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Общая характеристика степной зоны

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?aoa?ao

oaia:

«Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea

noaiiie ciiu»

 

 

 

 

 

 

a.*a?ieaia

 Noaiiay ciia yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo aeiiia nooe. Iiae aeeyieai,
i?aaeaea anaai, eeeiaoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia neeaaeuaaeenue ciiaeueiua
iniaaiiinoe aeiiia. Aeey ciiu noaiae oa?aeoa?ai aea?eee e canooeeaue
eeeiao a oa/aiea aieueoae /anoe aiaea, a aaniie eiaaony aeinoaoi/iia
eiee/anoai aeaae, iiyoiio aeey noaiae oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa yoaia?ia e yoaia?ieaeia n?aaee aeaeia ?anoaiee, a iiiaea
aeeaioiua oaeaea i?eo?i/aiu e naciiiiio ia?aco aeecie, aiaaeay a niy/eo
a canooeeaia e oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea.

3iia noaiae i?aaenoaaeaia a Aa?acee noaiyie, a Naaa?iie Aia?eea –
i?a?eyie, a THaeiie Aia?eea – iaiianaie, a Iiaie Caeaiaeee –
niiauanoaaie oonnieia. Yoi i?ino?ainoaa oia?aiiiai iiyna, caiyoua aieaa
eee iaiaa ena?ioeeueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth. N oi/ee c?aiey oneiaee
nouanoaiaaiey aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey noaie oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaeothueie
i?eciaeaie: oi?ioee iaci?, iaeeea ?anoeoaeueiie ieue, ioiineoaeueii
nooie eaoiee ia?eiae, nouanoaiaaiea eaoiaai ia?eiaea iieiy eee, eae aai
oaia?ue iacuaatho, iieoiieiy. A yoii ioiioaiee noaiiua niiauanoaa ?acei
ioee/athony io eaniuo, N?aaee i?aiaeaaeathueo aeeciaiiuo oi?i ?anoaiee
noaie auaeaeythony ceaee, noaaee eioi?uo neo/aiu a aea?iiaeiu –
aea?iiaeiiua ceaee. A THaeiii iieooa?ee oaeea aea?iiaeiu iacuaathony
oonnieaie. Oonniee auaatho i/aiue aunieeie i eenouey eo iaiaa aeanoeea,
/ai o aea?iiaei noaiiuo ceaeia Naaa?iiai iieooa?ey, oae eae eeeiao
aeeceeo e noaiyi niiauanoa THaeiiai iieooa?ey aieaa iyaie.

Ei?iaaeuiua ceaee, ia ia?acothuea aea?iiaei, n iaeeii/iuie noaaeyie ia
iieco/eo iiaecaiiuo ei?iaaeuao oe?a ?ani?ino?aiaiu a naaa?iuo noaiyo a
ioee/ea io aea?iiaeiiuo ceaeia, ?ieue eioi?uo a Naaa?iii iieooa?ee
aic?anoaao e thao.

N?aaee aeaoaeieueiuo o?aayienouo ?anoaiee auaeaeythony aeaa a?oiiu –
naaa?iia e?ani/iia ?aciio?aauea e thaeiia aane?ani/iia. Aeey e?ani/iiai
?aciio?aauey oa?aeoa?ai iacioeeueiue iaeee e e?oiiua y?eea oeaaou eee
nioeaaoey, aeey thaeiiai, aane?ani/iiai ?aciio?aauey – aieaa
ena?ioeeueiue iaeee – iiooaiiua noaaee a eenouey, /anoi eenouey oceea
eee iaeei?anna/?iiua, oeaaou iaeicaiaoiua, iay?eea.

Oa?aeoa?iu aeey noaiae iaeiieaoiea yoaia?u, iooeaaoathuea aaniie iinea
oeaaoaiey ioie?athuea, e iiiaieaoiea yoaia?ieaeu, o eioi?uo iinea
ioie?aiey iacaiiuo /anoae inoathony eeoaie, eoeiaeoeu, iiaecaiiua
ei?iaaeua. Naiaia?acai aaca?aiaiiee eioi?ue ?acaeaaao eenoao aaniie,
eiaaea a noaiiuo ii/aao aua iiiai aeaae, ia eaoi nio?aiyao eeoue
iiaecaiiua i?aaiu, a inaiueth, eiaaea any noaiue auaeyaeeo
aacaeeciaiiie, iiaeaeoaaoae, aeaao y?eea ne?aiaaua oeaaou (ionthaea e
aai iacaaiea).

Aeey noaie oa?aeoa?iu eonoa?ieee, /anoi ?anoouea a?oiiaie, eiiaaea –
iaeeii/iua. E iei ioiinyony nie?ae, ea?aaaiu, noaiiua aeoie, noaiiie
ieiaeaeue, eiiaaea iaeioi?ua aeaeu iiaeaeaaaeueieea. Ieiaeu iiiaeo
eonoa?ieeia iiaaeathony aeeaioiuie.

Ia iiaa?oiinoe ii/au ?anooo ena?ioeeueiua ioe, eonoenoua e iaeeiiua
eeoaeieee, eiiaaea neia-caeaiua aiaei?inee ec ?iaea iinoie. Ia eaoiue
nooie ia?eiae iie canuoatho, iinea aeiaeaeae iaeeaatho e anneieee?otho.

Aeey noaiae oa?aeoa?ia ?aceay iiiaie?aoiay niaia aniaeoia, o. a.
eciaiaiea aiaoiaai iaeeea noaiae a nayce n oai, /oi oeaaoouea ?anoaiey,
iau/ii ?acaeaathueany a iannao, niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. ?aaea aniaeou
nicaeathony ianniauie aeaeaie aeeaioiuo – eiiuoiuie e iaeioi?uie
a?ucoiaie ec ieaeiieoathueo, aeaai?iieaie ec ioeoe. A ioee/ea io
aniaeoia, nicaeaaaaiuo ?anoaieyie, aniaeo, iaycaiiue naiei
nouanoaiaaieai aeeaioiui, iineo yoaia?iue oa?aeoa?, ii iiaeao aicieeaoue
e en/acaoue ii ianeieueei ?ac a aeaiue.

Ii?iue ia?ac aeecie, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a noaie, – ?acoeueoao
ionoonoaey anoanoaaiiuo oe?uoee. A noaie iiiai caiea?iaa. Iaeie ec ieo
(neaiooiiee e neaiuoe) ?itho neiaeiua nenoaiu ii? a iieneao iniiaiie
ieue (iiaecaiiuo /anoae ?anoaiee) e caeoii?eaatho auoiaeu ec ieo,
ae?oaea (noneeee e no?ee) ?itho aeoaieea ii?u, a eioi?uo iie
aiaaeatho a eaoithth niy/eo, ia?aoiaeyuoth a aeeeoaeueioth
ceiithth, o?aouee (i?aeiouanoaaiii iieaaee e oiiy/ee) ?itho
ioiineoaeueii iaaeoaieea (~ 30 ni) ii?u, i?aaenoaaeythuea nenoaio
aaoaenouo oiaeia. Ae?oaea aeeaioiua, naie ia ?ithuea ii?, ioioii
iinaeythony a /oaeeo ii?ao. Oaeiau aaniicaiii/iua, a oii /enea
aeoee – /a?iioaeee, aeoaeaeeoeu e iiiaea ae?oaea, yua?eoeu e ciae
e aeaaea iaeioi?ua ioeoeu, iai?eia? iiaaiea e iaa?ue (e?aniay
ooea). Yoe ioeoeu auaiaeyo a ii?ao ioaioeia, a caoai ia?aaiaeyo
eo ia aeeaeaeoee aiaeiai. Oaeei ia?acii, ii?u iiaoo neoaeeoue e
oe?uoeyie, e ianoaie, aaea aeeaioiua aiaaeatho a niy/eo, a a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e ei?iiauie oiaeaie. Iiiaea no?iyuea ii?u
aeeaioiua aaaeoo eieiieaeueiue ia?ac aeecie. Aeey eieiieaeueiuo
aeeaioiuo eiatho nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea caoeiaua e c?eoaeueiua
i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiua neaiaeu. Eiaaea, iai?eia?, ia?anaeaaoue
eieiiee noneeeia, oi ana a?aiy iaoiaeeoueny a oeaio?a e?oaa,
eeoaiiiai eo, ii ia?eoa?ee eioi?iai noiyo o auoiaeia ec ii?
caa?ueee. Aianoa n oiaie ia?aaeaeaaaony e yoio eeoaiiue noneeeia
e?oa: nia?aaee caa?ueee i?y/oony a ii?u, a ncaaee – auneaeeaatho ec
ii? e noaiiayony aeeauie noieaeeaie. I?e yoii caa?ueee ana a?aiy
ia?anaenouaathony, aeaaay ciaoue oiaa?euai ia eaeouai aiciiaeiii a?aaa.

A ii?ao iaeoatho e aeaeu, oieueei eniieuecothuea eo iiae
aeeeuea, e nai?ioaae, iiaaeathuea inoaoee ieue oicyaa, e
iiiai/eneaiiua yeoiia?aceou. Iineaaeiea iiaoo auoue ia?aiin/eeaie
aieaciae, ec eioi?uo iiiaea yaeythony ciiiicaie, o. a. iiaoo ii?aaeaoue
e aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea. Oaeiau, iai?eia?, aaii??aae/aneea eeoi?aaeee
e ?yae ae?oaeo aieaciae. AEeaioiua, ia ono?aeaathuea ii?,
ca/anooth aaaeoo noaaeiue ia?ac aeecie. Ec ieo eiiuoiua (naeaae,
?aiaa – aeeeay eioaaeue oa?iai) ea?aee e ea?atho nouanoaaiioth
?ieue a aeecie noaiiuo aeioeaiicia. Eae iieacae ecaanoiue aioaiee
E. E. Ia/ineee, aac oia?aiiiai auiana, i?e eioi?ii aeeaioiua
?acaeaatho eiiuoaie neiieaiey ia?oaie eenoau ia iiaa?oiinoe
ii/au, oeie/iua noaiiua ?anoaiey iiaeaatho e ia niaio ei
?acaeaathony ?acee/iua iaeii- e aeaoeaoiea ni?iua aeaeu –
/a?oiiieio, inio e ae?. Ia?aauian aaaeao e aeaa?aaeaoeee noaiiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe, e niaia e?oiiiaea?iiaeiiuo ceaeia (eiauee)
ceaeaie iaeeiaea?iiaeiiuie (oei/ae, oiieiiia e ae?.), a i?e
aeaeueiaeoai oneeaiee – e aicieeiiaaieth oae iacuaaaiuo oieie,
ia eioi?uo noaiiua iiiaieaoieee ii/oe en/acatho, a i?aiaeaaeatho
eoeiae/iue iyoeee, ?aciiiaeathueeny a yoeo oneiaeyo i?aeiouanoaaiii
aaaaoaoeaii (i?e iiiiue eoeiae/ae, eiathueony eae i?e iniiaaiee
noaaeae, oae eiiaaea e .a nioeaaoeyo aianoi oeaaoeia), a oaeaea
iaeiieaoieee. E?iia oiai, i?e /?acia?iii auiana i?ienoiaeeo
iionouieaaiea noaiae – iaiaa ena?ioeeueiua ?anoaiey niaiythony
iaiaa nuaaeiaiuie aeey aeeaioiuo iieuiyie e ‘ae?oaeie aeaeaie,
naienoaaiiuie ionouiyi e iieoionouiyi.

Noaiiua iiaea?u neo/aeenue e aei i?iieeiiaaiey /aeiaaea a noaie
(io oaea?a iieiee), a n iiyaeaieai /aeiaaea noaee iau/iui yaeaieai.
Nooay o?aaa caai?aaony, a ia/aaoeeny iiaea? auno?i ?anoe?yao o?iio
ianooieaiey e eaeao iieinie a ianeieueei aeanyoeia eeeiiao?ia
oe?eiu ni nei?inoueth aaoiiaoeiu. I?e yoii iiaeaaao iiiai
aeeaioiuo, eioi?ua ia oniaee ni?yoaoueny a ii?u eee oaaaeaoue io iaiy.
Oe?eia aieiu iaiy i?e aai aunioa 2 – 3 i ninoaaeyao ia aieaa iao?a –
iieooi?a, e n?aco ca i?ioaaeoei iaiai inoaaony iieina /a?iie caiee,
ia eioi?ie eeoue eia-aaea aeiai?atho e oeatho aea?iiaeiee
noaiiuo ?anoaiee. A iiieaeaieyo, ia iu?aeiuo eoaao n?aaee noaie
iaiiue i?e oaeii iiaea?a noieo /anaie.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiaea?ia auai?aao any aaoioue, iiiaea naiaia, eaaeauea
ia iiaa?oiinoe ii/au. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?e iiaea?ao no?aaeatho
iaeeiaea?iiaeiiua ceaee, a e?oiiiaea?iiaeiiua, ?inoiaua ii/ee
eioi?uo aieaa iaaeaaeii caueuaiu io iaiy iniiaaieyie eenoueaa,
eo/oa auaea?aeeaatho auaeeaaiea; aeaioo oaeaea iieiaeua
aea?aaoea, iiyoiio noaiiua iiaea?u i?einoaiaaeeaatho ianooieaiea
eana ia noaiue. Iinea iiaea?ia ?acei oooaeoathony ei?iiaua
ea/anoaa noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, iiea ia io?anooo naaaeea eenouey;
oiaaea ea/anoai ei?iia noaiiaeony aieaa aunieei, /ai auei aei iiaea?a.

?ithuay aeayoaeueiinoue noaiiuo aeeaioiuo ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue
a eciaiaiee oa?aeoa?a ii/aaiiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa. No?ee e
noneeee, aua?anuaathuea ii/ao n aeoaeiu aei 2 – 3 i, ianuiatho
eo?aai/eee, ii/au eioi?uo iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie. Anee neie
iiaeii/au, aua?anuaaaiua caa?ueeaie ia iiaa?oiinoue, aiaaou
eaaei?anoai?eiuie nieyie, oi canieaiiay iiaa?oiinoue eo?aai/eeia
iie?uoa nieaauiineeaie, aaeioeeueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, a anee
aeeaioiua aua?anuaatho ia iiaa?oiinoue .iiaeii/ao, aiaaooth
ea?aiiaoaie eee aeinaie, oi ii/au eooaai/eeia ?annieythony e ia
ieo iinaeythony noaiiua ?anoaiey. A iaieo neo/ayo a noaiyo
aicieeaao eiiieaeniinoue. Nicaeaieth eiiieaeniinoe niinianoaoao e oi,
/oi naii nouanoaiaaiea eo?aai/eeia yaeyaony i?e/eiie
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey niaaiauo e aeiaeaeaauo aiae e i?iiuaaiey
iiieaeaiiuo o/anoeia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo iaaeaeo ieie. Eiiieaeniinoue
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa niinianoaoao iano?ioa aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey.

N?aaee iaeoaoaeae noaiae, eae auei oeacaii, eiathony aeeaioiua,
iio?aaeythuea iiaecaiiua /anoe ?anoaiee. E?iia oiiiyioouo
neaiooiiie e neaiuoae, yoi oeiei?u a neae?neeo noaiyo, aioa?u a
i?a?eyo Naaa?iie Aia?eei, ooei-ooei a iaiianao THaeiie Aia?eei.

E /eneo i?aeiouanoaaiii caeaiiyaeiuo oi?i ioiinyony ?aciiia?aciua
iieaaee, noneeee, no?ee, eoaiaua niaa/ee e cayoe-aaeye. Aieaa
anayaeiuie aeaeaie yaeythony iuoiaee e ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee
oooeai/eeia, oiiy/ee, eioi?ua iio?aaeytho naiaiiie ei?i,
aaaaoaoeaiua iacaiiua e iiaecaiiua /anoe ?anoaiee e aeeaioiua
ei?ia.

Ec ioeoe ya?eoaaaie yaeythony ae?ioa, no?aiao e iiiaea ae?oaea
aeaeu. Ya?eoaaey iiaeao auoue naycaia n aunuoaieai a ?acaa? eaoa
caeaiuo ?anoaiee e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aeeth/aoueny a yoio ia?eiae ia
ae?oaea ei?ia.

?yae aeaeia, eae auei oeacaii, ia eaoi aiaaeaao a niy/eo, eioi?ay
caoai ia?aoiaeeo a ceiithth. Oae, iaeiiea cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai
aee?a, noneeee e no?ee ooiaeyo a ii?o – ia?auie naioeu, caoai,
iinea ieii/aiey auea?ieeaaiey aeaoaiuoae – naiee, e oaea inaiueth
-. iieiaeiye. Noneeee e no?ee auoiaeyo ec ii? ia iiaa?oiinoue
?aiiae aaniie, eae ?ac a ia?eiae ianniaiai ?acaeoey yoaia?ia e
yoaia?ieaeia, e auno?i iaaaeathony; e ia?eiaeo aunuoaiey iniiaiie
iannu ?anoeoaeueiinoe naioeu aeeaioiuo iaeaieeaatho aee? e
ieacuaathony aioiauie e caeaaaieth a niy/eo.

Ianniaua ?aciiiaeaiey eiatho ianoi o iaeeeo a?ucoiia (iieaaee) e
o iaeioi?uo ianaeiiuo. A yoe ia?eiaeu oie/oiaeathony iniiaiua aeaeu
ei?iiauo ?anoaiee e aeeaioiua auioaeaeaiu i?aaei?eieiaoue
iea?aoeee, iinea /aai no?aaeaiiay eie ?anoeoaeueiinoue auno?i
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony.

Naiaia?aciie aeeciaiiie oi?iie ?anoaiee noaie yaeythony
ia?aeaoe-iiea. E yoie aeeciaiiie oi?ia ioiinyony ?anoaiey, eioi?ua
ioeaiuaathony o ei?iaaie oaeee a ?acoeueoaoa ia?anuoaiey, ?aaea
– ia?aaieaaiey, e ia?aiinyony aao?ii ii noaie; i?e yoii, oi
iiaeieiaynue a aicaeoo, oi oaea?yynue i caieth, iia ?annaeaatho naiaia.
Aiiaua aaoa? a ia?aiina naiyi noaiiuo ?anoaiee ea?aao nouanoaaiioth
?ieue. Caeanue i/aiue iiiai ?anoaiee n eaoo/eaie. Aaeeea ?ieue aao?a
ia oieueei a iiueaiee ?anoaiee, ii eiee/anoai aeaeia, a iiueaiee
eioi?uo i?eieiatho o/anoea ianaeiiua, caeanue iaiueoa, /ai a eanao.

Ena?ioeeueiua o?aayiua niiauanoaa oia?aiiiai iiyna ?acee/athony a
ciiaeueiii e a ?aaeiiaeueiii ioiioaiee. Oae, aaiaa?neea iooou
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie naaa?iua, ?aciio?aaiua eee eoaiaua aa?eaiou
noaiae. A eaninoaiiie ciia aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee ?acaeou
?aciio?aaiua eee eoaiaua noaiiua niiauanoaa. THaeiaa, a noaiiie ciia,
eiathony aeaa oeia noaiae – aieaa naaa?iua e?ani/ii-?aciio?aaiua
e aieaa thaeiua eiaueueiua.

Aeey noaiae Caiaaeiie Neae?e oa?aeoa?iu i?ioeannu caaiea/eaaiey,
eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e o/anoeth cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa aieioiuo oi?i
a ninoaaa o?aainoiy, ?acaeou e i?ioeannu canieaiey, aucuaathuea
aiaae?aiea a o?aainoie aaeioeeueiuo aeaeia. A noaiyo Caiaaeiie Neae?e
iaiueoa, /ai a noaiyo aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee, ceaeia. Yoe noaie
oaeaea iiae?acaeaeythony ia naaa?iua e thaeiua. E thao io
?aciio?aaiuo noaiae e caeanue, eae a aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee, ?acaeou
eiaueueiua noaie, iiae?acaeaeythueany ia aieaa naaa?iua – e?ani/ii
-eiaueueiua e aieaa thaeiua – aane?ani/ii – eiaueueiua. Iniaua noaie
ano?a/athony ino?iaaie a Ainoi/iie Neae?e. Caeanue eiathony noaie
aino?aoeiaua, ciaaaeiaua e /aou?aoceaeiaua.

I?a?ee Naaa?iie Aia?eee iiaoo auoue iiae?acaeaeaiu n ainoiea ia
caiaae ia aunieio?aaiua (ni cia/eoaeueiui o/anoeai aeaeia ?iaeia
ai?iaea/, eiaueue e ae?.) e ieceio?aaiua, aaea iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho
aeciiiaa o?aaa e o?aaa a?aia. Aeaeiaay ianuuaiiinoue e o/anoea
?aciio?aauey n ainoiea ia caiaae oiaiueoathony. Iaiianu THaeiie
Aia?eee i?aaenoaaeytho noaiaiiaeiaiua niiauanoaa n i?aiaeaaeaieai
ceaeia ec .?iaeia ia?eiaiee, eiaueue, i?ini, ianiaeoi e ae?., a ec
?aciio?aauey – ianeaiia, neiaaieiaieeia, aa?aai, ii?ooeaeia, eeneeoe e
ae?.

A Iiaie Caeaiaeee ano?a/athony ceaeiaua niiauanoaa oonnieia n
i?aiaeaaeaieai aea?iiaeiiuo aeaeia iyoeeea, ianyieoeu e ae?.

Aeiianna noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeyao, ii E. A. ?iaeeio e I. E.
Aaceeaae/, a eoaiauo noaiyo NNN? 2500 oe/aa (ec ieo ia aeieth
iiaecaiiuo i?aaiia i?eoiaeeony ieiei 1700 oe/aa), a oia?aiii
canooeeauo noaiyo – 2500 oe/aa (ec ieo iiaecaiiuo /anoae – 2050
oe/aa), a nooeo noaiyo – 1000 oe/aa (ec ieo iiaecaiiuo /anoae –
850 oe/aa). Ii I. I. Aoi?iao e I. I. Ae?icaeiao, aeiianna
aunieio?aaiuo noaiae ninoaaeyao aei 1500 oe/aa, ii ia?a oneeaiey
a?eaeiinoe caianu oeoiiannu iaaeatho aei 100 – 200 oe/aa.

Naaaeaiey i i?iaeoeoeee ena?ioeeueiuo o?aayienouo niiauanoa: ii E.
A. ?iaeeio e I. E. Aaceeaae/ – io 137 oe/aa a eoaiauo aei 42 a nooeo
noaiyo; ii I. I. Aoi?iao e I. I. Ae?icaeiao – a aunieio?aaiuo
o?aayienouo niiauanoaao 100 – 200 oe/aa, ii ia?a aic?anoaiey a?eaeiinoe
i?iaeoeoeey iaaeaao aei 50 – 100 oe/aa.

?aniaoea ioe?uouo i?ino?ainoa eee o/anoeia, aicieeoeo ia ianoa
oie/oiaeaiiuo eania, i?eaaea oe ?aceiio eciaiaieth ninoaaa
aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey noaiiie ciiu. Iaoe?iua ieiuaaee iinaaia
oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aceie a oa/aiea aiaea niaiie oneiaee
nouanoaiaaiey. Ia iaoe?iuo i?ino?ainoaao iieae nouanoaoao
iaeii?iaeiue o?aayiie iie?ia, n eioi?ui naycaiu nia/aea (n aaniu)
i?aeiouanoaaiii iio?aaeoaee caeaiie ?anoeoaeueiie iannu, ei a?aiaie
nic?aaaiey ca?ia niaiythueany ca?iiyaeiuie oi?iaie ieaeiieoathueo e
ioeoe; caoai, eiaaea oeaa oae?atho e iiey ?aniaoeaatho, aicieeatho
ianniaua aaeaaiaeiua iea?aoeee iaeoaoaeae iieae ia eaniua iiooee, iaaee
e a ae?oaea oe?uoey.

I?e aniaoea oie/oiaeaaony ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ii? e aiacae
aeeaioiuo. Ii ia?a iiauoaiey o?iaiy aa?ioaoieee e naycaiiiai n
yoei oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa ni?iyeia ei?iiaay aaca iaeoaoaeae iieae
noaiiaeony ana aieaa iaeii?iaeiie. Iea?aoeee aeeaioiuo: aanaiiea
– ia iiey, eaoia-inaiiea – n iieae, naycaiiua n eo ianniaie aeaaeueth,
noaiiayony ?aaoey?iuie; ai a?aiy iea?aoeee oneeeaaaony aeaaeue
caa?ueeia. Ii?/a oai?ee o?iaeay nicaeathony aeiiieieoaeueiua
oe?uoey aeey caa?ueeia; nee?aeu, noneiiu e o. ae. Aieaa aeaaii?eyoiu
aeey caa?ueeia oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey a iinaaao aiaiauo eoeueoo?,
eioi?ua, ai-ia?auo, ia ia?aiaoeaathony aaeaaiaeii, ai-aoi?uo, aeatho
iieiioeaiiua aunieiea/anoaaiiua ei?ia.
Ii ia?a aniaoee eaniuo o/anoeia nthaea i?iieeatho
iaeoaoaee noaiae, io/anoe eoaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, noaiiay aeiaaia?aoe/aneay ciia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
naiaia?aceai i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a,
i?eniiniaeaiiuo aeey aeecie a aeaiiie ciia.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1) 1) Ai?iiia A. A. Aeiaaia?aoey n iniiaaie yeieiaee. – 2-a ecae. – I.:
Ecae-ai IAO, 1987.

2) 2) Aoi?ia I. I., Ae?icaeia I. I. Aeiaaia?aoey iaoa?eeia. – 2-a ecae.
– I.: I?inaauaiea, 1979.

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