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Почвенный покров Украины

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Ianiio?y ia iacia/eoaeueioth iiuiinoue (io ianeieueeeo naioeiao?ia aei
iao?ia) ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa ii n?aaiaieth n caiiie ei?ie, ii/au ea?atho
eneeth/eoaeueioth ?ieue a aeinoa?a Caiee, iaania/eaay oneiaey aeey
aeecie anao i?aaieciia, aeeth/ay /aeiaaea.

Iauea naaaeaiey

Aeaaeaiee A.A. Aeieo/aaa ioia/ae, /oi ii/aa “anoue aiieia
naiinoiyoaeueiia anoanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneia oaei, eioi?ia yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii niaieoiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a?oioa, eeeiaoa, ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo, aic?anoa no?aiu e ?aeueaoa ianoiinoe”.

Ii/au ia?acothony a iiaa?oiinoiii neia caiiie ei?u, a iaeaieaa aeoeaiie
e eciai/eaie /anoe aeinoa?u. Aaaeiaeoei ea/anoai, ioee/athuaa ii/au io
ai?iuo ii?iae, yaeyaony ieiaei?iaeea – niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe
iio?aaiinoue ?anoaiee a i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey, aeaaa, iaania/aiee eo
ei?iaaie nenoaiu aicaeooii e ae?. A ii/aa e aa?oieo ai?eciioao
ia?a?aaaouaaaiie eie ai?iie ii?iaeu niaa?oaaony aeieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io
aauanoa.

No?oeoo?a caiaeueiiai oiiaea Oe?aeiu, a
%Iaoiy53,8Eana17,3Ianoaeua9,2Cano?iaiiua
caiee4,1Naiieinu4,0Aiaei?iu4,0Ianee e ae?oaea caiee aac ?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa1,7Aieioa1,6Naaeu e aeiia?aaeieee1,5Aaeee e ia?aae0,7Ae?oaea
caiee2,1

?anoaiey ecaeaeatho ec ii/aaiiiai neiy iaiaoiaeeiua ei ieoaoaeueiua
yeaiaiou, iaeaieeaatho eo a naaa, a iinea ioie?aiey ?anoaiee iie
iiiaaeatho a aa?oiee neie ii/au. Caeanue ?anoeoaeueiua inoaoee nia/aea
iiaeaa?aathony ia?a?aaioea ii/aaiiuie aeeaioiuie, a caoai
iiiai/eneaiiuie iee?ii?aaieciaie. A ?acoeueoaoa neiaeiuo aeioeie/aneeo
i?ioeannia ia?acoaony niaoeeoe/aneia ii/aaiiia i?aaie/aneia aauanoai –
aoion. A aai ninoaaa iaeaieaa aeoeaioth ?ieue ea?atho aunieiiieeia?iua
aoioniaua eeneiou, ia?acothuea onoie/eaua niaaeeiaiey n ieia?aeueiuie
aauanoaaie ii/au. Iie oi?ie?otho aiaeii?i/ioth ca?ienoi-eiieiaaooth
no?oeoo?o ieiaei?iaeiuo ii/a e iaania/eaatho a ieo noaaeeueiua caianu
ieoaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia. Aoion auiieiyao ooieoeee iineoaey ii/aaiiiai
ieiaei?iaeey, a eioi?ii nin?aaeioi/aia naiay aeoeaiay /anoue nieia/iie
yia?aee, iaeiieaiiie a ii/aa.

Ii/aa n a? caianii aoiona, niaoeeoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie e ieiaei?iaeeai
yaeyaony oeaiiaeoei i?e?iaeiui ?ano?nii. Ii/aaiiue iie?ia Caiee yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei eiiiiiaioii yeinenoaiu nooe, a aai nio?aiaiea e iiauoaiea
ieiaei?iaeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea oaaee/aiey
aeieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, caieaaeaeey e
eaniaiaenoaa. Oe?aeia iaeaaeaao ia?iiiuie ii/aaiiuie ?ano?naie – aeaa
o?aoe a? oa??eoi?ee iie?uou ieiaei?iaeiuie /a?iic?iiuie, o?iii-na?uie
eaniuie, eoaiauie e ae?oaeie ii/aaie.

Oneiaey ii/aiia?aciaaiey

Ii/aa ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa neiaeiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu. N?aaee ieo iniiaiuie yaeythony
eeeiao, ii/aiia?acothuea ii?iaeu, ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ?aeueao ianoiinoe,
aic?ano ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa e oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea.

Ii/aiia?acothuea (eee iaoa?eineea) ii?iaeu – i?aeiouanoaaiii iieiaeua
ia?aciaaiey (aic?anoii aei 1 iei. eao) ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee ii/a. A Oe?aeia iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu eanniaeaeiua,
eaaeieeiaua e aiaeii-eaaeieeiaua ioeiaeaiey, ?a/iua, ic??iua inaaeee e
i?aaiiaaiiua iaeiieaiey (oi?o).

O iiaeiiaeey Ai?iiai E?uia ainiiaenoaotho noaiiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey e
auiaaeaao 350-400 ii inaaeeia a aiae, a ia aai aa?oeiao (yeeao) – aei
1000 ii, aeaaiaea?y /aio i?ienoiaeeo niaia aa?oeeaeueiuo eeeiaoe/aneeo e
ii/aaiiuo iiynia.

?aeueao ianoiinoe yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei ii/aiia?acothuei oaeoi?ii.
Ecaanoii, /oi n oaaee/aieai auniou oiaiueoaaony iinooieaiea oaiea e
oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai auiaaeathueo inaaeeia, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao
aa?oeeaeueioth ciiaeueiinoue ii/a. Ia i?ioeann ii/aiia?aciaaiey oaeaea
aeeytho yeniiceoeey neeiiia, iauay aunioa ianoiinoe, iee?i?aeueao
iiaa?oiinoe e ae?oaea.

Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey ieacuaatho cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii/a. Eeeiao iaoneiaeeaaao ciiaeueiinoue
ii/a, nicaea?o ii?aaeae?iiue aiaeiue ?aaeei e aeeyao ia iinooieaiea
oaiea. Aeey Oe?aeiu oa?aeoa?ai ioiineoaeueii iyaeee, neaai e oia?aiii
eiioeiaioaeueiue eeeiao n iinoaiaiii oneeeaathuaeny
eiioeiaioaeueiinoueth ii iai?aaeaieth e ainoieo no?aiu.

Ia iiaa?oiinoe ii/au aaeaaiaeii inoa?ony ?anoeoaeueiue iiaae. Aai
eiee/anoai eieaaeaony io 7,1 o/aa a niniiauo eanao Iieanuey aei 180 o/aa
a eoaiauo noaiyo eaninoaiiie ciiu.

?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia aeeyao ia ii/aiia?aciaaiea naiae aeeaie iannie e
i?iaeoeoaie iiaaea. ?anoeoaeueiua i?aaieciu yaeythony enoi/ieeii
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a ii/aao, ec eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony aoion – aaaeiaeoay
ninoaaeythuay ii/aaiiiai ieiaei?iaeey. *a?ac ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia
inouanoaeyaony iaeue aeieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io aauanoa, ninoaaeythuee
iniiao aeecie ia caiea.

Eiee/anoai /a?aae a ii/aao ?aaieiiuo oa??eoi?ee n oia?aiii
eiioeiaioaeueiui eeeiaoii eieaaeaony io 250 oun. aei 1 iei. ia 1 aa

Aeayoaeueiinoue aeeaioiuo, iaeoathueo a ii/aao ieacuaaao iaiaeiaaaeiia
cia/aiea ia i?ioeannu ii/aiia?aciaaiey. E?oiiua a?ucoiu (noneeee,
iieaaua iuoe e ae?.) ?itho a ii/aao ii?u, ia?aiaoeaatho e ?ac?uoeytho
ii/aaiiua neie, auiinyo ia iiaa?oiinoue ii/aiia?acothuoth ii?iaeo. *a?ae
caaeaouaatho ii/ao, i?iioneay a? /a?ac naie eeoa/iue eaiae, ?ac?uoeytho
ii/ao e oneeeaatho i?iieeiiaaiea a ia? aicaeooa. Iiiai/eneaiiua
ianaeiiua e eo ee/eiee iiaeaioaaeeaatho i??oaia i?aaie/aneia aauanoai e
?aceiaeaieth aai iee?ii?aaieciaie – iie eciaeue/atho e ia?aoe?atho
ioia?oee ?anoeoaeueiue iiaae, iiaeaioaaeeaay aai aeey ia?a?aaioee
iee?iaaie.

A aa?oiai neia (25 ni) ii/au ia iaeei aaeoa? nooay ianna aaeoa?eaeueiuo
oae a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 100-500 ea.

Iacaiaoiay iaaii?oae?iiui acaeyaeii aeayoaeueiinoue iee?iia?aieciia
(aaeoa?ee, aeoeiiieoeaoia, iee?ineiie/aneeo a?eaeia e i?.) ninoaaeyao
iaiouaieaiue eiiiiiaio ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Eo eiee/anoai
ia?iiii, iai?eia?, a 1 a iiaecieenouo ii/a Iieanuey eo niaea?aeeony
300-600 oun., a a oeie/iuo /a?iic?iao noaie – aei 5-6 iei. Eo aeeciaiiue
oeeee ianoieueei ei?ioeee, /oi ca aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae oniaaaao
niaieoueny 6-7 iieieaiee.

Aic?ano (aeeeoaeueiinoue) oi?ie?iaaiey ii/a eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
i?ioeanna ii/aiia?aciaaiey. Ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aaeeioaea?iaeiiai
aeaoe?iaaiey ii/au ?aaieiiie /anoe Oe?aeiu ia/aee oi?ie?iaaoueny
ioiineoaeueii iaaeaaii – 800-900 eao iacaae. Aieaa ae?aaiee (ii/oe
eneiiaaiue) ii/aaiiue iie?ia oaeaeinue iaia?oaeeoue iiae noaiiuie
ianuiiuie eo?aaiaie. Iiae noa?aeoeie ec ieo ii ninoaaeyao io 4 aei 5
oun. eao.

Oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ii/a cia/eoaeueiui ia?acii
eciaiyao eo naienoaa. A?aiioiay e i?iaeoiaiiay ia?aaioea ii/aaiiiai
iie?iaa – aianaiea i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee, iaoaie/aneia ?uoeaiea
aa?oieo nei?a, ecaanoeiaaiea e ae?. oeo/oatho e ieoeueoo?eaatho ii/au. A
ieo oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai aoiona, oiaiueoaaony eeneioiinoue,
oeo/oathony oece/aneea naienoaa e ?acei aic?anoaao ieiaei?iaeea.

Iniiaiua oeiu ii/a Oe?aeiu

Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua ii/au i?aiaeaaeatho a Iieanuea, aaea iiaecieenoue
i?ioeann i?ioaeaao iiae iieiaii aea?aaueaa e ia iiaa?oiinoue ii/au
aaeaaiaeii iiiaaeatho nooea eenouey, oaiy, eoni/ee ei?u, iaeeea no/ee,
inoaoee o?aayiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa neiaeiuo i?ioeannia
?aceiaeaiey e i?aa?auaiey ?anoeoaeueiuo inoaoeia iinoeeee e ei?iae,
neioaca iiauo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ia?acoaony aoion ii/au.
Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua ii/au oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo ecauoi/iiai
oaeaaeiaiey iiae iieiaii niaoaiiuo aeoaiai-niniiauo eee niniiauo eania,
i?aeiouanoaaiii ?ac?aaeaiiuo e n ?acaeoui o?aayiui iie?iaii.

Ao?ua eaniua ii/au (ao?ic?iu) ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ai?iuo eaniuo ?aeiiao
E?uia e Ea?iao, a oaeaea ia ?aaieiiuo oa??eoi?eyo Caea?iaoneie
ieciaiiinoe e I?aaeea?iaouey. Iie oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo iyaeiai,
aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa iiae oe?ieieenoaaiiuie, niaoaiiuie e eenoaaiiuie
eanaie ia uaaaienouo e ieioiuo ii?iaeao. Ao?ic?iiia ii/aiia?aciaaiea
i?ioaeaao a oneiaeyo oi?ioaai e ?aaiiia?iiai oaeaaeiaiey e cia/eoaeueiie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe o?ieiai a?aiaie aiaea.

Na?ua eaniua ii/au ?ani?ino?ai?iu a eaninoaiiie ciia e ano?a/athony a
Iieanuea, aaea oi?ie?othony i?e oia?aiii aeaaeiii eiioeiaioaeueiii
eeeiaoa. Ii no?iaieth e naienoaai iie caieiatho i?iiaaeooi/iia ianoi
iaaeaeo aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie ii/aaie e /a?iic?iaie. Na?ua eaniua ii/au
ia?aciaaeenue iiae oe?ieieenoaaiiuie eanaie ni cia/eoaeueiie o?aayienoie
iiaenoeeeie, a ia/aei eo oi?ie?iaaiey ioiineony e iineaeaaeieeiaiio
ia?eiaeo, eiaaea e?nniaua ieaoi noaee iinoaiaiii iie?uaaoueny eanaie.

Iaeaieaa ieiaei?iaeiua /a?iic?iiua ii/au caieiatho ii/oe 60%
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee Oe?aeiu, oe?ieie iieinie a i?aaeaeao aeaoo
cii (eaninoaiiie e noaiiie) ia?anaeay no?aio n caiaaea ia ainoie.

*a?iic?iaie iacuaathony aiaaoua o?iiiie?aoaiiua aoionii ii/au, ia
eiathuea i?eciaeia nia?aiaiiiai ia?aoaeaaeiaiey, noi?ie?iaaaoeany a
?aaieiiuo oneiaeyo iiae iiiaieaoiae o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth
noaiae e eaninoaiae. I?e iauai aeaoeoeeoa aoiinoa?iiai oaeaaeiaiey
?aceiaeaiea i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeia a /a?iic?iao i?ienoiaeeo i?e iaiieiii
ianuuaiee ii/au aeaaie, iau/ii a ay?iaiuo oneiaeyo e i?e aunieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao.

Eaooaiiaua ii/au ano?a/athony ia ?aaieiiie nooie noaie. Iie oi?ie?othony
iiae oei/aeiai-eiaueueiie e iieuiii-ceaeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth a
oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey, /ai iauyniyaony iaiueoaa (/ai a
/a?iic?iao) ?acaeoea aeiiannu, iaeiieaiey aoiona, aeoaeiu ianuuaiey
ii/au aeaaie e auiuaaiey nieaauo i?iaeoeoia ii/aiia?aciaaiey.

Ei?e/iaaua ii/au ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia thaeiii neeiia Aeaaiie a?yaeu
E?uineeo ai? e i?eo?i/aiu e iaeanoyi ni n?aaeecaiiiii?neei eeeiaoii,
aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?ii nooia aea?eia eaoi e aeaaeiay o?ieay ceia.

Eoaiaua, aieioiua e ia?aoiaeiua iaaeaeo ieie eoaiai-aieioiua ii/au
oi?ie?otho a?oiio aeae?iii?oiuo ii/a, ano?a/athueony ai anao i?e?iaeiuo
ciiao no?aiu.

I?e o?iaia a?oioiauo aiae ieiei 2-3 i ia noaeeieao ia?acothony eoaiaua
ii/au, i?e o?iaia 1-1,5 i – eoaiai-aieioiua, a i?e o?iaia ieiei 1 i
(ia?eiaee/aneia eee iinoiyiiia caoiieaiea) – aieioiua ii/au.

Eoaiaua ii/au oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo ia?eiaee/aneiai caoiieaiey
iaaiaeeiauie aiaeaie. Iie i?eo?i/aiu e oeaio?aeueiui ?aaieiiui /anoyi
iiei e oi?ie?othony iiae eoaiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth i?e niieieiii
?aaeeia iaaiaeeiauo aiae.

Aieioiua ii/au ia?acothony a oneiaeyo ?acei ecauoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey i?e
aeeceii e iiaa?oiinoe o?iaia a?oioiauo aiae. N?aaee ieo ec?aaeea
ano?a/athony ii/au aa?oiauo e ia?aoiaeiuo aieio (Iieanuea, Ea?iaou), a
i?aiaeaaeatho ii/au ieceiiuo aieio, a eioi?uo /anoi ?acaeo oi?oyiie
neie.

Nieii/aee ia?acothony ia aiaaouo eaaei?anoai?eiuie nieyie ii?iaeao
(i?aeiouanoaaiii ii?neeo ioeiaeaieyo). A Oe?aeia iie ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia
oa??anao ?ae Aeiai?, THaeiue Aoa, Aeiano?, Aeoiae e ia ii?neeo
iiaa?aaeueyo. E nieiioeai ioiinyony ii/au, eiathuea a aoioniaii
ai?eciioa aieueoia eiee/anoai iiaeiu?iiiai iao?ey. A neo/aa anee ec
nieiioea i?e i?iiuaiii aiaeiii ?aaeeia iinoaiaiii auoaniyaony
iiaeiu?iiue iao?ee, iie i?aa?auathony a nieiaee.

Eneiiaaiua ii/au Oe?aeiu

Eco/aiea ii/a e ii/aaiiuo iie?iaia Caiee ia/aeinue cia/eoaeueii iicaea
enneaaeiaaiee oaeeo yeaiaioia i?e?iaeu eae ?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue
ie?. Iaoea ii/aiaaaeaiea ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny eeoue ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
XIX aaea, cia/eoaeueii iicaea ae?oaeo anoanoaaiiuo iaoe. A 1930-a aiaeu
ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny iaoea i ae?aaieo (eneiiaaiuo) ii/aao e ae?aaiai
ii/aiia?aciaaiee – iaeaiiaaeieiaey. N iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey i?aaie/aneie
aeecie ia caiea i?ioeannu ii/aiia?aciaaiey i?ienoiaeeee iai?a?uaii,
eciaiyeenue eeoue eo eioaineaiinoue e oa?aeoa?.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy auyaeaiu eneiiaaiua ii/au a aieueoeinoaa aaieiae/aneeo
nenoai. Iaeaieaa aeaoaeueii a ie?a eco/athony ii/aaiiua iie?iau,
nouanoaiaaaoea a ieaenoioeaia (iineaaeiee ieeeeii eao). A yoie iaeanoe
ciaiee oe?aeineea iaeaiiaaeieiae caieiatho aaaeouea iiceoeee a ie?a.
Onoaiiaeaiu iauea caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey i?ioeannia ii/aiia?aciaaiey ai
a?aiaie e eo ?eoie/iinoue – yoaiu eioaineaiiai ii/aiia?aciaaiey (a
o?ieua yiioe) /a?aaeiaaeenue n aai caiaaeeaieai e caoooaieai n
i?aiaeaaeaieai iaoaie/aneiai iaeiieaiey inaaei/iiai iaoa?eaea (a
oieiaeiua yoaiu). Yoi i?eaiaeeei e iaeiieaieth inaaei/iie oieue, a
eioi?ie /a?aaeiaaeenue eneiiaaiua ii/au ?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey n
ai?eciioaie e?nnia e eanniaeaeiuo noaeeieia.

Iaeei?aoeey ii/a Oe?aeiu

Cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee a Oe?aeia caieiatho iaeiieiaei?iaeiua ii/au:
ia?aoaeaaei?iiua ii/au Iieanuey (aieaa 3 iei. aa) e i?aaeai?ee Ea?iao
(ieiei 400 oun. aa); nieiioeu, nieii/aee e nieiaee eaninoaie e noaie
(840 oun. aa) e ii/au ia y?iaee?iaaiiuo neeiiao.

A nia?aiaiiii i?e?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiii eiiieaena io?aia e oeo/oaiea
ii/aaiiuo ?ano?nia yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae. Ii/aaiiua iaeei?aoeee
(io eao. melioratio – oeo/oaiea) – yoi i?e?iu ei?aiiiai oeo/oaiey
naienoa ii/a, iai?aaeaiiua ia iioeiecaoeeth ii/aaiiuo oneiaee ?acaeoey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?anoaiee. Iie iaania/eaatho oeo/oaiea
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo i?e?iaeiuo naienoa iaeiieiaei?iaeiuo ii/a, caueoo
aunieiieiaei?iaeiuo ii/a (eo aoioniiai neiy) io ?ac?ooathuaai aeeyiey
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aiaoieo i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia, i?aaeioa?auaiea iiyaeaiey
a ii/aao iiauo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo naienoa (canieaiiinoe, nieiioeaaaoinoe,
oieioi?iiinoe e o.ae.) e ainnoaiiaeaiea ieiaei?iaeey ii/a, ia?ooaiiiai
?aniaoeie neeiiia, caoiieaieai e iiaeoiieaieai caiaeue aaeece
aiaeio?aieeeu e o.ae

Eaninoaiiay ciia noi?ie?iaaia iiae aeeyieai oneiaee, eioi?ua a oie eee
eiie noaiaie i?enoue eaniie e noaiiie ciiai. Eaninoaiue — ia?aoiaeiay
iieina iaaeaeo yoeie ciiaie, /oi iaoei naia io?aaeaiea a oa?aeoa?a
ii/aiia?aciaaiey e iniaaiiinoyo ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa.

Aeaaiay ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue eaninoaiiie ciiu — iaonoie/eaue
oa?aeoa? oaeaaeiaiey, ia?aoiaeiue io aeaaeiiai e canooeeaiio.

Eeeiao eaninoaiiie ciiu aeaaii?eyoai aeey aicaeaeuaaiey i?aeoe/anee anao
iniiaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?, oae eae eiee/anoai iinooiathuae
n inaaeeaie aeaae o?aaiiaaoeaaaony i?eoiaeii oaiea (oaae. 10).
N?aaeiaiiiaieaoiee ?aaeei oaeaaeiaiey ii/a — ia?eiaee/anee i?iiuaiie.
?anoeoaeueiinoue io?aaeaao ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa? ciiu. Aeey eaninoaie
oeie/ii /a?aaeiaaiea eaniuo o/anoeia n ioe?uouie i?ino?ainoaaie,
caiyouie eoaiauie noaiyie, n /a?iicaiaie e na?uie eaniuie ii/aaie.

?aeueao eaninoaiiie ciiu i?aeiouanoaaiii aieienoue, n eioaineaiui e
aeoaieei ?an/eaiaieai oa??eoi?ee aonoie naoueth ?ae, aaeie e ia?aaia.
Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue yeaiaio ?aeueaoa — neeiiu, /oi niinianoaoao
?acaeoeth nia?aiaiiuo y?iceiiiuo i?ioeannia. Ieaei?iua aiaei?acaeaeueiua
o/anoee n e?ooeciie iaiaa 2° i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?aeoe/anee
aaeeinoaaiiua y?iceiiii-aaciianiua iaoioiua caiee.

Ii/aiia?acothuea ii?iaeu — a iniiaiii e?nnu, e?nniaeaeiua noaeeiee,
aeeiu; aeaaiay eo iniaaiiinoue — yoi ea?aiiaoiinoue, aeaaii?eyoiua
aiaeii-oece/aneea e oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa.

Eaninoaiiay ciia — yoi nieioiay iieina, i?inoe?athuayny /a?ac anth
oa??eoi?eth aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee. Io a?aieoeu n Oe?aeiie eaninoaiue
iiaeoiaeeo e O?aeueneei ai?ai e ainoi/iaa — aei Aeoay a i?aaeaeao
Caiaaeii-Neae?neie ieciaiiinoe. Aua ainoi/iaa eaninoaiue ae?iaeony ia
«ino?iaa». Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ec ieo Ieioneineee, A/eineee, E?eooneee,
Naeai/eineee e ae?. Eaninoaiue aiaae?yaony e a eanioth ciio. Oaeea
o/anoee iacuaatho iiieueai.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ii/a a eaninoaiiie ciia i?ioaeaao a oneiaeyo iaonoie/eaiai
aoiinoa?iiai oaeaaeiaiey, neiaeiiai ?an/eaiaiiiai ?aeueaoa, iiae
aicaeaenoaeai oe?ieieenoaaiiie eaniie e o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe ia
ea?aiiaoiie iaoa?eineie ii?iaea.

Naaoei-na?ua, na?ua e oaiii-na?ua eaniua ii/au, a oaeaea /a?iicaiu
iiiaecieaiiua, auuaei/aiiua e oeie/iua oi?ie?otho neiaeiue ii/aaiiue
iie?ia. Iaeiaei iauay caeiiiia?iinoue caeaaaiey ciiaeueiuo eaninoaiiuo
ii/a — yoi iinoaiaiiay niaia eo iiaeoeiia io naaoei-na?uo eaniuo ii/a
aei /a?iicaiia oeie/iuo i?e aeaeaeaiee n naaa?a ia tha.

Noi?ie?iaaaoeany a eaninoaiiie ciia ii/au eiatho ii/aaiiue i?ioeeue,
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ii yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiiio oeio (e?iia
/a?iicaia oeie/iiai). Aaaeoueie ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuie i?ioeannaie a
yoie ciia yaeythony: aoioniai-aeeoioeyoeaiue, eanneaaae, iiiaecieeaaiea,
auuaea/eaaiea, iea?aiia/eaaiea.

Aoioniai-aeeoioeyoeaiue i?ioeann — yoi aeeoioeyoeey a aa?oieo neiyo
ii/au i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa e aeioeeueiuo yeaiaioia, oi?ie?iaaiea
aoioniai-aeeoioeyoeaiuo ai?eciioia.

A eaninoaie i?ioeann ii/aiia?aciaaiey i?iyaeyaony ii-?aciiio. A
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eanao iniiaiie enoi/iee i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa ii/au —
iiaae ae?aaaniuo ?anoaiee, ?ieue o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe
iacia/eoaeueia.

Iinooiathuee ia iiaa?oiinoue ii/au iiaae eenoaaiiuo ii?iae aiaao acioii
(50—90 ea/aa), iniiaaieyie e eaeueoeeai (70— 100 ea/aa). I?aaie/aneea
niaaeeiaiey, ia?acothueany a i?ioeanna iee?iaiie o?ainoi?iaoeee iiaaea,
/anoe/ii iaeo?aeecothony iniiaaieyie, /oi a oneiaeyo ineaaeaiiiai
i?iiuaiiai ?aaeeia niinianoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth neiaeiuo aoioniauo aauanoa
n aieueoei niaea?aeaieai aoieiiauo eeneio, ia naycaiiuo n eaeueoeeai.

Iiae niieioouie oe?ieieenoaaiiuie eanaie oi?ie?othony i?aeiouanoaaiii
naaoei-na?ua e na?ua eaniua ii/au, eioi?ui i?enoua aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
i?ioeey ii yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiiio oeio. Iaeiaei
i?aaii-ieia?aeueiua niaaeeiaiey yoeo ii/a ia iinyo y?ei au?aaeaiiuo
i?eciaeia ?ac?ooaiey. Inaaoeaiea eania, oaaee/aiea aeiee o?aayienoie
?anoeoaeueiinoe, i?aiaeaaeaiea a ae?aainoia aeoaa, eeiu oneeeaatho
i?ioeann aoioniiaeiieaiey.

Oaaee/aiea nooinoe oa??eoi?ee, eieaaaiey nooi/iuo e naciiiuo oaiia?aoo?,
nie?auaiea naciiiiai aiay?iaeica oneeeaatho ?aceiaeaiea aiaaoie
cieueiuie yeaiaioaie iiaenoeeee, ia?aciaaiea aoieiiauo eeneio, naycaiiuo
n eaeueoeeai. A yoeo oneiaeyo oi?ie?othony oaiii-na?ua eaniua ii/au e
/a?iicaiu iiiaecieaiiua. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ii nio?aiaiea /aoei
aeeaaiinoe?oaiiai aeaeaiey i?ioeey ia ciiu auiuaaiey e aeeoioeyoeee.
Iaeiaei a yoeo ii/aao o?oaeii onoaiiaeoue i?eciaee ?ac?ooaiey
i?aaiiieia?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee, oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo ii/aaiiuo ieia?aeia a
eeethaeaeueiii ai?eciioa.

Oeo/oaiea oaieiaiai ?aaeeia niinianoaoao niaia ?anoeoaeueiinoe ia
eoaiaua noaie. O?aayienoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue iaeaaeaao iiuiie ei?iaaie
nenoaiie, aaeaaiaeiui aica?aoii a ii/ao aieueoae /anoe iaeiieaiiie ca
aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae oeoiiannu. Eiee/anoai acioa, aeioeeueiuo
yeaiaioia a iiaaea aic?anoaao. Aoieoeeaoeey i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa eiaao
/aoei au?aaeaiioth aoiaoioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. I?aiaeaaeatho aoieiiaua
eeneiou, naycaiiua n eaeueoeeai. Caeanue oi?ie?othony /a?iicaiu
oeie/iua, a a caiaaeeiao, caieioouo iiieaeaieyo — /a?iicaiu
auuaei/aiiua.

A ianoao n aunieei o?iaiai a?oioiauo aiae ioia/athony na?ua eaniua
aeaaaua e eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au. Iaeeea aeaae i?e iai?iiuaiii aiaeiii
?aaeeia niinianoaoao iaeiieaieth a ii/aao aoiona, aoieiiauo eeneio,
iiaeoyaeaaieth ea?aiiaoia. ?acaeaeaiea i?ioeey ia yethaeaeueiue e
eeethaeaeueiue ai?eciiou naeaaeeaaaony.

Aoi?ie ii cia/eiinoe i?ioeann ii/aiia?aciaaiey a eaninoaie — eanneaaae,
eee eanneae?iaaiea, — yoi i?ioeann ia?aiina eeenouo /anoeoe aac
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oeie/aneiai ?ac?ooaiey. Ii ?acaeaaaony iiae
eenoaaiiuie eanaie i?e o/anoee i?aaie/aneeo eeneio.

Eanneaaae ni/aoaaony n o?aoueei aaaeouei i?ioeannii ii/aiia?aciaaiey a
eaninoaie — iiiaecieeaaieai. A iiiaecieaiiuo eaninoaiiuo ii/aao
iaacueeaaiea aa?oieo ai?eciioia — neaaenoaea i?ioeanna eanneaaaea, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iaeii?iaeiinoueth aaeiaiai oeie/aneiai, a oaeaea
ieia?aeiae/aneiai ninoaaa eeenoie o?aeoeee ii aaiaoe/aneei ai?eciioai.

Iaeei ec y?ei au?aaeaiiuo ii?oieiae/aneeo i?eciaeia iiiaecieeaaiey —
e?aiiacaienoay «i?enuiea», oa?aeoa?iay aeey /a?iicaiia iiiaecieaiiuo,
iiaeao ionoonoaiaaoue a oaiii-na?ie eaniie ii/aa e iiyaeoueny a na?uo e
naaoei-na?uo eaniuo ii/aao.

E?aiiacaienoay i?enuiea aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa ?anoai?aiey
i?aaie/aneeie aoioniauie eeneioaie eieeieaeiuo i?aaii-ieia?aeueiuo
ieaiie, iaaieaeeaathueo ca?ia eaa?oea. Auiin ?anoai?aiiuo aauanoa a
eeethaeaeueiue ai?eciio i?eaiaeeo e iaiaauaieth iineaaeiaai
aeae?ieneaeaie aeaeaca, aethieiey e iaeeiaieth, ia?aciaaieth
i?eciiaeaeii-i?aoiaaoie no?oeoo?u. Yoa naienoaaiiay eeethaeaeueiiio
ai?eciioo no?oeoo?a oi?ie?oaony aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa
eanneaaaea.

*aoaa?oue i?ioeann ii/aiia?aciaaiey — auuaea/eaaiea. Yoi i?ioeann
iaaaeiaiey ii/aaiiuo ai?eciioia oeie/aneeie yeaiaioaie (i?aaeaea anaai
nieyie, ea?aiiaoaie eaeueoeey) a ?acoeueoaoa eo ?anoai?aiey e auiina
ienoiaeyueie oieaie aeaae.

A eaninoaie ii ia?a ?acaeoey o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, aieueoaai
iinooieaiey i?aaie/aneiai iaoa?eaea a ii/ao, oaaee/aiey aeiee aoieiiauo
eeneio eanneaaae ineaaaaaao e caiaiyaony auuaea/eaaieai. Auuaea/eaaiea
iiaeao i?eaanoe e auiino ea?aiiaoia eaeueoeey ca i?aaeaeu ii/aaiiiai
i?ioeey. A na?uo eaniuo ii/aao ienoiaeyuee oie aeaae, auiuaay ea?aiiaou
eaeueoeey, ii?aaeaeyao iiuiinoue ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey.

A /a?iicaia iiiaecieaiiii i?ioeannu eanneaaaea e auuaea/eaaiey
iaoneiaeeaatho iiyaeaiea ea?aiiaoia eaeueoeey oieueei a iaoa?eineie
ii?iaea. I?ioeeue /a?iicaia auuaei/aiiiai noi?ie?iaai a ?acoeueoaoa
auiuaaiey ea?aiiaoia. Ea?aiiaou eaeueoeey iaoiaeyony ca i?aaeaeaie
i?ioeey, /oi neoaeeo iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo aeeaaiinoe/aneeo i?eciaeia.

Iyoui i?ioeannii ii/aiia?aciaaiey, eioi?ue iaaethaeaaony a eaninoaie e
ii?aaeaeyao iaeee aieueoeinoaa oeiia ii/a, yaeyaony iea?aiia/eaaiea. Yoi
i?ioeann aoi?e/iie aeeoioeyoeee ea?aiiaoa eaeueoeey i?e ioeiaeaiee aai
ii/aaiiuie aiaeaie, ianuuaiiuie ea?aiiaoii. Ii i?ioaeaao ia ai anao
ii/aao eaninoaie. Aiaeii-oa?ie/aneee ?aaeei eaninoaie noi?ie?iaae a
iaoa?eineie ii?iaea ea?aiiaoiua ioeiaeaiey a oi?ia aeo?aa/eeia.
Iiaiia?aciaaiiua oi?iu auaeaeaiey ea?aiiaoia oa?aeoa?ecothony iaee/eai
inaaaeiieoeaeey, aanoi?iaiiuo iyoai, io/ienouo neiieaiee.

A eaninoaie i?e eniieueciaaiee a iaoia na?uo eaniuo ii/a e /a?iicaiia
iiiaecieaiiuo iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iiaeoyaeaaiea ii eaieeey?ai e
iiaa?oiinoe ?anoai?ia n ea?aiiaoaie eaeueoeey, iaaethaeaaony
?aa?aaeaoeey (i?ia?aaee?iaaiea), eee aoi?e/iia iea?aiia/eaaiea
iiiaecieaiiuo ii/a. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?uoeaieth oieioiaiiuo ai?eciioia,
oneeaieth cae?aieaiey aoiona, on?aaeiaieth ?aaeoeee ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a.
Oaeea ii/au iacuaatho ?aa?aaee?iaaiiuie eee i?ia?aaee?iaaiiuie.

Ciiaeueiuie ii/aaie eaninoaie n/eoathony na?ua eaniua ii/au e /a?iicaiu
(iiiaecieaiiua, auuaei/aiiua e oeie/iua).

Aaiaoe/aneee i?ioeeue na?uo eaniuo ii/a oa?aeoa?ecoaony /aoeei
?acaeaeaieai ia ciiu auiina eea, aeae?ieneaeia e ciio eo iaeiieaiey. A
aa?oiai, iaaieueoii ii iiuiinoe ai?eciioa ioia/aaony aeeoioeyoeey
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. A na?uo eaniuo ii/aao iao /enoi yethaeaeueiiai
(iiaecieenoiai) ai?eciioa, a iai anaaaea i?enoonoaoao aoion. Iiyoiio a
na?uo eaniuo ii/aao auaeaeytho aoioniai-yethaeaeueiue e
yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiue ai?eciiou; a naaoei-na?uo eaniuo ano?a/aaony
yethaeaeueiue aoione?iaaiiue ai?eciio — naaoeue n iaeeueiie aaeanie
i?enuieie (A(A2).

Iiaeiuathuee eiiieaen na?uo eaniuo ii/a aieaa ianuuai iniiaaieyie, /ai
aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/a, a iaoa?eineay ii?iaea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
ea?aiiaoiay e cao?iiooa i?ioeannii eeethaee?iaaiey. Na?ua eaniua ii/au
iiae?acaeaeytho ia iiaeoeiu: naaoei-na?ua, na?ua e oaiii-na?ua eaniua
ii/au.

Naaoei-na?ua eaniua ii/au oa?aeoa?ecothony ieeo/aoie no?oeoo?ie
aoioniai-yethaeaeueiiai ai?eciioa n iaeeueiie aaeanie e?aiiacaienoie
i?enuieie, i/aiue neaaie aoione?iaaiiinoueth, a oaeaea ieioiui
eeethaeaeueiui ai?eciioii n i?eciaoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie e /aoeie
eieeieaeiie eaee?iaeie ii a?aiyi no?oeoo?iuo ioaeaeueiinoae. Ea?aiiaoiue
ai?eciio iiaeao ionoonoaiaaoue.

Naaoei-na?ua ii/au eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa ioee/athony
?uoeui neiaeaieai, i?eciiaeaeiie no?oeoo?ie eeethaeaeueiiai ai?eciioa,
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoei eiee/anoaii aoiona a aa?oieo ai?eciioao.

Na?ua eaniua ii/au iaeaaeatho aieaa oaiiie ie?aneie
aoioniai-yethaeaeueiiai ai?eciioa ca n/ao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
iaeiieaiiiai i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, iaiaa au?aaeaiiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae i?ioeey. A aoioniai-yethaeaeueiii ai?eciioa
ionoonoaoao neienoi-ieeo/aoay no?oeoo?a, iaiaa iaeeueia e?aiiacaienoay
i?enuiea.

Oaiii-na?ua eaniua ii/au oa?aeoa?ecothony cia/eoaeueiie aeeoioeyoeeae
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, iaiueoae noaiaiueth i?iyaeaiey aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
i?ioeey ii yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiiio oeio, neaaieeneie ?aaeoeeae
ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a. A oeaeeiiuo oaiii-na?uo ii/aao /anoi ionoonoaoao
eaniay iiaenoeeea, aic?anoaao cia/aiea ea?aiiaoia.

?acaeoea oaiii-na?uo ii/a ia iaea?aiiaoiuo ii?iaeao iacia/eoaeueii
eciaiyao iienaiiua ii?oieiae/aneea e aeeaaiinoe/aneea i?eciaee.

Iaeaieueoaai eciaiaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneea ii?oieiae/aneea i?eciaee
i?aoa?iaaatho a i?ioeanna naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey na?uo
eaniuo ii/a. Iiyoiio ia o?iaia iiaeoeia auaeaeaiu naaoei-na?ua eaniua
inaiaiiua, naaoei-na?ua eaniua ieoeueoo?aiiua, na?ua eaniua inaiaiiua e
oaiii-na?ua eaniua inaiaiiua ii/au.

Aeey yoeo ii/a oa?aeoa?iu oaaee/aiea iiuiinoe aa?oiaai
aoioniai-yethaeaeueiiai ai?eciioa, ?aniueaiea no?oeoo?u, oiaiueoaiea
niaea?aeaiey aoiona a ai?eciioa A,A2 (Ia, IA).

Aaiaoe/aneea ai?eciiou, ?aniieiaeaiiua aeoaaea (25—30 ni), i?aoa?iaaatho
iacia/eoaeueiua ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey. Oiaiueoaaony iiuiinoue
yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiiai ai?eciioa, eciaiythony oeceei-oeie/aneea e
aa?ioeie/aneea iieacaoaee ii/a.

Na?ua eaniua ii/au, ?aniieiaeaiiua a caiaaeeiao, ia neaai-ae?aie?iaaiiuo
aiaei?acaeaeao, a ieaeiae /anoe neeiiia i?e aunieii caeaaaiee a?oioiauo
aiae, a oaeaea i?e iaee/ee aiaeioii?ia iiaeaa?aathony ia?aoaeaaeiaieth e
ia?aaeei iaeaaieth, oi?ie?otho oei na?uo eaniuo aeaaauo ii/a.

Niaeanii oe?ioii-ciiaeueiie caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey ii/a a eaninoaie
ca oaiii-na?uie eaniuie ii/aaie neaaeotho /a?iicaiu.

*a?iicaiu. E iei ioiinyony oaiiiie?aoaiiua aunieiaoione?iaaiiua ii/au,
ia eiathuea i?eciaeia nia?aiaiiiai ia?aoaeaaeiaiey.

Aaiaoe/aneee i?ioeeue /a?iicaiia eaninoaie oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiuiui
aoioniai-aeeoioeyoeaiui ai?eciioii, ionoonoaeai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey eea,
aeae?ieneaeia aeaeaca e aethieiey ii i?ioeeth ii/au, iinoaiaiiui
nieaeaieai aoione?iaaiiinoe e iaoa?eineie ii?iaea e iaeciaiiie
ii/aiia?acothuae, eae i?aaeei, ea?aiiaoiie ii?iaeie.

*a?iicaiu eaninoaie iiae?acaeaeytho ia iiaeoeiu: /a?iicaiu
iiiaecieaiiua, /a?iicaiu auuaei/aiiua, /a?iicaiu oeie/iua.

*a?iicaiu iiiaecieaiiua iaeaieaa aeecee e oaiii-na?ui ii/aai, oae eae
oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae i?ioeey ii
yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiiio oeio. Ei naienoaaiii iaee/ea e?aiiacaienoie
i?enuiee a ieaeiae /anoe aoioniai-aeeoioeyoeaiiai ai?eciioa; ioia/athony
caoaee aeeiu, eea, aeae?ieneaeia aeaeaca.

A /a?iicaiao iiiaecieaiiuo aiciiaeii auaeaeaiea ai?eciioa
eeethaee?iaaiiie iaoa?eineie ii?iaeu.

*a?iicaiu auuaei/aiiua oa?aeoa?ecothony ionoonoaeai ea?aiiaoia a
ii/aaiiii i?ioeea. Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey i?ioeey ia ciiu auiuaaiey e
aiuaaiey ia eiaao no?iaiai ii?oieiae/aneiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey; ioia/aaony
iaeioi?ia inaaoeaiea ieaeiae /anoe aoioniai-aeeoioeyoeaiiai ai?eciioa
(neaaia yethaee?iaaiea), a aeey ia?aoiaeiuo ai?eciioia oa?aeoa?ia
i?aoiaaoay e i?eciiaeaeii-eiieiaaoay no?oeoo?a (neaaia eeethaee?iaai
ea). Aeaaiue aeeaaiinoe/aneee i?eciae — aeoaeia aneeiaiey ea?aiiaoia io
IN1 a iaoa?eineie ii?iaea.

*a?iicaiu oeie/iua ioee/athony iaeaieaa /aoei au?aaeaiiuie
ii?oieiae/aneeie i?eciaeaie /a?iicaiiia?aciaaiey. Yoi iaeiieaiea aoiona,
aeioeeueiuo yeaiaioia a aa?oiae iieoiao?iaie oieua, iaaeoaieia caeaaaiea
ea?aiiaoia, ionoonoaea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey eieeieaeia ii i?ioeeth.

N?aaee /a?iicaiiuo ii/a a oneiaeyo ecauoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey, eioi?ua
iiaoo aicieeaoue a ?acoeueoaoa neiieaiey aeaae iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea a
caiaaeeiao, o iiaeiiaeey neeiiia eee i?e aunieii o?iaia a?oioiauo aiae
(naciiiay aa?oiaiaeea ia aeoaeia 3—7 i), oi?ie?oaony iiaue oei ii/a —
eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua.

Eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iie eiatho a
eaninoaiiie ciia. Yoi iieoaeae?iii?oiua aiaeiae /a?iicaiia.
Ii?oieiae/aneia no?iaiea eoaiai-/a?ii-caiiuo ii/a noiaeii n /a?iicaiaie.
Ioee/eoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie yaeythony iaeaaiea a ieaeiae /anoe i?ioeey e
iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa.

Iniaaiiinoue eoaiai-/a?iicaiiuo ii/a — ia?eiaee/aneia en/aciiaaiea
i?eciaeia aeaaaaoinoe a nooea ia?eiaeu aiaea. Iiyoiio aeey onoaiiaeaiey
a?aaea eoaiai-/a?iicaiiuo ii/a iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oneiaey ?aeueaoa e
oa?aeoa? aeae?ieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia oa??eoi?ee.

Iiae?acaeaeaiea /a?iicaiia ia aeaeu i?iaiaeyo ii niaea?aeaieth aoiona e
iiuiinoe aoioniaiai neiy. Ii niaea?aeaieth aoiona auaeaeytho /a?iicaiu
oo/iua — aieaa 9 %, n?aaeiaaoioniaua — 6—9, iaeiaoioniaua — 4—6 e
neaaiaoione?iaaiiua — iaiaa 4 %. Ii iiuiinoe aoioniaiai neiy—
naa?oiiuiua (aieaa 120 ni), iiuiua (80— 120 ni), n?aaeiaiiuiua (40—80
ni), iaeiiiuiua (25—40 ni).

Eeanneoeeaoeeth ii/a eaninoaie i?iaiaeyo ia iniiaaiee noaaeeueiuo
aaiaoe/aneeo i?eciaeia, a oaeaea i?eia?aoaiiuo a i?ioeanna
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ii/a iiauo aa?iaaiaoe/aneeo
iieacaoaeae.

Naaoei-na?ua e na?ua eaniua ii/au oa?aeoa?ecothony eeneie ?aaeoeeae
n?aaeu a aa?oieo ai?eciioao (?I 4,5—5,0) e i?aiaeaaeaieai ooeueaieeneio,
niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo a aeoaue ii i?ioeeth nieaeaaony. Aieinoue
iiaeiuaiey a naaoei-na?uo ii/aao ninoaaeyao 14— 18 ia yea/100 a ii/au, a
na?uo eaniuo — 18—30 ia • yea/100 a ii/au. A eeethaeaeueiii ai?eciioa
aieinoue iiaeiuaiey caiaoii aic?anoaao, /oi naycaii n iaiaauaieai
aeaiiiai neiy eeenouie /anoeoeaie. Aa?ioece/aneea naienoaa yoeo ii/a
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua: neaaay no?oeoo?iinoue, ?aniueaiiinoue, ieceay
aiaeii?i/iinoue aa?aaaoia a aoioniai-yethaeaeueiii ai?eciioa.

Na?ua eaniua aeaaaua ii/au oa?aeoa?ecothony iaiueoae aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae
i?ioeey ii n?aaiaieth n iaiaeaaiiuie, aieueoei niaea?aeaieai
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, i?aiaeaaeaieai aoieiiauo eeneio, naycaiiuo n
eaeueoeeai, aieueoae ianuuaiiinoueth iniiaaieyie ii/aaiiiai
iiaeiuathuaai eiiieaena.

A oaiii-na?uo eaniuo ii/aao iaeaieeaaaony aieueoa aoiona e acioa, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aieaa eioaineaiii ?acaeoee aea?iiaiai i?ioeanna. A
ninoaaa aoiona i?aiaeaaeatho aoieiiaua eeneiou.

*a?iicaiu iiiaecieaiiua oa?aeoa?ecothony iaee/eai aanea?aiiaoiiai neiy
iaaeaeo aoioniaui e ea?aiiaoiui ai?eciioaie eeethaee?iaaiiie iaoa?eineie
ea?aiiaoiie ii?iaeu, iaeeueiie e?aiiacaienoie i?enuieie a aoioniaii e
ia?aoiaeiuo ai?eciioao. Iaaethaeathony iaaaeiaiea aa?oiae /anoe i?ioeey
aeae?ieneaeaie aeaeaca e aethieiey e iaeioi?ia iaeiieaiea eo a
ia?aoiaeiii eeethaee?iaaiiii ai?eciioa. Ioia/aaony oaeaea iaeiieaiea
eeenoie o?aeoeee, /oi aucaaii ia noieueei auiuaaieai eeenouo /anoeoe ec
aa?oieo ai?eciioia, neieueei ia?aciaaieai aunieiaeenia?niiai iaoa?eaea a
?acoeueoaoa ?ac?ooaiey ia?ae/iuo ieia?aeia.

?aaeoeey aa?oieo ai?eciioia neaaieeneay — ?I 5,5—6,5, aieinoue
iiaeiuaiey 30—45 ia yea/100 a ii/au e caaeneo a iniiaiii io
a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa. Eieeieaeiue eiiieaen ianuuai iniiaaieyie
oieueei a ia?aoiaeiii eeethaee?iaaiiii ai?eciioa, aiciiaeii niaea?aeaiea
2—3 % iaiaiiiai aiaei?iaea.

*a?iicaiu auuaei/aiiua eiatho aeeceoth e iaeo?aeueiie ?aaeoeeth
ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a, ioia/aaony i?aiaeaaeaiea aoieiiauo eeneio iaae
ooeueaieeneioaie (Nae:NoE= 1,5—2). Oa?aeoa?ecothony aunieie aieinoueth
iiaeiuaiey (aei 50 ia yea/100 a ii/au), eioi?ay ianeieueei oiaiueoaaony
(aei 50 %) a ieaeaeaaeaueo ai?eciioao. Eieeieaeiue eiiieaen i?aeoe/anee
iieiinoueth ianuuai iniiaaieyie. Iaeiaei ioia/aaony iaaaeiaiiinoue
aeae?ieneaeaie aeaeaca, aethieiey e eeii aa?oiae /anoe aoioniaiai
ai?eciioa (a i?aaeaeao 10—15 %).

*a?iicai oeie/iue eiaao noaaeeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ii i?ioeeth.
Eieaaaiea aaeiaiai ninoaaa naycaii n iano?ioie ii/aiia?acothueo ii?iae.
?aaeoeey ii/a aeecea e iaeo?aeueiie (?I 6,5—7), a ea?aiiaoiuo ai?eciioao
neaaiuaei/iay. Niaea?aeaiea aoiona ieaaii nieaeaaony aiec ii i?ioeeth
i?e onoie/eaii i?aiaeaaeaiee aoieiiauo eeneio (Nae: Noe = 2 e aieaa).
Aieinoue iiaeiuaiey a aoioniaii ai?eciioa aunieay (35—60 ia yea/100 a
ii/au) e iiieaeaaony n aeoaeiie. Aa?ioece/aneea ia?aiao?u aeecee e
iioeiaeueiui.

A i?ioeanna naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ii/a eaninoaie
i?ienoiaeyo ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae, ii?aaeaeythueo eo
aa?iiiie/aneea naienoaa: nieaeaaony niaea?aeaiea aoiona, ia/eiaaony
?ac?ooaiea aiaeii?i/iie no?oeoo?u, oiaiueoaaony aieinoue iiaeiuaiey.
Iaeaieueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho y?iceiiiua i?ioeannu, eioi?ua
i?eaiaeyo e oo?aoa aa?oiaai ieiaei?iaeiiai neiy.

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea iaoioiuo caiaeue nii?yaeaii n
ieoeueoo?eaaieai ii/a, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee.

Ii noaiaie ieoeueoo?aiiinoe ii/au eaninoaie ?acaeaeytho ia o?e o?iaiy. O
/a?iicaiia i?aaeeueiaa ?acee/aoue o?iaie ieiaei?iaeey, a ia
ieoeueoo?aiiinoe, oae eae aeaaea aunieiieiaei?iaeiua iaoioiua ii/au ii
iniiaiui aa?iiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi ia i?aainoiaeyo oeaeeiiua aiaeiae.
Oa?aeoa?enoeee na?uo eaniuo ii/a a i?ioeanna eo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey eciaiythony iieiaeeoaeueii.

Ieceee o?iaaiue ieiaei?iaeey i?enou ii/aai, eioi?ua ii naiei i?e?iaeiui
eee i?eia?aoaiiui naienoaai i?aeoe/anee ia iiaeaeathony
ieoeueoo?eaaieth. Eo oeo/oaiea o?aaoao aieueoeo o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo
cao?ao. Eniieueciaaiea oaeeo ii/a a ea/anoaa iaoioiuo ia?aoeeiiaeueii.
Ieceiio o?iaith ieoeueoo?aiiinoe e ieiaei?iaeey na?uo eaniuo ii/a
niioaaonoaotho inaiaiiua iaoioiua caiee.

N?aaeiee o?iaaiue ieoeueoo?aiiinoe niioaaonoaoao nouanoaothuaio
ninoiyieth ii/aaiiiai ieiaei?iaeey eaninoaiiuo ii/a. Cia/aiey
ioaeaeueiuo aai iieacaoaeae iiaoo auoue aaeaeaaoiu ieceiio eee aunieiio
o?iaith ieoeueoo?aiiinoe, ii ii o?iaeaeiinoe yoe ii/au ioaa/atho
n?aaeiaio o?iaith.

Aunieee o?iaaiue ieoeueoo?aiiinoe na?uo eaniuo ii/a e iioeiaeueiue
o?iaaiue ieiaei?iaeey /a?iicaiiuo ii/a niioaaonoaotho iaeaieaa aunieiio
iioaioeeaeueiiio o?iaith ieiaei?iaeey. Aeey iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy
ieiaei?iaeey oa?aeoa?ii ionoonoaea eeieoe?othueo i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
iieacaoaeae ii/au. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue caaeneo io iiaiaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee. Eciaiaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eaiia,
aiaae?aiea iiauo ni?oia e aeaeia ?anoaiee i?eaiaeyo e eciaiaieth
iioeiaeueiuo aa?iiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ii/a.

Ieoeueoo?eaaiea ii/a eaninoaie i?aaeoniao?eaaao:

oeo/oaiea aa?ioece/aneeo iieacaoaeae, iaoneiaeaiiia iaeiieaieai aoiona a
aa?oieo neiyo ca n/ao aoieiiauo eeneio, naycaiiuo n eaeueoeeai, i?e
?aoeeiiaeueiie ia?aaioea iaoioiiai neiy;

iaeiieaiea aeinooiiie ?anoaieyi aeaae a ii/aia?oioa i?e eiiieaeniie
caueoa ii/a io y?icee, ia?aaiaea iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea ai
aioo?eii/aaiiue;

eciaiaiea ?aaeoeee ii/au e iiaeaea?aeaiea ia iioeiaeueiii o?iaia,
aeaaiui ia?acii iooai aianaiey eaeueoeeeniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee;

nio?aiaiea aeey /a?iicaiia i?enoueo oeaeeiiui aiaeiaai naienoa,
aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?.

Aicaeaeuaaaiua a eaninoaie eoeueoo?iua ?anoaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony aunieie
iio?aaiinoueth a ieoaoaeueiuo yeaiaioao, cia/eoaeueiui auiinii
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa ec ei?iaiaeoaaiiai neiy. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao
aaeaaiaeiue aica?ao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa eo a ii/ao aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
ieiaei?iaeey. Aicaeaeuaaiea i?iiaoiuo oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo?, caieiathueo
aei 30 % iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae, ia oiia aunieie iee?iaeieiae/aneie
aeoeaiinoe e iaiueoaai iinooieaiey i?aaie/aneiai iaoa?eaea n iiaeieaiuie
inoaoeaie a ii/ao oneeeaaao ieia?aeecaoeeth aoiona. Yoa iniaaiiinoue
caieaaeaeey iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaoey?iiai aianaiey aunieeo
aeic i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee, oaaee/aiey iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae, caiyouo
iaeiieaoieie e iiiaieaoieie o?aaaie, i?eiaiaiey ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee.

Eniieueciaaiea iioaioeeaeueii aiaaouo ii/a a eeeiaoe/anee aeaaii?eyoiuo
aeey i?iec?anoaiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee oneiaeyo auaeaeaaao iiaoth e a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeaaioth caaea/o ieoeueoo?eaaiey: ii?aaeaeaiea
yeieiae/anee aaciianiiai e yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciiai o?iaiy
eioaineoeeaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

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