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Особенности, ценность и добыча яшмы

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IINEIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO.

?AOA?AO:

Iniaaiiinoe, oeaiiinoue e aeiau/a yoiu

Auiieiee: nooaeaio a?.E-31

Eociaoeiaa I.O.

I?iaa?ee: Aoeaiia N. A.

Iineaa,2009

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1. I?ienoiaeaeaiea

2. Oeie/aneee ninoaa

3. Oi?ia iaoiaeaeaiey a i?e?iaea

4. Naienoaa

5. Oa?aeoa?iua ieia?aeu

6. ?ani?ino?aiaiea

7. I?eiaiaiea

8. Enoi?ey ioe?uoey e i?eiaiaiey

9. Ieou, eaaaiaeu, oieueeei?, noeoe, iiaa?uey

10. ?aciiaeaeiinoe

11. Eneonnoaaiiua aiaeiae, iiaeaeaeee, eieoaoeee

12. Niiniau aeiau/e e ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioee, yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey
aeiau/e

Caeeth/aiea

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

I?eeiaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

“?onneay yoia caiyea ia?aia ianoi ai an?i ie?a

ii aiaaonoao e ?acia?ai ianoi?iaeaeaiee,

ii a?aiaeeiciinoe ecaeaeee ec ia? e

ii aaneiia/iiio ?aciiia?aceth oiiia”

(A.A. Oa?niai)

No?aiiia o ian ioiioaiea e ieia?aeueiui aiaaonoaai ?iaeiie caiee. *oi
eiaai, ia o?aiei, i?aaeii/eoaai aune?anoe ec iaae? caiee e i?iaeaoue ca
a?aieoeo. Aa?aa?neia ioiioaiea aoaeoaeueii neacuaaaony aeaaea ia oao
ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nao, /uee caianu eaaeoony ia?iiiuie.

Ennyeee ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaeaoeoa ia O?aea. A Naaa?iie Ea?aeee aeiauaaee
aaeiii?eo, eee ?aciiaeaeiinoue iieoae?aaioeaiiiai eoiiiai eaiiy, e
eniieueciaaee eae iau/iue oiae ea?aie/aneia nu?uea. Oeaiiaeoay yoia ec
aiaaoiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey a Aaoee?ee oea a aeaei eae uaaaiea. Ai?i/ai, e
a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao no?aiu yoio eiie ?ac i?e?aaieaaee e no?ieoaeueiiio
iaoa?eaeo. Iaaeaeo oai neaaeu aueiai aaee/ey yoiu iuia – aeinoiyiea
e?oiiaeoeo iocaaa: aacu, /aoe, noieaoieoeu, eaieiu, eieiiiu, oeaooeee…

Eo ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue – aeeaiia e?oaeaai oci?a, ia?aeea e?anie,
oiiia e iooaieia. Aua a 1609 aiaeo i?eaeai?iue a?a/ aiaaineiai
eiia?aoi?a ?oaeieueoa II, Aiyoeee aea Aiio, ienae i?i oeaaoiua yoiu
Aiaaiee: «Eiiaaea iie oae anoanoaaiii ia?aaeatho eana, iieyiu,
aea?aauey, oo/e e ?aee, /oi ia iaeioi?ii ?annoiyiee eo iiaeii i?eiyoue
ia ca eaiie, a ca ia?eniaaiiua ea?oeiu».[8]

Caianu yoiu ia ieaiaoa aaeeee, a ianoi?iaeaeaiey ?aca?inaiu ii anai
eiioeiaioai – oieueei a iaoae no?aia eo ieiei 500. Naiua ciaiaieoua yoiu
Aeoay – ?aaiaaneay e aieueoeianeay. I?ae?anai eo ?enoiie – a iai
caia/aoeaeinue no?iaiea oao neienouo ii?iae, eioi?ua inaaeaeaeenue
iaeiaaea ia aeia iaeeiaiaeiuo aannaeiia eee o aa?aaia aaeeeiai
aeaaiineiai ii?y!

Caia/aoaeai ii naiei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui aeinoieinoaai eaiaiue ec
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a yoiiaii iiyna O?aea, n?aaee eioi?uo
auaeaeyaony i?neay yoia. Iineaaeiae i?eiaaeeaaeeo iniaia ianoi a enoi?ee
?onneiai eaiia?aciiai eneonnoaa. O yoie yoiu iaiiaoi?eiue au?aceoaeueiue
?enoiie, iaiaeeaeaiiua e?ani/iua yooaeou.

ssoia – yoi eaiaiue, eioi?ue iiaeii n?aaieoue n iieioiii ooaeiaeieea,
nicaeaiiui a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ianoa?neie i?e?iaeu. Ii aia?ae a naay ana
nouanoaothuea a i?e?iaea oeaaoa e iooaiee, ia?aieaoathueany a
i?e/oaeeeauo oaioanoe/aneeo oci?ao. ssoia ca/a?iauaaao naiei aieoaaiui
iiiaioeaaoeai e aoenoaii e?anie.

ssoia – eaiaiue oao, eoi ?iaeeeny a ia?oa: a iano?ii e?oaeaaa yoiiauo
oci?ia – neiaii iaiiieiaiea i naaaeeo e?aneao aanaiiae i?iaoaeaeathuaeny
i?e?iaeu.

Eiaiii ii anai yoei i?e/eiai i?aaeiaoii iiaai eco/aiey noae yoio
iaiaueiiaaiiie e?aniou eaiaiue. A aeaiiie ?aaioa y oioaea au
iiciaeiieoue Aan n ?acee/iuie ianoi?iaeaeaieyie yoiu, a? enoi?eae,
?aciiaeaeiinoyie e a? a?a/othueie niiniaiinoyie.

1.I?ienoiaeaeaiea

Caeanue i?eaeaony ia/aoue n ioaeaeaiiiai i?ioeiai O?aea, eiaaea, a
aeaaiineoth yiioo, aua ia auei nia?aiaiiiai O?aeueneiai e?yaea. Oi
iaeeia, oi aieaa aeoaieia ii?a n ioaeaeueiuie ino?iaaie iie?uaaei oa
ianoa, aaea nae/an aunyony o?aaou THaeiiai O?aea; ia auei aua neaaeia
ai?iia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe, ii iiaeaiaeiua ecaa?aeaiey eaau ia?ooaee
oaea niieieioth ea?oeio aeaaiineiai ie?a. Iiaeiaii nia?aiaiiui eceeyieyi
eaa ia Oeoii ieaaia, oeaeua iioiee iocu?enoie eaau ?annoeeaeenue ii aeio
ii?y, ia?ae?uaay iaeeiaiaeiua inaaeee. Oae aea eae e nae/an, ia ii?neeo
aeoaeiao ia?aneaeaaeanue ii?oe?eoiaua eaau, aoeeaie/aneea iaieu e
i?iaeoeou eo ia?a?aaioee ii?ai. Iaeeueiay oaoia iaeoaea ia ii?neii aeia,
caeeaaaiii eaaaie, a aeaea ?aciiia?aciuo aeeaioiuo n e?aiiaaui neaeaoii
– aoaie e ?aaeeiey?ee. Eo inoaoee iaeaieeaaeenue ia aeia, ia?acoy
iaoe?iua neie e?aiienoiai eea – aoaeouae yoiu.

A niaia ouny/aeaoee oea ia?a?aaioea anao yoeo ?acii?iaeiuo inaaeeia ia
aeia ii?y; aneaae ca ia?aciaaieai oiieeo i?ineiaa oooia, eaa, ioeiaeaiee
e?aiienouo neaeaoia e aeei iiaua iiaeaiaeiua ecaa?aeaiey iie?uaaee
iocu?enoie ii?oe?eoiaie eee aeeaaaciaie eaaie ana yoe ia?aciaaiey e
naiei ai?y/ei aeuoaieai niaeaaee (iaoaii?oece?iaaee) e aua aieaa
i?iieouaaee e?aiiacaiii ieaeaeaaeauaa inaaeee.

I?ioei iiiai ieeeeiiia eao aaieiae/aneie eaoiiene iaoae no?aiu, e iiuiua
i?ioeannu ai?iia?aciaaiey iieiaeeee a eaiaiiioaieueioth yiioo ia/aei
O?aeueneiio o?aaoo. Auee i?eiiaeiyou, ii?ieeioou e niyou iiuiua
ioeiaeaiey aeaaiineiai e eaiaiiioaieueiiai ii?y; ?aceiiu, na?inu e
naeaeae ia?ooeee niieieiia caeaaaiey ii?iae, io?acea ia eaaeaeii
o/anoea, eiiaaea iiaoi?yy ia i?ioyaeaiee eaaeaeiai naioeiao?a, a
ieieaoth?a ana a?aiaeeiciua iio?ynaiey ?iaeaeathueany ai?iie oeaie.

Iaaeeaiii e aeieai caie?aee yoe ai?iia?acothuea i?ioeannu: iiaay ai?iay
iaeanoue i?aa?aoeeanue a iaoa?ee. O?aoe/iia ii?a noaei iiuaaoue n
ainoiea neeiiu O?aeueneiai o?aaoa, ?ac?ooay eo, niuaay ianee e aaeueeo a
ieceiu e iinoaiaiii n?aaieaay aunieea ai?u. Iiuiua ?a/iua nenoaiu ?aee
O?ae e i?eoieia E?ouoa i?iaeieaeaee yoo ?aciuaathuoth aeayoaeueiinoue, e
ia nia?aiiua e?ooua neeaaeee e n?acaiiuo y?iceae ioeiaeaiey noa?iai
aeaaiineiai ii?y i?ioyioeenue i?eaaoeeaua oe?ieea ?a/iua aeieeiu.

Oaeiai i?ienoiaeaeaiea ciaiaieouo yoi THaeiiai O?aea, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia /oi eiia, eae inoaoee aeoaieiaiaeiuo eeia n
e?aiiaauie aoaeaie e ?aaeeiey?eyie. I?ae?aniay aaca eee /aoa ec
eaeeaineiai eee ioeaeaeaaaneiai eaiiy oaeo a naaa iiaanoue i oii, eae
ioeaaaeny e?aiiacai a aan/eneaiiuo eo/enouo neaeaoao ?aaeeiey?ee e
aoaie, eae iaeaieeaaeenue iie ia aeia o?aoe/iiai ii?y, niaeaaynue a
oaa?aeoth ii?iaeo iiae aeaenoaeai ?anieaaeaiiuo eaa, eae ecaeaaeenue
neeaaeee e eiiaeenue yoe inaaeee iiae iaii?ii yoeo ai?iia?aciaaoaeueiuo
nee caiiie ei?u. Iano?ioeaaoiue i?e/oaeeeaue ?enoiie yoi ni naa?eathueie
e?enoaeeeeaie cieioenoiai eie/aaeaia, any yoa caia/aoaeueiay iicaeea
i?e?iaeu ?iaeaeaeanue a ?aciiia?aciie niaia aaieiae/aneeo niauoee,
neiaeiuo oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo a oa/aiea iiiaeo ieeeeiiia eao.

Oaia?ue y ?anniio?th ianoi?iaeaeaiey yoi ia Aeoaa. ?anieaaeaiiua iannu
?acee/iuo ii?iae eceeaaeenue ia iiaa?oiinoue Caiee a aeaaiineia a?aiy. A
oa/aiea aeieaeo aaieiae/aneeo ia?eiaeia ia?ooaeinue niieienoaea
aeaaiineeo e eaiaiiioaieueiuo ii?ae, iiea neeaaeee aa?ieineie nenoaiu,
eioi?ua ae?eyiaeaie ioaaoeee Aceth e Aa?iio, ia iieiaeeee ia/aei ai?iiio
Aeoath e aai ?oaeiui aiaaonoaai. Yoe iiuiua i?ioeannu ia?aciaaiey
aa?ieineeo neeaaeie e na?inia niaa?oaeenue, aa?iyoii, a ia/aea ia?ineie
yiioe, e eioi?ie ioiinyony e?oiiua a?aieoiua ii?oe?iaua ianneau, aiaaoua
e?aiiacaiii, eioi?ua aueeeenue ia iiaa?oiinoue Caiee. Ii?oe?u – yoiu,
i?aa?auay naiei ai?y/ei aeuoaieai ecaanoiyee e i?ae?aniua i?aii?u,
canouaaee a aeaea e?aiiaaiai noaeea, o?aiy a naaa neaaeu oaeo/eo
iaiaiii-aeeaeeeo iioieia. Yoe ecaa?aeaiey niaiyeenue eaaaie eiiai
ninoaaa, i?ae?aniua caeaiua ii?oe?eou /a?aaeiaaeenue n na?i-oeieaoiauie
eaa?oeaauie ii?iaeaie. Ai?y/ea aiaeu aua aeieai i?iieouaaee eaau,
oeaiaioe?oy iaeiiee ?acae?iaeaiiuo ii?iae e i?aa?auay eo a iano?ua
yoiiaua a?ae/ee

Eiuie iooyie ia?aciauaaeenue yoiu Ainoi/iie Neae?e, aaea eo
i?ienoiaeaeaiea auei naycaiu n ecaa?aeaieyie ieiaeaeaaeaeiuo iocu?enouo
eaa. Iiaeiaii oiio, eae a thaeiie A?aceeee e O?oaaaa ia?iiiua ionoiou
iaeaoe?eoia auee caiieiaiu i?e inouaaiee neienoui oaeoeaaeiiii, a
ionoioao ieiaeaeaaeaeiuo ii?iae sseooneie iaeanoe e Caaaeeaeuey iiaeii
/anoi ano?aoeoue yoio n aaaoii, oaeoeaaeiiii e aiaoenoii. Oaeay yoia,
ie?aoaiiay a caeaiue oeaao eenoi/eaie aa?iineie caiee, /anoi ia?aoiaeeo
a neiaaaoi-caeaiue aaeeio?ii. Ao?iua neae?neea ?aee auiuaatho yoe
caeaiua ieiaeaeeiu, iaeaieeaay eo ii naiei aa?aaai. Ii caeaiay yoia
ninoaaeyao iau/ii eeoue ia?oaeiua /anoe ieiaeaeei e ionoio, yaeyynue
ia?aui i?iaeoeoii inaaeaeaiey ec ia?aa?aouo ia?ia inouaathuae eaau; ca
iae ii ia?a ioeaaeaeaiey oei auaeaeaiea neienoiai oaeoeaaeiia, aaaoa,
ai?iiai o?onoaey, aiaoenoa e e?enoaeeeeia ecaanoeiaiai oiaoa.

Aio oieueei 3 iniiaiuo oeia ia?aciaaiey yoi, ii eie ia en/a?iuaaaony ana
iiiaiia?acea oneiaee, a eioi?uo iia ia?acoaony. Na?iaaoua «naia?neea
yoiu» ia eioi?ua aua a OVIII aaea ia?aoee aieiaiea Iaeean, a aieueoii
eiee/anoaa aeinoaaeaiiua ia Iaoa?aioneoth oaa?eeo n aa?aaia Aieae,
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie e?aiienoua noyaeaiey a ecaanoiyeao ia?ineiai
aic?anoa, ia?aciaaaoeony, iiaeao auoue, au? ia aeia ii?y ec ?annayiiuo
/anoeoe e?aiiacaia e eaieie (nieeoe) e?aiienouo aoaie.

Yoio oei oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai oaeaea a ieciaueyo Ieea, aaea ciaiaieoue
ieeueneee eioaeiue aieuo ae?aaiaeaeiiai no?iaiey, iacuaaaoeeny a
Ae?aaiai Aaeioa «iacao», iie?uaaao nieioiua i?ino?ainoaa Ioaeeneie
ionouie, aunaiaiaeaeaiiue auaeoaaieai ec iyaeeo o?aoe/iuo ecaanoiyeia.

ssoiu iiaoo ia?aciauaaoueny oaeaea, eiaaea iiaecaiiua iiaea?u oaieueiuo
ieanoia naiae aunieie oaiia?aoo?ie niaeatho ie?oaeathuea aeeiu,
i?aa?auay eo a naaoei-oeieaoiaua oa?oi?iaua ?aciinoe. Oaeea ia?aciaaiey
ecaanoiu a Eociaoeeii oaieueiii aannaeia, a Aa?iaiee e a ae?oaeo
no?aiao.

Iaeiiaoe, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu yoiu eaa?oeeoiaiai oeia,
i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie ie?aiiaeua neaioeu, eciaiaiiua iaoaii?oeciii.
Ciaiaieoua yoiu Aeoay – ?aaiaaneay e aieueoeianeay – ioiinyony e oeio
oaeeo naeaouo e niyouo e?aiienouo ii?iae, ieioii niayiiuo e?aiienouie
?anoai?aie.[2]

2. Oeie/aneee ninoaa

Oeie/aneee ninoaa yoiu: SiO2 80-95%; A12I3 e Fe2O3 aei 15%; NaI 3-6%.
ssoia – e?aiienoay ai?iay ii?iaea n aieieienoie no?oeoo?ie, ii/oe ia 95
% ninoiyuay ec eaa?oea e oaeoeaaeiia, a oaeaea ieneaeia aeaeaca e
aethieiey, e aieueoei eiee/anoaii ?acee/iuo i?eianae.

I?e?iaea iaaeaeeea yoio naiuie y?eeie e?aneaie – e?aniuie, i?aiaeaauie,
ae?eouie, cae?iuie, na?uie, oeieaoiauie, aaeuie, /??iuie, e?iia
/enoi-neiaai. Oeaaoa aeoaiee, ianuuaiiu. Ithainu eo aaneiia/iu. A aio
eae ?ac ieaiaioii yoi e neoaeao e?aniua, ao?ua e /a?iua ieneaeu
ia?aaioea e aeaeaca, ?acee/iua caeaiua e aieoaua ieia?aeu: oei?eo e
yieaeio, aeaoeioai, ?eaaeeo, aeoeiieeo, a oaeaea aeeienoua ieia?aeu (aei
20%): iaaiaoeo, ie?eo e ae?oaea. A iaeioi?uo neaaiiaoaii?oeciaaiiuo
yoiao nio?aieeenue inoaoee e?aiiaauo neaeaoia ii?neeo iaeiieeaoi/iuo
aiaei?ineae – ?aaeeiey?ee. Ii?iaeu, a ninoaaa eioi?uo oaeoeaaeii
i?aiaeaaeaao iaae eaa?oeai (aieioue aei iieiiai ionoonoaey iineaaeiaai),
iacuaatho yoiieaeaie.[3]

3. Oi?ia iaoiaeaeaiey a i?e?iaea

A i?e?iaea yoio iaoiaeyo a oi?ia eeic, ieanoiauo caeaaeae, oa?iaeaeiuo
ia?aciaaiee e nieioiuo iann. Iiae/an yoe caeaaee auaatho cia/eoaeueiie
iiuiinoe, ii anaaaea iaaieueoie i?ioyaeaiiinoe.[ 4]

4. Naienoaa

ssoia – yoi e?aiienoay ai?iay ii?iaea n aieieienoie no?oeoo?ie.

Iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony aanueia ieioiui neiaeaieai, aieueoie ayceinoueth,
aeiaieueii aunieie oaa?aeinoueth (7), ieioiinoueth ieiei 2,58-2,91 a/ni3
e iieacaoaeyie i?aeiieaiey 1,54-1,55 (o oaeoeaaeiiiauo yoiieaeia –
1,53). Inoaaeyaiay yoiie /a?oa: aaeay, aeaeoay, ei?e/iaaay, e?aniay.
Eceii – caiicenoue.[3] ssoiu anaaaea iai?ic?a/iu. Eiatho oaeeiaenoue,
noaeeyiiue aeane.[5]

ssoia ia aieony nu?inoe e auaao?eaaiey. Iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth
ioeeaaeuaaoueny e nicaeaaaoue ino?ua oiieea e?iiee. Yoi a? naienoai
ecaeaaia eniieueciaaee, ecaioaaeeaay i?aaeiaou aeey oicyenoaaiiuo
ioaeae, no?ieoaeueiuo e ioaeaei/iuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo ?aaio.[6]

Aeey yoi oa?aeoa?iu naiua ?aciiia?aciua oaenoo?u: ianneaiay, iyoienoay,
iiein/aoay, a?ae/eaaay, neie/aoay e ae?. Iaee/ea iiiaeanoaa
oiiei?aniueaiiuo e ia?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeae?iiuo i?eianae iaoneaaeeaaao
?aciiia?acea e iano?ioo ie?anee ii?iaeu. Iaeiioiiiua yoiu ?aaeee.[11]

5. Oa?aeoa?iua ieia?aeu

A ieia?aeueiii ninoaaa i?aiaeaaeaao eaa?oe, eiiaaea oaeoeaaeii /anoi
i?enoonoaotho yieaeio, a?aiao, aeoeiieeo, na?eoeeo, aaiaoeo, aeioeo,
iueaiiieo, ioiiaeeeeo, oei?eo, aeaoeioai, ?eaaeeo, iaaiaoeo, ie?eo e
ae?oaea.

A oaia?ue iaiiiai i eaaeaeii ec yoeo ieia?aeia.

Eaa?oe – ieia?ae, ieneae e?aiiey. No?oeoo?a eaa?oea i?inoa. O iaai ia
iaeei aoii e?aiiey i?eoiaeeony aeaa aoiia eenei?iaea, eiuie neiaaie yoi
ia /oi eiia eae SiO2.

Ieneae e?aiiey ?ani?ino?aiai ia Caiea iianthaeo. Ii ninoaaeyao aeaaioth
ianno caiiie ei?u. Yoi oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea i?eieiaao ?aciua iaee/uey,
ia?acoy iaoe?ioth a?oiio ieia?aeia, ?aciiia?aciuo ii oeaaoo, oi?ia,
i?eianyi, caeaaeai. Auaatho /enoua eaa?oeaaua ianee, oioy /aua anaai
yoio ieia?ae ano?a/aaony a aeaea i?eianae. Ano?a/aaony a aeaea nieioiuo
iann (aeeeu) e oi?ioi ia?aciaaiiuo e?enoaeeia ?acia?ii io ianeieueeeo
ieeeeiao?ia aei ianeieueeeo iao?ia(eiaaony iienaiea e?enoaeea aei 7,5
iao?ia). E?enoaeeu eiatho oi?io oanoea?aiiie i?eciu, oaai/aiiie
o?aoa?aiiie «ie?aieaeie».

Oaa?aeinoue eaa?oea 7.

Ii n?aaieoaeueii eaaei iiaeaeaaony ia?aaioea, eiaao oae iacuaaaiue
?aeiaenoue eceii, iiaeiaii noaeeo; iiaeao aeaaaoue i/aiue oiieea, ino?ua
eae a?eoaa, ineieee.

Nouanoaotho yniie?enoaeee/aneea (oeaao eioi?uo ?aciiia?acai) e
ne?uoie?enoaeee/aneea ?aciiaeaeiinoe eaa?oea.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiay ne?uoie?enoaeee/aneay ?aciiaeaeiinoue eaa?oea –
oaeoeaaeii. ?acee/aaony ii ie?anea; iiaeao auoue neienoui eee
?enoi/aoui.

Yieaeio – (io a?a/. «yieaeinen» – oaaee/aiea a nayce n aaiiao?e/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie e?enoaeeia) – neiaeiue ii ninoaao e no?iaieth aiaeiue
neeeeao aethieiey, aeaeaca, eaeueoeey n iiiai/eneaiiuie i?eianyie. Oeaao
i?aeiouanoaaiii caeaiue, aeane noaeeyiiue neeueiue, oaa?aeinoue 6,5.
O?oieee. Ia?acoao ca?ienoua neiieaiey, oi?ioi ioi?ieaiiua e?enoaeeu.
ssaeyaony i?iaeoeoii iaoaii?oecia ecaanoiyeiauo inaaei/iuo e aiaaouo
eaeueoeeai ecaa?aeaiiuo ai?iuo ii?iae. Eniieuecoaony eae iaaei?iaie
naiioeaao.

Na?eoeeo – (io a?a/. «na?ean» – ?yae, «oeeoin» — eeaoea) –
iaeei/aooe/aoue naaoeue ioneiaeo n oaeeiaenoui aeaneii. Ia?acoaony a
?acoeueoaoa oeie/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey iieaauo oiaoia e ae?oaeo
aethiineeeeaoia.

?eaaeeo – aiaeiue neeeeao a?oiiu aioeaieia, niaea?aeauee iao?ee, iaaiee,
aeaeaci. Oeaao oaiii-neiee aei /a?iiai, oaa?aeinoue 5-6. Ano?a/aaony a
aeaea ieioiuo iann, eo/enouo aa?aaaoia, i?eciaoe/aneeo e eaieue/aouo
e?enoaeeia. Iaeaieaa ieioiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe e?aneaiai oeaaoa
eniieuecothony eae iiaeaei/iue eaiaiue.

Ie?eo – (io a?a/. «ie?» — iaiiue) – na?ienoia aeaeaci eee na?iue
eie/aaeai. Oeaao aeaeoue, cieioenoi-aeaeoue n eaooiii-aeaeoie
iiaaaeaeinoueth. Oaa?aeinoue 6-6,5, oea?aiaao noaeei. Oeaao /a?ou
/a?iue, ia?aaeei n ao?ui eee caeaiui iooaieii. I?e oaea?a iaoaeee/aneei
i?aaeiaoii aunaeathony ene?u. Ano?a/aaony a aeaea e?oiiuo nieioiuo
ca?ienouo neiieaiee (eie/aaeaiiuo caeaaeae), a oaeaea ii/eiaeaeiuo,
eo/enoi-eiioeaio?e/aneeo aa?aaaoia, eae ae?aieaiey a ai?iuo ii?iaeao e
e?enoaeeu. Ia a?aiyo e?enoaeeia iau/ii eiaaony aeinoaoi/ii /aoeay
oo?eoiaea. ?acia?u e?enoaeeia ie?eoa /anoi aeinoeaatho ianeieueeeo
naioeiao?ia e yaeythony oi?ioei eieeaeoeeiiiui iaoa?eaeii. Ia?acoaony
ie?eo a ?acee/iie aaieiae/aneie ianoaiiaea, /ai e iauyniyaony aai
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Eniieuecoaony ie?eo aeaaiui ia?acii aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa na?iie eeneiou.

Iaaiaoeo eee iaaieoiue aeaeaciye – aeaoieenue aeaeaca. Ano?a/aaony a
aeaea oi?ioi au?aaeaiiuo e?enoaeeia(ieoayae?u e ae?.), nieioiuo
ca?ienouo aa?aaaoia, ieioiuo e ?uoeuo iann (iaaiaoeoiue ianie)
ae?aieaiee, ?innuiae. Oeaao aeaeaci-/a?iue. *a?oa /a?iay. Aeane
iaoaeee/aneee. Oaa?aeinoue 5,5-6. Iaaiaoeo eaaei ociaoue ii aai neeueiui
iaaieoiui naienoaai. Eonie iaaieoiiai aeaeaciyea, aeiauoiai ia ai?a
Aunieie (O?ae), oaea aieaa aaea(!) neeith iaaieoiiai i?eoyaeaiey
niiniaai aea?aeaoue 50-eeeeia?aiiaoth ae?th. Niaeiinoue ionoonoaoao.
Ii?ioie ?anoai?yaony a nieyiie eeneioa i?e iaa?aaaiee. *aua anaai
iaaiaoeo aicieeaao iaaiaoe/aneei iooai, a oaeaea i?e iaoaii?oecia
inaaei/iuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ao?uo aeaeaciyeia.

A?aiaou – a?oiia ieia?aeia, neeeeaoia aethieiey, iaaiey, ia?aaioea,
aeaeaca. Iacaaiea i?ienoiaeeo io eao. «a?aioi» – ca?ii. Iau/ii
ano?a/aaony a oi?ioi au?aaeaiiuo e?enoaeeao ?iiae/aneie oi?iu, eiiaaea
ia?acothony nieioiua e ca?ienoua iannu a?aiaoia. Oeaao ?acee/iue. Aeane
noaeeyiiue. Aunieay oaa?aeinoue 7-8. Niaeiinoue ionoonoaoao.
?iaeaeathony a?aiaou iau/ii a aeoaeiao caiiie ei?u, i?e aunieeo
aeaaeaieyo e oaiia?aoo?ao. A aeiauaatho eo /aua anaai ec ?innuiae,
?a/iuo e ii?neeo inaaeeia.

Aaiaoeo – (io a?a/. «aaiaoeein» – e?iaaaue) – ieenue aeaeaca.
Ano?a/aaony a aeaea nieioiuo ieioiuo, ii?ie /aooe/aouo e eenoiaaouo
iann, iaoaeia, a oaeaea e?enoaeeia. Oeaao e?enoaeee/aneeo oi?i /aiue,
caieenouo – e?aniue; /a?oa aeoiaai-e?aniay. O?oieee. Oaa?aeinoue 5,5-6.
Iaeaaeaao iaaieoiuie e iieoi?iaiaeieeiauie naienoaaie. Ia?acoaony
aaiaoeo aeaaiui ia?acii i?e auaao?eaaiee, ieeneaiee ?acee/iuo ai?iuo
ii?iae, niaea?aeaueo aeaeaci; i?e iaoaii?oecia e a aeae?ioa?iaeueiuo
oneiaeyo. Eae iiaeaei/iue iaoa?eae aaiaoeo eniieueciaaeny n aeaeaeie
ae?aaiinoe a Aaeioa. A aioe/iia a?aiy ec iaai ecaioaaeeaaee aaiiu
(?aciua ieieaoth?u), a?ioe, aonu. Iiaea ia aaiaoeo ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony aai noiaenoaii n /a?iui aeai/oaii, io eioi?iai ii
ioee/aaony aunieie ieioiinoueth e oaa?aeinoueth. *enoue aaiaoeoiaue
ii?ioie ecaeaaia i?eiaiyeny a ea/anoaa e?anee; oaia?ue ii eniieuecoaony
aeey ecaioiaeaiey e?aniuo ea?aiaeaoae.

Aeioeo – nethaea, aiaeiue aethiineeeeao eaeey, iaaiey e aeaeaca n
i?eianueth ooi?a. Ano?a/aaony a aeaea /aooae eee ieanoeiie oaiii-ao?iai
eee /a?iiai oeaaoa; eaaei ?anuaieyaony ia oiieea aeaeea eenoi/ee. Aeane
noaeeyiiue, oaa?aeinoue 2-3. Ia?acoaony i?e canouaaiee iaaiu
(i?aeiouanoaaiii a?aieoiiai ninoaaa) a iaae?ao eee ec eceeaoaeny eaau, a
oaeaea a iaaiaoeoiauo aeeeao e i?e iaoaii?oecia. Eniieuecoaony aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey a?iiciaie e?anee e aea?inoieeeo iaoa?eaeia.

Aeoeiieeo – (io a?a/. «aeoen» – eo/, «eeoin» – eaiaiue) – neeeeao a?oiiu
aioeaieia, niaea?aeauee aeae?ao eaeueoeey, iaaiey e aeaeaca. Ia?acoao
oa?aeoa?iua eaieue/aoua e?enoaeeu e eo/enoua aa?aaaou. Oeaao
i?aeiouanoaaiii caeaiue, ?acee/iuo iooaieia. Oaa?aeinoue 5,5-6.
Aieieienoia no?iaiea aeaao naaoiaua ia?aeeau. Eniieuecoaony eae
iiaeaei/iue eaiaiue.[1]

Oaia?ue noaiiaeony iiiyoii, ii/aio nouanoaoao oaeia ?aciiia?acea yoi!

Aaaeue yoi aeaaea ia ana ieia?aeu, eioi?ua ni/aoaao a naaa yoa
oaioanoe/aneay ii?iaea!

6. ?ani?ino?aiaiea

Ianoi?iaeaeaiey yoiu ano?a/athony iianaianoii, iaeiaei iaeaieueooth
ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee yoiu ?innee.

Caeanue iaoiaeeony ciaiaieoia ianoi?iaeaeaiea yecioe/aneeo
iano?ioeaaoiuo iaecaaeiuo yoi ia ai?a Iieeiaiee a I?nea, Aooeoeueneia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea (iaaeii-?iciaay yoia), Iao?ocianeia (eaioi/iay yoia n
/a?aaeiaaieai oaiii-e?aniuo e na?i-caeaiuo iiein), Ioeaeaeaaaneia
(na?i-neiyy, e?aniay yoia), Eaeeaineia ianoi?iaeaeaiea (oaoie/aneay yoia
na?i-caeaiiai oeaaoa aeey ecaioiaeaiey oeie/aneeo nooiie, aaeia aeey
ia?aaioee eiaee, oeaio, iii?iuo i?eci ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia). Caeaaee
e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee i?eaeiaeueiuo yoi iaoiaeyony ia Aeoaa, a
Ciaeiiai?neii ?aeiia. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey ia THaeiii O?aea oyioony
iai?a?uaiie iieinie nauoa 500 ei. ii ainoi/iiio neeiio O?aeueneiai
o?aaoa. (ni. ea?oo a i?eeiaeaiee)

Aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoueth o?aeueneiai yoiiaiai iiyna yaeythony
neaaeothuea aeaeu (n naaa?a ia tha):

· iano?ioeaaoiua i?neea;

· iaeiioiiiay, na?i-caeaiiaaoay eaeeieineay;

· eaioi/iay eioeoeueaeeineay, ia eiathuay naaa iiaeiaiuo, n e?aneauie
eiio?anoiuie – ni/aoaieyie oiieeo, caeaiuo, oaiii-y?ei-e?aniuo e
aonoi-iaeeiiauo iiein;

· no?oe/aoay yineay iaeaaiai e oaiii-aeoiaaiai oeaaoa;

· eaioi/iay iaeiioeiaeianeay n e?aneaui no?oe/aoui ?enoieii oe?ieeo
iaeaauo e oaiii-caeaiuo eaio;

· eaiaeoaooiay-aoieoeueneay yoia iaeaaiai oiia n /a?iuie eee
ei?e/iaaaouie ae?aaiaeaeiuie ecia?aaeaieyie;

· o?acianeay iano?ioeaaoiay yoia;

· aaa?yiioeaaoiay aa?eooeineay.

ssoiiaue iiyn iiaeii n?aaieoue n iaea?aeueai, oae eae ianoi?iaeaeaiea
yoi oyioony ia nieioiie iieinie, a ioaeaeueiuie yoiiauie ?aeiiaie. Iiea
aaieiae ian/eouaatho a 12 ?aaeiiao 207 ianoi?iaeaeaiee yoi.[5]

Ianoi?iaeaeaiey yoi ecaanoiu e a Ocaaeenoaia (Eoina?aenaeneia),
Eacaonoaia (Ea?aoanneia), A?ocee (Eooaeneia), Oaaeaeeeenoaia
(Eaeaeooianeia). Ia THaeiii O?aea iiiai/eneaiiu neiieaiey iaecaaeiuo
yoi. Ai iiiaeo iocayo e /anoiuo eieeaeoeeyo iiaeii oaeaeaoue oieeaeueiua
ii e?anioa ia?acoeu iaecaaeiuo yoi.

ssoiu ecaanoiu ia Oe?aeia (a E?uio, a /anoiinoe, a ?aeiia Ea?aaeaaa), a
Aa?iaiee e Aaianoyea.[5]

A NOA ano?a/athony eaioi/iua e iaeiioiiiua yoiu, a Aaeioa –
oaiii-ei?e/iaaua, a Eiaeee – e?aniua, a Iiiaieee (ionouiy Aiae)
iano?ioeaaoiua ?innuie, e?aniua e iiein/aoua caeaii-e?aniua yoiu.[3]

7. I?eiaiaiea

A iaoe aeie yoia n/eoaaony iaeiei ec naiuo iiioey?iuo e iaaei?iaeo
thaaee?ii-iiaeaei/iuo e iiaeaei/iuo eaiiae (iniaaiii a ?innee).[3]

Iia oe?iei i?eiaiyaony aeey ecaioiaeaiey ?acee/iuo ii oi?ia eaiia?aciuo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ecaeaeee (iaiaeueieoeu, oeaooeee, aacu, eaiaeaeya?u,
ea?oeu, /anu), aeey anoaaie a thaaee?ii-aaeaioa?aeiua ecaeaeey (caiiiee,
ia?noie, a?aneaou, a?ioe, aoeaaee aeey aaenooeia). Oae eae yoia ia
aieony nu?inoe e auaao?eaaiey, aa ia/aee oe?iei i?eiaiyoue a
no?ieoaeuenoaa e a ea/anoaa aeaei?aoeaii-iaeeoeiai/iiai eaiiy (aeey
oe?aoaiey ia?aaeiuo eioa?uea?ia). ssoia – iaeei ec iniiaiuo iaoa?eaeia
eaiaiiuo iicaee. [3]

8. Enoi?ey i?eiaiaiey e ioe?uoey e?ani/iie ii?iaeu

Iaeii ec ?aiieo naeaeaoaeuenoa ia ioe?uoee o?aeueneie yoiu ioiineony e
1742 aiaeo e naycaii n eiaiaie “?oaeii?eeueea Aeaoa?eiao?aneiai
aaaeiinoaa” O?aei?a Aaaeia, aai nuia Iao?a e o/aieea Ee?eeea Iaaeuaaa.

Eie auee iouneaiu /aou?a ianoi?iaeaeaiey e?aniuo e cae?iuo yoi ii ?aea
Type (N?aaeiee O?ae). A 1743 aiaeo a ?aciuo ianoao ii oie aea Oo?a
a?aieeueuee Aeaoa?eiao?aneie a?aieeueiie oaa?eee Ianaioeia iaia?oaeee
o?iii-e?aniua n ae?eouie e?aieieaie e “oeao?/aoua” yoiu –
o?iii-aeaeoiaaoua n e?aniuie oaeiaaouie iyoiuoeaie e aonoie naoueth
eaa?oeaauo aeeeie. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe aeanyoe eao ia?aua
n?aaeiao?aeueneea eaiaiieiiie yoiu auee aaeaa ee ia aaeeinoaaiiuie, ia
iaoa?eaea eioi?uo inaaeaaeenue acu i?eenea, aeiau/e e ia?aaioee
oa??aeiai eaiiy. Ioioa aaeanue, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao aeieoiaioia oao eao,
ca oie yoiie, /oi “aeyiaoe a naaa eiaao” e “ioiaiioth aeaaeiinoue
iieacuaaao”. Iiae “aeaaeiinoueth” iiieiaee iiee?iaeo, aeaeathuoth
eaiaiue aeanoyuei, eae au nii/aiiui.Iiene yoiu eacaeny iao?oaeiui.
Uaae?ay e?aneaie, iia ioe?uaaeanue n?aco. ?acaeaaea
iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue. Ainieouaaea niiniaiinoue caia/aoue e?aneaue
eaiaiue a anoanoaaiiie n?aaea. *anoi aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue “oa?oii” –
neo/aai, aacaieai: i?ineo aeiaeaeue neaeo, auai?ioeo ao?aeii ei?ie
aea?aaueaa – niio?eoue, i?iyaeony eaiaiiue oci?.

A 1751 aiaeo i?aiao?aeaoe Naiai *a?aieneiia iouneae a noa?uo /oaeneeo
eiiyo aeec ica?a E?ouo (THaeiue O?ae) “eaiiy e?ai/aoiai iaiiaeiaea
yniena”. A iiya?a yoiai aea aiaea aaoee?neee noa?oeia Aaeeaeu Naoaiaoeia
iauyaee i iaeaeaiiie ei “a iieoaeaiioth noi?iio io *aaa?eoeueneie
e?aiinoe, i?e ?a/ea Naia?ea, cae?iie yoia”. ?aiiae aaniie neaaeothuaai
aiaea iaia?oaeeee naaoei-cae?iua yoiu ia ?aeao Aaoaeye, Eaiaeaaoeae e
“eaiaiue iiaeiaiie aaaoo aeaeii e?aniie n aaeuie i?iaeeeeaie iiaeiaai
iaeeiio aeyiaeo” ia ie?oae?iiie oiieeie aieioaie iaaieueoie
aicauoaiiinoe a ie?anoiinoyo aea?aaie O?aciai. Yoi auea oa naiay
o?acianeay yoia, /oi aieaa ecaanoia iiae eiaiai “aaeeeieaiiiai iyniiai
aaaoa”.

Yoa oeaii/ea ioe?uoee, caaa?oeaoayny ano?a/ae n iaeiie ec e?aneaaeoeo
thaeiio?aeueneeo yoi, n?aco aea auoanieea n?aaeiao?aeueneee eaiaiue. Yoi
anoanoaaiii. Oai – ne?iiiay aaiia ianneaiuo iaeiioiiiuo ii?iae. Caeanue
– ie?oanoai ni/iiai oeaaoa, aeoaieea eiio?anou “ai?y/aai” – e?aniiai e
“oieiaeiiai” – niaaeii-aaeiai oiiia. Noaiee ionoio e o?auei caiye
eo/enoi-eaieue/aoue oaeoeaaeii. Inoaaoaany ieioii caiieiee
a?oaica?ienoue aaeue iai?ic?a/iue eaa?oe, i?e/oaeeeai aaoayueeny, neiaii
inoia eaeiai-oi oaeinoaaiiiai oaea. Oaeiaa iaeia ec ea?oei ioe?uoey
yoiu.[5]

Ii ae?oaei enoi/ieeai enoi?ey ioe?uoey ?onneie yoiu ia/aeanue a XVIII
aaea, eiaaea auea caeiaeaia I?neay e?aiinoue, noaaoay aaaeiui oi?iinoii
ia thai-ainoi/iie ie?aeia ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. E?aiinoue auea
aicaaaeaia ia ai?a n aiaaouie auoiaeaie yoiu, e naiaoneee niaaoiee A.I.
Oaoeuaa, ?oeiaiaeeaoee no?ieoaeuenoaii e?aiinoe, ioi?aaee a Iaoa?ao?a
/aou?a aica «yoiiauo eaiaiueaa». A 1767 aiaeo auea ninoaaeaia ia?aay a
?innee ea?oa, ia eioi?ie auee iaicia/aiu 68 ianoi?iaeaeaiee oeaiiiai
ieia?aea. [8]

Ia?iiioth aeuao yoiu aeiauee a 1829 aiaeo ia neeiia ai?u ?aaiaaie, a 45
eeeiiao?ao io ciaiaieoie Eieuaaineie a?aieeueiie oaa?eee. Nia/aea
eaiaiue ia?aaaouaaee ia ianoa a?o/ioth, a caoai iai?aaeee ia oaa?eeo.
Aeey yoiai iio?aaiaaeinue ieiei ouny/e /aeiaae n ?oaeieea e aeeaeaeoeo
naeaiee. Eieuaaineea ?ac/eee ?aaioaee iaae ecaioiaeaieai aacu ec
?aaiaaneie yoiu a oa/aiea /aou?iaaeoeaoe eao e caeii/eee aa a ia/aea
1843 aiaea. Eieinnaeueiay /aoa auea ecaioiaeaia ii ?enoieo a?oeoaeoi?a
A. Iaeueieeiaa. Aa yeeeioe/aneia oaei iie?uee e?oiiuie auioeeuie
«eiaeeaie», ai?o oe?aneee nieioiui ?aciui aeaioiaui eenoii.

*oiau aeinoaaeoue a Iaoa?ao?a n Aeoay ae?aaioeaiiue a?oc aanii 19 oiii,
iiiaaeiaeeanue iiaicea, a eioi?oth ai?yaee 160 eioaaeae. Oeiaeaiiay ia
oaeaae, ni?iaeoe?iaaiiua iniaaiiui ia?acii, aaca ia/aea naie iooue ec
Aa?iaoea a Iaoa?ao?a ii ?aeai *oniaay, Eaia, Aieaa, Oaenia.

Aeaaiiieo/ii aeia?aaoenue aei Ceiiaai aeai?oea, aaca caiyea niaoeeaeueii
iino?iaiiue aeey iaa cae, eioi?ue noae iacuaaoueny Caeii Aieueoie aacu,
a ec-ca eieinnaeueiie oyaeanoe eaiaiiiai oaaeaa?a iiae iaa iiaeaaaeai
iniaue ooiaeaiaio. Ii neiaai enoi?eeia, yoi ecaeaeea auei iinoaaeaii a
cae aeey yeniiceoeee aua aei no?ieoaeuenoaa aeaa?ae, a eioi?ua aaca
i?inoi ia aioea au. Aunioa Eieuaaineiai /oaea aianoa n iueaaeanoaeii e
iiaeeie ninoaaeea 2,6 iao?a, a ?acia?u iaaeueiie /aoe – 5*3,25 iao?a, ii
niio?eony iia oaeeaeoaeueii eaaeie e ecyuiie.. [8]

I?eiaiaiea yoi ?aciiia?acii e eciaiyeinue ni a?aiaiai. Ni a?aiai
iaeaieeoa ec yoiu ecaioaaeeaaeenue ?acee/iua eino?oiaiou. Ae?aaiea
ooia?u ?acaee ec eaiiy aioeaou e ia/aoe. A ae?aaiinoe auoa/eaaee
oaeeniaiu, aaiiu, aeaei?aoeaiua i?aaeiaou. Aieueoie ethaiaueth yoia
iieueciaaeanue o ia?iaeia Eeoay, Ei?ae e ssiiiee. A ae?aaiaeeoaeneie
eeoa?aoo?a yoia oiiieiaaony i/aiue /anoi. Ec iano?iai eaiiy
auoa/eaaeenue iiaeaanee, caaiyuea ia iiyna o oaioeiaueoe, e eo?eeueieoeu
aeey aeaaiaiiee, /aoe, eoaee, neiaieu aeanoe; ath oe?aoaee iocueaeueiua
eino?oiaiou e eiineoth oi?yaeue. Anoaaee ec yoiu ia oeaiao, ?oeiyoyo
ia/ae, iiynao n/eoaeenue iaaeaaeiuie iaa?aaaie. N yoiie n?aaieaaee e
e?anioo i?e?iaeu, e aeaineea i?aeanoe. Iia n/eoaeanue neiaieii iaaa e
i?aia?aaeaiey /aeiaaea e ie?a. Aeaai?iaeiue eaiaiue – i?neoth yoio –
eniieueciaaee a eaieineii Iaacieaa; ii oe?aoaao noaioeeth iineianeiai
iao?i – «Iayeianeoth». A Aeaaiaauaineii niai?a Iineianeiai E?aiey iie
aueiaeai ieeoeaie ec yoiu. Ca iyoue noieaoee ii iaio i?ioee ieeeeiiu
ethaeae, a ii e iiiuia auaeyaeeo oae, neiaii oeiaeai oieueei a/a?a.[8]

A a Aai?aeaaneii caea a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa – aunoaaeaia /oaei-ea?oa n
eie?onoaoeeae ec yoiu. Aua a XVIII a. a Oea?neinaeueneii aeai?oea (iuia
a.Iooeei) auea nii?oaeaia eiiiaoa ec oaiii-iaeeiiaie eaioi/iie yoiu.[9]

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi a ?innee yoia, ia?aaia n iaeaoeoii, n/eoaeanue
ecethaeaiiui iaoeeiiaeueiui eaiiai.[3]

9. Ieou, eaaaiaeu, oieueeei?, noeoe, iiaa?uey

A ea?uea?a ou oio eaiaiue iiaeiye,

*oi aeoaiei a caiea eaaeae.

E aae?oa, eae aoaeoi nieioea iieaeiy,

Ia iai ?enoiie cacao/ae.

Neaaea ecaeeeno e oci?/ao,

Eaneae ii e?anioith aeac –

I?e?iaeu ieiieaoiue ?in/a?e,

Aa i?e/oaeeeaue caian.

Ooa ia?ac a eaaeaeii anoue oci?a,

Naa?eatho ecioo?e neie,

Iaiiieiay aieiu ii?y,

Oi ean, oi aieinu oaie.

Oi a eaiia aeaeo y caeaou,

A oi aa?ac /oaeaniue no?ie.

O?ae aiaaoue caeanue eiaaea-oi

Ac?anoee a caiea oie yoiu neie.

Aio iooeeoiaaiiue aei aeanea

Ec yoiu oa?, eae oaeeniai,

Caaaaei/ai e eioa?anai.

Ia n/anouea iai ii, ethaeyi, aeai.

E iaoa yoia oe?aoaea

Oo «Eiiiaoo yioa?ioth» niaie,

O?aeueneie iocueie cao/aea,

?iaeaeaiiay ?iaeiie caieae. [10]

ssoia iaiaeiie?aoii oiiieiaaony a Aeaeee. A Aiieaeeinena ieia?ae iacaai
ia?aui eaiiai, caeiaeaiiui a ooiaeaiaio Aaeeeiai Iaaaniiai Ea?onaeeia.

N/eoaaony, /oi eaiaiue niiniaai i?eaeaoue aeaaeaeueoeo oaa?aeinoue aeooa
aeey iaea?aeaiey iiaaaeu e naeaeaoue aai ioae?aa. Caueoeoue io aeo?iiai
aeaca. Oaeeniai ec yoiu noeeo aiaaonoai e aea?eo e?anii?a/ea. Eaiaiue
naycai n nioeeaeueiie ea?a?oeae, iiyoiio eo/oa anaai aai iineoue ia
?aaioa.

ssoia naycaia n iniauie, oaeinoaaiiuie naienoaaie. N/eoaaony aeaaiui
iineoaeai EIUe – ia/aea e neiaieii aeaineie e?aniou. Iiyoiio iniaaiii
ii/eoaeanue a Eeoaa, ia?aaia n iao?eoii.

ssoia – eaiaiue nth?i?ec. Ii naiae no?oeoo?a a iae niaea?aeaony ana
noeoee, ionthaea aiciiaeiinoe aa ia ia?aie/aiu. N/eoaaony
iieiaeeoaeueiui eaiiai, ii yoia niaea?aeeo yia?aeth I?ica?ieiu.
Iieiinoueth ana aa aiciiaeiinoe aua ia eco/aiu, caeanue aeaaeaeueoea
naiioeaaoa aeaeoo nth?i?ecu, ca/anooth iai?eyoiua. Ia O?aea yoia –
neiaie aa?iie e e?aieie ae?oaeau.

ssoia – aaeeinoaaiiue eaiaiue, eioi?ue iiaeao nieiaoue aanue iaaaoeaiue
yia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae, eioi?ue oaea iaeiieai i?aaieciii.

Neiyy yoia neiaieece?oao aeiea e /anoue, ioaiaeeo aieacie. Neiee eaiaiue
aeaao neeo i?aaeaeaeaiey, iaooiieiinoue e oa?iaiea, iaia?oaeeaaao
iaaeaeeiia aeey aeac, iiyoiio yaeyaony eo/oei oaeeniaiii aeey o/aiuo.

ssoiu oaiiuo iooaieia i?aainoiaeii i?aaeio?aiytho io «naeaca».

Caeaiay, eae ii?neay aieia yoia ioe?uaaao ne?uoia io aeac,
eiioeaio?e?oao aieiaiea, ioioaeaaao i?ec?aeia.

E?aniay yoia oeo/oaao ioiioaiey n ia/aeuenoaii, aa?iiiece?oao ioiioaiey
n auoanoiyueie e aeanoue eioueie. E?aniiai oeaaoa yoia neiaieece?oao
ia?aoiae eaeae a aiieiuaiiia ninoiyiea. N/eoaaony, /oi eaiaiue ioaiaeeo
io /aeiaaea aieacie, ca?yaeaao aai yia?aeae.

*a?iay yoia neiaieece?oao aeiea e /anoue. Iaaeaeyao ioae?inoueth,
oaa?aeinoueth aeooa e neeie i?aaeaeaeaiey a o?oaeiua ieioou. *a?iue
ieia?ae naycai n ea?a?oeae ioiioaiee, ii niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth
aa?iiie/iuo ioiioaiee n eieeaaaie, ia/aeuenoaii e iiae/eiaiiuie. Eo/oa
anaai eaiaiue ia iineoue aeiia, oae eae ia/iaoa anao «no?ieoue» e
iiaeaoa i?ineuoue aeiiaoiei oe?aiii eee aeaniioii.

Oeaaoiay yoia ii i?aaeaieyi aaeeiiaeooii caieiaao ia?aainoai ia iaaaniii
naiaea. Aia?aaoay a naay aanue niaeo? nieia/iiai naaoa, iiiaioeaaoiay
yoia – eaiaiue a?ac e aaeioiiaaiey, neiaie oaei auoey. Yia?aey yoiu
ianneaia e oyaeaea, ii ianao aeia?ia oaiei e iaeaaeaao oeaeeoaeueiie
neeie. Eaiaiue i?aaiciiaaao neeu cea e i?eiineo a aeooo iieie,
niinianoaoao ainnoaiiaeaieth neeu e iaiyoe, aeaao noieeinoue aeey oiai,
/oiau oniaoii i?ioeainoiyoue eneooaieyi. Iaecaaeiua yoiu iiiiaatho
iano?aeaaoueny ia iaaeeoaoeeth, iia?oaeay a iaoe nianoaaiiua yiioeee e
/oanoaa e iiiiaay oaeaeaoue eo a iaiau/iii ?aeo?na. [3]

A ae?aaiaeeoaeneee iiyo Oethe THaiue ienae oae:

“Eoi n yoiith niooaao i?inoua eaiie,

Ia ioee/aao i?aaeaiiinoue io eanoe,

Oa, ciath y, caaenoeeau e a?oau,

E iiiuneu iie ei iaiiiyoiu”.[9]

Oaia?ue y oi/o iiaaaeaoue i a?a/othueo niiniaiinoyo yoiu. Eiia/ii,
iiiaea iiaoo e ia aa?eoue a a? enoeaeythuea niiniaiinoe, ii eoi aea
ciaao eae anoue ia naiii aeaea…

Eoae, yoia i?aaeio?aiyao /aeiaaea io aieaciae. Oeo/oaao iaiyoue, ea/eo
caaieaaaiey aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa, nieiaao aieue i?e ooeaao e
ia?aeiiao, iia nianaao io i?inooaeu. Iiiiaaao oeo/oeoue c?aiea, niyoue
coaioth aieue.

Ae?aaiea eeoaeoeu n/eoaee yoio iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oa?iaeieiae/aneeo
n?aaenoa aeey i/euaiey aioo?aiieo i?aaiia.

A Oaeeaiaea anoue o?ai ecoi?oaeiiai Aoaeaeu. A iai iaoiaeeony noaooy
Aoaeaeu aanii 5,5 o, auoi/aiiay ec oeaeueiiai iiiieeoa
ecoi?oaeii-caeaiie yoiu, iaeaaeathuay iiuiie oeaeeoaeueiie yia?aeae.

Ii aeainneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi, yoia n/eoaeanue «eaiiai aeecie», oae eae
oe?aieyea oece/aneia oaei e i?iaeeaaaea aeeciue.

E?aniay yoia iiiiaaao i?e e?iaioa/aieyo, ieceii a?oa?eaeueiii aeaaeaiee,
ea/eo yieeaineth e eeoa?aaeeo, a?a/oao aeaineea aieacie (aanieiaeea),
iaino?yao iaiiyiea. Caeaiie, aeaeoie e aaeie yoia i?eienuaatho naienoaa
oniieaeaaoue aeaeoaei/iua aiee, ?iaeaieoea auno?i ?iaeeoue, anee
i?eaycaoue e aaae?o. Oaiii-ei?e/iaaay yoia iiiiaeao ooieeoue aeaaeaeo.
Eo/oa anaai iiiiaaao, yoia ii?aaeaiiay a na?aa?i. I?e aieacie aeaeoaeea,
oe?aoaiea a aeaea iaea?aeuea aeieaeii aeioiaeeoue aei iaeanoe
aeaeoaeea.[3]

10.?aciiaeaeiinoe

Ie?anea I?ienoiaeaeaiea

1.Iaeii?iaeiua:

E?aniay anao aeaeia aei /a?iie; Iau/ii iaoaii?oeciaaiiua aaeay, ?iciaay,
oeieaoiaay, caeaiay, aeoaieiaiaeiua eeu, ?aaea na?ay e ae?oaea.
oaeueceoiaua ecaa?aeaiiua ii?iaeu.

1.a. Iaeii?iaeiua n ioaeaeueiuie iyoiaie e aeeth/aieyie

Iaeaaay n /a?iuie aeaiae?eoaie Ecaa?aeaiiay ii?iaea

N iyoiaie, no?oyie, iaeaeaie Inaaei/iay ii?iaea iaaeiiai ?enoiea

N aaeuie eee /a?iuie oi/eaie Ecaa?aeaiiue ii?oe?

2. Iieinaoua

Ia?aeeaeueii-eaioi/iua yoiu,

?acee/iua ii oeio e oeaaoo eaio:

N ?aceeie a?aieoeaie (e?anii-caeaiay);

n iyaeeie ia?aoiaeaie (e?anii-aeaeoay); Inaaei/iua aeoaieiaiaeiua n
e?oiiuie (nauoa 1 ni) eaioaie eeu (aeaeoi-caeaiay); n iaeeeie (aei 1 ni)

Eaioaie (na?i-aeaeoay, caeaiay e ae?.)

Aieienoi-eaioi/iua (caeaiay). Iaoaii?oe/aneea neaioeu e

Eaiou ene?eaeaiu, neiiaiu, na?ioaiu eaa?oeeou

No?oe/aoua n iaeeeie ii?oe?iaeaeiuie Ecaa?aeaiiua ii?iaeu auaeaeaieyie

3. Ii?oe?iaua

N e?oiiuie e iaeeeie Neeeoeoee?iaaiiua

Ae?aieaiieeaie iieaauo oiaoia ii?oeou

N i?ic?a/iuie aeeth/aieyie Eaa?oeaaua ii?oe?u eaa?oea

N /a?iuie aeeth/aieyie Ii?oe?eou, aaaa?i, (aaaeoa, aioeaiea) aaaeoiaua
ii?oe?u

4. iano?ioeaaoiua (neooeaaua)

Iaeii?iaeiua n aeeeeaie ae?oaiai oeaaoa.

Aeae?ioa?iaeueiay

Iano?ua ?aciuo oeaaoia ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeey n iaeiioeaaoiui oeaiaioii.
yoiiauo ii?iae

Iyaeie aieienoie ie?anee e o.ae.

5. A?ae/ee, eiiaeiia?aou

Ii?oe?iaua a?ae/ee, A?ae/ee y?oioeaiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

yoiiaua a?ae/ee, eiiaeiia?aou

6. Noa?ieaeaeueiua (eieai/aoua) e iaoa/iua (aaaoiaua) yoiu

Eiiae/aoua e?oiiua e iaeeea

Ecaa?aeaiiua ii?iaeu

Aaaoiaua iieinaoua neienoua

Aaoa?aeiua [2]

Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea eeanneoeeaoeee. Oae ii oa?aeoa?o ?enoiea e
?ani?aaeaeaieth ie?anee iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea aeaei?aoeaiaa
?aciiaeaeiinoe yoi:

I. Ii oaenoo?a:

1. Iieinaoua, ia?aeeaeueii-iiein/aoua, eaioi/iua n oe?ieeie eee oceeie
iieineaie na?iai, caeaiiai, aeaeoiai, e?aniiai oeaaoa, aieienoua n
eciaioouie e «neie/aouie» iieineaie, no?oe/aoua (iai?eia?:
Eooeoeueaeeineay aaoee?neay yoia ec e?aniuo e caeaiuo iiein). (Eaioi/iua
yoiu neeiiiu ?aniaaeaoueny ii a?aieoeai neiaa)

2. Iaeiioeaaoiua – iaeaaua, aaeua, ?iciaua, e?aniua, oeieaoiaua,
caeaiua, na?ua, a oaeaea n iyoiaie e aeeth/aieyie a aeaea aeaiae?eoia,
oeaaoiuo oi/ae;

3. Ii?oe?iaua n iaeii?iaeiui iaeeica?ienoui oiiii /a?iiai, oeieaoiaiai,
e?aniiai oeaaoa e ae?aieaieyie ae?oaiai oeaaoa;

4. Eiiaeiia?aou;

5. Noa?ieaeaeueiua – «eiiae/aoua», «eoee/eiaua», a oaeaea iaoa/iua
(aaaoiaua), neienoua, iiein/aoua, aaoa?aeiua (oi?oeoeeaoeeiiiua);

6. Iano?ioeaaoiua n iyoienoie ie?aneie, oeaaoiuie aeeeeaie, oeia
«neooeaauo», «ia?/aauo», «aeaa?aeueiuo», «iyniiai aaaoa» n iyaeie eae au
?aciuoie, eiiaaea aieienoie ie?aneie;

7. Oaeaea auaeaeytho: aeac/aoua, no?ao/iua, iaecaaeiua (n eaiaeoaooiui
?enoieii) e ae?.

II. Ii ninoaao ?acaeaeytho eaa?oeaaua – nianoaaiii yoiu (oaeoeaaeiiiaua
e eaa?oe-oaeoeaaeiiiaua), yoiieaeu – iieaai-oiaoi-eaa?oeaaua yoiiaeaeiua
ii?iaeu.[3]

11. Eneonnoaaiiua aiaeiae, iiaeaeaeee, eieoaoeee, eciaiaiey naienoa

Aiciiaeii, aeaaiaea?y iiiai/eneaiiui y?eei e?aneai, eioi?ua o?aieo a
naaa yoia, a? o?oaeii iiaeaeaeaoue. Eiiaaea yoio eniieuecotho aeey
eieoaoeee ae?oaeo ii?iae. Oae aeey oeo/oaiey oeaaoa e i?eaeaiey
aeaai?iaeiinoe iiaeaei/iua yoiu eneonnoaaiii iiaee?aoeaatho, iai?eia?, a
neiee oeaao n oeaeueth eieoaoeee aieaa aei?iaiai e ?aaeeiai eaco?eoa.[3]

12. Niiniau aeiau/e e ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioee, yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey
aeiau/e

I?e anae e?anioa e neea yoiai eaiiy aeiau/a yoiu ieacaeanue o?oaeia.

Aei ?oaaaea XVIII-XIX aa. a eaiiaia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia auei
ieeaeeo iaoaieciia e anth ia?aaioeo aaee a?o/ioth. Oaa?aeue eaiaiue
ni?oe?iaaee ii aaee/eia eoneia, ie?anea e ?enoieai e iaeaaee. Caoai
eaiaiiua aieaaiee ?anieeeaaee ia /anoe ieeie n iiaenuieie iiae iaa
aa?aceaiiai ii?ioea. E?oaeua ioaa?noey a eaiia aunaa?eeaaee i?e iiiiue
o?oaee ec iyaeiai aeaeaca n oai aea aa?aceaii. Iieioie, aeieioi,
iaieeueieee-auee iniiaiuie eino?oiaioaie ianoa?a-eaiaiueea. Ia?aaioaiiua
a/a?ia ecaeaeey oeeoiaaee oyaeaeuie /oaoiiuie aeaaeeeeaie, iiae eioi?ua
ianuiaee aa?aceaiue ii?ioie. Ai a?aiy oeeoiaee iiaa?oiinoue eaiiy
iieeaaee aiaeie; ia?aoa?oua /anoeoeu eaiiy niaoeaaee n aa?aceaiui
ii?ioeii, ia?acoy oae iacuaaaiue oeai, aai niae?aee e niiaa oiio?aaeyee
aeey oeeoiaee. Iinea oeeoiaee eaiaiiia ecaeaeea iiaeaa?aaee iiee?iaea.
Ia?aae iiee?iaeie ana o?aueiu e ii?u a eaiia, inoaaoeany iinea
ia?aaioee, ouaoaeueii caaeaeuaaee iiaeia?aiiie iiae oeaao eaiiy
ianoeeie; eaiaiue i?iiuaaee aiaeie e i?ioe?aee o?yieie. Aeey oiai /oiau
i?eaeaoue aioiaiio ecaeaeeth ca?eaeueiue aeane, aai iinuiaee
iiee?iaaeueiui ii?ioeii – e?ieonii eee o?aiaeii (e?ieon – aa?aceaiue
iaoa?eae Fe2O4; o?aiae – e?aiiaaay ai?iay ioea, ninoiyuay ec aii?oiiai
e?aiiacaia e eciaeue/aiiuo neaeaoia iee?ii?aaieciia) e oa?ee “eoeeie” –
aieei/iie iiaeooeie.

I?e Iao?a I a Iaoa?aioa auea iniiaaia ia?aay oaa?eea ii i?iecaiaenoao
iaeeoeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia, eaeoueo aeey ioaeae no?ieoaeuenoaa a
Iaoa?ao?aa.

Ianeieueei iicaeiaa, a 1726 a., a iiaii ai?iaea Aeaoa?eiao?aa
(Naa?aeeianea) auea nicaeaia Oeeoiaaeueii-a?aieeueiay oaa?eea, a i?e
Aeaoa?eia

II – Eieuaaineay oaa?eea ia Aeoaa.

Aieueoia eneonnoai o?aaiaaeinue io ianoa?ia-eaiaiioania i?e iiaeai?a
eaiiy ii ?enoieo, /oi /?acau/aeii aaaeii i?e ?aaioa n oaeeie ii?iaeaie
eaiiy, eae ?enoi/aoua yoiu. A na?aaeeia XVIII a. ec n?aaeu o?aeueneeo
eaiia?acia auaeaeioeny oaeaioeeaue ianoa? Ieeeoa Aaoa?aa. Ii aue ia?aui,
eoi iuoaeny iaoaiece?iaaoue aeiau/o e ia?aaioeo eaiiy. Ei auee
neiino?oe?iaaiu ia?aua iaoaieciu, eioi?uie iniauaeenue aiiaue no?iyueany
a?aieeueiua e oeeoiaaeueiua oaa?eee.

A ia/aea XIX a. oaoieea ia?aaioee eaiiy auea oniaa?oainoaiaaia
iiaeianoa?ueai Aaneeeai-Eaeiaeiui: ii ecia?ae i?eaiaeeaoeeny a
aeaeaeaiea aiaeie iaoaieci aeey ?anieeiaee e naa?eiaee aieueoeo eaiiae.
N yoiai a?aiaie e aieioue aei Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee ia?ae/iay ia?aaioea eaiiy, ecaioiaeaiea ianeiaeiuo ii oi?ia
ecaeaeee e iiee?iaea e?oaeuo aauae i?iecaiaeeeanue i?e iiiiue iiaeiaiuo
iaoaieciia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia eaiiaia?aaaouaathueo caaiaeao aeey
?anieeiaee eaiiy neoaeao iieoaaoiiaoe/aneea ?acaeueiua noaiee, ia
eioi?uo onoaiiaeaiu aeeneiaua ieeu eee aa?aceaiua aeenee.

Naa?eiaea oaa?aeiai eaiiy i?iecaiaeeony ia naa?eiai/iuo iieoaaoiiaoao,
oeeoiaea e iiee?iaea – ia oeeoiaaeueii-iiee?iaaeueiuo noaieao.. ?o/iie
o?oae i?e ia?aaioea oaa?aeiai e iieooaa?aeiai eaiiy inoaeny oieueei oai,
aaea iniaay neiaeiinoue oi?iu aeaei?aoeaiie aaue ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe
i?eiaieoue iaoaieciu. A ia/aea XIX a. a nayce n nie?auaieai
aeai?oeiai-onaaeaaiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeeenue caeacu
ia e?oiiua ecaeaeey ec oeaaoiiai iiaeaei/iiai eaiiy. Iiioiaioaeueiua
aeaei?aoeaiua i?iecaaaeaiey eaiia?aciiai eneonnoaa iinoaiaiii onooieee
ianoi aieaa eaia?iui aauai: ienueiaiiui i?eai?ai, iiaenaa/ieeai,
oeaooeeai. Iiyaeythony oaaaea?ee, ooaeaoiua aaci/ee e eioi/ee, eieueoea,
na?ueae, a?ioe, ia/aoee, eaiae ec yoiu e ae?oaeo eaiiae. Iinea ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa oeaaoiie iiaeaei/iue eaiaiue noaee oiio?aaeyoue
oieueei eeoue eae iieooaa?eeao aeey thaaee?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iinea ?aaiethoeee 1917 aiaea a eaiia?aciii i?iecaiaenoaa aeiau/ae
oaa?aeiai eaiiy e aai ia?aaioeie, o?aaothuae neiaeiiai caaiaeneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey, noaea caieiaoueny ainoaea?noaaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.[12]

Yeieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee y ia iaoea, cia/eo anoue aa?iyoiinoue, /oi
aeiau/a e ia?a?aaioea ia iaiinyo a?aaea iaoae yeieiaee.

Caeeth/aiea

?anniio?aiiay iiith oaia aeaao iieiia e iaiieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i yoia,
oae eae iienaoue ana ea/anoaa, eioi?uie iia iaeaaeaao i?inoi
iaaiciiaeii, iaienaiu nioie eiea, aeaaea a ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaieyo ie aaeeiiaeaeu oiiieiaaony i iae, a /anoiinoe i oao
ienoe/aneeo e oeaeaaiuo naienoaao, eioi?uie ecaeaaia ia?aeee yoio. ss
iii?iaiaaea ?anniio?aoue iniiaiua naienoaa yoiai i?ae?aniiai oci?/aoiai
eaiiy, iaienaoue ianoa aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ca?iaeaeaiey, iaeanoe
eniieueciaaiey, niiniau aeiau/e e niiniau ia?aaioee. ?aaioa iaae aeaiiie
oaiie aeinoaaeea iia aieueoia oaeiaieuenoaea, oae eae y ociaea iiiai
iiaiai e eioa?aniiai. Iaaeathnue, /oi e Aai iia oaeaea iii?aaeony.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aaeaiaeei ?.E., Yioeeeeiiaaeey ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae e ieia?aeia. –
I..:Aa/a,2000. – 415 n.

2. Oa?niai A.A. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee eaiiy. – I.:OA??A – Eieaeiue eeoa. A 2
o. O.1, 2003. – 304 n.

3. http://giftsofnature.ru/Gems/Yashma/htm

4. http://brilliant.zxhost.ru/yashma.html

5. http://schools.techno.ru

6. http://www. uralgeo.net

7. http://www.gemstonesgift.com

8. http://www.nearyou.ru/Oother/i08jashma.html

9. http://rrc.dgu.ru

10. http://taspol.info

11. http://ru.wikipedia.org

12. http:/www.remeslennik.ru/DocumShow.asp

13. http://www.bestjasper.ru

14. http://www.ssp.ru

15. http://www.livemaster.ru

I?eeiaeaiea

A?ae/ey – ai?iay ii?iaea, ninoiyuay ec iaieaoaiiuo, ino?ioaieueiuo
iaeiieia ?acee/iuo ii?iae e?oiiaa 2 ii e noeaiaioe?iaaiiuo a aaeeiia
oeaeia.

Iaoaii?oeci – i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea aia ciiu auaao?eaaiey e
aucuaathuea cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey ai?iuo ii?iae e ieia?aeia a caiiie
ei?a iiae aeaenoaeai iiauoaiiuo oaiia?aoo? e aeaaeaiee, iiaecaiiuo aiae,
aacia. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?acothony – iaoaii?oe/aneea – ii?iaeu.

Noyaeaiea (eiie?aoeey) – ieia?aeueiia ia?aciaaiea a ii/aao, eeao,
inaaei/iuo ai?iuo ii?iaeao, iau/ii ie?oaeie eee iai?aaeeueiie oi?iu,
ioee/athuaeny ii ninoaao e ieioiinoe io ie?oaeathueo (aiauathueo)
ii?iae. Ia?acoaony i?e noyaeaaiee, naouaiee aauanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy a
i?e?iaea.

Eie/aaeai – iauaa iacaaiea na?ienouo niaaeeiaiee (noeueoeaeia ?yaea
iaoaeeia).

Eiiaeiia?ao – ai?iay ii?iaea, ninoiyuay ec noeaiaioe?iaaiiuo e?oiiuo
ieaoaiiuo iaeiieia, aaeueee.

Ooo – aoeeaie/aneay inaaei/iay ai?iay ii?iaea, ninoiyuay ec oieioiaiiiai
aoeeaie/aneiai iaiea n iaeiieaie, aua?ioaiiuie i?e ecaa?aeaiee.

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