.

Мировые лесные ресурсы

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 897
Скачать документ

2

Ieai:

I. Aaaaeaiea. Ean – aiaaonoai /aeiaa/anoaa

II. Caianu e iio?aaeaiea eana

1.1. Ie?iaua eaniua ?ano?nu

1.2. Eaniua ianneau naaa?iiai e thaeiiai iiyna.

1.3. Eaniua ?ano?nu ?innee

1.4. Eaniua ?ano?nu sseooee

1.5. Nuacae eanie/eo ?anioaeeee

III. Caeeth/aiea. Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu eaniiai oicyenoaa e aai
?aoaiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Aaaaeaiea.

Ii iaiauaiiui aeaiiui, ia caiiii oa?a eaaeaeoth naeoiaeo a n?aaeiai
aicieeaao nauoa noa iieiee. Eo iiaeii n?aaieoue n ia?iiiui anoanoaaiiui
oeceei-oeie/aneei ?aaeoi?ii, oneiaey a eioi?ii ioee/athony oe?ieei
aeeaiaciiii oaiia?aoo? e aeaaeaiee, aunieie eiioeaio?aoeeae
yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia e ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie. Oioy a?icu ia ieaiaoa
auaatho ii/oe aacaea, eo eioaineaiinoue a ?aciuo ?aaeiiao neeueii
ioee/aaony. Iaeioi?ua iaeanoe, aaea eo /anoioa iaeneiaeueia, a
iaoai?ieiaee iacuaatho ie?iauie i/aaaie a?ic. Eae i?aaeei, yoe i/aae
?aniieiaeaiu a ai?iuo ianneaao e /aua anaai a o?iieeao e noao?iieeao.
Oai eo eioaineaiinoue a aeanyoee e aeaaea nioie ?ac auoa, /ai ia
?aaieiao aunieeo e n?aaeieo oe?io.

*oi eanaaony sseooee, oi i?iaeaia io?aiu eania io iiaea?ia aeey ian
aanueia aeooaeueia. Noaeeoa naie, aneaaenoaea ecaanoiie
iaeiianaeaiiinoe, ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoa e /anouo canoo iiaea?u
iaia?oaeeaathony iicaea e ai?yo aeieueoa ii n?aaiaiii n ae?oaeie
?aaeiiaie ?innee. E i?eia?o, n?aaeiaa a?aiy oooaiey iiaea?ia a
Eo?aaineie iaeanoe naiue /ania, o ian — naiue nooie. Eana a ?anioaeeea
Naoa nai?aao a aeaa ?aca aieueoa, /ai caaioaaeeaaaony. Ieiuaaeue aa?ae e
iiaeaoeo ianaaeaeaiee ninoaaeyao nauoa 15 ieeeeiiia aaeoa?ia. E yoiio
neaaeoao i?eaaaeoue 32 ieeeeiia aaeoa? ionou?ae e ?aaeei, ia?aciaaaoeony
io iiaea?ia, oae eae ainnoaiiaeaiea eania e ieiaei?iaeiiai neiy ia
Naaa?a i?ienoiaeeo iaaeeaiiaa, /ai a ?aaeiiao n oia?aiiui eeeiaoii e
ionoonoaeai ia?ceiou.

Anee acyoue oe?a, a iauaieaiaoiii ianooaaa, oi e?oiiua eaniua iiaea?u
yaeythony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia iinooieaiey a aoiinoa?o
“ia?ieeiaiai” aaca. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony Neae?e e iaoae ia?iiiie
?anioaeeee, aiaaoie eaniuie ianneaaie. A oneiaeyo oneeeaathuaeny
oaiaeaioeee aeiaaeueiiai iioaieaiey eeeiaoa ia Caiea, i?e eioi?ii
iaeaieueoaa iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u iaeeaeaaony a iaoae ciia, iiieoi?eia
eaniuo iiaea?ia eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ioeaiee e i?iaiica auoiaea
oaeaeeneiai aaca, yaeythuaainy iaeiei ec iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia “ia?ieeiaiai”
yooaeoa.

— A?iciaay aeoeaiinoue ia oa??eoi?ee sseooee ?aaoey?ii iaaethaeaaony
aecoaeueii ia noaioeeyo e iinoao aeae?iiaoaineoaeau, — aiai?eo aaaeouee
iao/iue nio?oaeiee EEOEA, eaiaeeaeao oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoea
A.E.Eiceia. — E /eneo aea nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey a?iciaie
aeayoaeueiinoe a ie?iaie i?aeoeea ioiinyony iaaethaeaiey n iiiiuueth
a?iciiaeaiaaoi?ia. Eniieuecothony iaeiiioieoiaua
a?iciiaeaiaaoi?u-aeaeueiiia?u e iiiaiioieoiaua nenoaiu. Iaie
eniieuecoaony ?ac?aaioaiiue a einoeoooa iaeiiioieoiaue n ?aaeeonii
aeaenoaey aei ouny/e eeeiiao?ia, ?aniieiaathueiny ia iaoai iieeaiia
iaaeaeaei io sseoonea. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua iaiauaiiua ?acoeueoaou ca
iineaaeiaa a?aiy iicaieytho neacaoue, /oi iiauoaiiay ii/iay a?iciaay
aeayoaeueiinoue iaaethaeaaony ia naaa?i-caiaaea io sseoonea. Yoio ?aeii
iiea neaai iai?oaeiaai iaoainoaioeeyie e iiyoiio eco/ai iaaeinoaoi/ii.
Aiciiaeii, iiauoaiiay aeoeaiinoue yaeyaony iniaaiiinoueth ii?aaeaeaiiuo
naciiia. Iaeiaei iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ii aeaiiui iaaethaeaiee a
Aeethenea, i?iaaaeaiiui n iiiiuueth a?iciioiao/eeia, naeaeai auaiae i
cia/eoaeueiie a?iciaie aeoeaiinoe a yoie a?oiia oeonia, /aai ?aiueoa ia
iaaethaeaeinue…

Anoanoaaiii, i?aaenoaaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou o/aiuo neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue
a aieueoae noaiaie eae ia?aiia/aeueiua. Aeey aeinoiaa?iiai iaiauaiey
iaiaoiaeeiu aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao. Aianoa
n oai iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi iaeiiioieoiaue
a?iciiaeaiaaoi?-aeaeueiiia?, n eniieueciaaieai i?aaeeaaaaiie
nio?oaeieeaie eaai?aoi?ee iaoiaeeee, iicaieyao aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaaui
niiniaii inouanoaeyoue iia?aoeaioth ?aaeno?aoeeth a?ic ia aieueoeo
ieiuaaeyo. ?acoeueoaou iaaethaeaiee iiaoo oaeaea auoue eniieueciaaiu
aeey ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeia e?aoei- e aeieain?i/iiai i?iaiice?iaaiey
a?iciaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee.

*oiau ioiaoeoue noaiaiue na?ueaciinoe ?aaeno?aoeee a?iciaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, neaaeai i oii, /oi a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia o/aiuie NOA
?ac?aaioaia nenoaia a?iciiaeaiaaoeee. Aa acyei ia aii?oaeaiea Oi?aaeaiea
iaoai?ieiaee, eioi?ia ii/aio-oi o no?aiiuo aia?eeaioeaa aoiaeeo a
nenoaio Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu. N iiiiuueth 135 noaioeee, eiathueo naycue
/a?ac niooiee, a?iciaoth ea?oo iiaeii ninoaaeoue n oi/iinoueth aei
eeeiiao?a e niioaaonoaaiii iiaeaioiaeoueny e noeoee. Oaeea aea nenoaiu
?aaioatho a Eaiaaea, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee, THA?, Ec?aeea, aeaaea
Eeoaa.

Ie?iaua eaniua ?ano?nu.

Eaniua ianneau naaa?iiai e thaeiiai iiyna.

?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia Eaooineiai o?aaoa auaeaeai A. A. Eoieiiaie a
naiinoiyoaeueiue Eaooineee aunieiai?iue ?aeii, ioianaiiue e
Oeaio?aeueii-Aeoaeneiio aunieiai?iiio ie?oao. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie
?anoeoaeueiinoe ?aeiia, a?inathuaeny a aeaca eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo, aia?aua
iiiaaoaio a ai?u, yaeyaony ?acei au?aaeaiiay aunioiay iiyniinoue. Anee
iiaeiyoueny ia neeiiu Oa?aeoeineiai o?aaoa e ieeiooue acaeyaeii
naaa?ioth noi?iio Eaooineiai o?aaoa, oi iiaeii aeaeaoue, eae noaiiua
o/anoee aeieua Eaooie e ieciauea Ei/o?eu e Aeeaia niaiythony auoa aonoi
caeanaiiuie neeiiaie. Oaiii-caeaiay ie?anea eaniiai iiyna caiaoii
ioee/aaony io naaoeie caeaie aunieiai?uey, ieiioo?eaathuaai iiaeiiaeuea
oaai/aiiie niaaaie Aaeooe. A ioee/ea io naaa?iiai ia thaeiii neeiia
o?aaoa eaniie iiyn au?aaeai iiiai neaaaa, ii cia/eoaeueii oe?a
i?aaenoaaeai iiyn noaaeueieeneeo e aeueieeneeo eoaia.

Ia naaa?iii o?aaoa ii aeieeiai ?ae Ei/o?eu, Aeeaia e Eaaeuaaia eaniie
iiyn a ieaeiae /anoe i?aaenoaaeai aa?aciai-eenoaaiie/iui eanii ia
iie?iaa /a?iicaiiuo eee neaai iiiaecieaiiuo ii/a. Caeanue iiaeii
ano?aoeoue iiieii eenoaaiieoeu e aa?acu /a?aiooo, ?yaeio, aiy?uoiee.
Iiaeeanie i?aaenoaaeai oaaieaie, aeaoeeae, oeiiaieeii. Aeiaieueii aonoie
o?aayienoue iie?ia ia?acotho anaaiciiaeiua ceaee, e?enu, iniee, aa?aiue
eoaiaay.

Auoa ii neeiiai ean noaiiaeony aoua. A aai ninoaaa iiyaeythony aeue,
ieooa, eaae?, e ii i?eia?aoaao aeae oaiiioaieiie ai?iie /a?iiaie oaeae n
i?eianueth aa?acu e ineiu. A iiaeeanea iianaianoii ?acaeou eonoa?ieee
aeeiieinoe, ea?aaaiu, aeaeoie aeaoeee, ia?aeueieea, oaaieae, iaeeiu,
nii?iaeeiu. Iniaaiii aeeaiienii yoi eaniia oea?noai a ii?o nic?aaaiey
ieiaeia a aaaonoa ianyoea. Eonoa?ieee iau/ii ia?aieaoaiu oaaaeiui
aunieio?aaueai e o?oaeii i?ioiaeeiu. I?a/iua ieoou oaaoaiu eeoayie,
iyaeee iioiaie iie?ia cae?uaaao aaeoiu. Aa?aca iiaeieiaaony ii neeiiai
aei 1400 – 1500 i, ianeieueei auoa i?iieeaao ineia, a aeaeueoa
ainiiaenoaotho oieueei eaae? e eenoaaiieoea. *ai auoa ii neeiio, oai
aieueoa ianoa caaiaauaaao eaae?, e aa?oithth a?aieoeo eana ninoaaeyao
i?aeiouanoaaiii ii.I?aaeaeueiua eaae?u e eenoaaiieoeu eiatho iau/ii
oaiaoaiiue aeae: e?iia eaae?a i?eia?aoaao oeaaiia?acioth oi?io, eiaaea
ana aaoae iaoiaeyony n iiaeaao?aiiie noi?iiu. Eenoaaiieoea,
na?anuaathuay oaith ia ceio, nio?aiyaony eo/oa, ii, eae i?aaeei, eeoaia
aa?oooee. Eiiaaea eaae? e ieooa i?aaenoaaeaiu noaethueieny oi?iaie.
Ioaeaeueiua yecaiiey?u iiae caueoie neae eee ia oi?ioi inaauaiiuo
neeiiao iiaeieiathony ia 200 – 250 i auoa iniiaiie iannu aea?aaueaa e
eiatho ei?yaeenoue, i?ecaienoue aeae. A?aieoea ac?ineiai, aonoiai eana
i?ioiaeeo ia naaa?iii neeiia iau/ii o e?ay ii?aiiuo aaeia XIV – XIX aa.
(Eaaeuaai, Ithoooae?u, Eiieae?u), a auoa iiaeieiaaony iieiaeay ii?ineue
eenoaaiieoeu e ioaeaeueiuo aa?ac (a Eaaeuaaia). A Aeeaia a?aieoea
nieioiiai eana ia iiaeieiaaony aeaeueoa aa?oiaai e?ay ica?a. Iiaeiaiay
ea?oeia iaaethaeaaony e a Eieaeiae?u, aaea ean inoaiaaeeaaaony o e?ay
ica?a. Aunioa yoie a?aieoeu – 1960 (Eo?eo?a) – 2100 i (Ithoooae?u).

A iiieaeaieyo ?a/iuo aeieei, caiyouo a i?ioeii ica?aie, ?acaeaathony
aunieiai?iua inieiai-iooeoeaaua aieioa (Ei/o?ea, Aeeai). Ii e?ayi iie
ia?aoiaeyo a noaaeueieeneea caaiei/aiiua eoaa.Ia thaeiuo neeiiao aianoi
eaniiai ?acaeo eani-eoaiai-noaiiie iiyn. Ean caeanue ?anoao oieueei ia
o/anoeao aeinoaoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey. Iau/ii yoi eiaeaeiu y?iceiiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, naaa?iua neeiiu iaaieueoeo a?ea, eoaea naeoaaaony ceiie
niaa e ia?acoaony oaaee/aiiue neie iaeeicaia. Iieiaeua aea?aauey
auoyaeaathony a eeiaeeo ii neeiiai, eae yoi iiaeii iaaethaeaoue a
aeieeiao Eai/aea, Eaooie.

Cia/eoaeueiua neiieaiey aea?aaueaa i?eo?i/aiu e neeiiai eaauo ai?oia
aeieei A. Aa?aee e Eaooie. A aeieeia Eaooie ean eii/aaony o aiaaeaiey
Eai/aea, oioy ioaeaeueiua aea?aauey ia neeiiao e ?anooo iaaeaeaei io
eaaeieea ia aunioa 2150 – 2200 i.Cia/eoaeueii aiaa/a eanii aeieeia
Aa?aee. Caeanue, eae e a aeieeiao Eaaeuaaia, Ithoooae?u, ean
iiaeieiaaony e aeaaea iie?uaaao aaeu ii?ai XVII – XIX aa. THaeiua
neeiiu, naiaiaeiua io eana, caiyou noaiiuie annioeeaoeeyie, a iaeaieaa
oaeaaeiaiiua – aunieio?aaueai.A neaaeothuai, aunieiai?iii iiyna, aaeece
eaniie a?aieoeu aieueoea ieiuaaee caiyou noaaeueieeneeie eonoa?ieeaie e
eoaaie. Ia naaa?iii neeiia ii/oe aei naiuo eaaeieeia eonoa?ieee
i?ecaienoie aa?acu e eau ia?acotho ii?ie o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiua ca?inee, eae
yoi eiaao ianoi a Eiieae?u. Ia thaeiii neeiia iieina eonoa?ieeia
niioaaonoaotho noaaeueieeneea aunieio?aaiua eoaa ia
aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/aao. Aunieee, aei 1,5 – 2,5 i, iie?ia ia
caaea?iiauaaao ii/au, e ?anoaiey ia i?eiueatho aieioioth ae?oa e ae?oao,
ionoonoaotho aea?iiaeiiua ?anoaiey. Iicaeiae inaiueth e ?aiiae aaniie
oa??eoi?ee eoaia iie?uou oienoui neiai auno?i ia?aaieaathuae
“noa?eee”41). Aunieio?aauea ?ani?ino?aiaii e a eaniuo ianneaao
(Aa?aeue). Iniiaiua ?anoaiey yoeo eoaia – ia?aeee ei?aiue, aoaeye
?aciieenoiue, aaeioeaaoiay aa?aiue, iuoiee, aeoaeneee iaiiae, iyoeee,
uaaaeue e ae?. Ia eaiaienouo neeiiao iiaeii aeaeaoue e?uaeiaiee,
nii?iaeeio, iiaeaeaaaeueiee.Auoa ii neeiiai aunioa o?aainoiy
oiaiueoaaony e noaaeueieeneia aunieio?aauea caiauaaony aeueieeneeie
iecei-o?aaiuie eoaaie n aieaa ?aaeeei o?aainoiai. Ia ieineeo
oaeaaeiaiiuo o/anoeao ?acaeo iioiaie iie?ia. Ia ai?ii-eoaiauo, /anoi
uaaienouo ii/aao, i?iec?anoatho y?eioeaaoouea n e?oiiuie aai/eeaie
?anoaiey. Iniiaiie oii eoaai i?eaeatho oeaaoouee aiaeinai? e iaiiueee
eee “aea?eea” oeaaou. N?aaee neiaaaoi-i?aiaeaauo aiei yoeo oeaaoia
ano?a/athony aaeua aao?aieoeu, aieoaua ciaaaieiaieee, cieioenoi-aeaeoua
ethoeee, iaeeiiaue eiiaa/iee, oeaeee. Iniaaiii iiiai oaeeo y?eeo eoaeaae
ia Aa?aeuenei-Eaooineii iaaeaeo?a/uea. Iiieii oeaaoia oe?iei
ano?a/athony oeiioaaaea aeueieeneay, ianyieoea E?ueiaa, iniee e ae?.Auoa
aeueieeneeo eoaia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ?anoeoaeueiinoue ai?ii-ooiae?iaie
iieinu. Yoa iieina caieiaao o/anoee neeiiia ianeieueei auoa a?aieoeu
eana e aeinoeaaao a?aieoeu niaaa. Iaeaiueeea eonoa?ieee o?aayienoie e
nao/aoie eau, eonoa?ieeiaie aa?acee ia?aiaaeeaathony iooeoeae, inieaie,
neoieeii e auoa niaiythony iioiai-eeoaeieeiaie ooiae?ie. Iaeiiaoe, naiua
aa?oiea o/anoee neeiiia, eaiaienoua inuie, neaeu iie?uou ?aciioeaaoiuie
eeoaeieeaie /a?iiai, i?aiaeaaiai, aeaeoiai e ae?oaeo oeaaoia. Eeoaeieee
oae ieioii aaeeaathony a neaeu, /oi ioaeaeeoue eo iiaeii oieueei n
iaeiieaie iineaaeieo.

Oaieiua

Eana, ia?aciaaiiua B. mandshurica e B. platyphylla iau/ii iauaaeeiytho
iiae iacaaieai “aaeiaa?acieeia”. E i ? a i i u a a a e i a a ? a c i e e
e ia?acotho iaaieueoea ?aciauaiiua eaniua ianneau n?aaee eoaia e aieio a
oe?ieeo ieaeieo /anoyo aeieei i?aauo i?eoieia ?. Onno?e e ia ae?aaieo
ica?iuo oa??anao Oaieaeneie ?aaieiu. Aieueoay /anoue ai?iuo
aaeiaa?acieeia yaeyaony aoi?e/iuie eanaie, ia?aciaaaoeieny ia ianoa
nai?aaoeo eee au?oaeaiiuo oaieiuo e oe?ieieenoaaiii-oaieiuo eania. A
aunioiie iieina ieooiai-aeiauo eania ia neeiiao ?aciie yeniiceoeee e
e?ooeciu oi?ie?othony o?aayienoua oeiu aaeiaa?acieeia III-IV eeannia
aiieoaoa. A iieina oe?ieieenoaaiii-oaieiuo eania ia ioiineoaeueii
iieiaeo neeiiao i?aeiouanoaaiii thaeiuo yeniiceoeee i?aiaeaaeatho
aaeiaa?acieee n iiaeeaneii ec Corylus spp., eiathuea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue I-II eeannia aiieoaoa. Ia neeiiao naaa?iuo
iai?aaeaiee /aua oi?ie?othony aaeiaa?acieee n o/anoeai oaieiuo e
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo ii?iae, /oi oeacuaaao ia aieueooth e?aoeia?aiaiiinoue
eo nouanoaiaaiey ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aaeiaa?acieeaie. Betula
costata yaeyaony eiiiiiaioii iiiaeo oeiia ieooiai-aeiauo e
oe?ieieenoaaiii-eaae?iauo eania. A ia?eiaeu ioie?aiey noa?oeo iieieaiee
Picea ajanensis e Pinus koraiensis a ?aciiaic?anoiuo ae?aainoiyo yoeo
eania, a?aiaiiia i?aiaeaaeaiea iieo/aao B. costata. Ia?eiae aa
i?aiaeaaeaiey iiaeao aeeeoueny 25-30 e aieaa eao. Oaeea
“aeaeoiaa?acieee”, eae eo /anoi iacuaatho, yaeythony oieueei iaeiie ec
noaaeee aic?anoiiai ?acaeoey aeueieeia e eaae?iaieeia. Ii a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa aeaeoiaa?acieee yaeythony aoi?e/iuie eanaie, oi?ie?othueieny
iinea ?oaie, ?aaea iinea iiaea?ia, a niaoaiiuo eanao n i?aiaeaaeaieai
oaieiuo ii?iae. Iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ieiuaaee aeaeoiaa?acieeia
nouanoaaiii oaaee/eeenue eiaiii ii yoie i?e/eia. Eana n i?aiaeaaeaieai
B. dahurica (/a?iiaa?acieee) ano?a/athony ?aciauaiiuie o/anoeaie ia
ieceiai?ueyo e oaaeao Oaieaenei-Onno?eeneie ?aaieiu e ie?oaeathueo aa
i?aaeai?ee. Iie caieiatho neeiiu ?aciie e?ooeciu e yeniiceoeee, oae eae
yaeythony i?iecaiaeiuie eanaie io ?aciuo oeiia aeoaiyeia iinea au?oaee
aeoaa. Iaeaieaa i?eaeiaeueiie i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoeae ?iaea Betula a
I?eii?uea yaeyaony “aeaeaciay” aa?aca – B. schmidtii. Iia iaeaaeaao
oaa?aeie, oaiiie, ao?i-/a?iie ei?ie e i/aiue ieioiie oyaeaeie
ae?aaaneiie, eioi?ay a naaaea n?oaeaiiii ninoiyiee oiiao a aiaea.
Aaeeie/iua yecaiiey?u e iaaieueoea ?iue n i?aiaeaaeaieai B. schmidtii
ano?a/athony oieueei ia naiii thaa I?eii?uey, eioi?ua aieueoae /anoueth
ia?aciaaeenue iinea au?oaee aeoaa e ae?oaeo ii?iae a eanao n aa
o/anoeai. ?oaea B. schmidtii cai?auaia.

Eaniua ?ano?nu ?innee.

Eana – iniiaiie oei ?anoeoaeueiinoe ?innee, iie caieiatho 45% aa
oa??eoi?ee.

Eana ea?atho ia?iiioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea ?innee eae enoi/ieee ae?aaaneiu
e iiiaeo aeaeia nu?uey – ?anoeoaeueiiai (niieu, a?eau, yaiaeu,
eaea?noaaiiua ?anoaiey) e aeeaioiiai (iyni, iaoa, oeaiiua eaea?noaaiiua
i?aia?aou – iaiou, aia?iaay e eaaa?iaeuey no?oy, iaaeaaaeuey aeae/ue e
o.i.). A aeecie iiiaeo ia?iaeia ?innee ean – iniiaiay aeeciaiiay n?aaea,
ia eioi?ie aace?oaony aanue oeeaae (oeiii-oai?neea ia?iaeu, yaaiee e
ae?.). Aeey ?onneiai ianaeaiey ean – aaaeiaeoee ?ae?aaoeeiiiue ?ano?n. A
ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa caiaaeiuo ia?iaeia, ethaeoaeueneea nai? a?eaia,
yaiae, eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee e ioioa – ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneia
iiaenii?uea, ii e niaaoaiii iaiaoiaeeiay /anoue aeeciaiiiai oeeaaea. A
iaecaaeao ?onneie aeeaiiene e eeoa?aoo?u, eae i?ioanneiiaeueiie, oae e
oieueeei?iie, eana aaniethoii i?aiaeaaeatho iaae ae?oaeie eaiaeoaooaie.

?inney iaeaaeaao naiuie aieueoeie a ie?a caianaie eana. Ia 1993 a.
ieiuaaeue eaniie /anoe eaniiai oiiaea ninoaaeyea 886.5 iei.aa, a iauee
caian ae?aaaneiu – 80.7 ie?ae. i3, /oi ninoaaeyao niioaaonoaaiii 21.7 e
25.9% ie?iauo caiania. I?aauoaiea aoi?ie oeeo?u iaae ia?aie aiai?eo i
oii, /oi ?inney ?aniieaaaao aieaa c?aeuie e aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiuie eanaie,
/ai inoaeueiay ieaiaoa a oeaeii.

Eana ea?atho ia?iiioth ?ieue a aaciaii aaeaina aoiinoa?u e ?aaoee?iaaiee
ieaiaoa?iiai eeeiaoa Caiee. Iauee aaeain aeey eania ?innee, ?ann/eoaiiue
A.I.Iienaaaui ninoaaee aeey oaeaeeneiai aaca 1789064.8 oun oiii, a aeey
eenei?iaea – 1299019.9 oun oiii. Aaeaaiaeii a eanao ?innee aeaiiie?oaony
600 iei oiii oaea?iaea. Yoe aeaaioneea iauaiu iea?aoeee aacia
nouanoaaiii noaaeeece?otho aaciaue ninoaa e eeeiao ieaiaou.

Iniiaiua caianu eania ?innee eiioeaio?e?othony a Neae?e e ia Aeaeueiai
Ainoiea, a oaeaea ia Aa?iiaeneii naaa?a. Iaeneiaeueiua i?ioeaiou
eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee ioia/athony a E?eooneie iaeanoe e I?eii?neii e?aa,
ianeieueei ieaea iie ia thaa Oaaa?ianeiai e?ay, thaa sseooee, a
i?eaienaeneie /anoe E?aniiy?neiai e?ay e a ?anioaeeea Eiie, Aieiaiaeneie
Eino?iineie e Ia?ineie iaeanoyo. Iaeiaei eanenoinoue niaiaaeaao n
aunieeie caianaie ae?aaaneiu eeoue a I?eii?neii e?aa e, a iaiueoae
noaiaie, ia thaa E?aniiy?neiai e?ay A ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao, aaea
i?iec?anoatho iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaiua eana (ia Eaaeaca, Aeoaa,
Aa?iiaeneii oeaio?a) eanenoinoue caiaoii nieaeaia, i?e/ai a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Iaeaieaa aaaeiu eanaie iaeanoe thaa Aa?iiaeneie ?innee – ?inoianeay,
Aieaia?aaeneay, Ano?aoaineay, I?aiao?aneay, Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae e
?anioaeeea Eaeiueey, a oaeaea ?aaieiiua ooiae?iaua ?aeiiu. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi ia cia/eoaeueiie /anoe yoeo oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiay
eanenoinoue caiaoii ieaea anoanoaaiiie. ?onneea a noaiiie ciia e
e?oiiiioaiiiua ieaiaaiaeu ia thaa ooiae?u nouanoaaiii nieceee ieiuaaee
eania.

Ieiuaaee eania ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee iinoiyiii nie?auathony aio oaea 500
eao, ii, aaconeiaii, iaeaieaa ?acei – a OO a. Ii ana aea yoio i?ioeann
cao?iioe ?inneth a iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai iniiaiie ie?. N/eoaaony
(Aeiia?aaeia e ae?.) [3], /oi a iineaaeiea 10 oun. eao auei naaaeaii 2/3
eania Aa?acee. Aeey ?innee yoio iieacaoaeue ia ioeaieaaeny, ii ii,
aaconeiaii, iaiueoa 1/3.

Iauay eaniay ieiuaaeue ca 10 eao (1983 – 1993 aa.) a ?innee aeaaea
aic?inea ia 6 iei aa, ii yoi io/anoe aucaaii eciaiaieai nenoaiu o/aoa.
Iaeiaei, ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao eiaao ianoi ainnoaiiaeaiea eania, naycaiiia
n aeoaieei e?ecenii naeueneiai oicyenoaa e yeiiiieee a oeaeii. Ii a oi
aea a?aiy caianu ae?aaaneiu nieceeenue ia 1.2 ie?ae. i3, /oi aiai?eo i
oii, /oi eana ?innee “iieiaeatho”, oi anoue au?oaathony iaeaieaa oeaiiua
– niaeua e i?iaeoeoeaiua eana, a ainnoaiiaeaiea eaeao ca n/ao
iaeioeaiiuo iaeeieenoaaiiuo iieiaeiyeia.

Eaniua ?ano?nu ?innee n/eoathony iaeieie ec aiaaoaeoeo a ie?a. Ieiuaaeue
aeinooiiuo aeey yenieoaoaoeee niaeuo e ia?anoieiuo eania [1]
ioeaieaaaony a 156.2 iei aa – 44.5% iie?uoie eanii ieiuaaee no?aiu

?ani?aaeaeaiea eaniuo ?ano?nia eiaao a iniiaiii ciiaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Iaeneiaeueiua caianu eiathony a ?aaeiiao oaaaeiie ciiu (E?eooneay
iaeanoue, E?aniiy?neee e?ae, oeaio?aeueiay /anoue Oaaa?ianeiai e?ay, a
ia Aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu – Eino?iineay e Iiaai?iaeneay iaeanoe). E
naaa?o e thao io oeaio?aeueiie /anoe eaniie ciiu no?aiu i?ienoiaeeo
caiaoiia nieaeaiea caiania ae?aaaneiu ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee. E?iia oiai,
oeaio?aeueiay /anoue ?innee a oiaea aeeeoaeueiiai oicyenoaaiiiai
inaiaiey eeoeeanue cia/eoaeueiie /anoe naieo eania. Nianoaaiii noaiiay
ciia e ooiae?a yaeythony iaeaieaa eaniaeaoeoeeoiuie ?aaeiiaie ?innee. Ia
thaa no?aiu eieaeueiue i/aa eaniuo ?ano?nia ioia/aaony a ai?iuo eanao
Eaaeaca. Ieieiaeueiia ii no?aia cia/aiea eiaao eaniie iioaioeeae
iieoionouiiie Eaeiueee.

Eniieueciaaiea eaniuo ?ano?nia oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaiiuie i noiia?iii
iauaia ?oaie. [2] Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea a oicyenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie ?aaeiia caaioiaea ae?aaaneiu eiaao a E?aniiy?neii e?aa, Eiie e
A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe, /ooue iaiueoaa – a Eino?iineie, Ia?ineie,
Oiineie, E?eooneie, Aio?neie iaeanoyo e a Oaaa?ianeii e?aa. Ieieiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea eania oa?aeoa?ii aeey anao ?aaeiiia noaiiie ciiu e oao
Noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ieiuaaee eioi?uo
?aniieiaeaia a ooiae?a

Iniiaiua caianu ae?aaaneiu iaoiaeyony ia iaeiianaeaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo, a
iaeanoe n iaeaieueoae /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey ?aniieaaathony a iniiaiii
a eaniaeaoeoeeoiuo ?aeiiao. A oao ?aaeiiao, aaea eana auiieiytho
caueoiua ooieoeee (Iiaeiineiauea, Eaieia?aaeneay iaeanoue), cao?oaeiaiu
?oaee (Nayiu) eee eiaaony ni/aoaiea yoeo oneiaee (Naaa?iue Eaaeac,
THaeiue Neoioy-Aeeiue) iaaethaeaaony iaeioi?ia i?aauoaiea eaniiai
iioaioeeaea iaae neiaeeaoeiny o?iaiai eniieueciaaiey (e?eoa?ee
eiioeaio?aoeey ?ano?na/eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey). A aieueoeinoaa
ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia iauaiu ?oaie ia aeooo ianaeaiey no?aiu i?aeoe/anee
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu eo eaniiio iioaioeeaeo, /oi io?aaeaao caaeneiinoue
eanicaaioiaie io ea/anoaa eaninu?ueaaie aacu. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueii
ianooaau eanicaaioiaie i?aauoatho eaniie iioaioeeae a Ea?aeee, Eiie,
A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe e E?aniiy?neii e?aa (eiina?aaoeaiue oei
no?oeoo?u). Yoi iicaieyao i?iaiice?iaaoue ineiaeiaiea yeiiiie/aneiai
iieiaeaiey eanicaaioiaeoaeae Aa?iiaeneiai Naaa?a e N?aaeiae Neae?e.
Eaniay io?aneue yoeo ?aaeiiia noieo ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaiu
oaoiieiaee aeiau/e e ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioee nu?uey. Oaeie ia?aoiae
iauaeoeaii aieaa yooaeoeaai aeey iaaieueoeo i?aaiecaoeee e aoaeao naycai
ni nieaeaieai ?iee e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea
eanicaaioiaeoaeae nenoaiu IAAe :-). I?e yoii aeieaeia auoue ?anoe?aia
nenoaia ieaoiiai eaniiieueciaaiey. Ia oiia ?inoa ie?iauo oeai ia
ae?aaaneio aiieia iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiaiu /anoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iaeiaia eaniie ?aioie (oeaiie eana ia ei?ith), /oi aeoeaece?oao iiene
iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iooae iiauoaiey auoiaea
aeaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee i?e ieieiaeueiie au?oaea eana.

A aieaa thaeiuo eee i?eaeeaeaiiuo e oeaio?ai iio?aaeaiey eana iaeanoyo
Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea iauaiu ?oaie eo/oa
naaeaine?iaaiu n eiathueieny ?ano?naie. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
iiiaea iaeanoe Oeaio?aeueiiai e Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia
oaea i?aiaeieaee ia/aeueiue yoai eioaineoeeaoeee oaoiieiaee caaioiaee e
ia?a?aaioee ae?aaaneiu. A neeo yoeo i?e/ei iiaeii iaeeaeaoue niauaiey
iaa?ocee ia eaniua ?ano?nu ec oaeaeaiiuo ?aaeiiia a aieaa aeeceea e
?acaeoui oeaio?ai. Yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu a eaniiieueciaaiee
nii?iaiaeaeathony caeanue ?anoe?aieai aeinooia e eaniui ?ano?nai iiauo
i?aaei?eyoee e ianaeaiey, /oi iicaieyao ei eniieueciaaoue eaniie
iioaioeeae eae iaeei ec enoi/ieeia iaooi/iaiiuo ioeoeeaeueiie
noaoenoeeie aeioiaeia.

A iaeieaniie ciia thaa Aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu iauaiu eniieueciaaiey
eania i/aiue iaeu. Iaeiaei aaee/eia oaeaeueiiai ecuyoey ae?aaaneiu
caeanue i?aauoaao oo ii?io, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue a Oeaio?aeueiii,
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii, Aieai-Ayoneii ?aeiiao. Yoio aeenaaeain eiaao nei?aa
yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey, iaaeaee oicyenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneea.
Ineaaeaiea io?aiu eania e ?ino oeai ia oiieeai aucaaee ianniaua
a?aeiiuea?neea ?oaee, iniaaiii nouanoaaiiua aeey iaaieueoeo eaniuo
ianneaia yoeo ?aaeiiia. Iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoea yeieiae/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey a?yae ee iicaieeo aiaea/ue a eaniiieueciaaiea o/anoee niaeiai
eana, iieuecothueany io?aiiui noaoonii. A Aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu
iaeaieaa yeieiae/anee cia/eiia aicaeaenoaea i?eeaeaony ia auaoea
eieoiciua eee eeoaiiua niaoeeoe/aneiai io?aiiiai noaoona eana. I?e yoii
aicaeaenoaea /anoi aoaeao ieacuaaoueny ia noieueei i?iiuoeaiiuie
?oaeaie, neieueei caieaioaiaeaie iiae aea/e “iaeioeaiiuo” eania,
auoiauie eanicaaioiaeaie iiae aeaeii ?oaie ooiaea, ioe?iaaiiui eaniui
a?aeiiuea?noaii, noieue oa?aeoa?iui aeey ?inneeneiai e?anoueyinoaa ni
a?aiai ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea.

Eaniua ?ano?nu sseooee.

Aieueoay /anoue sseooee ioiineony e iaeanoe ia?ceioii-oaaaeiuo ii/a.
Iaeaieueoei anoanoaaiiui ieiaei?iaeeai ioee/athony ii/au Oeaio?aeueiie
sseooee.

sseooey ?aniieiaeaia a i?aaeaeao aeaoo i?e?iaeiuo cii – oaeae e ooiae?u.
Eaniay ciia caieiaao aieaa 2/3 oa??eoi?ee.

Iniiaiie e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiie eaniia?acothuae ii?iaeie caeanue
yaeyaony aeao?neay eenoaaiieoea, eioi?ay ii aeieeiai ?ae caoiaeeo
aeaeaei ia naaa?. Oae, iai?eia?, ii Eaia iia aeioiaeeo aei 72? n. o., ii
?aeai Ieaiae e Aiaaa? – aei 72? – 72?30′ n. o. Aeao?neay eenoaaiieoea
caieiaao ieiei 86 i?ioeaioia eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee ?anioaeeee.

Niniiaua eana caieiatho anaai 6,3 i?ioeaioa eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee
sseooee e ?ani?ino?aiaiu a iniiaiii ia thai-caiaaea. O?aouea ianoi ii
?ani?ino?aiaieth caieiaao eaae?iaue noeaiee. Ii oe?iei i?aaenoaaeai a
ai?ii-oaaaeiuo ?aeiiao naaa?i-ainoiea e thaa sseooee. Ia ioaeaeueiuo
o/anoeao Aeaeaii-O/o?neiai o?aaoa eaae?iaue noeaiee eiaao ae?aaiaeaeioth
oi?io e aeinoeaaao eiiaaea i/aiue aieueoeo ?acia?ia, aieaa 5 i a aunioo.
Eaae?iaue noeaiee caieiaao 6 i?ioeaioia eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee
?anioaeeee.

Aeiaua eana a sseooee caieiatho iaiaa 1 i?ioeaioa e ano?a/athony a
aeieeiao Eaiu aei onouey Aeethy, ii Aeethth e Aeaeaio. Iacia/eoaeueiu ii
naiei ?acia?ai aa?aciaua e ineiiaua eana. Ia thai-caiaaea ano?a/aaony
neae?neee eaae?. Ii ?a/iui aeieeiai, iniaaiii a ai?iuo ?aeiiao,
i?iec?anoatho oiiieue e /icaiey.

Naiaia?aceai ?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a sseooee yaeyaony iaee/ea n?aaee eaniuo
i?ino?ainoa iyoai eaninoaiiie e noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Nuacae eanie/eo ?anioaeeee

Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eaniiai oicyenoaa ?N(ss) e iiauoaiea ?iee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a eaniie iieeoeea sseooee – oaeiaa aeaaiay
oaia ?aaiou o?aoueaai nuacaea eanie/eo ?anioaeeee ioe?uaoaainy a/a?a a
noieeoea. Aai o/anoieee ioiaoeee, /oi nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea iaoaai
eaniiai oicyenoaa ia niioaaonoaoao i?aaeuyaeyaiui o?aaiaaieyi eaniiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaeiioeaiea ?iee oaaaeiuo
aiaaonoa a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo e yeieiae/aneeo caaea/ i?eaiaeeo e eo
iaeiinoi?iiiaio eniieueciaaieth, a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea ae?aaaneiu. Ie/aai
oi?ioaai ia noeeo e ii?i/iay i?aeoeea ?anoaneeaaiey eaniiai oiiaea ii
?acee/iui aaaeiinoaai. A oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee i?aaiecaoeey
eaniiieueciaaiey aeieaeia yaeyoueny iniiaiie caaea/ae ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey eaniui oicyenoaii ?anioaeeee.

Nuacae eanie/eo, ianoaeea iuiaoiaa ninoiyiea eania e eaniiai oicyenoaa
sseooee, i?eiye niioaaonoaothuaa iinoaiiaeaiea e ia?aoeeny e i?aceaeaioo
e i?aaeoaeuenoao ?N(ss) n i?aaeeiaeaieyie i ?ac?aaioea ainoaea?noaaiiie
iaoeeiiaeueiie i?ia?aiiu “Eana sseooee”, i i?eaeaiee naiinoiyoaeueiiai
noaoona (ieienoa?noaa eee aineiieoaoa) i?aaiai oi?aaeaiey eaniui
oicyenoaii e i?eciaoue ca iei i?aai oi?aaeaiey anai eiiieaenii
i?e?iaeiuo eaniuo ?ano?nia.

Iniiaiua i?e/eiu aeaaee eaniuo eoeueoo? : ianaiaa?aiaiiue ooiae, eaniua
iiaea?u, iio?aau neioii e aeeeeie aeeaioiuie. Ianaaeaeaiey n
i?aiaeaaeaieai oaieiuo ninoaaeytho 69 % ieiuaaee, caieiaaiie niniiauie
eaniia?acothueie ii?iaeaie – aeaaiui ia?acii, yoi ninia – 38 % e aeue –
31 %. Ia aeieth aa?acu i?eoiaeeony 24 % e ineiu – 6 % oa??eoi?ee
aineanoiiaea. Aeiey ianaaeaeaiee n i?aiaeaaeaieai oaieiuo ii?iae
oaaee/eeanue ca iyoue eao ia 3 iei. i3. Aic?anoiay no?oeoo?a
ianaaeaeaiee ca iyoeeaoiee ia?eiae i?aeoe/anee ia eciaieeanue, oioy
oaiaeaioeey e iaeiieaieth ia?anoieiuo eaniuo ianaaeaeaiee nouanoaoao.

Caeeth/aiea. Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu eaniiai e aai ?aoaiea.

Noaaoea oaea o?aaeeoeeiiiuie Iaua?inneeneea Aeie caueou io yeieiae/aneie
iianiinoe (n 15 ai?aey ii 5 ethiy) i?iaiaeyony a 1998 aiaeo iiae
aeaaecii “Yeieiaey — Aaciianiinoue — AEeciue”. Yoio aeaaec naiui
oi/iui ia?acii io?aaeaao iieioth caaeneiinoue caei?iauey, aaiaoe/aneiai
aeaaiiieo/ey, iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey e aunieie aeooiaiinoe
iuiaoiaai e aoaeoueo iieieaiee io nio?aiiinoe e oeo/oaiey i?e?iaeiie
n?aaeu.

Oaa?aei, eae iieeoao, iai anai iaaei iinoiyiii iiiieoue iainii?eioth
enoeio: i?aaenoiyuaa aeanyoeeaoea aoaeao ?aoathuei aeey anae
iineaaeothuae enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Eiaiii a yoii ?oaaaeiii aeanyoeeaoee
ia ii?iaa aoi?iai e o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoee iiaie y?u auynieony: niiaeao
ee /aeiaa/anoai i?aaeioa?aoeoue iaaeaeaathuothny yeieiae/aneoth
eaoano?ioo, eee caiiay oeeaeeecaoeey iiaeaiao.

Yeieiae/aneee e?ecen ii?iaeaeai /aeiaaeii, aai i?ioeaii?e?iaeiui
oicyenoaiaaieai. Iiyoiio e auoiae ec e?ecena caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io
eciaiaiey oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioe?ia, onoaiiaie, ie?iaicc?aiey /aeiaaea ii
ioiioaieth e AEeaie I?e?iaea, io ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieee aai niciaiey e
ineoieiaee.

Aio ii/aio iu ia?auaainy e aai, aei?iaea yeooyia — aa?iua ae?ocuey
AEeaie I?e?iaeu, n i?ecuaii aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue a Aeiyo caueou io
yeieiae/aneie iianiinoe, a i?aeoe/aneeo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoeyo.
O/aanoaoeoa a aeaaiono?ienoaa e icaeaiaiee ai?iaeia e nae,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oa??eoi?ee, onaaeaa, iaiyoiuo iano, iinaaeea
aea?aaueaa, eonoa?ieeia, oeaaoia, eeeaeaeaoeee ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiuo
naaeie, naieoa?iie i/enoea eania, iiaa?aaeee, aiaeiaiia, iaono?ienoaa
aiaeienoi/ieeia e ae?oaeo ?aaioao aeey aeaaa ?iaeiie i?e?iaeu. Aianoa n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie einiaeoi?aie i?iaa?ueoa — eae auiieiyaony
i?e?iaeiio?aiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, a oicyenoaao
oeona, ai?iaea, iinaeea, ianeaaa. Ai?eoanue n eo?aieai, oaea/aieai
nie?oiui, ia?eiiaieae.Ono?aeaaeoa i?e?iaeiio?aiiua eiieo?nu, niio?u,
ni?aaiiaaiey, aunoaaee e ae?oaea ianniaua ia?ii?eyoey. Anaia?ii
i?eaeaeaeoa e yoei aeia?ui aeaeai aeaoae e iieiaeaaeue.

Io?aia i?e?iaeu — aeaei anao e eaaeaeiai. Eiie?aoiuie aeaeaie anoaiai
ia caueoo iaoeo i?aa ia aeaaii?eyoioth ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, ia
caei?iaoth e aeieaoth aeeciue a oeaaoouae, aaeeeieaiiie, aaee/aaie
i?e?iaea sseooee.

Aoaeai anaaaea iiiieoue, /oi icaei?iaeaiiay ie?oaeathuay n?aaea iaeoaiey
— caeia iaoaai niieienoaey e caei?iauey, a nio?aiaiiay aeeeay i?e?iaea
— iaoa naaoeia aoaeouaa e oneiaea aeinoieiie aeecie! Naeaeaai ana aeey
nio?aiaiey AEeaie I?e?iaeu!

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1- Aeaiiua, eniieueciaaiiua aeey ea?ou: Iauay ieiuaaeue iie?uouo eanii
caiaeue (oun.aa) e caian ae?aaaneiu (iei.eoa.i) ii o/aoo ia 1 yiaa?y
1993 a.

2- Aeaiiua, eniieueciaaiiua aeey ea?ou: Caaioiaea ae?aaaneiu i?e ?oaeao
aeaaiiai iieueciaaiey e ?oaeao ooiaea (oun. eoa.i) a 1989-94 aa.

3- Aoean aeieiae/aneiai ?aciiia?acey eania Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e
nii?aaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee. I., IAEIN, 1996,-144 n.,eee.

4- Enneaaeiaaiey N Aai?aeaaa.

5- Eethoei A.A. Eaniia oicyenoai. I.: 1989

6- Ie?iiiaa N.A. I?iaeaiu i?e eniieueciaaiee eaniuo ianneaia. A.: 1995.

7- Ia?iei N.A. Aa?eaoeee ia oaio – “Ean e iu”. I.: EIEI. 1998

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020