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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee Oe?aeiu

?aoa?ao

ii oaia

«Iaania/aiea oe?aeineie yeiiiieee yia?aiiineoaeyie»

Aeiiaoee 2009 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen Oe?aeiu

3. ?ieue oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena a yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu

4.I?e?iaeiua e enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena

5. O???y ???????

6. Iaooaaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

7. Aaciaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

8. Yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea

9.N??e ?????? ?????

Aaaaeaiea

I???a ?????y ?????a y??????y?. A?i ????, ?i a?, ??ue, ??ue e ??
y???y??eth ????ny ??????ue ? ??????? n ???e ????, a y? ???, ?i ?e ??a
??o ????ue ?? ???y ? ?????eth ????e ??? ??????e ????e. A???i ? y?
??????y ??i 8 ??. ?e., ? ?i ?? 2/3 ??i ????i y???a. Ae??? y??????? ??? ?
??e ??o oy?? ???no?e: ???? ??ay, ???????a ??th??a ????? ???a ? y???????y
e o. ae. Iiy?? ???? ???o ??????i e ??????i ???y, ???a ?? ? y?????e ???i
e ??????? ?y O???.

A????a ?????? y??ee, ?eth?y ????? ???i e ????th y???y??eth (y??oth e
a??????th), ????i a 2000-2003aa. ??i 53% ??????. Iiy?? ??ae ?????? e ??o
??? ?e ????? ??? 100% ?????ueth a y???, e a ?y? n y?i ?????o ?????y ???
?? ?i ?a???ey y???e a ??????? ? ???ie y?????e ??? ?e ???y, ???eyth?y ?c
O??? e ???. E??y ? y?ai ???? ???e ?y O????e y????, ?oy ?? y?yth??y ?
?????e ??e ??? ?i?????y ?????? ??? a yi??e ? ?? ? ???i?? ??????.

O???i-y??????e ???? O???

O???i-y??????e ???? O??? ??o a ??i ???y??e ??-?e????e ?????e y??????ue,
????e i???ueth ????? ?????e ???? y????e a ???i ???a. Ii ?y y?? ???o ????
???? ? ??a 100 ?i. o ?ey, a ? 76,9 ?i. o, ?e ????ny ???y. A??ay ???a
??????i ??ue??y ??? ?ey — ??n ???? ??ia ???e. I???, ?i 98 ?? ???u a
y?????th a ????a ??, a 50 — ? ??? XIX—XX ?.; 90% ?? ???oth?o ?????th?o
???ey?e ???tho ?c ??????e e ?????? ?????? ??a 30 ?o, a ? ??y ?e ????? a
??? ???e ??ii ?????ue ???? ??c ??? 15 ?o. E ?? ? ???? ??ue ???? ? ???e
???a (a ???i 1000 i). Yoi ??a ???? e oy??a ????? a ??, ?????u ??nyo ? e
????e «N». Ai ?? ???o ??a? ???iay ??? ?ey ??????a. ??????e yaey?ny ???
???ay (A???ey, E????). I??i ??u ??? ?????e e y???y????e ? ???ytho ?i
???. E??e ???ue, a A???e e NOA ? ?? ?????tho ???th ?eth y???yia??.

A ?????? y???y??? ??i ?e ? ????a oy??a. A??? ??????e ? — ??iy??????e
???tho ?-? ????? ????e ??????? ?ey e ? ???e ?????u ??. C??? ? ??????
y???y??? ??, ?i ?? ???e ?????yi.

Ia ?a a ??y?a n ?????? ???o ???e y??? ????. O???? ??y ??? ?????, ? ?????
???u ????ny ??????ue ? ???e, ?e ?e ? ?????? o ?n ?a ? ????.

I?????i ????a ??? ??a ?e ?????tho ??????a ??????a, Ae?y AYN a ??i
????n?a y???y??? ???ey? ??? 4%; y? ?e??o ?????tho ???????i 8 ??o ???o
???e ? Ae??a. N???a ??-y?????oe? ? ????? ??o ??aei ? ????ue ????
y???????y, ????a?? ??????? ????ey, ???? ???? ??????a ????? ???a a C???i
???a e o. ae. A ???i, y ???th, ??-y??????e ??????i ???ue ??th?. N??? ??a
???eoue ?, ?i ?? ????u a 50—60-a ??, a ??i ???a??.

I?? ???? ???? ? ???a ?i?u ???? ???. I? ??? ?ey a ????o ??? ? ?? Ae???e
???e ? ??????y a ??? 3 ??. i3 a ?ae. C??u y?? ?? a O??? ?n??tho 3,5 ??.
i3. A ?? ????e o?o ????tho ??i ?? ? 20% ??? (a NOA — 40—60%). I??y a
O??? ???? ?y ??????i ??? ??? ?a ????a ? E????.

A ??i ? E???i-A??n?i ???? ??? ????i ?? ???eytho ?e ???i 10 ??. i3.

Oe????? ???e *??? ??y n I????? ?i ??ueth, ? ??i?? ????, ???? ??a 2000
??. i3 ?ae???i ???. Ae??ue ?i ??i ??? ?ay ?????? ???? e ?????a ??????, ?
y? ?? ??? ?????i?.

O????a ???a ??????, ???a ????y ? ??y??e ????o ?ny? ?o, ??????o ?? ??? ?
y??eth e y???y??eth.

I???y ? ?, ?i ?o????ay ???? y??????e O??? y?ya?y ???e, ???ay ???y ????
????y. A???? ?????ue a ?????? ????th?o e ??????a ??o ????th?o ???oyo.

I? ????? ??o ??e?a ??? ?? ??? ???u ????? ?????y y?o ????e ???? ? ?nue
??? ???????ey y??????e.

?ieue oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena a yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu

I??i-?????e ????, ????a ???? ????e, ????a ???e ??a, ??????ey ??i ??????i
???i??i ???eyth?y ????i y????e ???, ???e ???e y?y?ny ????y ??. Iiy??
?????i, ?i ? ?? ???uo ???o ????? a ????-y??????e ???? ???eytho ???? 40 %
????o ?????o ???? a ???????.

«O?? ??a ????-y??????? ????a O??? ? ????a ?ny???a ? ?? ????eyi ? ???????
????th y??????e ?????? ???e e ???? ??????i ???? .

A???e ???e ??? ?????ue a ??? ??o y??? e ???a, ?oy a ???? ????th?y ??a ??
y??????o ????, ?e ??ue, ?e??? ?c, y??? ???i e ?? ??ue.

?????a ???ey?e oy??e ????e, ?a ???u ? ??th?a ???eytho ?????oth ??ue
??????e ???e ????e, ????y ?ae ???? ?ey?? y??????? ???a. I????? ???a –
??? ?????ey ?????? ?????, ???? ??a- e ???????. A??oth ?? ??? ???i ?e
??iii-???????? ???. A?y?a ?i ?i ???e ,?i ??? ??? e ???a ???i-y??????
????? ???? ???a. Ae??? ???i ?????o ???eth ????????o ?????a, ????o
??????th ?cy??a ???. A??e n ?i ???o ????, ?i ???i ?????ny ??a a y????a e
y?y?ny ???i ?y ????y ??????o ??? ????a. I????, ? ??e ???tho ? ??? ????a
????u, ? e ????a ??a e ???ath?a ???a?, ?a???u, ?th?a ????, ??????a ???a,
????y. Ec ????? ?? ????yo ??????a ??? e ???? ???a?, ??eytho ??. O??
y?y?ny ??? e????i ?y ????y ????n ,???a e ??? ????a ??????.

A ????a ??????? O??? ? ?eth ????e ????ny 15% ????e ???? ??? e ??e 8%
??????e ?????e ?i????-????????i ????a. O???i-y??????e ???? ?????
11%????e ?????? ????e O???.

I?ay ??? ???a a O??? ??a ? 1987a. I??i, a ????a ??, ??eth?? ???u ???
???a ??? ????y. Y? ?uy?y?ny ???i ???i ???i?i ??i-??????o ???e ??? ?ey a
Ae???a, ???????th ??? ????, ??y?e e ???e ???????, oy??i ????i-y??????
????? ??? a ??i. O????a ?n??a ? ??? e ???????o ???a ???o ?????a y??????
???????? ????? ?o ?e ??? ??????e. Aeey ? ?????y a y??iy?????? ????
????tho ????? ???? ???, ???a ?tho ?????ue ?y?? a ??a? O??? e ? y??????
?e?? ?????i ?????e ???e ???ue ???, ?????o ?y ????y ????o a?? ???a. O?, ?
????e ???? c??o ?????atho ???ue y???????ey Oe??u a ??i e ? ????o
y?????eo ???a.

O???a????? ????? ???a O??? ?uy?y?ny ??? ??i ?????? ???????e ???e ?????y
???? i???? ???a, ?????? ???????i a ???o ??? e ?????y ???a. Iiy?? a
?????a ????? ??? ???a ???a: ???????? ????oth e ???????th ????o ?????
???a, a ??a ???????? ?????? ??a?o ?????? ???a. I???? ?????, ?i ????
y?????? ??????i ??c???a a y???????o ??iao y?y?ny ??i ? ????o ???e
????????? ??? e ?????y ???a a ?????? ??a. *? ???ny ????????ey ????u
????? ???a, ? a ?????a ?y ???? e th?? ???a Oe??u ??? y????e ??o
y???y??ey AYN, a ?y ????o ???a – ??ue Ae???a. OYE – ???y ??????y ???a
??? e ?????? ???a e y???, ???????e, ??????y e ?i????ey. A ?i ??? ??yo
????y ??????? (??y?y, ???y, ???ay, ne???y, ??y?y) e y???y????a, ??i
?y??ay ? ??e ???y? ??ae?? ?cy??a.

I???a ?????y ????? y???? y??????y? — ?? ? ??o ?????o. A?, ??ue, ??ue e
?? y???y??eth ????ny ??????ue. A??ae? ? y? ??????y ??i 8 ??. ?e., ? ?i
?? 2/3 ??i ????i y???a. Ae??? y??????? ??? ? ??e ??o oy?? ?????e: ????
??ay, ???????a ??th??a ????? ???a ? y???????y e o. ae. Iiy?? ??ea? o???
??????i ???y.

Ia ?????i y?? y??????i ??e?y ??y ??ay – ????-y??????y i???a. O???a ?
????? ???ey? ?????e, ??u e ?????a y??????i e ?????i ???ey. C???a ???a ?y
y???? eth?e ??? ???: ?c ?? ????? ???????? ???n, ??oa ???????, ????i
?cy??a e ??n??a. I???? ????? ?????e y??? ? ?????i y?? y?yth?y ??ue,
??ue, ????e a?, ??iy??ey, a ??a a??i ??? ???? ???e y???. Ae?y ????o
????? (??a, ??, y??ey ???, ??a, ??????y y??ey) a ??i y???????? ???ey? ??
????i ????a.

I?e?iaeiua e enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena

OYE ???o ? ??? ???? e ?????e ??????i ?????aa, ???a ???????ny ? ???,
???a?e, ?????e e ?????e ???? ??????i, ???i e ???? ???a ????n?a, ???? e
??????a y???y??? e ??a. N???? OYE O??? ?????y n ???i ????-y??????? ???a,
???e ???o, e ????? ???????th ????o ??? (??????) e ?????a ????o e
y??????o ????

O???i-y??????e ??? O??? ???????y ?y?i ??????? ??????, ???a ???th?y ???e
??ueth ????i ?ey, ???e y??? e ??????? ??????? ??o ????o y??????o ????,
?e ??iy??ey, a ??a ??ue e i??? ? ia????e.

Aei???a e ??a ???a ?? O??? ?? ??e ? ???o ????-y??????o ?c a A??a. I? ???
50-70% ?ey, a ??a ??e 40-90% ??? ????-??th?? ?? N????i Nith?. Ii ??ith
???ey ????e ??????? ????ea ???? ?????th?a ??i a A??a e ??e ? ??? ?? a
??. *?????y ?????y ??? ???a e ????? ????e ?i ??a??ey, ?????? y??? ????i
?ey e ???? ?? – ?? y? ???i e ????eth ??? ???? ??e?, e ???a ??? ???a
????i ?ey. O?i???ue ???????ey a ??????? Ae??n?. A ????? ?o ??ue ????
???? ???????? ??u, ????ey, ???o ????ay ??a. I??? ????e ?????ae ? ????e
??ue auy??? ?y?????e. Ae? ?? ??ue e ??i?e ??? Ae???a, ?i ?e ????, ?e?? e
????eth ?????. E y? ??a, ??a ???? ??ue ?????????e (n ??? ??????o ?i ?
??ue), a Ae???, ?e ?????i ?????? ????? ?????e ???? ??????? ??o ???i
????y?? ?????e ?y ?????y.

Oi???y ??????? O??? ???o ? ?i??- e ??????, ??a- e ?????th?e, ??y?e e
??????????e ????.

«A ????a ?? ???? ??i a y?e ????a (??a 95%) ???e ??ue, a 1970a. ?i ??ue
???ey? 62,4%; ??i ???a ??? ?? (28,8%) e ??e (8%). A 1989a. ???o? ???
???????y ??? ????ey?: ? ??ue ?????ue 76,3% ?? ??? ???a. C?? ?a ???y
(18,9%), ?????a (4%), ??y?y (0,4%) ???ue ??????oe».

A??? ??i a ????e ??????? O??? ???tho E???ay e Ae???y ???e: a 1989a. ? ?o
?????ue ?i?????i 33% e 31% ?? ???? ????e ??n?. Ca ?? ?a E???ay, A???ay,
E??-O????ay e ????a ??? ???e.

O???y ??????? ?????? ???e ????i e ??? ?ey. ????e ??? ????i ?ey y?y?ny
????ay ??ue Ae???a e E???i-A???? ???i, ???i ?ey – Ae????? ?????? ???i.

Ae??a ????i ?ey ???? a Ae???a a 70-o ??o XX ?. e ??ue ??? ??????ue: n
1,4 ?i. o. a 1880a. ? 11 ?i. o. a 1900 a. e ? 16,9 ?i. o. a 1913a. I???a
I??e ???e ??u a Ae???a ????? 70,3% ?ey ?????e ???e. A ?? I??e ???e ??u e
A????? ??u ????? Ae???a ?????ue ? 4,6 ?i. o. (1920a.). I???a A??e ???e
??u ??ue ????? 83,7 ?i. o. ?ey (50,5% ??? N?N?). A 1989a. ??? ????i ?ey
a O??? ???eye 170,2 ?i. o., ??? – 10,0 ?i. o. ? ????i ??? ????i ?ey O???
???? ??? ??i a A??a ??a I??e.

A ???? ??e O??iu – ? ??? E???? ???e e ? th?-??? A???? ???e a ?????? ??
??? E???i-A???? ?????th?e ???i. Ia?i ??? ????i ?ey ?e ??i 14 ?i. o. a
?ae. *?? ?ey ?????ue e ???ey?? ? ??????a a ???ie ??e O??? y??????e. C??u
?ey ??ue ?? ?????? ????.

Ae??a ??? ?ey ????ey?? a ???? a E??????e e *????e ???yo (Ae????? ??????
???i). Y?o ??ue ???????y ???e ????ueth e ???n?th, ?????? ??? ??????th e
?????ny a ???? a ????? ??i?. A?????y ??????? a ?????? ???o ???a ??a a
AE????? ???e.

O???y ??????? ?????? ???e ????i e ??? ?ey. ????e ??? ????i ?ey y?y?ny
????ay ??ue Ae???a e E???i-A???? ???i, a??i ?ey – ????ath? Ae?????
?????? ???i.

O???y ???????

Ae??a ????i ?ey ???? a Ae???a a 70-o ??o XX ?. e i?? ??? ????a?y: n 1,4
?i. o a 1880 a ? 11 ?i. o a 1900a e ? 16,9 ?i. o a 1913a. I?? I??e ???e
??? a Ae???a ????????ue 70,3% ????? ?????e ???e. A ?? I??e ???e ??u e
A????? ??u ????? Ae???a ?????ue aei 4,6 ?i. o (1920a). I?? ??? ???e ?e?e
?o ????? 83,7 ?i. o ?ey (50,5 % ??? ????? NNN?). A 1989a ??? ????i ?ey a
O??? ???eye 170,2 ?i. o, ??ai – 10,0 ?i. o. Ii ????i ??? ????i oaey O???
???? ??? ??i a A??a ??a I??e.

A ???a ? ?? ????y a O?a?a ???tho 3500 ? ?ey (a ??? NNN? – 2701 ?, a NOA
– 3516, Aa?????? – 1771 ea, O??? – 294 ?, *?? e N???e – 7913 ?, I??a –
7039?).

A?? a O??? ??????y 295 ???oth?o ???????o ?? (a ?i ??a n ???? ??i – 131
??a). I?????i 41 ????e ???e ?y ???? ??????a ????e ????th 92 ?i. o ????i
?ey a ?ae (?y ????i ?ey – 16 ?? ???????? ????th 35 ?i. o ?ey).

Ia ?????i y?? Ae??? ?a ??a?y ??i ???i ???i ??? ???i? ?ey ??e ??i, ???a
????? ? ???i NNN?. A 1987a. ?o ?? ??? ??i 170 ?i. o ???? ?????? ???a. A
Ae???a ?????i 275 ?? (n ???? ??i – 120, ?????e – 81); ?????? 35 ????o
???? ?y ?i???ey ??. O? ?? ?????? ????a ???i?? ?y ????ey ?????.

O????a ???ueth ????ey?ny ????????e ?????y?, a ??? ???o ??yo ?????oth?a
???ey?y ???? ????i??e.

A Ae???a ??i ???i ec ?o y?y?ny Ae?????, Ae???a????, E??????????a,
O???????o, Oi?????o, N???????, E???????ue, E??i??????, ????????o,
A??????????? (??ae E??? E?), I?????, I?????? e ?. I????ny ?????ay ?a?a,
?????ay ? ??????e e ?????a ??????a ???oth?o e ?????o i??o ?????o ??.
Ae??a ????i ?ey ?????? a C???i Ae???a (Ae???????ay ?e.), ?a ????ey?ny
?????? i?ai ??? ???? ??????a. N?????? ??? ????i ?ey ?????? ???. Ia ???o
?????o ??? ?a ????y e ???ny ? ??? ???e ??????e ??? ????? ?ey. N?? 70%
????i ?ey ???ey?ny ? O???, a ?oa??y ??ue ????o a ??? ???.

A ???? ??e O??? – ? ?a?a E???? e th?-??? A???? ???e – ?????? ?? ???
E???i-A???? ?????th?e ???i. I?? ??? ??i?? ?ey ?o ???ey? ??i 14 ?i o a
?ae. Y? ??e ???i ? , ???i ???? ???y ???y ??ae I??e ???? ???. *?? ?ey
?????y e ???ey?ny ? ??????a a ???? ??e O??? y??????e (A????y,
Ae?????ay). A ???o ????? ???u ??a ??? e ???e ????????i ??: I?????,
N???a, A?iye. C??u ?ey ?o ?????? ????a – a ????a ?? ????????y ??????ue
???????? ?y? ??, a ???o ????i ???i. I???y ? ?????? ????a ??? ?a?e ?ey
E???i-A???? A??? ??? ??oth ?? a y???? C???e ??e O??? e ???ath?o ?????.
Ii ????? ? ???i ??? O???, ?a ????? ?o. Ae??a ??? ?ey ????ey?ny a
E??????e e *????e ???yo (Ae????? ao????? ???i). Y?o ??ue ???????y ???e
????ueth e ????ueth, ?????? ??? ?????? ?????ueth.

A ??? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? a ??????? ????o ??? ??? ?ey a ???? ??yo – ???
C???a e AE??e, a E???, a C????a. A ?y? n ?????i ???a e i??? ???
????-????? ????i ?ey ?????? ??u e ???u ???e. N?? ???e ???ue ????? ??ue
?e ae???? a 1955a – 981 ?n o, a ?i ?n? a C????a 400 ?n o, E???? i??? –
454 ?n o, E??-O????? – 68 ?n o.

Ia ??y??e ????o ?ny???e y??????y ???a, ?????, – ? ???ay ??, ???????y
???????th. Y? ?uy?y?ny ??????? ??????? ?? ?ey ?e ???? ??? e ????? ? ???i
??y ?y ?????? y???, e ?????? ????? ?? ?o? e ??. A ????a ??y ? ?? ???o ??
??a ?y??? ????y ?c???ey e ?eth ?e e ??? ????o y????ueth ? ????a ???a.

O?? ???atho ? ????? ?????:

Ii ???a ????y. O?? ???tho i???i ?e ???? (????) ????e, – ? y?? ???o ?i
??????ue. A O??ia ???? ???? ??ue ????ny a Aei????i ?????? ????. E???e
??ue ????i ???a ??? ????y e ???? y?????e ????o ?? ???a e ?i ??? ???.

Ii ????o ???o e ????. O?? ???y?ny ? ????, ??e, ????, y??????e. A O??? ?
???? ??ue ????ny 2/3 ???a. I???i ???i ??? ????i ?ey y?y?ny Ae???e ???i.
Ae??atho ??ue a 295???????o ???, ? ?o 131 ??a n

?e??i ??i. N?? ???i ????i ? Oe??a y?y?ny Ae??? n ???? 240 ??. o. O? ??
?a ??e ?ey: ???? (i???a ???a), ????, ???e. Ae???e ??ue ??o ???th
?????oth ?????ue e ??????oth ????ue. C?i ??????ue ?i ?????? ??? ?-? ???e
???u ????y ???a. Y? ???o ?i ??????????ue. A 1997a. ??oi 75,9 ?i. o ?ey,
a ?i ??a – 31,6 ?i. o – ????i.

In???e ??uey? ????? ???i ???? y?y?ny: ??a n ????? ???? e ????o ????? e
y?????? ?cy???, ????????ay ???a, ?????? ????a?e e ??o?y????a ????ey,
???? y??????a ???, ????a ?cy??a, ???ey?y e ?????e ????????? ?a?. N ????
??????? ?y? ?e ???????i ?y?? ?y????ue ??e 40% ????? ????y Ae???e e E????
i???e.

O???a ??u ??????u ???????i a ?????e e ???? ??yo Ae???e e th?? ??e E????
???e. E???e ??ue ???tho ???i ???i a ???e?? ??e Ae???e ???e a ??? E?e???,
I???e, A???e, Ae???, E??????a, E??????e e ??? ???a, a ??a a E?????? e
E????i ???o E???? ???e. A A??????i, E???n?i e A???? ???o E???? ???e
???tho ??? y??????? ?ey. A? ae??atho ????ath? a E????ii ???.

I?? ???a ??????i ???? a ???? Ae???a (Ae???????y ???ue). Na?????ue ?ey
Ae???a ???, ???, ? ???o ?????o ??? ?a ???? ?? ???e ??????e ??? ?ey a
Eo???i ????.

I?? 14 ?i. o ????i ?ey ??aatho ? E???i-A???? ???i ???? ????. C??u ?ey
??ue ????, ?y?? ????????y, ?i a ?????a a ???? ??o ???? ??? ?a ??u ? 15
???oth?o. C?????th ??ue ?ey y?? ???? ??eue?tho A????ay, Ae?????ay ????
y??????e.

Ae????? ?????? ???i ????? ? ???e ??e ? ?????? O??? e ???iy? ??????y
AE?????, A????, E???e, E??????e, *????e, C????? e Ae???????? ????. A???
?eyo ? 12 ?????? ???a, a ???o ?????ny ??a 100 ??????e. O?? ???? ?c ????e
???? ? ????e ?y ???????e ? ???a ???y?y, ???????y ???e ????ueth, ?????ny
a ?ii?? ?y ???o ??????. C??u ?ey, ???a ??i ???? ???ui ????, ????ath?y a
58 ??????yo. I????a ??i ??o ??????e a E??????e (29), Ae???????e(19) e
*????e (5) ???yo. Ca ????a ?? ?i ??/a ????y a ???? 4,5 ?i. o.

A?????y ??????? O??? ???iyao ???a ???????? ?????u, ??u, ??????a ???e, a
??a ???????a ???ey?y.

A O??? ??ue ??a ????ny ? E???i-A???? e Ae???????? ??ue?o ????o, ? ??? ?o
????a.

I?????th?y ???????

I?oy?y ??????? ??n???a ?????ath?e e ????????ath?e ???y?, ???a ???? a
I??????a a ??? ??? ???? XIX ?. a A????, ????? I????, a ??? E??ee. A ??a
XIX – a ??? XX ?. I????uea ?? ????? a ?? ???i ?????e. AE??a ???i ???tho
a I????? ? ?o ?? (?????ath?a ????ey A?e?????? e Ae??????c) – a ???o
A???aa (E???ay ???ue), Ae??u e I???? (E??-O????ay ?e.). I???u ??? ??e ?o
??????? e ?-? ??????e ???a ? ???y?ny.

N????ue ?????? ????e, ?i ?i? ??? ?????ath?i ???i I?????uey ?? n. I???/.
I????? a Na??a ?????e (??? a. E???) ???y a 1771a, a a N??e N?e (??a N???
N???) – a ??? XIX ?. ??o ??? ? ??ue, ????a ????? ???y (n 1884 a. ????
???y?? ? 500-600 i), ????? ????a ?????o ????? ??????i ????eth ?????e.
A?e 1864a. I?????a ??? 2 ?n o ??e, ? ?a a 1886a. – 29,1 ?n o. N?oth
???th ?a?o ??e ???? A???ay A???a a 1909 a. – 2001240 o. Y? ????i 5% ???e
??? ???i ???a. I????? e ???????? ???????e? ?o a ??o ?????o ??????a – ?
???e ??e ?????o, ??????, ???i ?????? ??a ???, ?????a ???? ??e – ????a,
??? ??????i ?y ?????? ???, a ??a a ???? ?eyo. A ???oth?a ?? ??? ??e e
????a a I????? ?????i ?????ue.

A?? ?????? ??? ??e ???y?y ? ??i Ae???-I??????e ???u.

I???????th?a ????ey ?????otho a N??? ( I???? e E??i??a ??????y),*?????e
(A??????,?????a,I????a ??????a e ?.) e I????e ( N?????, C??????,
??????e? ??????a e ?.) ???yo.

A?? ?????? ??? ??? ??e ???y?y ? ??i Ae???-I??????e ???u.

«A 1989a.a O??? ?? ??? 5,4 ?i. o. ??e (?eth?y ???? ????o). A ????a ??
??? ???i ???a a ??o??a ?????ue: a 1970a.,????,????a 13,9 ?i. o., a
1980a.-7,5?i o, a 1985a.-5,8 ?i. o.

I????????th?y ??????? O??? ?????? E?????, Ae?????i, E??????, O????i,
I???y??i,

E???? e A?aey??i ????a????th?? ????.

No?? ?????? ?? ?????e a ??????? ??? ????. I???y ?ey ???ie ??e ??e ????ny
? ???th, N??i? E??c , I???a.

A??ay ???????

A??ay ??????? O??iu ????? a I?????a a 20-a ?? XX?. Aei 50-o ??a y? ?e
???? ??i ??? ????? ??th?? ?? a ????i NNN?. O??i a ???oth?a ?? ???y
??????? ??? ?????y a ????o ???o ?????. Oe???e ??? ?? a I?????a ??
Ae?aaa, A??a-A??a, E??, ??? e ?.

A 1940 a. a I?????a ???????ue 87% ??? ?? a ????i NNN?. Ec y?? ??? ??
????u ??????a ?????u e E??, Ie??, ??a, E????o, I??a e ?. ???ai? ??ue
????????? ??? a ????? ?????ue ? ?? ???? ??a?y ????? ???a ? ???a. A
1951a. a I?????a ???? 42,2%, a 1957a. – 26,4%, a 1965 a. – ??i 10% ??
????? Nith?. A 1965a. ??? ???? ???a ? ??? O??? ??a?ye ??i 19 ?? ?a i.
I???? ????u??e ?? A????-A??a-A???? (?o a ???? 60-o ??a ????? ??e 60%
?????e?i ??), ?????-O????e, I???e, Ae????, a ??a Eaae??-E???ay e Ei???y
???e (?a ?????? ??????u a ??? a.N?ey, E???? ???e – ia ???a E??-O?????
?e.). N????ay ae??a ?? a I?????a ??????ay. A 60-a ?? y? ???ue ??? ?????
?????? a Ae?a?i-I??????e ?a?? ? ?? O???????, A?????, O??????i e ???
??????e. I???i ?????th?i ???i y?y?ny Ae???-Ae????ay ????a. A?th?e ?c ???
?????ny a ??????? e ??? ???yo ????i ?cy??a, a ??.

Y???y????a

Y???y????a y?y?ny ???e ???ueth ???ey y????. A 1989a. n???ay ????
y??????e ????? ????a 56,6 ?i. ?o; ?e ?? ?????i 295??ae ?o a ?ae
y???y???, ?i ???? ??i 15% ????e ?? y??????e e 17,4% ?????? ?? y???y???
???i NNN?.

Ii ?????? y???y??? O??? ??a ????o I??o (a 1988a. – 144 ??. eAo.?n), ?
45% – E??th e ? 10% ???, ?i Aa?????ey.

A??? ??i a O??? ?????o ???? y??????yi: ?e ????yo ?i? ??o ????e ??
y???y???. Ia ??iy??????yo ?? ???????? ??? 4,7 ?i. ?o ???? e 10,1 ??.
?o.?n ?????? y???y???.

A ????a ?? ?? ??iy???e? ??iy?i ??????ue: ? ??? n 1960a. ? 1989 a. ??
???? ???? ???e ???e a 5 ?c, a ?????? y???y??? – ??? ?i a 4 ?? (????
??iy??????e ??????? a 2,6 e 2 ??).

Ii ?i????o y???y??? ? ?? ????y (5700 ?o.?n) O??? ????y ?e?????i ???a
???i N?N? (5967 ?o.?n) e ??? ??i A??u – A??????e, *a?e, N???e e ?????i
?? ???i, ??? I??a, ???ey, TH???ey, E??y, Aa??y.

O????y ?????i ??? ???i-y???/??o ?????e ??? ???? ???e: ??????a ??????e
??????e ???? ???? ???e ??? ?????y a 1989 a. ???? 6188 ??a a ?ae e a
?a??? n 1970 a. ?????ue ? 263 ??. Ia ??iy??????yo a ?y? n ????? ?????
???????oth?o ???e ???i ?????ue ????? ??a ? ???c??ey (? ??? 1970 a. ?
1989 a., ????, n 4746 ? 2222 ??a a ?ae).

N???? ???u ????i ???a ? y??????yo. A?e, ????, a 1970 a. ? ????oth 1
?o./? y???y??? ?e ???ey? 380 a, ? a 1989 a. – 346 a.

Y???y??ey O??? – ???????a ?cy??i. A ? ??? ??yo, ??a ??i?o e ???????
???e, AYN, ???a ?cy??i (a ?i ?iy? ??i 60% ??i ??????i ????a ???e – ??a
a??a, ?i, ????, ? ???? ???yo).

A O??? ?????u ??a ??? ?i??a ???????a ???? y??????e, ?e O????ay, C????ay,
E?????y – 2, A????ay (O????ay ?e.), A????ay (E??-O????ay ?e.), E????ay
(A???ay ?e.), I??????y, N??????y, E?????y (Ae???y ?e.), O????ay (E???y
?e.) e ?.

O????th?yny ?? a y???y????e ?????o ????????o ??c???o ??a, ???i ????th?y
25 ???a ?????a. I????y ??iy??????ue – E???y OYOe – 5 (700 ?n. ?o).
???atho ??a Ae???ay (E?a), E???y OYOe – 6, O????ay OYOe – 5, I???y,
E???ay, E?????y e ??i ???.

A ??iy?a ??y ?????i, ?i ??e ?a ????? ???a y??????e ?????ue ?c ?????i
??????? e ?????????i ?????y, ?c ??a n?????e ?????, ?y?? ?ae ????i
??????? ????? ??????i E???e e *????? AYN. I????? ?????i ???ey ???e
y????e ?????e ?????o. Oe????? ????a ???i NNN? ???????a ??y ???e O???
???????e ??e ?y ??y??i ????ey ??o ???o y??????e. I??i-????????a e ????a
????u «?y??» a O??? e ??????? «????? ?ny?e «??????o ????» ?y ??????a
???o AYN. I? ?????e y?o ???? ? ???a?? ? ???ue y??????i ???ey ??i?a, ?
?????eue?y ?????ey ??????, ? ???a ????y, ? ??n?i ???, ? ???a
????-y??????o ?c. I?????a n ???? y?o ???? ?? ?????ue ???ue ??ae, ?i ??ue
? ?????ue ? y??????, ? ??a??a, ? y?????ea ???u. O????u «????» a ??i ???
Ae???a (e ?? a ??i Ae???), ?a, ?e ?a??i, ?? ?????ue ????ey y??????e ?
??. A ?????a ????? e ??????o ??ay ?????ay y??????, ???y a?th?? ?a ??o?
y??????e. I? y?y?ny ??ueth A??e y??????e ???u ???i Nith? e ?y??? ? n
y??????e «I?». A ??? y?????? ??yo ??????? ??e y??????? (EYI), a ??a
????? e ??????? ???u. I??a EAI ?i?y??? 10 ?o ?? ????u a Ae???a ? O????e
AYN e E???a. A 1962 ?? ???a a ???? ??ay a ???e ???? EAI ??iy??i ?? (800
?o) A???y AYN Ae???. A i???? ?? ?e ???e ????? ??i ????th ???u ?????i??
??e y??????/ ??y??? 750 ?o Ae???-C???y O???-A????? (A??ey), ?i ??
?????ue ????? ?????oth ??? A??e y??????e ???? e y?????? «I?». A??e
?????y????e ????e O??? y?y?ny i????? ??? ???? ?e ????uo ????th?o ????e.
Ec-? ????ey y?o ????e a ?n «?? ? y???y??? ??th?th?y ?yae ???ey?e, ?i ???
ca ??e ????a ?????e ? ???????ey, ???? e ???? ???yi. A ??a?? ?? ???o
????th?o ????e ??o ????? ??e 15?i ?o. I? ????e ?? ???????o ????e ia AYN
y?o ???o ???? ? 25 ?i. eAo. O?? ???i, ????? ????? ??i?e ???o ????
y??????e ,??? i?ai ??????a y?????e ??? y??????e. Ca ???i, a ??o ???o ?e
NOA. A??y, O??y, E??a ???? ??yo ??a y??????e e ???atho ?? y??? ????u.
O?ay ????? ???a ?????o ??????i ???ey e ???ey.

N??e ?????? ?????

1. «Oe?aeia iao?aaeeoeeiiiua e aiciaiiaeyaiua enoi/ieee yia?aee»
Aaeaoooa A., Eoae?y N., 2005a.

2. «I?ay y???e?.A??c ??iy?y e ?????? ???ey» E???i A.E., E??? A.N.,
2005a.

3. «Iaeay yia?aaoeea. ?ani?aaeaeaiiay aaia?aoeey a nenoaiao
yia?ainiaaaeaiey» A. A. I?aoiaiee, 2000a.

4. «Ianoieueiay eieaa yia?aaoeea» A. E. Iaioeeia, A. E. Yiaiaaoia,
2007a.

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