?iaue noeaiiee. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu ano?a/athony oieueei
ia ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee, eiiaaea i/aiue iaeaiueeie; yoi — yiaeaieee.
Anoue yiaeaieee n?aaee ?aeeeoiauo ?anoaiee, ii anoue e iieiaeua
yiaeaieee /aoaa?oe/iiai aic?anoa. Iie ano?a/athony oai, aaea ia
eciee?iaaiiie oa??eoi?ee, ioee/athuaeny io ninaaeieo ii naiei i?e?iaeiui
oneiaeyi, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eaeao aeaeiia?aciaaiea. Ai oei?a iaoae
no?aiu ano?a/aaony iaiaei yiaeaieeia. Iaeaieaa aiaaou eie ai?iua ?aeiiu,
iniaaiii aunieiai?iue Eaaeac.

Yiaeaieee, eae e ?aeeeoiaua ?anoaiey, i?aaenoaaeytho aieueooth iao/ioth
oeaiiinoue. Iiiaea ec ieo yaeythony ?aaeeeie ?anoaieyie e ioaeaeathony a
io?aia.

Eaaeaeue aeae ?anoaiee i?aaeuyaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey e aiaoiei
oneiaeyi (oneiaeyi n?aaeu) e iiaeao ii?iaeueii ?acaeaaoueny oieueei oai,
aaea yoe oneiaey iaoiaeeo. ?anoaiey, aeeceea ii naiei o?aaiaaieyi e
oneiaeyi n?aaeu eeai naie aeeythuea ia nicaeaiea iiaeoiaeyueo aeey
ae?oaeo ?anoaiee oneiaee, iaeoatho ia iaeiie oa??eoi?ee,
i?eniinaaeeaathony ae?oa e ae?oao e ia?acotho niiauanoaa, eee
oeoioeaiicu. Oei?a yaeyaony oai iaoa?eaeii, ec eioi?iai ia oiia
eiie?aoiuo i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee ia?acothony niiauanoaa ?anoaiee,
nicaeathueo ana ?aciiia?acea ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa iaoae no?aiu.

A eco/aiee ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa ?innee aieueoay caneoaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo
A.E. Oaioeeueaao, A.I. E?aniiao, A.E. Eiia?iao, A.E. Oieia/aao, I.E.
Iaeooaaeoo, A.I. Ai?iaeeiao, A.A. Aeaoeio, A.I. Noea/aao, A.I. Eaa?aiei,
A.A. Ni/aaa e ae?.

?anoeoaeueiinoue, eee ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, — aaaeiaeoee eiiiiiaio
i?e?iaeu, i?ae?aniue eiaeeeaoi? i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee. Iia /anoi
ii?aaeaeyao aiaoiee iaeee oa??eoi?ee, iiyoiio iiiaea i?e?iaeiua ciiu
iieo/eee iacaaiea ii ?anoeoaeueiiio iie?iao: ooiae?a, oaeaa, niaoaiiua
eana, eaninoaiue, noaiue e o.ae. Iaeaieaa oanioth naycue
?anoeoaeueiinoue iaia?oaeeaaao n eeeiaoii, ii/aaie e ?aeueaoii,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeythuei oaiei e aeaao, iiyoiio aeey aa ?aciauaiey, eae e
aeey ii/a, oa?aeoa?ia oe?ioiay ciiaeueiinoue, i?iaeioeeaeueiinoue e
aunioiay iiyniinoue a ai?ao.

Oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe. ?anniio?ei aeaaiaeoea oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua aeey ?innee; ooiae?iaue, eaniie, noaiiie,
ionouiiue, eoaiaie e aieioiue.

Eaaeaeue ec oeiia oi?ie?oaony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaiia?aoo?a e
oaeaaeiaiee, iiyoiio ii ninoieo ec ?anoaiee, i?eniiniaeaoeony eiaiii e
yoei oneiaeyi. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ii i?aiaeaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aeeciaiiuo oi?i (aea?aaueaa, eonoa?ieeia, ioia, o?aa) eee
nenoaiaoe/aneeo a?oii ?anoaiee (aeiiiauo eee noaaiiauo ioia, eonoenouo
eee iaeeiiuo eeoaeieeia, oaieiuo eee oe?ieieenoaaiiuo aea?aaueaa,
iieuiae eee inie, ei?iaaeuiuo eee aea?iiaeiiuo ceaeia e o.ae.).

A i?ioeanna i?eniiniaeaiey e oneiaeyi nouanoaiaaiey o ?anoaiee
au?aaioaeenue oieueei ei i?enouea ii?oieiae/aneea i?eciaee eee
oeceieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe. Iaaea?ii auaeaeytho oaeea a?oiiu ?anoaiee,
eae e?eioeou (?anoaiey nooeo e oieiaeiuo ianoiiaeoaiee), iacioeou
(?anoaiey, iaeoathuea a oneiaeyo aeinoaoi/iiai, ii ia ecauoi/iiai
oaeaaeiaiey), aea?ioeou (?anoaiey, i?eniiniaeaiiua e iaeoaieth a
oneiaeyo ecauoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey), aeae?ioeou (aiaeiua ?anoaiey) e o.ae.

Ooiae?iaue oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe oi?ie?oaony a oneiaeyo ei?ioeiai e
i?ioeaaeiiai eaoa, aunieie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa e ieceie oaiia?aoo?u
ii/a. Eiaiii iaeui eiee/anoaii oaiea ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe
yoiai oeia: aaceanea, iicae/iinoue (iyoienoinoue), i?aiaeaaeaiea ioia,
eeoaeieeia, eonoa?ie/eia e, io/anoe, eonoa?ieeia, iecei?ineinoue,
ainiiaenoai iiiaieaoieeia.

Ooiae?iaue oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe — ia?aciaaiea iieiaeia. Iiiaea
enneaaeiaaoaee naycuaatho aai iiyaeaiea n ae?aaiei ieaaeaiaieai, iiyoiio
n/eoatho ieaenoioeaiiaui ia?aciaaieai, ii nouanoaoao oaeaea iiaiea, /oi
aicieeiiaaiea ooiae?iauo oei?enoe/aneeo eiiieaenia ioiineony e
ieeioeaio. *eneaiiinoue aeaeia ooiae?iaie oei?u ?innee ia i?aauoaao
300-400. Aaaeiinoue aeaeiaiai ninoaaa ooiae?iaiai oeia ?anoeoaeueiinoe
naycaia eae n aai iieiaeinoueth, oae e n no?iainoueth oneiaee, a eioi?uo
ii oi?ie?oaony.

Ec iiiaeo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aeey aeecie ?anoaiee oaeoi?ia iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo yaeyaony iaaeinoaoie oaiea, aneaaenoaea /aai caeanue
ainiiaenoaotho e?eioeou. No?aiynue eniieueciaaoue oaiei naiiai aa?oiaai
ai?eciioa ii/au e i?ecaiiiai neiy aicaeooa, eaaeaeue eo eioi?uo
ecia?yaony anaai ianeieueeeie naioeiao?aie, ?anoaiey i?eaeeiathony e
caiea. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi iiiaea ooiae?iaua ?anoaiey i/aiue
iecei?ineu. Iie ?anieanoaiu ii caiea, a eo ei?ie ?ac?anoathony a
iniiaiii a ai?eciioaeueiii iai?aaeaiee e ii/oe ia eaeoo a aeoaeio.
Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu noaethueany e iiaeooeiia?aciua oi?iu. Iiiaea
?anoaiey eiatho eenouey, nia?aiiua a i?eei?iaaoth ?icaoeo.

Aeaaiaea?y iecei?ineinoe ooiae?iaua ?anoaiey ia oieueei iaeaieaa; iieii
eniieuecotho oaiei i?ecaiiiai neiy aicaeooa e i?aaeio?aiytho naay io
oneeaiiiai enia?aiey, aucaaiiiai neeueiuie aao?aie, ii e iie?uaathony
ceiie niaaii, caueuathuei eo io auia?caiey.

?anoaiey ooiae? — i?aeiouanoaaiii iiiaieaoieee, a oii /enea e ii/oe ana
o?aayienoua ?anoaiey. Iaeiieaoieo o?aa e?aeia iaei, oae eae i?ieoe
iieiue aeeciaiiue oeeee ca ianeieueei iaaeaeue /?acau/aeii o?oaeii. Aeey
yoiai iaiaoiaeeiu i/aiue auno?ua oaiiu ?acaeoey a oneiaeyo ieceeo
oaiia?aoo?. Ii/oe niaa?oaiii ionoonoaotho eoeiae/iua e eeoaiaaua
?anoaiey, iineieueeo iicaeii iooaeaathuay ii/aa n iiiaieaoiae ia?ceioie
iaaeaaii?eyoia aeey eo i?iec?anoaiey. I?aaaea, caeanue anoue
aeeai?iaeyuea ?anoaiey. Yoi — naiaai ?iaea i?eniiniaeaiea e
aini?iecaiaenoao iioiinoaa a oneiaeyo, eiaaea naiaia ia eaaeaeue aiae
oniaaatho nic?aaaoue. A nioeaaoeyo oaeeo ?anoaiee (iai?eia?, ai?aoe
aeeaioai?yuee) aianoi oeaaoeia ?acaeaathony eoeiae/ee eee eeoaaiueee,
eioi?ua, oiaa ia caieth, oei?aiythony e aeatho ia/aei iiaiio iiaaao.

Iiiai a ooiae?ao aa/iicaeaiuo ?anoaiee: aiaeyieea (ai?iieea), a?onieea,
ae?eaaea, Eannaiae?a, eetheaa, aaaoeueiee e ae?. Yoi iicaieyao ei n
ianooieaieai ia?auo oaieuo aeiae iieiaa eniieueciaaoue eo/enooth
yia?aeth ia oioineioac, ia oa?yy a?aiaie ia ia?aciaaiea eenoueaa.

*?acau/aeii eioa?aniie iniaaiiinoueth ooiae?iauo ?anoaiee yaeyaony
iaee/ea o ieo i?eniiniaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oiaiueoaiea enia?aiey,
o.a. ena?iii?oeci, /oi iaoneiaeaii oeceieiae/aneie nooinoueth. Oieiaeiay
aiaea inoaaony ii/oe iaaeinooiiie aeey ?anoaiee, iiyoiio iie auioaeaeaiu
nie?auaoue enia?aiea. O ?anoaiee i?aiaeaaeatho iaeeea eenoi/ee, eiathuea
iaaieueooth enia?ythuoth iiaa?oiinoue. Ieaeiyy noi?iia eenoueaa, ia
eioi?ie iaoiaeyony onoueeoea, iie?uoa aonoui iiooaieai, eioi?ia
i?aiyonoaoao neeoeii neeueiiio aeaeaeaieth aicaeooa aeec onoueeoe e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oiaiueoaao enia?aiea. O iaeioi?uo ?anoaiee (iai?eia?, o
ai?iieee) eenouey naa?ioou a o?oai/eo. Onoueeoea, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia
ieaeiae noi?iia eenoa, ieacuaathony aioo?e iaa, /oi oaeaea aaaeao e
oiaiueoaieth enia?aiey. ?yae ?anoaiee eiaao eiaeenoua eenouey (a?onieea,
eetheaa, ae?eaaea e ae?.).

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?eciaeia ooiae?iauo niiauanoa yaeyaony eo
iieeaeiieiaioiinoue. Oioy ooiae?u e ?acaeaeytho ia iioiaua,
eeoaeieeiaua, eonoa?ie/eiaua eee iooeoeaai-inieiaua, a ieo i?aeoe/anee
anaaaea i?enoonoaotho ioe, eeoaeieee, eonoa?ie/ee, iiiaieaoiea
o?aayienoua ?anoaiey, /anoi eonoa?ieee, a ?aciuo, ii ia?aaeei aeeceeo
ni/aoaieyo.

Ioe e eeoaeieee ea?atho a ooiae?iaii oeia ?anoeoaeueiinoe i/aiue
aieueooth ?ieue. Yoe iai?eoioeeaua ?anoaiey iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue iiae
caueoie aeaaea oiieiai niaaeiiai iie?iaa, a eiiaaea e aiiaua aac iaai. O
ieo iao ianoiyueo ei?iae, oae eae ioe e eeoaeieee aeiaieuenoaothony
aeaaie e ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie, iinooiathueie ec aoiinoa?u, iaeiaei
?acaeaathony oiieea ieoaaeaeiua io?inoee, iniiaiia iacia/aiea eioi?uo —
i?ee?aieyoue ?anoaiey e ii/aa. *anoi ioe e eeoaeieee yaeythony
yaeeoeeaoi?aie ooiae?iauo niiauanoa. N?aaee eeoaeieeia caeanue
i?aiaeaaeatho eonoenoua — eeaaeiiey, oeao?a?ey, aeaeoi?ey. Oe?iei
i?aaenoaaeaiu eonoa?ie/ee e eonoa?ieee ia oieueei aa/iicaeaiua, ii e n
iiaaeathuae eenoaie (eau, ea?eeeiaay aa?acea, aieoaeea, a?eoion e ae?.).
N?aaee iiiaieaoieo o?aayienouo ?anoaiee ano?a/athony ceaee (eoaiaee
aeueieeneee, iyoeee a?eoe/aneee, eenioaino aeueieeneee e ae?.), iniee
(iniea aeanoeay e ae?.), aiaiaua (ano?aaae ciioe/iue, eiiaa/iee iayniue
e ae?.), ii aieueoeinoai ?anoaiee i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ?aciio?aaueth
(aaneeeniee aeueieeneee, ?iaeeiea ?iciaay, eoiaeueieoea, aa?aiue
aaeioeaaoeiaay, iacaaoaeee, iuoiee Yaea?a e ae?.). Oa?aeoa?iay
iniaaiiinoue ooiae?iaiai ?aciio?aauey — e?oiiua y?ei ie?aoaiiua oeaaoee:
aeaeoua, aaeua, iaeeiiaua, i?aiaeaaua, aieoaua e ae?.

Aeey ooiae? oa?aeoa?ia iicae/iinoue ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa,
iaoneiaeaiiay auno?ie niaiie a i?ino?ainoaa ii/aaiiuo oneiaee, ?acee/iie
aeoaeiie caeaaaiey ia?ceiou, iee?i?aeueaoii, iano?ioie
iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee, iiuiinoueth niaaeiiai iie?iaa, a oaeaea
eioaineaii i?ioaeathueie a ii/aa e?eiaaiiuie i?ioeannaie, eioi?ua
i?eaiaeyo e ai?eciioaeueiiio ?an/eaiaieth iiaa?oiinoe ii/a.

Aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea e neiaeiinoue ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa ooiae?
aic?anoaao i?e aeaeaeaiee n naaa?a ia tha.

Eaniie oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee. Eana caieiatho ieiei 45% ieiuaaee iaoae no?aiu. Iie
?ani?ino?aiaiu oai, aaea n?aaeiaiany/iua oaiia?aoo?u ethey i?aauoatho
10°N, a oaeaaeiaiea aeinoaoi/iia eee ecauoi/iia. Eana o?ainie?e?otho
iiiai aeaae, iiyoiio a ?aeiiao n iaaeinoaoi/iui e neoaeiui oaeaaeiaieai
iie iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue eeoue i?e aeiiieieoaeueiii iinooieaiee aeaae ca
n/ao a?oioiauo aiae (iieiu ?ae) eeai oayiey iiiaieaoiae ia?ceiou
(Oeaio?aeueiay sseooey).

Ean — neiaeiia iiiaiy?oniia ?anoeoaeueiia niiauanoai. A iai aea?aauey,
eonoa?ieee, eonoa?ie/ee, o?aau, ioe, eeoaeieee e a?eau iaoiaeyony a
iai?a?uaiie acaeiinayce e acaeiicaaeneiinoe. Ainiiaenoaothuee y?on
ia?aciaai aea?aaueyie n niieioouie e?iiaie. Ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu i/aiue
?acee/iu ii naiei o?aaiaaieyi e oaieo, naaoo e aeaaa.

Ecauoi/iia oaeaaeiaiea, i?ioeaaeiia eaoi e no?iaoth ceio eo/oa ia?aiinyo
oaieiua ii?iaeu. Eo i?aa?auaiiua a eaeu (oaith) eenouey enia?ytho
ioiineoaeueii iaei aeaae. Oaieiua eana caieiatho nauoa 80% eaniiie?uoie
ieiuaaee ?innee. Iaeaieaa oieiaeinoieeie ii?iaeie yaeyaony eenoaaiieoea.
Iieiinoueth na?anuaay ia ceio oaith, iia oai naiui i?aaeio?aiyao naay io
auia?caiey i?e /?acau/aeii ieceeo ceiieo oaiia?aoo?ao (aei -60…-70°N).

Oaieiua (oaaaeiua) eana iau/ii iiiiaeiieiaioiua n i?inoie, /aoei
au?aaeaiiie y?oniie no?oeoo?ie. Auaeaeythony ae?aaaniue y?on, iiaeeanie,
noaiaiue au?aaeaiiinoe eioi?iai caaeneo io oeia eana,
eonoa?ie/eiai-o?aayienoue y?on e iaii/aaiiue iioiai-eeoaeieeiaue iie?ia.
Iniiaiuie eaniia?acothueie ii?iaeaie oaieiuo eania ?innee yaeythony
eenoaaiieoea, ninia, aeue, eaae? (neae?neay eaae?iaay ninia) e ieooa. A
caaeneiinoe io eaniia?acothueo ii?iae oaaaeiua eana iiae?acaeaeythony ia
oaiiioaieiua (ec ?aciuo aeaeia aee, ieoou e eaae?a) e naaoeioaieiua
(niniiaua e eenoaaiie/iua), ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa ii no?oeoo?a e
ninoaao niiauanoa.

Oaiiioaieiua eana ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ?aeiiao n oia?aiii oieiaeiui e
iaeiia?aiaiii aeiaieueii aeaaeiui eeeiaoii. Iie i?aiaeaaeatho a oaeaa
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie e Caiaaeii-Neae?neie ?aaiei, oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu a
ai?ao Eaaeaca, O?aea, Neoioy-Aeeiy, a iaeaieaa aeaaeiuo ie?aeiiuo /anoyo
Aeoay e Nayi. Iniiaiua eaniia?acothuea ii?iaeu oaiiioaieiie oaeae ?innee
— aeue aa?iiaeneay e neae?neay, ieooa e eaae? neae?neee. Aieueoa
iieiaeiu ieiuaaee oaiiioaieiie oaeae caieiatho aeiaua eana (11%
eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee no?aiu).

Aeue — ii?iaea oaiaauiineeaay, aeiaieueii o?aaiaaoaeueiay e
ieiaei?iaeeth ii/a. Iia ia?acoao niieiooua ianaaeaeaiey n aaaeiui
o?aayienoui iie?iaii. Aeiaua eana i?a/iua, oaiiua, aeaaeiua. Aeue
nicaeaao i/aiue neeueiia caoaiiaiea e iiae aa iieiaii iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue eeoue aeinoaoi/ii oaiaauiineeaua ?anoaiey. Eonoa?ieeia a
aeueieea iau/ii iaei. Iiae?ino ii/oe anao ae?aaaniuo ii?iae aneaaenoaea
neeueiiai caoaiiaiey auno?i iiaeaaao. Nio?aiyaony eeoue iiae?ino aee, ii
eiaao i?e yoii neeueii oaiaoaiiue aeae. Ia ii/aa a aeueieeao ii/oe
nieioiie eiaa? caeaiuo ioia, ia oiia eioi?iai ?anooo iaiiiaea oaaaeiua
o?aau e eonoa?ie/ee. Ii/oe ana iie — iiiaieaoieee e iiaeaea?aeeaatho
naia nouanoaiaaiea a iniiaiii aaaaoaoeaiui iooai, oae eae iiyaeaiea
iiauo ?anoaiee ec naiyi nii?yaeaii n aieueoeie o?oaeiinoyie:
i?i?anoaieth naiyi /anoi iaoaao oienoue neie ia?oaie oaie ia ii/aa eee
iioiaie iie?ia. O aieueoeinoaa ?anoaiee anoue aieaa eee iaiaa aeeeiiua
iieco/ea ei?iaaeua eee iiaecaiiua iiaaae, niiniaiua auno?i ?ac?anoaoueny
e caoaaouaaoue iiaoth ieiuaaeue.

Iiiaea ?anoaiey aeiaiai eana inoathony caeaiuie e?oaeue aiae: aeue,
caeaiua ioe e iiiaea o?aau, nio?aiythuea caeaioth eenoao iiae niaaii
(a?ooaiea, ceiiethaea, iaeeea, iniee e ae?.). A iieoi?aea aeiaiai eana,
aaea i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiuie iiueeoaeyie yaeythony ianaeiiua, o
?anoaiee i?aiaeaaeatho niaaeii-aaeua oeaaoee (eeneeoea, iaeiee,
a?ooaiea, naaeie/iee). Iiiaea ?anoaiey eiatho i/aiue iaeeea naiaia,
iioiaeea ia iueue, eioi?ua iiaoo ia?aiineoueny aeaaea i/aiue neaauie
iioieaie aicaeooa, oae eae a aonoii aeiaii eano iau/ii aacaao?aiii.

Ninoaa ?anoaiee ieaeiaai y?ona a aeiaii eano ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony
oa?aeoa?ii ii/a. Ia aeinoaoi/ii aiaaouo e ae?aie?iaaiiuo ii/aao
?acaeaaaony nieioiie iie?ia eeneeoeu (aeueiee-eenee/iee). Ia aieaa
aaaeiuo e aeinoaoi/ii aeaaeiuo ii/aao iaae iioiaui eia?ii iau/ii
iiaeieiathony aonoua ca?inee /a?ieee (aeueiee-/a?ie/iee). Ia iniaaiii
aaaeiuo e nu?uo ii/aao iiaa?oiinoue iie?uoa aeiaieueii oienoui eia?ii
ioa eoeooeei eai (aeueiee-aeieaiiioiee). Iniaaiii aonoie e caoaiaiiue
aeueiee auaaao eeoai iaii/aaiiiai iie?iaa. Eeoue neie iiaaoae oaie
onoeeaao ii/ao (aeueiee ia?oaiiie?iaiue).

Naaoeioaieiua eana eiatho niaa?oaiii eiie iaeee. Iniiaiuie
eaniia?acothueie ii?iaeaie yoeo eania yaeythony eenoaaiieoea neae?neay e
aeao?neay e ninia iaueiiaaiiay. E eenoaaiieoea, e ninia — ii?iaeu
naaoiethaeaua, eiathuea ?uoeoth, aaeo?ioth e?iio, i?iioneathuoth iiiai
naaoa, iiyoiio a naaoeioaieiuo eanao iao neeueiiai caoaiaiey e ?anoaiey
ieaeieo y?onia aeiaieueii oi?ioi inaauaiu.

Eenoaaiie/iua eana (aieaa 37% eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee ?innee)
iaia?oaeeaatho a naiai ?ani?ino?aiaiee oanioth naycue n ?acei
eiioeiaioaeueiui eeeiaoii. Iie ainiiaenoaotho a N?aaeiae e
Naaa?i-Ainoi/iie Neae?e, I?eaaeeaeuea, Caaaeeaeuea.

Eenoaaiieoea (iniaaiii aeao?neay) iaei o?aaiaaoaeueia e oaieo e aeaaa,
eaaei ia?aiineo no?iaua ceiu e nooinoue aicaeooa eae ceiie, oae e eaoii,
iiaeao ?anoe ia iiiaieaoiae ia?ceioa, oae eae eioaineaii ananuaaao aeaao
oieiaeiie ii/au. Iaeay o?aaiaaoaeueiinoue e oneiaeyi iaeoaiey iicaieyao
eenoaaiieoea i?iec?anoaoue e oai, aaea ae?oaea ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu oaea
ia iaoiaeyo aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee. Iaeiaei eenoaaiieoea i/aiue
naaoiethaeaa, /oi ?acei nieaeaao aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue. Oai, aaea
yeieiae/aneea oneiaey ieacuaathony aeaaii?eyoiuie aeey ae?oaeo
ae?aaaniuo ii?iae, iia auno?i auoaniyaony eie. A oneiaeyo aea ?acei
eiioeiaioaeueiiai eeeiaoa eiieo?aioeey ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo oaieiuo ii?iae
ineaaeaia, iiyoiio eenoaaiie/iua eana iieo/atho iaeaieaa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea.

Iau/ii eenoaaiieoea ia?acoao /enoua ianaaeaeaiey aac i?eiane ae?oaeo
ae?aaaniuo ii?iae. Aiciiaeiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey niaoaiiuo ae?aainoiaa n
oaiiioaieiuie eee oe?ieieenoaaiiuie ii?iaeaie ia?aie/aiu eiieo?aioiuie
ioiioaieyie eenoaaiieoeu n ieie. Eeoue n niniie, eiathuae n
eenoaaiieoeae iaeioi?ua iauea yeieiae/aneea /a?ou, iia ia?acoao
niaoaiiua ianaaeaeaiey. Niniiai-eenoaaiie/iua e eenoaaiie/ii-niniiaua
eana caieiatho aeinoaoi/ii aieueoea ieiuaaee a thaeiie /anoe Neae?e.
Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo niniie e eenoaaiieoeae a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeythony ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?ythueieny iiaea?aie, io eioi?uo
iiae?ino eenoaaiieoeu no?aaeaao aieueoa, /ai iiae?ino niniu, eiathuee
aieaa aeoaieoth ei?iaaoth nenoaio.

Aeey eenoaaiie/iuo eania, eiathueo iaaieueooth niieiooinoue e?ii,
oa?aeoa?ai oi?ioi ?acaeoue iiaeeanie. Ia ii/aa /anoi auaaao nieioiie
iioiai-eeoaeieeiaue eiaa?, ia oiia eioi?iai ?anooo oeie/iua oaaaeiua e
ae?oaea iaei o?aaiaaoaeueiua e ieiaei?iaeeth ii/a o?aau e eonoa?ie/ee:
a?onieea, eeiiay, a?ooaiea e?oaeieenoiay, ieaoiu e o.ae. Ianoaie
aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho aieioiua ?anoaiey — aaaoeueiee, aieoaeea e ae?.

Oeiu eenoaaiie/iuo eania ?aciiia?aciu a caaeneiinoe io ii/aaiiuo
oneiaee. Ia aeinoaoi/ii nooeo ii/aao iiae eenoaaiieoeaie ?acaeaathony
aonoua ca?inee oieieiyiee. A oneiaeyo ianeieueei aieueoae aeaaeiinoe
ano?a/aaony eenoaaiie/iue ean ni nieioiui iioiaui iie?iaii e
ainiiaenoaii a?onieee. Ia nu?uo, ieioi ae?aie?iaaiiuo ii/aao
oi?ie?othony eenoaaiie/iua eana n aonouie ca?ineyie aa/iicaeaiiai
eonoa?ieea aaaoeueieea e iioiaui iie?iaii. Caeanue aea iiaeii ano?aoeoue
aieoaeeo, a?onieeo, iaeioi?ua iniee e ae?oaea ?anoaiey. Yoio oei eana
?ani?ino?aiai iniaaiii oe?iei. E neeiiai i?eo?i/aiu eenoaaiie/iua eana n
aonouie ca?ineyie eenoiiaaeiiai eonoa?ieea ?iaeiaeaiae?iia aeao?neiai.

Niniiaua eana caieiatho aoi?ia ianoi ii ieiuaaee (i?eia?ii 16%) n?aaee
eania ?innee, onooiay eeoue eenoaaiie/ieeai. Iie ?ani?ino?aiaiu io
Aaeiai ii?y aei ieciaee Aeiia, io caiaaeiuo a?aieoe aei Oeaio?aeueiie
sseooee e Aeaeaineiai iaai?uey.

Ninia — ii?iaea auno?i?anoouay, naaoiethaeaay, iao?aaiaaoaeueiay e oaieo
e aeaaa. Aa iiaeii ano?aoeoue ia nooeo ai?iauo ianeao e noaaiiauo
aieioao, ia aieuo iaeiauo neeiiao e a?aieoiuo neaeao. *anoi niniiaua
eana i?eo?i/aiu e ian/aiui e uaaienoui ii/aai. Ninia i/aiue
/oanoaeoaeueia e caa?yciaieth aoiinoa?u. Iniaaiii a?aaeai aeey iaa
na?ienoue aac.

Ninia eaaei iinaeyaony ia ioe?uouo o/anoeao, aunooiay a ?iee
aea?aaa-ieiia?a, iiyoiio /anoi iia oi?ie?oao i?iecaiaeiua ianaaeaeaiey
ia ianoa oaiiioaieiuo eania iinea au?oaie e iiaea?ia.

Aeaaiaea?y oe?ieie yeieiae/aneie aiieeooaea niniiaua eana i?aaenoaaeaiu
?acee/iuie oeiaie io niniyeia (ai?ia)-aaeiiioieeia aei niniyeia
noaaiiauo. Iiiaea oeiu niniiauo eania iiaoi?ytho aiaeiae/iua oeiu
aeueieeia: niniyee-eenee/ieee, niniyee-caeaiiiioieee, niniyee-/a?ie/ieee
e o.ae. Iaeaieaa naiaia?aciui yaeyaony ai?-aaeiiioiee, oi?ie?othueeny ia
iniaaiii nooeo e aaaeiuo ii/aao. Ninia caeanue aeiaieueii ieceay,
oaiaoaiiay, aea?aauey noiyo ?aaeei. A yoeo ai?ao ano?a/athony ?anoaiey,
ia naienoaaiiua aeueieeai. Iaeiei ec ieo yaeyaony aa?ane — iaaunieee
eonoa?iee. Ec o?aayienouo ?anoaiee iiaeii iacaaoue eioa/ueth eaieo,
yno?aaeieo aieinenooth. Ia iiaa?oiinoe ii/au ?acaeaaaony naaoeue iie?ia
eeoaeieeia, ia?aciaaiiue ?acee/iuie aeaeaie yaaey (“ieaiueaai ioa”), —
eeoaeieea eeaaeiiee.

Aeey i?iec?anoaiey oe?ieieenoaaiiuo ii?iae iaiaoiaeeii aeinoaoi/ii
aeaaeiia, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia e oaieia eaoi. Ecauoi/iia oaeaaeiaiea, eae
e iaaeinoaoi/iia, ia?aie/eaaao eo ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Oaaee/aiea no?iainoe
ceiu oaeaea iaaeaaii?eyoii aeey i?iec?anoaiey oe?ieieenoaaiiuo ii?iae.
Iiyoiio niaoaiiua oaieii-oe?ieieenoaaiiua e iniaaiii oe?ieieenoaaiiua
eana, ?anoouea a oneiaeyo oia?aiii aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa n ineaaeaiiie
eiioeiaioaeueiinoueth, ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ?innee oieueei a caiaaeiie /anoe
no?aiu e ia e?aeiai thaa Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. A Neae?e iie iieiinoueth
ionoonoaotho.

Yoe eana oa?aeoa?ecothony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai ae?aaaniuo ii?iae,
eonoa?ieeia e o?aayienouo ?anoaiee. Iniaaiii ii?aaeatho aeaeiaui
aiaaonoaii aeaeueiaainoi/iua eana, ioee/athueany oaeeaeoaeueiui
niaoaieai naaa?iuo e thaeiuo aeaeia, cia/eoaeueiui o/anoeai ?aeeeoia,
i?enoonoaeai eeai e iaii?ioieeia-yieoeoia e ae?oaeie /a?oaie,
naienoaaiiuie noao?iie/aneei eanai.

A ioee/ea io oaieiuo, oe?ieieenoaaiiua e niaoaiiua eana iiiaiy?oniu. Ec
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo ii?iae a eanao ?innee i?aaenoaaeaiu aeoa, eeia, eeaiu,
ynaiue, ayc, a?aa, aoe e ae?. ?acee/iua ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu, aoiaeyuea a
ninoaa oe?ieieenoaaiiiai eana, eiatho ?acioth aunioo. Naiua aunieea
aea?aauey — aeoa e ynaiue, aieaa ieceea — eeai ino?ieenoiue, eeia, ayc,
aua ieaea — eeai iieaaie. Iaeiaei io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiuo y?onia aea?aauey
iau/ii ia ia?acotho. Eana oa?aeoa?ecothony niieiooui aa?oiei ae?aaaniui
y?onii, a eioi?ii aeiieie?otho aeoa eee eeia. Ieaea eo — inoaeueiua
ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu, eioi?ua /aua anaai ea?atho ?ieue niooieeia. Oi?ioi
?acaeo eonoa?ieeiaue y?on (iiaeeanie) ec i?aoieea, aa?aneeaoa
ai?iaeaa/aoiai, aeeiieinoe eaniie, e?ooeiu eiieie e ae?. Iaii/aaiiue eee
o?aayiie iie?ia ia?aciaai a iniiaiii iiiaieaoieeaie. Iiiaea ?anoaiey
eiatho aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieea eenoiaua ieanoeiee, iiyoiio eo iacuaatho
oe?ieio?aaueai. Iaeie o?aau anaaaea ano?a/athony iaeeii/iuie
yecaiiey?aie, ae?oaea iiaoo nieioue iie?uaaoue iiaa?oiinoue ia aieueoii
i?ino?ainoaa. Oaeeie aeiieie?othueie ?anoaieyie /aua anaai auaatho
niuoue iaueiiaaiiay, caeai/oe aeaeoue, iniea aieinenoay e i?ieanea
iiiaieaoiyy. Oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea a yoeo eanao aeoa?aaiuo yoaia?ieaeia
(aao?aieoea ethoeeiaay, oioeaoee, aoneiua eoee, /enoye aanaiiee e ae?.).
Iie iiyaeythony n?aco iinea noiaea niaaa, oeaaooo ?aiiae aaniie, eiaaea
iiae iieia eana iinooiaao iiiai naaoa, e caeai/eaatho naia iaaecaiiia
nouanoaiaaiea anei?a iinea ?anioneaiey eenoueaa ia aea?aaueyo. A
niaoaiiuo oaieii-oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eanao auaaao ?acaeo e iioiaie iie?ia,
iniaaiii a oao ianoao, aaea ia iaeaieeaaaony cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa
eenoiaiai niaaea, oaiaoathua aeaenoaothuaai ia ioe.

Ec oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee i?aiaeaaeatho aeoa?aau,
aeoaiai-eeiiaua e eeiiaua eana. Ia Eaaeaca e a Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe
ano?a/athony aoeiaua eana.

Aeoa — n?aaieoaeueii oaieiethaeaay ae?aaaniay ii?iaea, o?aaiaaoaeueiay e
ii/aaiiiio ieiaei?iaeeth. Ii ia ?anoao ia i/aiue aaaeiuo ian/aiuo
ii/aao, ia ia?aoaeaaeiaiiuo, caaiei/aiiuo ii/aao, ii iaaeinoaoie aeaae a
ii/aa ia?aiineo oi?ioi. Aeoaiaua eana ?ani?ino?aiaiu a eaninoaiiie ciia
e a caiaaeiuo, aieaa iyaeeo a eeeiaoe/aneii ioiioaiee, ?aeiiao
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu. Aeoa ia auiineo no?iauo oneiaee oaeae. A
ainoi/iuo e naaa?iuo ?aeiiao n aieaa no?iaui eeeiaoii ii onooiaao ianoi
eeia.

Eeia — aanueia oaiaauiineeaay e oieiaeinoieeay ii?iaea, ii
o?aaiaaoaeueiay e oaiia?aoo?iui oneiaeyi a ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee. Iia oe?a
ae?oaeo oe?ieieenoaaiiuo ii?iae i?aaenoaaeaia a niaoaiiuo
oaieii-oe?ieieenoaaiiuo ianaaeaeaieyo. Iaeiei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo
aea?aaueaa iaoeo oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania yaeyaony eeai ino?ieenoiue, ii
ii yaeyaony iau/ii eeoue i?eianueth e ainiiaenoaothuei ae?aaaniui
ii?iaeai.

Noaiiie oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe oi?ie?oaony a ?aeiiao iaaeinoaoi/iiai e
iaonoie/eaiai oaeaaeiaiey e i?aaenoaaeai niiauanoaaie o?aayienouo
?anoaiee, oi?ioi ia?aiinyueo iaaeinoaoie aeaae a ii/aa. Aeey noaiiuo
?anoaiee oa?aeoa?ai ceiiee ia?eiae iieiy, iaoneiaeaiiue io?eoeaoaeueiuie
oaiia?aoo?aie e iaee/eai niaaeiiai iie?iaa, a oaeaea eaoiee ia?eiae
iieoiieiy, eiaaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ?anoaiee i?ae?auaao aaaaoaoeeth.
A ?aeiiao iaonoie/eaiai oaeaaeiaiey eaoiee nooie ia?eiae
iai?iaeieaeeoaeai. Oai, aaea oaeaaeiaiea iaaeinoaoi/iia, ii ioaaouaaao
ana eaoi, ii i?a?uaaaony a?iciauie aeiaeaeyie, iniaaiii /anouie a ethea.
A noaiyo y?ei au?aaeaia naciiiay eciai/eainoue ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa.

Iaeia ec oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae noaiiuo niiauanoa — auno?ay niaia ai
a?aiaie aniaeoia, o.a. aiaoiaai aeaea, aucuaaaiiai ?acaeoeai e
oeaaoaieai oiai eee eiiai aeaea ?anoaiee. Iaeei aniaeo neaaeoao ca
ae?oaei, ii oaea a ethia ?anoeoaeueiinoue auai?aao, noaiiaynue auniooae
e iiaeooeie. Ioaeaeueiua aaaaoe?othuea e oeaaoouea aei inaie o?aau ia
iiaoo eciaieoue iauaai aia/aoeaiey.

Aeey noaiae oeie/iu ?aciiia?aciua ?anoaiey, ia?acothuea ia?aeaoe-iiea —
niaoeeoe/aneoth aeeciaiioth oi?io. N?aaee ieo anoue e iaeiieaoieee, e
iiiaieaoieee (ea/ei iaoaeue/aoue, ea?iaee, ciiiee eieth/ee, neiaaieiaiee
iieaaie e ae?.). Oaeea ?anoaiey eiiathony o ei?iaaie oaeee eee
io?uaathony a aa?oiae /anoe ei?iy e, aiieiua aao?ii, ia/eiatho
no?ainoaiaaoue ii noaie. Oaea?yynue i caieth ai a?aiy ia?aiauaiey, iie
?annaeaatho naiaia.

A oeie/iuo noaiyo iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue ea?atho aea?iiaeiiua
ceaee n oceeie eenoueyie: ?acee/iua aeaeu eiaueae, oei/ae, oiieiiia,
aeeoiye. Ia?yaeo n ieie a ninoaaa noaiiuo niiauanoa anaaaea i?enoonoaoao
?aciio?aauea.

A oneiaeyo iaonoie/eaiai oaeaaeiaiey (Eoae 1) aic?anoaao ?ieue
ei?iaaeuiuo ceaeia (einoa?, iu?ae, aeeeee iaan) n aieaa oe?ieeie
eenoueyie. Caeanue aea oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaii e?ani/iia ?aciio?aauea,
ano?a/aaony iiiai eoaiauo y?ei oeaaooueo ?anoaiee. Caeanue
?ani?ino?aiaiu i?ino?ae, ai?eoeaao, ni/aae/iee aaiaa?neee, e?en
aaceenoiue, e?anoiaiee, eiceiai?iaeiee, oaeoae eoaiaie, oaaieaa
oanoeeaianoiay, eicaeaoe io?io?iue, eieieieue/eee, ei?inoaaiee, ?oiyiea,
ynia?oeao ian/aiue, iiaeia?aiiee aeaeoue e iiiaea ae?oaea. Iaeee oaeeo
noaiae oeacuaaao ia ioiineoaeueii aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey oaeaaeiaiey. Yoi
— eoaiaua, eee ?aciio?aaiua noaie. Iie ?aniieiaeaiu a eaninoaiiie ciia.

I?e oaaee/aiee nooinoe eoaiaia ?aciio?aauea niaiyaony aeaeaie,
i?eniiniaeaiiuie e iaaeinoaoeo aeaae, — nooiethaeaui ?aciio?aaueai
(oeiueyi, oaeoae, ciiiee, ?iiaoiee, eioey, iaeioi?ua aeaeu iieuiae e
ae?.). Iiiaea ec ieo — na?iaaoua iaac?a/iua ?anoaiey n
iaeei?an/eaiaiiuie eenoueyie, n iiooaieai eee aineiaui iaeaoii, n
iaeicaiaoiuie iay?eeie oeaaoeaie. Aeaeiaay ianuuaiiinoue oiaiueoaaony io
70-80 aeaeia a eoaiauo noaiyo aei 12-15 aeaeia a nooeo noaiyo.
?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia ana aieaa ec?aaeeaaaony.

Cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee, ?aiaa caiyoua noaiiuie niiauanoaaie, iuia
?aniaoaiu e canayiu naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie eoeueoo?aie.

Ionouiiue oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe i?eo?i/ai e oa??eoi?eyi n iaeiaiaa
aeaaii?eyoiuie aeey nouanoaiaaiey ?anoaiee oneiaeyie, iiyoiio
?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia e?aeia ec?aaeai e aaaeai a aeaeiaii ioiioaiee.
Iniiaiie oaeoi?, ia?aie/eaathuee ?acaeoea ?anoaiee, — iaaeinoaoie aeaae
a ii/aa, a nayce n /ai aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho i?eniiniaeaiey ?anoaiee e
aeaoeoeeoo aeaae.

Iniiaiui iai?aaeaieai i?eniiniaeaiey yaeyaony ena?iii?oeci. Ena?ioeou
iaeaaeatho oeaeui ?yaeii i?eniiniaeaiee, iicaieythueo aeiauaaoue aeaao e
yeiiiiii aa ?anoiaeiaaoue. Iie eiatho iiuioth ?acaaoaeaiioth e /anoi
aeoaiei i?iieeathuoth ei?iaaoth nenoaio, iaania/eaathuoth iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiia iiaeiuaiea aiaeu ec ii/au. ?ac?aaeaiiinoue ?anoeoaeueiinoe a
iaaecaiiie /anoe ia?aaeei ni/aoaaony n niieiooinoueth a iiaecaiiie.
Ena?ioeou ionouiue iaeeieenoiu eee aaceenoiu. Aeey iiiaeo oa?aeoa?ia
iiooaiiinoue eenoueaa eee aineiaie iaeao ia ieo. O ?yaea ceaeia eenouey
naa?ioou a o?oai/eo, a iiae/an io eenoa o ?anoaiey inoaaony iaeia
oeaio?aeueiay aeeeea, i?aa?auaiiay a eieth/eo. Iiiaea ?anoaiey eiatho
i?eniiniaeaiey aeey ?aceiai nieaeaiey o?ainie?aoeee a iaaeaaii?eyoiue
(nooie) ia?eiae. Auno?i ?acaeaaynue a aanaiiee aeaaeiue ia?eiae, iie
?acei caiaaeeytho ?ino a nooia a?aiy, na?anuaatho iieiaeua aaoae e o.ae.
Aeey ?yaea ?anoaiee oa?aeoa?ia ?aciieenoiinoue: aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiua
aanaiiea eenouey niaiythony iaeeeie iaac?a/iuie eaoieie eenoi/eaie.

A ionouiiuo niiauanoaao ano?a/athony noeeoeaiou — ?anoaiey n iynenouie
iaaecaiiuie i?aaiaie (eenoueyie, noaaeyie), iaeaieeaathuea a ieo caian
aiaeu. Ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a ninoaaa niiauanoa ea?atho yoaia?u e
yoaia?ieaeu — ?anoaiey, eioi?ua oniaaatho i?ieoe oeeee ?acaeoey a oio
ia?eiae, eiaaea a ii/aa anoue aeaaa, e oai naiui ecaaaatho aeeyiey
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee. I?aiaeaaeatho n?aaee ?anoaiee ionouiue
?acee/iua aeaeu iieuiae e nieyiie. A oneiaeyo neoaeiiai aoiinoa?iiai
oaeaaeiaiey aieueooth ?ieue a iaania/aiee ?anoaiee ea?atho
aiaeii-oece/aneea naienoaa noano?aoa, ia eioi?ii iinaeythony ?anoaiey.
Ooaeoea oneiaey aeey ?anoaiee neeaaeuaathony ia aeeienoii noano?aoa.
Eo/oa oaeaaeiaiu ian/aiua ionouie, a eioi?uo ia iaeioi?ie aeoaeia /anoi
ia?acoaony aeny/ee ai?eciio aeaaeiinoe.

Ia?yaeo n aea?eeie ionouiyie (ionouiyie thaa), aaea aeaoeoeeo aeaae
ni/aoaaony n aunieeie eaoieie (iniaaiii aeiaaiuie) oaiia?aoo?aie, a
?innee ?ani?ino?aiaiu e oieiaeiua ionouie (a?eoe/aneea, aunieiai?iua),
aaea ia oieueei nooi, ii e oaiia?aoo?iua oneiaey aanueia no?iau.
?anoaiey caeanue iinaeythony ia ?uoeuo oieiaeiuo a?oioao a ianoao,
caueuaiiuo io neeueiuo aao?ia. ?anoeoaeueiinoue oieiaeiuo ionouiue
iniaaiii neoaeia, ?ac?aaeaia e aaaeia a aeaeiaii ioiioaiee. Caeanue
ano?a/aaony anaai 35-50 aeaeia oeaaoeiauo ?anoaiee, a oaeaea ioe,
eeoaeieee (/aua iaeeiiua) e aiaei?inee.

Eoaiaie oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe oi?ie?oaony i?e n?aaeieo oneiaeyo
oaeaaeiaiey. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth A.I. Oaiieeiaa, eoaaie iacuaatho
i?ino?ainoaa ni n?aaeiae noaiaiueth oaeaaeiaiey ii/a, caiyoua
o?aayienoie iacioeeueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth. O?aayiie iie?ia eoaia
anaaaea aonoie e iau/ii aeinoaoi/ii aunieee. Eoaiaua ?anoaiey ia
ia?aiinyo ie neeueiiai ennooaiey ii/au, ie iinoiyiiiai ia?aoaeaaeiaiey.
Ii/oe ana eoaiaua ?anoaiey — iiiaieaoieee. Inaiueth eo iaaecaiiua /anoe
ioie?atho, a aaniie iiyaeythony iiaua iiaaae. Aeey eoaia oa?aeoa?ia
ieioiay aea?ieia, ia?aciaaiiay aonoi ia?aieaoathueieny ei?iyie ?anoaiee.
Eoaa iiae?acaeaeythony ia caeeaiua (iieiaiiua), nooiaeieueiua
(iaoa?eeiaua) e ai?iua.

Caeeaiua eoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu ii iieiai ?ae. Eo ninoaa iaiyaony ii ia?a
oaeaeaiey io ?onea ?aee. A i?e?oneiaie /anoe iieiu, neiaeaiiie iau/ii
ian/aiui eee noian/aiui iaoa?eaeii, iaeaieaa nooie e aunieie,
i?aiaeaaeatho ei?iaaeuiua ceaee: einoa? aacinoue, iu?ae iieco/ee, aaeiee
iacaiiue e ae?. Caeanue aea iinaeythony oaiu iieaaie, ethoea?ia
na?iiaeaeiay, eeaaa? iieco/ee, iiaeia?aiiee aeaeoue, ii?aciee. Oeie/iua
caeeaiua eoaa i?eo?i/aiu e noaeeienoie oeaio?aeueiie iieia. Iie
ioee/athony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai ?anoaiee, ia?acothueo iuoiue
e?ani/iue eiaa?. Caeanue iaeeueii i?aaenoaaeaii ?aciio?aauea (ethoeee,
aa?aiue eoaiaay, aaicaeeea, eieieieue/eee, niieea, naa?aeaa e ae?.),
iiiai aiaiauo (eeaaa? eoaiaie, iieco/ee, iuoeiue ai?ioae, eyaeaeiaoe
?iaaoue, /eia eoaiaay e ae?.). Ec ceaeia i?aiaeaaeatho eenioaino
eoaiaie, ianyieoea eoaiaay, oeiioaaaea, iyoeee eoaiaie. A iaeaieaa
iiieaeaiiie i?eoa??aniie /anoe iieiu ia oyaeaeinoaeeienouo, iaeaieaa
aeaaeiuo ii/aao iau/iu inieiaua caaiei/aiiua Aooa, eee aieioa. E?iia
inie, caeanue i?iec?anoatho o?inoiee iaueiiaaiiue, uo/ea aea?ienoay,
oaaieaa aycieenoiay, a?aaeeao ?a/iie e ae?. Aiaiauo iau/ii iao.
?aciio?aauea i?aaenoaaeaii ia i/aiue aiaaoi.

Iieiaiiua eoaa aeatho aiaaoua o?iaeae naia. A eo ninoaaa iiiai oeaiiuo
ei?iiauo ?anoaiee.

Iaoa?eeiaua (nooiaeieueiua) eoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu ca i?aaeaeaie ?a/iuo
iiei. Iniaaiii iiiai eo a eaniuo ciiao. Yoe eoaa /anoi iacuaatho
aoi?e/iuie, eee iineaeaniuie, oae eae ia?aciaaeenue iie a iniiaiii ia
ianoa au?oaeaiiuo eania a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea /aeiaae auianii neioa eee
caaioiaeie naia i?aiyonoaiaae anoanoaaiiiio ainnoaiiaeaieth ae?aaaniie
?anoeoaeueiinoe. Ii/au, noi?ie?iaaaoeany iiae eanaie, a ioee/ea io
iieiaiiuo, aeiaieueii aaaeiu ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie, iiyoiio a ninoaaa
nooiaeieueiuo eoaia i?aiaeaaeatho aeaeu iaei o?aaiaaoaeueiua e
ii/aaiiiio ieiaei?iaeeth. Eoaa eiatho aieaa ieceee o?aainoie. Eo
o?iaeaeiinoue cia/eoaeueii ieaea o?iaeaeiinoe iieiaiiuo eoaia, a
aieueoeinoai ?anoaiee eiaao iaaunieoth ei?iiaoth oeaiiinoue. Ec ceaeia
caeanue iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu aeooenoue eieinie, iieaaeoea
iaueiiaaiiay e oiieay, o?ynoiea n?aaeiyy. Aiaiauo ia nooiaeieueiuo eoaao
ii/oe iao, ?aciio?aauea aea i?aaenoaaeaii oi?ioi. Iau/iu caeanue
iaiaeaoea, aaae?aiaoe, ieayiee, aaneeae eoaiaie, eai/aoea na?aa?enoay,
oeeei?ee e ae?. Ia enoiuaiiuo ii/aao nooiaeieueiuo eoaia e i?e
ia?aauiana ainiiaenoai a o?aainoia ia?aoiaeeo e aaeiono oi?/auaio.

Aieueoei aeaeiaui ?aciiia?aceai ioee/athony ai?iua eoaa, ?aniieiaeaiiua
auoa a?aieoeu eana a noaaeueieeneii e aeueieeneii iiynao. A ninoaaa yoeo
eoaia i?aiaeaaeaao ?aciio?aauea. Noaaeueieeneea eoaa aunieio?aaiua, n
aonoui o?aainoiai e iaeeeai e?aneai oeaaooueo o?aa. Aeueieeneea eoaa
i?aaenoaaeaiu e?ani/iui ?aciio?aaueai: eieieieue/eee, iacaaoaeee,
iaeoaai/eee, iaiaeaoee, e?oiee, i?eioeu e ae?.

Aieioiue oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe oi?ie?oaony i?e iinoiyiiii ecauoi/iii
oaeaaeiaiee. Aieioa — yoi niiauanoaa aeaaiethaeaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
?aniieiaeaiiua ia ecauoi/ii oaeaaeiaiiuo o/anoeao nooe, ii aac nieioiiai
ca?eaea aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe. A ninoaaa ?anoeoaeueiuo niiauanoa aieio
o/anoaotho ioe, eeoaeieee, eonoa?ieee, o?aayienoua ?anoaiey e aeaaea
aea?aauey (ninia, aa?aca, ieueoa). Iau/ii aieioa i?eo?i/aiu e
iiieaeaieyi ?aeueaoa n aeeceei caeaaaieai a?oioiauo aiae, ii i?e
aieueoii eiee/anoaa inaaeeia iiaoo caieiaoue e iaaeaeo?a/iua
i?ino?ainoaa. Iiyoiio iniaaiii oe?iei aieioa ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ciiao
ecauoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey: eaniuo, eaniooiae?iaie e ooiae?iaie. THaeiaa eo
ieiuaaee ?acei nie?auathony. Eneeth/eoaeueiie caaiei/aiiinoueth
ioee/aaony Caiaaeiay Neae?ue, iniaaiii aa eaniay ciia.

Ianiio?y ia noiaeiua oneiaey neeueiiai ecauoea aeaae, aieioa nouanoaaiii
?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie ii ?anoeoaeueiinoe, /oi iaoneiaeaii ?aciie
iaania/aiiinoueth ?anoaiee ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie a caaeneiinoe io
oeiia eo ieoaiey.

?aciauaiea iniiaiuo oeiia ?anoeoaeueiinoe ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee.
Oi?ie?iaaiea ooiae?iauo, eaniuo, noaiiuo e ionouiiuo niiauanoa ?anoaiee
ii?aaeaeyaony eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie iniiaiuo i?e?iaeiuo cii ?innee,
iiyoiio eo iacuaatho ciiaeueiuie oeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. Eaaeaeue ec ieo
yaeyaony ainiiaenoaothuei oeiii ?anoeoaeueiinoe a i?aaeaeao
niioaaonoaothueo cii: ooiae?, oaeae, niaoaiiuo e oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania,
noaiae e ionouiue. ?anoeoaeueiinoue ia?aoiaeiuo i?e?iaeiuo cii
(eaniooiae?u, eaninoaie, iieoionouie) i?aaenoaaeaia ni/aoaieai aeaoo
ninaaeieo ciiaeueiuo oeiia. Ii ia?yaeo n ieie ai anao ciiao a aeaea
aieaa eee iaiaa e?oiiuo ae?aieaiee ano?a/athony oaeaea eoaiaie e
aieioiue oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe. Oi?ie?iaaiea e ?aciauaiea eoaia e aieio
caaeneo io ianoiuo iniaaiiinoae oaeaaeiaiey ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia
(aeeceiai caeaaaiey a?oioiauo aiae, ia?eiaee/aneiai caoiieaiey e o.ae.).
Yoi — eio?aciiaeueiua oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Ia?yaeo n ciiaeueiinoueth a ?aciauaiee ?anoeoaeueiinoe io/aoeeai
i?ineaaeeaaaony e i?iaeioeeaeueiinoue, iaoneiaeaiiay ?aciie noaiaiueth
eiioeiaioaeueiinoe e oaeaaeiaiiinoe ai aioo?aiiae /anoe iaoa?eea e ia
aai ie?aeiao. Aeinoaoi/ii /aoei auaeaeythony o?e naeoi?a —
noaaoeaioe/aneee, aioo?eiaoa?eeiaue e i?eoeoiieaaineee.

A noaaoeaioe/aneii (aa?iiaeneii) naeoi?a n ineaaeaiiie
eiioeiaioaeueiinoueth e oi?ioei oaeaaeiaieai ?ani?ino?aiaiu ana
ciiaeueiua oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe, io ooiae?iaiai aei ionouiiiai. Eaniie
oei i?aaenoaaeai ia oieueei oaieiuie, ii e oe?ieieenoaaiiuie eanaie. A
oaeaa caeanue i?aiaeaaeatho oaiiioaieiua aeiaua eana, a a eaninoaiiie
ciia — aeoa?aau. E naaa?iie a?aieoea eana caeanue auoiaeeo aeue, iiyoiio
eaniooiae?a a iniiaiii aeiaay.

Ai aioo?eiaoa?eeiaii (neae?neii) naeoi?a n ?acei eiioeiaioaeueiui
eeeiaoii iao oe?ieieenoaaiiuo e oaieii-oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania, ia?iiiua
ieiuaaee caieiaao oaaaeiue oei n i?aiaeaaeaieai eenoaaiie/iuo eania.
Eaniooiae?a caeanue oaeaea eenoaaiie/iay. Eana eaninoaiiie ciiu
i?aaenoaaeaiu iaeeieenoaaiiuie, aa?aciai-niniiauie e naaoeioaieiuie
(niniiauie e eenoaaiie/iuie). A nayce n thaeiui ai?iui ia?aieaieai
caeanue ionoonoaoao ciiaeueiue ionouiiue oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe.

A i?aaeaeao i?eoeoiieaaineiai naeoi?a ainiiaenoaotho aeaa oeia
?anoeoaeueiinoe: ooiae?iaue e eaniie. A?aieoeu eo ?ani?ino?aiaiey
niauaiu aeaeaei e thao. Caeanue ia e?aeiai thaa aiiaue iiyaeythony
oe?ieieenoaaiiua e oaieii-oe?ieieenoaaiiua eana. Oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu
naiaia?aciua noaa?eoe/aneea eaiaiiiaa?aciaua eana e ca?inee eaae?iaiai
noeaieea. Aunieay iaea/iinoue e aeaaeiinoue i?eii?neeo ?aeiiia
iaoneiaeeaatho aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iuoiuo aunieio?aaiuo
eoaia.

Aunioiay iiyniinoue. A ai?ao ?ani?ino?aiaiu oa aea oeiu ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
/oi e ia ?aaieiao. A naiai ?aciauaiee iie iaia?oaeeaatho caeiiiia?ioth
niaio io iiaeiiaeee ai? e eo aa?oeiai, naycaiioth n eciaiaieai
eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee n aunioie. Iaai? e ninoaa aunioiuo iiynia
?anoeoaeueiinoe, eo aunioiia iieiaeaiea e acaeiiia ?aciauaiea ia?acotho
no?oeoo?o aunioiie iiyniinoe. Iia caaeneo io auniou ai?, eo iieiaeaiey a
i?aaeaeao oie eee eiie ciiu e a ii?aaeaeaiiii naeoi?a iaoa?eea. *ai
thaeiaa ?aniieiaeaiu ai?u e /ai iie auoa, oai iieiaa iaai? aunioiuo
iiynia.

Iaeaieaa i?inoa no?oeoo?a aunioiie iiyniinoe a ooiae?a e oaaaeiie ciia.
A ooiae?iaie ciia ?aaieiiua ooiae?u niaiythony ai?iuie. A oaeaa oaieiua
eana onooiatho ianoi iaoe?ieie iieina e?eaieanuey e ?aaeeieanuey,
niaiythuaeny ai?iie ooiae?ie. A THaeiie Neae?e o iiaeiiaeey ai?
iiyaeythony noaie e eaninoaie, eioi?ua niaiythony ai?iie oaeaie. E
aa?oiae a?aieoea eana iiaeoiaeyo eaae?iaua e eenoaaiie/ii-eaae?iaua
eana. Eo niaiyao ai?iay ooiae?a. Iaeaieaa neiaeia aunioiay iiyniinoue
Aeoay, aaea ia?yaeo n ai?iie oaeaie ano?a/athony ai?iua noaie e
iieoionouie, noaaeueieeneea eoaa e ooiae?inoaie, aeueieeneea eoaa e
ai?iua ooiae?u.

Aua neiaeiaa aunioiay iiyniinoue a ai?ao Eaaeaca. Iia ?acee/ia ia
oieueei ia naaa?iii e thaeiii neeiia Aieueoiai Eaaeaca, ii e a caiaaeiie
e ainoi/iie aai /anoe. Ia ?aniieiaeaiiii a noaaoeaioe/aneii naeoi?a
Eaaeaca iao ie ai?iuo ooiae?, ie ooiae?inoaiae. Oneiaeiaiea aunioiie
iiyniinoe caeanue i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao ?aciiia?aciuo oeiia eania. A
ninoaaa ai?iuo eania caeanue i?enoonoaotho oe?ieieenoaaiiua aoeiaua
eana, eioi?ua niaiythony niaoaiiuie aoeiai-ieooiauie, a aua auoa —
oaieiuie aeiai-ieooiauie eanaie. Auoa a?aieoeu eana ?ani?ino?aiaiu
aunieio?aaiua noaaeueieeneea eoaa e ca?inee noaaeueieeneeo eonoa?ieeia,
eioi?ua niaiythony ieceio?aaiuie aeueieeneeie eoaaie.

Naiaia?acia aunioiay iiyniinoue ai? Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, a ninoaaa
eioi?ie i?enoonoaotho eaiaiiiaa?aciaua eana a ni/aoaiee n aunieio?aaiuie
eoaaie, eioi?ua niaiythony ca?ineyie eaae?iaiai noeaieea, onooiathueie,
a naith i/a?aaeue, ianoi ai?iui ooiae?ai e aa?auaoieeai.

?anoeoaeueiua ?ano?nu. Ie? ?anoaiee aeaao /aeiaaeo ieuaaua i?iaeoeou,
ei?ia e nu?uea. Aeey ?acaeoey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho
anoanoaaiiua ei?iiaua ?ano?nu. Ei?iiauie ?ano?naie iaeaaeatho ana oeiu
?anoeoaeueiinoe e ana ciiu — io ooiae? aei ionouiue, ii ?acee/ai ninoaa
ei?iia, eo ea/anoai, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?iiauo oaiaeee, iniiaiua
ei?iiaua ?anoaiey. Naiuie i?iaeoeoeaiuie ei?iiauie oaiaeueyie yaeythony
eoaa. Ni/iua eoaiaua o?aau — iniiaiie ei?i aeey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa.
Eoaa neoaeao naiieinaie e ianoaeuaie. Naiua aunieea o?iaeae o?aa
aieueoie ei?iiaie oeaiiinoe aeatho caeeaiua eoaa. Iie iau/ii
eniieuecothony eae naiieinu.

A canooeeauo ?aeiiao no?aiu ei?iiaua ?ano?nu i?aaenoaaeaiu a?oauie
(nooeie, aeanoeeie) ei?iaie. A iieoionouiyo e ionouiyo iaoiaeyony
ianoaeua aeey iaaoe e aa?aethaeia. Ianoaeuaie aeey iaaoe neoaeao e
ai?iua noaie.

A ooiae?a e eaniooiae?a iaoiaeyony iaoe?iua ieaiuee ianoaeua. Eo
ieiuaaeue ninoaaeyao a ?innee 327 iei aa. I?aaaea, aeieiae/aneay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue yoeo ianoaeu iaaaeeea. Iaeaieaa oeaiiuie ianoaeuaie
yaeythony yaaeueiua ooiae?u, iie?uoua eonoenoui eeoaeieeii eeaaeiiey.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho ae?aaaniua ?ano?nu. Ia aeieth eania ?innee
i?eoiaeeony ieiei 1/5 ieiuaaee eaniiai oiiaea ie?a (768 iei aa), a ii
caianai ae?aaaneiu (75 ie?ae i2) aeaaea nauoa 1/5 ie?iauo caiania.
Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue caiania i?eoiaeeony ia oaieiua ii?iaeu. Ae?aaaneia
eniieuecoaony aeey naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oeaeae — aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa, a
ea/anoaa oiieeaa e o.ae, Ia aa aaca ?acaeoa oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiay e
eanioeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai ae?aaaneiu
auaiceony ec ?innee a ae?oaea no?aiu.

Aaeeee ?ano?nu aeeei?anooueo ieiaeiai-yaiaeiuo e eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee,
a?eaia. Eaae?iaua i?aoee, a?onieea e /a?ieea, eetheaa e ii?ioea, /a?iay
e e?aniay nii?iaeeia, iaeeia e caieyieea, ?aciiia?aciua a?eau — iaiieiue
ia?a/aiue aea?ia i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aua i/aiue neaai. A
eaaeaeie ec i?e?iaeiuo cii i?aaenoaaeai naie “iaai?” eaea?noaaiiuo
?anoaiee: aeaiueoaiue, eeiiiiee, aaea?eaia, ?iiaoea aioa/iay,
ouny/aeenoiee, ionou?iee, eeia, e?anaaea, /a?ieea, /enoioae, aiy?uoiee,
eneaiaeneee iio (oeao?a?ey eneaiaeneay), aa?aca, iaia?noyiea, ?yaeia,
iaoue-e-ia/aoa, eaiaeuo, caa?iaie e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Aio?iiiaaiiua eciaiaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa e aai io?aia. Iaoe?iua
i?ino?ainoaa naaa?a e ainoiea ?innee n iaaeaaii?eyoiuie e
iaeiaeaaii?eyoiuie aeey aeecie /aeiaaea i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie aei
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia aiaea/aiu a aeoeaioth oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Iie oa?aeoa?ecothony i/aaiaui inaiaieai, anoanoaaiiay
?anoeoaeueiinoue nio?aieeanue oai aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi. Ii a iaeaieaa
aonoiianaeaiiuo ?aeiiao Neae?e, Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, O?aea e iniaaiii ia
oa??eoi?ee Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu e I?aaeeaaeacuey ?anoeoaeueiue
iie?ia neeueii eciaiai.

Au?oaea eania i?eaaea e caiaia ia aieueoeo i?ino?ainoaao oaiiioaieiuo e
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania aoi?e/iuie iaeeieenoaaiiuie, eiiaaea niniiauie,
eanaie e iineaeaniuie eoaaie. Oae, eanenoinoue Aa?iiaeneie ?innee, ii
aeaiiui I.A. Oeaaoeiaa (1957), ca aeaa noieaoey nie?aoeeanue n 52,7% aei
35,2%, o.a. ii/oe ia o?aoue.

?anoe?aiea ieiuaaee iaoioiuo caiaeue aaaeao e caiaia anoanoaaiiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe iinaaaie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?. A ?yaea ?aeiiia
eaninoaiiie e noaiiie cii Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu ?aniaoaiiinoue
aeinoeaaao 60-70% e aieaa. A ?innee ii/oe ia inoaeinue oeaeeiiuo
(ei?aiiuo) noaiae, a ciia niaoaiiuo e oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania e thaeiay
oaeaa i?aa?aoeeenue, ii iaoeiio au?aaeaieth O.I. Ieeueeiaa, a
eaniiieuea.

Iiae aeeyieai auiana neioa ia?aaeei eciaiyaony ninoaa o?aainoiy, ?acei
aic?anoaao aeiey ieioi iiaaeaaiuo neioii e yaeiaeouo ?anoaiee.
Oaaee/eaaaony aeiey iieuiae a ?anoeoaeueiuo niiauanoaao iieoionouiue e
oei/aea a noaiiuo niiauanoaao. Inooaiea aieio oaeaea eciaieei aeaeiaie
ninoaa ?anoaiee auaoeo aieioiuo ianneaia.

Ia anoanoaaiioth ?anoeoaeueiinoue e oei?o ieacuaatho aeeyiea e aeaeu
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, niaa?oaiii ia naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai
?anoeoaeueiuo e ii/aaiiuo ?ano?nia: no?ieoaeuenoai ai?iaeia, ?ac?aaioea
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, i?ieeaaeea aeaeaciuo e oinnaeiuo aei?ia, iaooa- e
aacii?iaiaeia. Iiiaea ?anoaiey e oeaeua ?anoeoaeueiua niiauanoaa ia
auaea?aeeaatho aio?iiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u, ii/au e aiaeu.
Eeneioiua aeiaeaee aaaeoo e aeaaee naiiai oeaiiiai ei?iiaiai ?anoaiey
naaa?iuo ianoaeu — yaaey. A ie?anoiinoyo aieueoeo ai?iaeia, a ianoao
ianniaiai ioaeuoa iai?a?uaii oneeeaaaony io?eoeaoaeueiia oece/aneia
aicaeaenoaea naiiai /aeiaaea ia ?anoeoaeueiinoue e n?aaeo aa iaeoaiey.
I?ienoiaeeo /?acia?iia auoaiouaaiea ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa e oieioiaiea
ii/au. Ia?iiiue o?ii oei?a iaiineo ianniaue nai? e?aneai oeaaooueo
?anoaiee, n?aaee eioi?uo ieacuaathony e ?aaeeea i?aaenoaaeoaee oei?u.
Ana yoi canoaaeyao i?eieiaoue ia?u ii io?aia e ainnoaiiaeaieth ia
oieueei ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?anoaiee, ii e oeaeuo ?anoeoaeueiuo
niiauanoa.

A ?innee nicaeaia naoue iniai io?aiyaiuo i?e?iaeiuo oa??eoi?ee. Iia
iinoiyiii ?acaeaaaony, ?anoao /enei io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia e eo ieiuaaeue.
Iaeaieaa o?aaeeoeeiiiie e aeanoeie oi?iie io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia a iaoae
no?aia yaeythony caiiaaaeieee. Naoue caiiaaaeieeia a ?innee
nicaeaaaeanue a oa/aiea 80 eao. Ia 1 yiaa?y 1999 a. a iaoae no?aia
nouanoaiaaei 99 caiiaaaeieeia iauae ieiuaaeueth 32,7 iei aa (1,5%
ieiuaaee no?aiu). 21 ec ieo aoiaeeo a iaaeaeoia?iaeioth naoue aeinoa?iuo
?aca?aaoia (“aeinoa?iua caiiaaaeieee”). A /enei iniai io?aiyaiuo
iauaeoia aoiaeyo oaeaea iaoeeiiaeueiua (34) e i?e?iaeiua ia?ee,
caeacieee (aieaa 4000) e iaiyoieee i?e?iaeu. Anaai iniai io?aiyaiua
i?e?iaeiua oa??eoi?ee caieiatho ieiei 5% oa??eoi?ee no?aiu.

Ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a, a oii /enea e a ?innee, ninoaaeytho nienee
?aaeeeo e en/acathueo aeaeia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Iie iacuaathony
E?aniuie eieaaie. Nouanoaoao E?aniay eieaa Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nithca
io?aiu i?e?iaeu e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia (INII), E?aniay eieaa ?NON? a
aeaoo oiiao, E?aniua eieae ii iiiaei ?anioaeeeai, e?ayi e iaeanoyi.
N?aaee en/acathueo aeaeia ?innee, aianaiiuo a E?aniua eieae, iiaeii
iacaaoue ieoeoiaeneoth ninio ia *a?iiii?neii iiaa?aaeuea Eaaeaca e
iaeiaoth ninio ia N?aaeia?onneie aicauoaiiinoe, iae eaieaiaeneee ia
Eieueneii iieoino?iaa, aaoia/ie ianoiyuee a niaoaiiuo eanao
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu e iiiaea ae?oaea.

AEeaioiue ie?

AEeaioiue ie? — iaiouaieaiay /anoue i?e?iaeu. Io ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia
aeeaioiua ioee/athony naiae iiaeaeaeiinoueth. Iie aeoeaii ia?aiauathony
a i?ino?ainoaa, i?aaeaea anaai a i?aaeaeao naiaai ianoiiaeoaiey, ii
eiiaaea auoiaeyo e ca iaai. Acaeiinaycue aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey n ae?oaeie
eiiiiiaioaie i?e?iaeu aanueia neiaeia, ii aeaaii onoaiiaeaia aeinoaoi/ii
/aoeay acaeiinaycue aeeaioiuo n ii?aaeaeaiiuie ?anoeoaeueiuie
niiauanoaaie.

A eco/aiee aeeaioiiai ie?a ?innee aaaeouay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaia?aoai
n aeieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaeie (I.A. Naaa?oeaa, E. N Aa?a) e ciieiaai n
oe?ieei aaia?aoe/aneei e?oaici?ii (I.A. Iaicae?, N.E. Iaiaa, A.I.
Oi?iicia e ae?.).

Oaoia ?innee ioiineoaeueii iaaiaaoa. Caeanue iaeoaao 320 aeaeia
ieaeiieoathueo. Iniaaiii ?aciiia?acai ie? a?ucoiia e, a iaiueoae ia?a,
oeuieeia, ia aeieth eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony nauoa iieiaeiu anao aeaeia.
*enei ioeoe aeinoeaaao 730 aeaeia, i?aniueathueony — 75, a caiiiaiaeiuo
— ieiei 30 aeaeia. ?ua, i?aniiaiaeiuo e i?ioiaeiuo, ian/eouaaaony ii/oe
400 aeaeia*. Ii?aceoaeueii aiaao ie? ianaeiiuo (ieiei 70 000 aeaeia!).

Iaeiaei ii n?aaiaieth ni n?aaeiei aeaeiaui ?aciiia?aceai aeeaioiuo nooe
Caiee aeeaioiue ie? iaoae no?aiu iaaiaao. Ii cia/eoaeueii iaeiiia?aciaa,
/ai a aieaa oaieuo e aeaaeiuo ?aeiiao caiiiai oa?a. Yoi iaoneiaeaii
iieiaeaieai ?innee a aunieeo e oia?aiiuo oe?ioao, aaea no?iainoue
eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee aiineo naie ei??aeoeau a ?aciauaiea e aeaeiaia
?aciiia?acea aeeaioiuo.

Oaoia ?innee, eae e oei?a, noaiiaeony aiaa/a e ?aciiia?aciaa i?e
aeaeaeaiee n naaa?a ia tha e io ?aaiei a ai?u. A ai?ao ?acei aic?anoaao
/enei yiaeaie/iuo e ?aeeeoiauo aeaeia aeeaioiuo.

A ciiaaia?aoe/aneii ioiioaiee oa??eoi?ey ?innee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aieaa eee iaiaa aaeeiia oeaeia. Iia any aoiaeeo a Iaeaa?eoe/aneoth
ciiaaia?aoe/aneoth iaeanoue, caieiathuoth ia?iiiua i?ino?ainoaa io
A?eoeee aei noao?iieeia Aa?acee e Ao?eee. Anoanoaaiii, /oi aeeaioiue ie?
ia oaeii a?iiaaeiii i?ino?ainoaa iaiaeeiaeia, iiyoiio a ninoaaa
Iaeaa?eoeee auaeaeythony ciiaaia?aoe/aneea iiaeiaeanoe.

Naaa? ?innee aoiaeeo a A?eoe/aneoth iiaeiaeanoue n oee?eoiiiey?iui
oaoienoe/aneei eiiieaenii. Iniiaiay oa??eoi?ey iaoae no?aiu ?aniieiaeaia
a i?aaeaeao Aa?iiaenei-Neae?neie iiaeiaeanoe. THa Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea
aoiaeeo a Iai/aeo?nei-Eeoaeneoth iiaeiaeanoue. Aieueoie Eaaeac e
*a?iiii?neia iiaa?aaeuea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naaa?iue o/anoie
N?aaeecaiiiii?neie iiaeiaeanoe, a I?eeanieeneay ieciaiiinoue ioiineony e
Oeaio?aeueii-Aceaoneie iiaeiaeanoe.

A ?ani?ino?aiaiee aeeaioiuo ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee i?ineaaeeaaaony /aoeay
naycue n oeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, iiyoiio i?iyaeyaony aaia?aoe/aneay
ciiaeueiinoue.

Ciiaaia?aoe/aneea iiaeiaeanoe. A?eoe/aneay iiaeiaeanoue aeeth/aao
aeeaioiue ie? a?eoe/aneeo ionouiue e ooiae?. Aeey aeeaioiiai ie?a yoeo
cii oa?aeoa?ia aaaeiinoue aeaeiaiai ninoaaa, aai /?acau/aeiia
iaeiiia?acea e oee?eoiiiey?iia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?yaea aeaeia. Aaaeiinoue
aeeaioiiai ie?a iaoneiaeaia iieiaeinoueth aeaiiuo ciioeaiicia,
neiaeeaoeony oieueei a ieaenoioeaia, e e?aeia no?iauie oneiaeyie
nouanoaiaaiey. AEeaioiua caeanue auioaeaeaiu i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ieceei
oaiia?aoo?ai, neeueiui aao?ai, iiey?iie ii/e, aeeeoaeueiiio caeaaaieth
niaaeiiai iie?iaa e i/aiue ei?ioeiio eaoo. Eeoue iaiiiaea aeaeu noiaee
i?eniiniaeoueny e oaeei oneiaeyi. Yoi eaiieiae, cayoe-aaeye, ianaoe,
aiee, aaeay e ooiae?iaay eo?iiaoee, iiey?iay niaa. Aeaaea oeie/iua
ooiae?iaua aeeaioiua /anoe/ii iieeaeatho aa ceiie. Aaeay eo?iiaoea e
naaa?iua ieaie ioei/aauaatho “e e?ath eana”, ca ieie neaaeotho aieee, a
aaeay niaa ano?a/aaony ceiie e a noaiiie ciia. Aeaaea ianoeu /anoe/ii
ia?anaeythony a oaeao. E eeoue eaiieiae ia iieeaeatho ooiae?o e aeaaea
?aciiiaeathony ceiie, iaoiaey iiae niaaii iaeeueiue ei?i a aeaea
eenoueaa e ii/ae aa/iicaeaiuo ?anoaiee, ieiaeia e naiyi, iaoiaeyueony ia
?aciuo noaaeeyo nic?aaaiey. Aeaaiaea?y eaiieiaai inoaaony ia ceio a
ooiae?a e iaeioi?ia /enei oeuieeia.

AEeaioiua ooiae? eiatho oeaeue ?yae i?eniiniaeaiee, iicaieythueo ei
ia?aaeeoue aeieaoth e no?iaoth ceio. Eo oa?noue e ia?uey noaiiayony
ceiie i/aiue aonouie e aeeeiiuie. O eaiieiaia, iai?eia?, ceiie iao
noaiiaeony a ianeieueei ?ac aeeeiiaa eaoiaai (I.A. Aia?eineee, 1960). O
ianoea any iiaeioaa aonoi iie?uoa aieineaie, eioi?ua ia oieueei
nia?aaatho iiae, ii e iiiiaatho aaaaoue ii neieueceiio niaaeiiio ianoo e
eueaeo. O eo?iiaoie e iiey?iie niau ia?uey ia iaeueoeao io?anoatho
ianoieueei, /oi niaa?oaiii ne?uaatho eiaoe. Iiiaea ooiae?iaua aeeaioiua
iaeaieeaatho oienoue neie iiaeeiaeiiai aee?a (ianoeu, naaa?iua ieaie,
eo?iiaoee). AEe? ia oieueei nia?aaaao oaei, ii e neoaeeo caianiui
ieoaoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii. Ooiae?iaua aeeaioiua eiatho i?eniiniaeaiey aeey
?aca?aaaiey niaaa: o eo?iiaoie ia ceio neeueii io?anoatho eiaoe, o
eaiieiaia ia?acothony naiaia?aciua “eiiuooea”, iniaaiii aieueoea iie o
eiiuoiiai eaiieiaa. Aieueoeinoao ooiae?iauo caa?ae e ioeoe naienoaaiia
aaeay ceiiyy ie?anea.

Eaoii ooiae?a i?aia?aaeaaony. Iiyaeyaony ianna ia?aeaoiuo ioeoe,
i?eaeaeaaiuo iaeeeai ?aciiia?aciiai ei?ia. Iniaaiii iiiai/eneaiiu n?aaee
ieo aiaeiieaaathuea (aone, ooee, eaaaaee) e eoeeee. Aica?auathony
ioei/aaaaoea ia tha aeeaioiua.

*eneaiiinoue aeeaioiuo a ooiae?a ?acei eieaaeaony io aiaea e aiaeo a
caaeneiinoe io iaania/aiiinoe ei?iaie.

Aa?iiaenei-Neae?neay iiaeiaeanoue ioaaouaaao oa??eoi?eth io oaeae aei
noaiae. AEeaioiue ie? aa aiaa/a e ?aciiia?aciaa. Io/aoeeai
i?ineaaeeaaaony ciiaeueiinoue a aai ?ani?aaeaeaiee.

Eaniua niiauanoaa eae ianoi iaeoaiey aeeaioiuo eiatho naie iniaaiiinoe.
Caeanue iiiai oe?uoee, ?aciiia?aciue e aeinoaoi/ii iaeeueiue ei?i. Yoi
iicaieyao aeeaioiui e?oaeue aiae inoaaaoueny a eanao. Ia?aeaoiuo ioeoe
caeanue cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai a ooiae?ao. O eaniuo caa?ae e ioeoe,
eioi?ua ia ?ani?ino?aiaiu ca i?aaeaeaie eania (einue, ao?ue iaaeaaaeue,
?iniiaoa e ae?.), ie?anea ceiie ia aaeaao, oae eae ai anyeii eano ia
oiia aaeiai niaaa inoathony oaiiua noaieu e aaoae aea?aaueaa e
eonoa?ieeia, eioi?ua neoaeao iaaeaaeiui oe?uoeai aeey aeeaioiuo,
eiathueo oaiioth ie?aneo. Iaeioi?ua aeeaioiua nicaeatho cia/eoaeueiua
caianu ei?ia ia oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea (aaeea, ao?oiaeoe,
iieaaea-yeiiiiea e ae?.). A eanao iiyaeythony i?aniueathueany:
aeeai?iaeyuay e i?uoeay yua?eoea, aaaethea, oae.

Aeey eania oa?aeoa?ii y?oniia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeeaioiuo. A ieaeiai y?ona
iinaeythony aeeaioiua, aaaeouea iacaiiue ia?ac aeecie: iaeeea a?ucoiu
(iieaaee, iuoe), e?oiiua eiiuoiua (einue, ieaiue, eaaai), iiiaea oeuieee
(eeneoea, aiee, iaaeaaaeue), a oii /enea e iaeeea (eanea, ai?iinoae,
eieiiie). Aai i?eaea?aeeaathony e iaeioi?ua ioeoeu (iai?eia?, ae?icaeu).
A ii/aaiii-iiaenoeei/iii y?ona iaeoatho iiiai/eneaiiua
caiea?ieee-ao?icoaee. Ae?aaaniue y?on a iniiaiii caiyo ioeoeaie. Ec
ieaeiieoathueo a iai aeeaoo aaeee e eaoyae. Iiiaea aeeaioiua iaiytho
naia ianoiiieiaeaiea a y?onao. Iiiai a?aiaie i?iaiaeeo ia aea?aaueyo
?unue. Ao?oiaeoe oi?ioi eacaao ii aea?aaueyi, ii iinoiyiii aeeaao a
ii?ao e aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie i?iaiaeeo ia caiea. Iieoae?aaaniue
ia?ac aeecie aaaeao niaieue. Aeooa?ue e ?ya/ee aiacaeyony ia caiea, ii a
iieneao ei?ia aceaoatho ia aea?aauey. Eoieoea aeiauaaao ieuo
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia caiea, a iinaeyaony a aeoieao aea?aaueaa, iiae/an
auniei iaae caieae, a noa?uo aiacaeao ni?ie, eeai iiae ei?iyie
aea?aaueaa, eee n?aaee eaiiae.

Aeoiea — naiaia?aciua oaaaeeua a eanao. A ieo naeyony ia oieueei
eoieoeu, ii e aaeee, eaoyae, ?aciua aeaeu nia, neieoeu. A aeoieao,
eioi?ua iie naeaeaee naie, naeyony aeyoeu.

Iiiaea aeaeu aeeaioiuo ano?a/athony eae a oaieiuo, oae e a
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eanao — aieueoeinoai ioeoe, aaeea, ?unue, ao?ue
iaaeaaaeue e iiiaea ae?oaea, ii anoue e oaeea, /uey aeeciue naycaia
oieueei n oaieiuie eeai oieueei n oe?ieieenoaaiiuie eanaie. Iai?eia?,
oieueei a oaeaa iaeoatho ?ya/ee, aeooa?ue, eaae?iaea e eeanou. Eeanou,
ieoathueany naiaiaie oaieiuo aea?aaueaa, eiatho e?th/eiaaoue eetha ec
ia?ae?aueaathueony oaeeeiaiiuo e caaioouo eiioeia iaaeo /aethnoae, /oi
iicaieyao ei auno?i e eiaei eoueoue oeoee oaieiuo aea?aaueaa, aeiauaay
ec ieo naiaia. Ec oeuieeia oeie/ii oaaaeiua — niaieue e eieiiie. Aeey
niaoaiiuo e oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania oa?aeoa?iu einoey, aeaai?iaeiue
ieaiue, niie, /a?iue oi?ue e ae?.

Oaoienoe/aneee ninoaa caiaaeiie oaeae ioee/aaony io ainoi/iie, a?aieoeae
iaaeaeo eioi?uie yaeyaony Aienae. Oieueei a ainoi/iie oaeaa anoue
eaaa?aa, naaa?iay ieuooa, /a?iieethaue eaiaiiue aeooa?ue, ooea-eanaoea,
a oaeea i?aaenoaaeoaee aa?iiaenei-neae?neie oaoiu, eae /a?iue oi?ue,
aa?iiaeneay ii?ea, eaniay eoieoea, iaueiiaaiiue aeooa?ue ia caoiaeyo ca
Aienae.

N?aaee iaeoaoaeae eania iiiai oeaiiuo iooiuo caa?ae: niaieue, aaeea,
eaniay eoieoea, eieiiie, ai?iinoae e ae?. Naiue eo/oee iao aeatho
iaeoaoaee oieiaeiuo neae?neeo ?aeiiia.

AEeaioiua noaiae — iaeoaoaee ioe?uouo i?ino?ainoa. Aeaaiaea?y iaeeeth
ieue aeeciue a noaie aiaaoay, e iiiaea aeaeu aeeaioiuo e?aeia
iiiai/eneaiiu. Ec ieaeiieoathueo iniaaiii oa?aeoa?iu ?aciiia?aciua
a?ucoiu. Ec e?oiiuo noaaeiuo eiiuoiuo ano?a/aaony naeaae. Noaiiua
aeeaioiua auioaeaeaiu i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iaaeinoaoeo oe?uoee. Naeaaee
nianathony io oeuieeia eneeth/eoaeueii auno?ui aaaii. Iie iaeaaeatho
ino?ui c?aieai, /oiau ecaeaeaea caiaoeoue oa?ico, /oi aeey
ieaeiieoathueo yaeyaony /?acau/aeii ?aaeeei. Niiniaiinoue e auno?iio
aaao oa?aeoa?ia e aeey ioeoe ae?io, eiaaea-oi auaoeo iau/iuie a noaiyo.
Ana noaiiua a?ucoiu: noneeee, no?ee, iieaaee, iuoe — ?itho aeoaieea
ii?u, a iiiaea aaaeoo ianoiyuee iiaecaiii-?ithuee ia?ac aeecie
(neaiooiiea, oeiei?, neaiaoe). Noneeee e no?ee naeyony iau/ii aieueoeie
eieiieyie. Noaaeiue e eieiieaeueiue ia?ac aeecie iicaieyao noaaeiui
aeeaioiui ca?aiaa i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoue ae?oa ae?oaa i i?eaeeaeathuaeny
iianiinoe, a ii?u aeatho a?ucoiai iiaecaiiia oe?uoea io aieueoeinoaa
oeuieeia.

Oiiiauie ioeoeaie noaiae yaeythony ?aciiia?aciua aeaai?iiee (iieaaie,
oioeaoue, iaeue e ae?.), ?ani?ino?aiaiu na?ay eo?iiaoea, iaueiiaaiiue
ia?aiae, ano?a/athony no?aiao e nianai ?aaeei ae?ioa. Iaeeea a?ucoiia
iaania/eaaao aiaaonoai noaie ?acee/iuie oeuiuie ioeoeaie. Iau/iu caeanue
eoie, eaithe-eo?aaiiee, ionoaeueaa, eia/ee, noaiiie i?ae.

Ec oeuiuo ieaeiieoathueo iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?ai naaoeue, eee noaiiie oi?ue.
Iau/iu caeanue e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a ae?oaeo ?anoeoaeueiuo
niiauanoaao aiee, eeneoea, ai?iinoae, eanea.

Noaiue, iaeeueiay ieuae e aeeciueth a oaieia a?aiy aiaea, ceiie ionoaao
e iie?uaaaony niaaeiie iaeaiie. Aieueoeinoai oeie/ii noaiiuo ioeoe
iieeaeaao ia yoi a?aiy naith ?iaeeio. Oaeiau iiiaea aeaai?iiee,
aeo?aaeue-e?anaaea, eoie, ia?aiae, no?aiao, ae?ioa e ae?. A niy/eo
aiaaeatho oaeea ei?aiiua noaiiyee, eae no?ie, noneeee, aieueoie
oooeai/ee, oiiye. Naeaaee ioei/aauaatho e thao, aaea iiuiinoue niaaeiiai
iie?iaa iaiueoa.

Iai/aeo?nei-Eeoaeneay iiaeiaeanoue aeeth/aao tha Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea
(thaeiaa 50-51° n.o.). E iae ioiineony oaoienoe/aneee eiiieaen niaoaiiuo
eania, oae iacuaaaiie “onno?eeneie oaeae”, a ninoaaa eioi?iai oa?aeoa?ii
i?enoonoaea naaa?iuo oaaaeiuo aeaeia (einue, niaieue, ?iniiaoa,
ao?oiaeoe e ae?.), ii oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu e thaeiua aeaeu
iai/aeo?nei-eeoaeneiai e aeaaea eiaeeeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ec
ia?iieiiuoiuo caeanue iau/iu iyoienoue ieaiue, ectha?ue, aioeeiia-ai?ae;
ec oeuieeia — /a?iue aeiaeaeneee iaaeaaaeue e aiioiaeaeiay niaaea,
aeaeueiaainoi/iue aiio e eoieoea-oa?ca, onno?eeneee oea? e eaiia?ae.
I?aniueathueany i?aaenoaaeaiu yua?eoeaie aeeeiiioainoeaie,
ueoiii?aeieeii ainoi/iui, aio?neei iieicii. Aanueia iiiai/eneaiiu e
?aciiia?aciua ioeoeu.

A nu?ii ionniiiii eeeiaoa eana iniaaiii aiaaou aeoieaie, a eioi?uo
aiacaeyony oa?aeoa?iua aeey e?ay ioeoeu — iiiai/eneaiiua aeyoeu, niau,
neieoeu, eieth/aoainoue no?eae, na?ue neai?aoe, aeaeoay iooieiaea,
oe?iei?io e aeaaea ooea-iaiaea?eiea, eioi?ay e?eeii auiaieaaao ooyo ec
aeoiea. Iie iaaeatho n aieueoie auniou ia caieth e aaaoo e aiaea.
Eiiaaea a aeoiea auniei iaae caieae iinaeythony e ciae — ia?iiiua
aio?neea iieicu. Iieuecothony aeoieaie oaeaea aaeee, eaoyae, ao?oiaeoee,
iaiue/aeo?neee cayoe, ono?aeaathuee eiiaaea naie eaaeee a i?iaieaoeo
iiaaeaiiuo noaieao e ieceeo aeoieao noiyueo aea?aaueaa. A aeoiea
aieueoiai aea?aaa, /anoi auniei iaae caieae, canuiaao ia ceio /a?iue
iaaeaaaeue.

Oeaio?aeueii-Aceaoneay iiaeiaeanoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony ae?aaiae e
n?aaieoaeueii aiaaoie oaoiie. Aa i?aaenoaaeoaee au?aaioaee niaoeeaeueiua
i?eniiniaeaiey aeey aeecie a oneiaeyo e?aeiae a?eaeiinoe. A ?innee e
yoie iiaeiaeanoe ioiinyony ionouie e iieoionouie I?eeaniey. Aeey iaa
oa?aeoa?ii cia/eoaeueiia /enei yiaeaieeia, e /eneo eioi?uo ioiinyony
aeaeoue noneee, iaaay caiea?ieea e ae?. Naaa?iay a?aieoea iieo-ionouiue
yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii a?aieoeae ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiiaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
oaoiu yoie iiaeiaeanoe — /a?iiai aeaai?iiea, ionouiiie neaaee, ?yaea
/a?iia?thoiai, eaiuoiaiai eioa, oaeaea e ae?.

AEeaioiua ionouiue auioaeaeaiu i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e aunieei oaiia?aoo?ai
oaieiai a?aiaie aiaea e aeiaieueii ieceei ceiiei oaiia?aoo?ai, ?aceiio
iaaeinoaoeo aeaae, aaaeiiio ?anoeoaeueiiio iie?iao. Iiiaea aeeaioiua,
nianaynue io aeiaaiie aea?u, aaaeoo ii/iie eee noia?a/iue ia?ac aeecie.
Aaeaeo naiae iiaeaeaeiinoe (a ioee/ea io ?anoaiee) aeeaioiua iiaoo
ne?uaaoueny a ii?ao (ia oieueei a?ucoiu, ii e ianaeiiua, iaeioi?ua
ioeoeu) eee ca?uaaoueny a ianie (yua?eoeu-e?oaeiaieiaee). I?eniiniaeaiey
e iaaeinoaoeo aiaeu ?acee/iu. Iaeie aeeaioiua iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny eeoue
oai eiee/anoaii aiaeu, eioi?ia iieo/atho n ieuae (ciae, yua?eoeu, iiiaea
iaeeea oeuiua caa?e e ioeoeu). Ae?oaea niiniaiu auno?i iie?uaaoue
aieueoea ?annoiyiey, aaaay eee eaoay ca aiaeie ca aeanyoee, ii?ie ca
nioie eeeiiao?ia (?yaee, aieoae e ae?.). Iaiaoiaeeiinoue auno?iai
ia?aiauaiey ii ionouia iaoneiaeaia e iaaeinoaoeii ieue. I?ae?anii
i?eniiniaeaiu e aeecie a ionouia n aa ?aaeeei ?anoeoaeueiui iie?iaii e
?annayiiie ieuae i?uaathuea a?ucoiu oooeai/eee, eneeth/eoaeueii
auno?iiiaea caa?ueee.

A?ucoiu a ionouiyo I?eeaniey aeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?aciu: aeaaioneee
neaiaoe, noneeee aeaeoue, ?uaeaaaoue e iaeue, iauanoaaiiay iieaaea,
ian/aiee a?aaai/oeiaay e iieoaeaiiay, oooeai/eee — iioiiiiaee,
aio?ai/ee, iaeue e caieyiie cayoe. Ec ianaeiiiyaeiuo caeanue iaeoaao
iaaay caiea?ieea e ooanoue aae. Eneeth/eoaeueii aiaao ie? ianaeiiuo.
I?aiaeaaeatho aeoee n aeanoeei oeoeiiaui iie?iaii. Caeanue
?ani?ino?aiaiu yaeiaeoua oaeaiae, oa?aiooe, ec?aaeea — nei?ieii.

N?aaeecaiiiii?neay iiaeiaeanoue caoiaeeo ia oa??eoi?eth ?innee naiae
naaa?iie ie?aeiie. E iae ioiinyony ai?u Aieueoiai Eaaeaca e *a?iiii?neia
iiaa?aaeuea. Oa??eoi?ey yoa iaaaeeea, ii oaoia aa aiaaoa e ?aciiia?acia,
niaea?aeeo ?yae aeaeia n?aaeecaiiiii?neiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey (na?ia e
ae?.) e yiaeaieeia. E yiaeaieeai ioiinyony eaaeacneee e aeaaanoaineee
oo?u, i?iiaoaaaa iuoue, eaaeacneee oaoa?aa e eaaeacneee oea?. A ninoaaa
oaoiu Eaaeaca ano?a/athony i?aaenoaaeoaee ionouiue e noaiae,
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo e oaieiuo eania, noaaeueieeneeo e aeueieeneeo eoaia,
/oi iaoneiaeaii ai?iui oa?aeoa?ii ?aaeiia e aunioiie iiyniinoueth a
?aciauaiee i?aaie/aneiai ie?a.

?aciauaiea aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey e aai aio?iiiaaiiia eciaiaiea. Eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, a ?aciauaiee aeeaioiiai ie?a ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee i?aaeaea
anaai io/aoeeai au?aaeaia ciiaeueiinoue, iaeiaei a neeo naiae
iiaeaeaeiinoe iaeioi?ua aeeaioiua niaa?oatho aeiaieueii aieueoea
iea?aoeee e ano?a/athony a ?aciuo i?e?iaeiuo ciiao. Oae, aaeay eo?iiaoea
— oeie/iay ioeoea ooiae?u — ano?a/aaony a eanao Oeaio?aeueiie ?innee e
ia aieioao eaninoaiiie ciiu Caiaaeiie Neae?e; cayoe-?onae — aeeoaeue
eania e noaiae — caoiaeeo a iieoionouith. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu eiatho aanueia
aieueoie a?aae ?annaeaiey, caoaaouaathuee ?acee/iua ciiaeueiua oeiu
?anoeoaeueiinoe (ai?iinoae, aiee, eeneoea e ae?.).

A ai?ao aeinoaoi/ii /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony aunioiay iiyniinoue, oioy
iaeioi?ua aeeaioiua caeanue oaeaea iea?e?otho iaaeaeo iiynaie. Aieaa eee
iaiaa /aoei i?iyaeyaony e naeoi?iinoue (i?iaeioeeaeueiinoue), naycaiiay
ia oieueei n nia?aiaiiui iaai?ii cii, ii e n i?aiaeaaeathuei
oaoienoe/aneei eiiieaenii oie eee eiie iiaeiaeanoe Iaeaa?eoeee, a oaeaea
n aueuie iea?aoeeyie aeeaioiuo. Oae, aeey noaaoeaioe/aneiai naeoi?a
oa?aeoa?ii ?ani?ino?aiaiea aa?iiaeneie ii?ee, eaniie eoieoeu, niie,
caeaiiai aeyoea e ae?. Ai aioo?eiaoa?eeiaii naeoi?a i?aiaeaaeatho
ainoi/iineae?neea aeaeu; eieiiie, niaieue, ao?oiaeoe, oaiiiciaue
ae?icae, a i?eoeoiieaaineii naeoi?a ia thaa — iaiue/aeo?neea aeaeu, a
naaa?iaa — /a?iioaii/iue no?ie, aeeeooa e ae?.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia nia?aiaiiia ?aciauaiea aeeaioiuo, eo aeaeiaie ninoaa
e /eneaiiinoue ieacaea oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea. Eciaiyy
?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, /aeiaae einaaiiui ia?acii aeeyao e ia aeeaioiia
ianaeaiea. Ana aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho aeeaioiua ioe?uouo
i?ino?ainoa e aeeaioiua — niooieee /aeiaaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii nie?auathony
a?aaeu e /eneaiiinoue iaeoaoaeae eania. Ii, e?iia yoiai, /aeiaae ieacae
e iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia aeeaioiue ie?. AEeaioiua ecaeaaia
neoaeeee iauaeoii ioiou, iiyoiio iaeaieaa oeaiiua ec ieo auee ii/oe
eno?aaeaiu (coa?u, aia?u e ae?.) eee oie/oiaeaiu iieiinoueth (aeeeay
eioaaeue oa?iai, noaeea?iaa ei?iaa e ae?.). *eneaiiinoue iiiaeo
i?iiuneiauo aeeaioiuo ?acei nie?aoeeanue (niaieue, auoooieue e ae?.).

A nayce n yoei a iaoae no?aia auee i?iaaaeaiu aieueoea ?aaiou ii
ainnoaiiaeaieth /eneaiiinoe iaeaieaa iino?aaeaaoeo aeeaioiuo. Iniaaiii
aieueooth ?ieue a yoii nua?aee caiiaaaeieee: Aa?aoceineee (niaieue),
Eaaeacneee e I?eienei-Oa??aniue (coa?), Oii??neee (auoooieue) e ae?. Aue
aeeeeiaoece?iaai ?yae oeaiiuo iooiuo aeeaioiuo (aia?eeaineay ii?ea,
iiaeao?a, ioo?ey). Auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeanue ii oa??eoi?ee ?innee
iiaeao?a. A aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu aeeeeiaoece?iaaiu iyoienoue ieaiue
e aiioiaeaeiay niaaea, i?eaacaiiua n Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, e o.ae.

Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao aeeeeiaoecaoeey ae?aaieo aeeaioiuo Acee —
iaoeaaueia, i?eaacaiiuo ec Naaa?iie Aia?eee, aaea iie nio?aieeenue, e
auiouaiiuo ia iieoino?iaa Oaeiu? e ino?iaa A?aiaaey (a yoeo ?aaioao
aieueoay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo caiiaaaeieeai). Iaoeaauee oai oniaoii
i?eaeeeenue e aeatho iioiinoai.

Aeaaiaea?y caaioa /aeiaaea, n eaaeaeui aiaeii oaaee/eaaaony iiaieiauea
oaeeo aeeaioiuo, eae aia?, niaieue, einue, aeeeee naaa?iue ieaiue, coa?
e ae?. Ii a oi aea a?aiy i?iaeieaeatho nie?auaoueny a?aaeu e
/eneaiiinoue e?aniiai aieea, noaiiiai aa?na, ae?iou, ia?aaycee e ae?.
?aaeeea e en/acathuea aeaeu aeeaioiuo, eae e ?anoaiee, caiinyony a
E?aniua eieae, aaea ioia/athony ia oieueei i?e/eiu eo nie?auaiey, ii e
ia?u io?aiu.

Ioioie/uea-i?iiuneiaua ?ano?nu. Aeeeea aeeaioiua yaeythony iauaeoii
ioioie/ueaai i?iiunea. ?inney — iaeei ec aeaaiuo iinoaaueeia iooieiu ia
ie?iaie ?uiie. E /eneo iniiaiuo i?iiuneiauo iooiuo caa?ae no?aiu
ioiinyony aaeea, niaieue, eeneoea, ianaoe, iiaeao?a. Ianaoe yaeyaony
aeaaiui iauaeoii iooiiai i?iiunea a ooiae?a. Iaeaieaa oeaiiue iooiie
caa?ue oaeae — niaieue, ii ii aue neeueii eno?aaeai, iiyoiio auee
i?eiyou ia?u ii io?aia e ainnoaiiaeaieth aai /eneaiiinoe. Auniei
oeaieony oaeaea iao eoieoeu, auae?u, eieiiea, ii?ee, aia?a e ae?.

Eiiuoiua aeeaioiua aeiauaathony ?aaee iyna e oeo?. Aaaeiuie i?iiuneiauie
aeaeaie yaeythony naaa?iue ieaiue, einue, eaaai. Ieaie (ia?ae, ectha?,
aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue) aeiauaathony ia oieueei ?aaee iyna e oeo?, ii e
ec-ca iaioia — iieiaeuo ?iaia, eioi?ua neoaeao nu?ueai aeey
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Caaioaaeeaaaony oaeaea cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai ia?iaoie aee/e: ?ya/eeia, eo?iiaoie, aeooa?ae, oaoa?aaia,
ia?aiaeie, oacaiia.

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