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Минеральные ресурсы России, Украины и Казахстана

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Ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaay iieeoeea NNN? no?ieeanue ia i?eioeeia
naiiiaania/aiey e iioeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey ioaeaeueiuo eiiieaenia aeiau/e
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. A ?acoeueoaoa auee nicaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea
oeaii/ee, iicaieyaoea yeiiiie/ii eniieueciaaoue ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaua
?ano?nu. Eeeaeaeaoeey NNN? i?eaaea e /anoe/iiio, a a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa, iieiiio ?aniaaeo yoeo «oeaii/ae», /oi iaianei oua?a eae
aeiauo/eeai, oae e iio?aaeoaeyi ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey.

E niaeaeaieth, ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu iiauo no?ai ono?aieeenue io
oi?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaieai e eniieueciaaieai yoeo ?ano?nia, ia?aaeaa
ii/oe ana i?aaa /anoiiio naeoi?o, oiaaea eae a ie?a a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa
iaoiaeeony, iai?eia?, a Aano?aeee 30-40%, Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 33-35,
Eaiaaea – 40, NOA – 50-70, ssiiiee – 75-80% iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia.

Iniaaiii aaniieieo ?aceia nie?auaiea aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio, /oi ia
iicaieyao aeiaeoueny aeaaea i?inoiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iiaaoaaiuo
caiania. Aeaei onoaoaeyaony e oai, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iineaaeieo
iiaeeaaeeo nienaieth: eo iiaen/?o i?iecaiaeeeny a ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaeyo, nae/an aea eaaeaeia ai?iiaeiauaathuaa i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii
aeiaeaaoueny ?aioaaaeueiinoe naiinoiyoaeueii, /oi a oneiaeyo ie?iaiai
?uiea naeaeaoue ia oae i?inoi. A eoiaa ca aiaeu «ia?ano?ieee» aeiau/a
iniiaiuo aeaeia iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo nieceeanue ai anao no?aiao NIA.

Ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaua aacu ?innee e Oe?aeiu ?acaeaaeenue a ii?aaeae?iiie
caaeneiinoe ae?oa io ae?oaa. Iaiiiiei, /oi eiaiii n
E?eai?iaenei-Aeiiaoeeiai aeaeaci-oaieueiiai eiiieaena ia/aeinue a
iineaiao?ianeie ?innee nicaeaiea iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. E
aieioue aei 1930-o aiaeia ii, ia?yaeo n aeaeaciaeaeaoaeueiuie caaiaeaie
O?aea, inoaaaeny iniiaiui aeey NNN?.

Iicaea aioee a no?ie i?aaei?eyoey Eocaanna, Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia,
Naeae?a e ae?., a aeaaiia – ea?uea?u Eo?neie iaaieoiie aiiiaeee – EIA,
iaania/eaoea iniiaiua iio?aaiinoe no?aiu a aeaeaciie ?oaea.
Iiaeaioiaeaia auea e ?aca?aiay aaca iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe –
*a?i-Oieeeineee aannaei a Ainoi/iie sseooee e ?yae ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea. I?aaenoaaeaiu iie ?yaeiauie, ii eaaeiiaiaaoeiuie
iaaiaoeo-aeaeanieeeoiauie ?oaeaie.

E ia/aeo iuiaoiaai ouny/aeaoey iauaie?iaay aeiau/a aeaeaciie ?oaeu
aeinoeaea 926 iei. o, a oii /enea a ?innee – 80 iei., Oe?aeia – 50 iei.,
/oi cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ii n?aaiaieth n 1990 a. A? caianu a ?innee
ninoaaeytho 52 ie?ae., Oe?aeia – 20 ie?ae. o.

Iniiaiay ianna iiaeoaa?aeae?iiuo caiania (aieaa 95%) aeaeaciuo ?oae
Oe?aeiu neiioeaio?e?iaaia a i?aaeaeao iyoe i?iaeioeee Aieueoiai E?eaiai
?iaa – e?oiiaeoaai a ie?a, i?aaenoaaeaiiiai aeieaia?eeneeie aeaeacenouie
eaa?oeeoaie. Eo iauea iiaeoaa?aeae?iiua caianu ninoaaeytho 26 ie?ae. o
ni n?aaeiei niaea?aeaieai 35% aeaeaca, a oii /enea 1,7 ie?ae. o aiaaouo
(58,3% Fe) ?oae. E?iia e?eai?iaeneeo iaaiaoeo-ia?oeoiauo ?oae
?ac?aaaouaathony ao?ua aeaeaciyee Ea?/aineiai aannaeia.

A ninoaa iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena Oe?aeiu neaaeoao aeeth/eoue e
ia?aaioeaaua ?oaeu Ieeiiieueneiai aannaeia, i?aaenoaaeaiiiai o?aiy
ciiaie (naa?oo aiec): ieneaeiie, ieneaeii-ea?aiiaoiie e ea?aiiaoiie.
Aeiey ?oae ia?aie ciiu (iaeaieaa oeaiiuo) – 15%, iineaaeiae (naiua
o?oaeiioii?iua) – 78,5%. Aeoaeia caeaaaiey 10-110 i, iiuiinoue ?oaeiuo
caeaaeae – aei 4,5 i, i?ioyae?iiinoue cii ii i?inoe?aieth – aei 200 ei,
oe?eia – 25-50 ei. Noiia?iua caianu – 2,4 ie?ae. o, a oii /enea
ieneaeiuo ?oae 335 iei. o, niaoaiiuo – 168 iei. o, ea?aiiaoiuo – 1,9
ie?ae.o. Aeey n?aaiaiey: iauaie?iaua caianu ia?aaioeaaie ?oaeu
ninoaaeytho 8,9 ie?ae. o, a oii /enea a Eacaonoaia – 0,5 ie?ae. o,
A?ocee – 0,2 ie?ae. o. ?inney ?aniieaaaao eeoue iaeeeie
ianoi?iaeaeaieyie ia?aaioeaauo ?oae, i?e/?i iecoeo (ea?aiiaoiuo) ni?oia.

Iiiiiieenoii a NIA a ioiioaiee aoi?iai /??iiai eaae?othuaai iaoaeea –
o?iia yaeyaony Eacaonoai: aai aeiey a iauaie?iauo caianao – 8,7%, a
aeiau/a – 19,6% (ia ia?aii ianoa THA? – 81 e 50% niioaaonoaaiii). Ia
Oe?aeia ia?niaeoeau iaia?oaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo caeaaeae o?iiiauo ?oae
naycaiu n aeaa?aaceoiauie ianneaaie Iiaoaeuey, i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu
eioi?uo aei aeoaeiu 600 i ioeaieaathony a 300 iei. o, i?e n?aaeiai
niaea?aeaiee o?eieneaea o?iia aei 28%. ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey oaeaea ia
eiaao nianoaaiiie aacu o?iia, iiyoiio a iaaeo no?aiao neaaeiaaei au
iieaaaoueny ia Eeiia?naeneee eiiieaen Eacaonoaia, ii ii a ia?aua aea
aiaeu «ia?ano?ieee» ia?ao?e a ?oee yiiineeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Eiia/ii, aeey eaaeaeie ioaeaeueii acyoie eiiiaiee niaa?oaiii
aac?acee/ii, aaea iieoiaoue aeaoeoeeoiia nu?ue?, a aeaiiii neo/aa –
o?ii, oa??io?ii e ae?oaea nieaau ia iniiaa o?iia: eeoue au auei
iiaeaoaaea! A oaeie oiaa? a ecauoea iiaoo i?aaeeiaeeoue THA? (aeiau/a
?oaeu – 6,6 iei. o, Ceiaaaaa (0,6 iei. o) e ae?oaea no?aiu.

Nu?ueaaay aaca aeaeaci?oaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee aanueia ?aciiia?acia
ii oeiai e ianooaaai ianoi?iaeaeaiee, noaiaie eiioeaio?aoeee caiania a
?aaeiiao, oneiaeyi aeiau/e ?oae, eo iaiaaoeiinoe, oaeae?iiinoe io
iio?aaeoaeae e i?i/ei oaeoi?ai. Aianoa n oai, ?yae aeaeaci?oaeiuo
i?aaei?eyoee eiatho iaaeaaiiieo/iua nu?ueaaua aacu.

Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? ?inney inoaeanue i?aeoe/anee aac i?iiuoeaiiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia?aaioeaauo ?oae. I?aiaeaaeathuei oeiii yaeyaony
o?oaeiiiaiaaoeiue ea?aiiaoiue, ia aeieth eioi?iai i?eoiaeeony ieiei 91%
aaeainiauo caiania, inoaeueiay /anoue – eaaeiiaiaaoeiua ieeniua e
ieene?iiua ?oaeu.

?inney ia eiaao ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo ni?oia o?iieoia.
Iiyoiio oneeaiea aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ii iieneo o?iiiauo ?oae, a
oii /enea iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo ni?oia, n oeaeueth nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothuae
ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu, yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiuo caaea/
aaieiae/aneie neoaeau no?aiu.

Iaoaeeo?aey ia iuneeony aac eienioeiee e ae?oaeo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoa (oethnu, iaiaoii?u e i?.). An? yoi ia Oe?aeia anoue. Iniaia
cia/aiea eiaao iaee/ea aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiuo caiania eienothueony oaeae,
eioi?ua neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec aeaaiuo
ninoaaeythueo eiaiii iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai, a ia oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai
eiiieaena. Eaiaiiua oaee io?aaaouaathony a Aeiiaoeeii e
Eueaianei-Aieuineii aannaeiao, a ao?ua ?ani?ino?aiaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii a
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeia e a Caea?iaouea. Iauea caianu eaiaiiuo
oaeae 43 ie?ae., ao?uo – 2,6 ie?ae. o.

Iee aeiau/e i?eoiaeeeny ia 1976 a. – 218,11 iei. o, iuiaoiyy – ieiei 80
iei. o. Ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiie ?acaeoey oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
Oe?aeiu i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aeiaanoe aeiau/o oaey a 2006 a. aei 100 iei.
o. Iaeiaei a? ?aaeecaoeey noaeeeaaaony n aieueoeie o?oaeiinoyie,
naycaiiuie n aeinoeaeaieai a ?yaea oaoo Aeiiaanna i?aaeaeueiuo aeoaei
(aei 1500 i), /ai iaoneiaeai ?ino o?aaiaoecia e aaa?eeiinoe (ai?iua
auaaeu, ac?uau iaoaia e ae?.). Yoa i?iaeaia yaeyaony aanueia aeooaeueiie
e aeey oaoo Ainoi/iiai Aeiiaanna.

A ioee/ea io ?innee Oe?aeia iaeaaeaao ia?aie/aiiuie caianaie aeeaeeeo e
aaciia?aciuo oaeaaiaei?iaeia. Iaaieueoea ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe e aaca
nin?aaeioi/aiu a Aeiiaoeei-Aeiai?ianeie aiaaeeia, I?aaeea?iaouea e a
aeaaoi?eyo *??iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae. Caianu iaooe ninoaaeytho 138 iei.
o, aaca – 1118 ie?ae. i3, eiiaeainaoa – 80 iei. o, i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu
iaooe – 1,7 ie?ae. o, aaca – 7 o?ei. i3. Aeiau/a ia a ninoiyiee
iaania/eoue iio?aaiinoe no?aiu a oaeaaiaei?iaeao, iiyoiio iia
auioaeaeaia eo eiii?oe?iaaoue, aeaaiui ia?acii ec ?innee. I?e yoii
neeaaeuaaaony eiioeeeoiay neooaoeey ec-ca oeaiiia?aciaaiey, oa?eoia ia
i?iea/eo aaca /a?ac o?oaii?iaiaeu a no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu,
eaioe?iaaiey iioieia oo?eiaineiai aaca, ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai ioe?uoey
caneiiie ia o?oaii?iaiaeao, i?ioiaeyueo /a?ac oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu, e
ioai?a ec ieo aaca, e i?.

No?oeoo?a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina ?innee ?acei ioee/aaony io
no?oeoo? ae?oaeo no?ai NIA, /oi ia iiaeao ia neacaoueny ia aoaeouae
ia?niaeoeaa. ?an/?ou iieacuaatho, /oi iauay iio?aaiinoue ?innee a
ia?ae/iuo yia?ai?ano?nao aoaeao ?anoe iaaeeaiii e oieueei e 2010 a.
aeinoeaiao o?iaiy 1995 a., a e 2020 a. iiauneony ia 5%.

Aieueoea ?acaaaeaiiua caianu i?e?iaeiiai aaca (35% io ie?iauo),
neiioeaio?e?iaaiiua, a iniiaiii, a e?oiiuo e oieeaeueiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaieyo, iicaieytho ?ann/eouaaoue ia i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea
aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe n aeiaaaeaieai 860 ie?ae. eoaiiao?ia. Ii ia
neaaeoaoaiaeiaie aeiau/e aaca e 2010 a. aei 740 caauaaoue i ia?aoiaea
iniiaiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee aaca a ?aaeei iaaeathuae aeiau/e, /oi o?aaoao
i?aaei?eieiaoue iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u ii iieneo iiauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.

Iniaaiii neiaeiui yaeyaony iieiaeaiea a iaooaaeiauaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Nauoa 70% caiania ?inneeneeo iaooyiuo eiiiaiee
iaoiaeeony ia a?aie ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Anee aeanyoue eao iacaae aeiey
aiaea/aiiuo a ?ac?aaioeo caiania n aeaaeoii neaaaeei 25 o/nooee
ninoaaeyea 55%, oi nae/an oaeoth aeieth ninoaaeytho caianu n aeaaeoaie
neaaaeei aei 10 o/nooee, a caianu iaooe aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, aeathueo ieiei 60% aeiau/e, au?aaioaiu aieaa /ai ia
50%. Aeiey caiania n au?aaioaiiinoueth nauoa 80% i?aauoaao 25%, a aeiey
n iaaiaeiaiiinoueth a 70% ninoaaeyao nauoa o?aoe ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo
caiania. I?iaeieaeaao ?anoe aeiey o?oaeiiecaeaeaaiuo caiania, eioi?ay
oaea aeinoeaea 55-60% io ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo.

Iaaei iiae/a?eiooue, /oi inaiaiea oaieueiuo nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia ?innee
inouanoaeyaony oaiiaie, ia niioaaonoaothueie eo iioaioeeaeo. Neaaeoao
i?eciaoue, /oi iuiaoiea i?iaeaiu oaieueiie io?anee ii?iaeaeaiu
ii?aaeae?iiie iaaeiioeaieie a? ?iee a ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiii eiiieaena
no?aiu. Iaaeaeo oai i?iaiice?oaiia ?acaeoea aoiiiie yia?aaoeee ia
ia?aoth iieiaeio XXI aaea naaeaine?iaaii n eiathuaeny nu?ueaaie aacie
o?aia oieueei ia ia?aoth /aoaa?oue noieaoey, o. a. aei 2025-ai, io neeu
aei 2030 aiaea. E oiio aea, n ia/aeii yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i ?inneeneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii ie ?aco ia ?ac?aaaouaaeny oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain
no?aiu ia ia?niaeoeao.

Eneaaeaiu oeaiiaua niioiioaiey ia acaeiicaiaiyaiua yia?ai?ano?nu, /oi
i?eaaei e aeaoi?iaoeee no?oeoo?u ni?ina n /?acia?iie i?eaioaoeeae aai ia
aac e ni nieaeaieai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oaey. Iineaaeiaa
ianoiyoaeuenoai yaeeinue neaaenoaeai a?oaaeoaai oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai
i?in/?oa e aacioaaonoaaiiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa OYE e no?aiu, aeiionoeaoeo
iiae ia?eie aaciaie iaocu i?iaae a ?ac?aaioea nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee
eniieueciaaiey aeao?auo yia?aiiineoaeae (oaieue, oi?o e ae?.).

Oe?aeia ?aniieaaaao e?oiiuie caianaie o?aiiauo ?oae, oniaoii
?ac?aaaouaaaiuo a oii /enea e iaoiaeii iiaecaiiiai auuaea/eaaiey.
Iniiaiie aaieiai-i?iiuoeaiiue oei – iao?iai-iaoaniiaoe/aneee, ii
eeanneoeeaoeee IAAAOY – «iaoaniiaoe/aneea ianoi?iaeaeaiey». Ia aoi?ii
ianoa – o?ai a oaieueii-ian/aiuo ii?iaeao iaeaiaaia – «ianoi?iaeaeaiey a
ian/aieeao» ii IAAAOY, ia o?aoueai – ianoi?iaeaeaiey a E-e?aiienouo
aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo iaoaniiaoeoao – «eio?oceaiua» ii IAAAOY.

Eae ecaanoii, aoiiiay yia?aaoeea no?aieoaeueii ?acaeaaaony ai anai ie?a.

Oe?aeia, ia iaeaaeathuay nianoaaiiuie ?ano?naie oaeaaiaei?iaeia, e?iia
oaey, auioaeaeaia aoaeao aa?iooueny e ?anniio?aieth i?iaeoia AYN, oai
aieaa, /oi ?aca?a iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ieo oiieeaiiai nu?uey eiaaony.
Aaeeinoaaiiue a ?innee No?aeueoeianeee eiiaeiao iaania/eaaao iaiaa
iieiaeiu iio?aaiinoe no?aiu a yoii nu?uea. Iieiaeaiea a Eacaonoaia
ai?acaei eo/oa: ia aai i?aaei?eyoeyo au?aaaouaaaony ieiei 2 ouny/ o
o?aia.

Ia?aoiaey e i?iaeaiai oeaaoiuo, ?aaeeeo e aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia,
iiae/a?eiai, /oi aeaaiie ia Oe?aeia yaeyaony oeoaiiai?oaeiay io?aneue. E
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie auyaeaii aieaa 40 ianoi?iaeaeaiee oeoaii-iaaiaoeoiauo
?oae. Ia aaca ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania ?aaioatho aeaa eiiaeiaoa:
Aa?oiaaeiai?ianeee ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneee e E?oeineee
ai?ii-iaiaaoeoaeueiue. Eo i?iaeoeoeeae niaaaeaeenue ia oieueei
ieaiaioiua i?aaei?eyoey Oe?aeiu, ii e iaoaeeo?ae/aneea eiiaeiaou NIA.
Iauaie?iaia i?iecaiaenoai ieneaea oeoaia a eiioeaio?aoao i?aauoaao 4
iei. o (aeiey Oe?aeiu – 3,7%), a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiua caianu – ieiei 1
ie?ae. o.

Oeoaiiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aeoe/anee anaie
aaieiai-i?iiuoeaiiuie oeiaie – eae yiaeiaaiiuie (a ?anneiaiiuo
aeia?aaceoiauo eio?oceaao), oae e yeciaaiiuie (inoaoi/iua
eiioeaio?aoeee, ?innuie oyaeaeuo ieia?aeia ?aciiai aic?anoa e ae?.). Eo
iauea caianu a aaeaina NIA ninoaaeee aieaa 42%. ?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiay
/anoue au?aaaouaaaiuo eiioeaio?aoia oea ia auieaaeo aoa/aoiai e
iaoaeee/aneiai oeoaia, iaeiaei ec-ca aunieie naaanoieiinoe eo
i?iecaiaenoai ia i?aauoaei aeanyoeia ouny/ oiii. Iniiaiay ianna
eiioeaio?aoia eniieueciaaeanue aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeeieneaea oeoaia –
aeaaiiai eiiiiiaioa ieaiaioiuo iaoa?eaeia e iaiieieoaeae.

?ano?nu oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia Oe?aeiu i?aaenoaaeaiu a iniiaiii
iao?aaeeoeeiiiuie aaieiai-i?iiuoeaiiuie oeiaie ianoi?iaeaeaiee e iiyoiio
n o?oaeii iiaeaeathony yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiea, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo
nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. Iio?aaiinoe Oe?aeiu a iaaee
oaeiaeaoai?ythony ca n/ao eiii?oa, a oii /enea ec no?ai NIA. A ?yaea
?aeiiia Oe?aeiu iaia?oaeaiu iaaieueoea ianoi?iaeaeaiey
ieeaeue-eiaaeueoiauo ?oae eae ia?ae/iuo noeueoeaeiuo (i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu
– aei 15 iei. o), oae e neeeeaoiuo (?acaaaeaiiua caianu a 10 iauaeoao
200 oun. o).

I?iaeaia aeey Oe?aeiu i?iecaiaenoaa aethieiey noieo ia iaiaa ino?i, /ai
a ?innee. Aua i?e nouanoaiaaiee NNN? a Ieeieaaaa aue nii?oaeai e?oiiue
aeeiicaiiue caaiae, a a Caii?iaeuea – iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao. ?an/ao
no?ieeny ia eiii?oa aieueoeo iauaiia ca?oaaaeiuo aieneoia e aeeiicaia n
iineaaeothuei iieo/aieai i?iiaaeooi/iie (aeeiicai) e eiia/iie
(aethieiee) i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea ia?aaae?aniaeo /anoe nu?uey ia caaiaeu
Ainoi/iie Neae?e, n ecauoeii iaania/aiiuo yeaeo?iyia?aeae ianoiuo
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee.

Oaeay noaia nio?aiyaony e nae/an, ii a o?acaiiii aeaea. *oi eanaaony
nianoaaiiiai aethieieaaiai nu?uey, oi iii i?aaenoaaeaii iaeeeie
ianoi?iaeaeaieyie aunieiaeaeacenouo aieneoia (i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu aei 100
iei. o), ianneaaie uaei/iuo iaoaeeiia (I?eaciauea), iaiaauaiiuo
oee?eiieai, oaioaeii, ieiaeai. Eo caianu – aei 3 ie?ae. o ai?iie iannu.

A ?innee nauoa iieiaeiu ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania aieneoia nin?aaeioi/aii a
naaa?iii ?aaeiia e ieiei 28% ia O?aea. Aieaa 84% aieneoia aeiauaaaony ia
O?aea, a oii /enea 73,6% – a Naaa?i-O?aeueneii aieneoiiiniii ?aeiia.

Oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu iaaee a ?innee
yaeyaony aeaaainoaothuay ?ieue a caianao e aeiau/a ianoi?iaeaeaiee
noeueoeaeiiai iaaeii-ieeaeaaiai e eie/aaeaiiiai aaieiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
oeiia. Ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaay aaca iaaee ?innee oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie
noaiaiueth i?iiuoeaiiiai inaiaiey aa aaeainiauo caiania, aeinoeaoae e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie 52%.

Ianiio?y ia e?eceniua yaeaiey, ioaaoeaoea a iineaaeiea aiaeu ieeaeaaoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ?inney ii-i?aaeiaio caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a ie?a ii
?acaaaeaiiui caianai e aeiau/a ieeaey. A ia/aea 1990-o aiaeia ia aeieth
?innee i?eoiaeeeinue 95% ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania e 91% aeiau/e ieeaey a
no?aiao NIA.

Eae i?aaeneacuaaao eiiiaoaioiue aiaeec, a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu ninoiyiea n
nianoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii naeioea e oeeiea a ?innee au? aieaa
oooaeoeony. Iiieii auauoey iiuiinoae ii aeiau/a oeeiea ia o?aeueneeo
iaaeii-oeeieiauo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo, caianu ia ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo
naeioeiai-oeeieiauo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao oiaiueoaony e
2010 a. ia 80-85%.

Iio?aaiinoue ?innee a ieiaa ii/oe ia o?aoue i?aauoaao aai i?iecaiaenoai,
a ?acieoea iie?uaaeanue ca n/?o eiii?oa. Neiaeeaoaany a
ieiaiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe iieiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii
o?oaeiui. ?yae i?aaei?eyoee ieioi iaania/ai ?acaaaeaiiuie caianaie. E eo
/eneo ioiinyony i?aaei?eyoey, inaaeaathuea caianu ieiayiiuo ei?aiiuo e
?innuiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee a Iaaaaeaineie iaeanoe e *oeioneii AI, aaea
i?ae?aoee aeayoaeueiinoue ?yae ai?ii-iaiaaoeoaeueiuo eiiaeiaoia.

Ii ioeaiea, aieueo?aiiaeiauaathuea ?oaeieee iaania/aiu caianaie a
n?aaeiai ia 34 aiaea, ii ii ioaeaeueiui ?oaeieeai i?iaiiciay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeiau/e eieaaeaony io 8 eao aei 40 eao. *a?ac
10-15 eao ia iieiaeia aieueo?aiiaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee caianu aoaeoo
en/a?iaiu, a inoaaoeany ?oaeieee aoaeoo ?ac?aaaouaaoue a iniiaiii
aaaeiua ?oaeu.

Iio?aaiinoe Oe?aeiu a aieueo?aia e iieeaaeaia oaeiaeaoai?ythony ca n/ao
eiii?oa, iaeiaei nianoaaiiua i?iyaeaiey yoeo aeaoo iaoaeeia ecaanoiu a
oao aea ?aeiiao Oe?aeineiai ueoa, /oi e ieiaa, a oaeaea a I?eaciauea.
E?oiiua eiioeaio?aoeee aaiaaeey naycaiu n oeoaii-iaaiaoeoiauie ?oaeaie
Aieuie. Aai caianu a ea/anoaa iiiooiiai eiiiiiaioa ooaa?aeaeaiu a
E?oaineii ?oaeiii ?aeiia. Ecaea/aiea aaeeey i?aaeiieaaaaony iaeaaeeoue
ec eiii?oe?oaiuo aieneoia ia Ieeieaaaneii aeeiicaiiii caaiaea.

Iiauoaiiua eiioeaio?aoeee (aei 4,5 a/o) aa?iaiey onoaiiaeaiu a
eienothueony eaiaiiuo oaeyo Aeiiaanna. Ia eienioeie/aneeo caaiaeao
Oe?aeiu ?aiaa ec iaaeniieueiuo aiae ecaeaeaeinue aei 4-4,5 oiii
aa?iaiey. A eeaieoao Iaeiaaaaiueeianeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey (Caea?iaouea)
ioia/aiu ciiu n aunieei niaea?aeaieai (aei 500 a/o) e cia/eoaeueiuie
caianaie yoiai aaaeiaeoaai iiiooiiai eiiiiiaioa. A AEeoiie?neie iaeanoe
?acaaaeaii Ia?oaineia ianoi?iaeaeaiea aa?eeeey, i?aaenoaaeaiiia
iieaaioiaoiauie e nethaeenoi-eaa?oe-iieaaioiaoiauie iaoaniiaoeoaie ni
n?aaeiei niaea?aeaieai 0,55% AaI (a iniiaiii a aeaea oaiaeeoa).

N iaaiaoeoaie naycaiu i?iiuoeaiiua eiioeaio?aoeee eeoey – a aeaea
niiaeoiaiiauo (I?eaciauea) e iaoaeeoiauo (Ee?iaia?aaeneay iaeanoue)
iaaiaoeoia. I?e eo iaiaauaiee iieo/atho niiaeoiaiiaue eiioeaio?ao,
niaea?aeauee 5,07% ieneaea eeoey, i?e ecaea/aiee 88,5% e auoiaea 18,8%
io enoiaeiie ?oaeu. Iaeiaei aeaaioth oeaiiinoue oaeeo iaaiaoeoia
i?aaenoaaeytho iiiooii iieo/aaiua eiioeaio?aou eaa?oea, iieaaiai oiaoa e
oiieieenoiaie nethaeu.

A ?yaea iaaiaoeoiauo iieae onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea i?iiuoeaiiuo
eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaeeeo caiaeue, eoo?ey, oaioaea e ieiaey. E
yenieoaoaoeee iiaeaioiaeaii oieueei Acianeia ianoi?iaeaeaiea,
i?aaenoaaeaiiia aeieii noauaei/iuo ii?iae – neaieoia, iauae ieiuaaeueth
ieiei 20 ei2. Aeey inaiaiey yoiai iauaeoa iio?aaoaony 12,5 iei. aeiee.,
i?e n?iea ieoiaaiinoe 2,2 aiaea. E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo, caneoaeeaatho
aieiaiey oaeaea i?iyaeaiey neaiaeey, no?iioeey, eaaeiey, aeniooa e ae?.

Ieeeoianeia ianoi?iaeaeaiea a Aeiiaanna auei aaeeinoaaiiui a NNN?
iinoaaueeii ?oooe. Ii o?aaiaaieth «caeaiuo» a ia/aea «ia?ano?ieee»
?oaeiee caeiina?ae?iaaee, e Oe?aeia inoaeanue aac naiae ?oooe, aiaeiaay
aeiau/a eioi?ie aeinoeaaea 400-600 o – aei 10% io iauaie?iaie. Iuia
ie?iaay aeiau/a ?oooe oiaea aei iaiiiaei aieaa 2 oun. o.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ai anai ie?a, iniaaiii a NOA,
aeoeaece?iaaeenue iieneiaua ?aaiou ia cieioi, a oii /enea e
iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai oeia – aeenia?niia. Ia Oe?aeia aeaaii auee ecaanoiu
i?iyaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiiai cieioa – aeeeueiiai (Iaaieueiue e?yae a
Aeiiaanna) e iaoaniiaoe/aneiai (E?eaie ?ia e ae?.), a oaeaea
noaaoeeaie/aneiai (Aa?aaianeee e ?aoianeee ?aeiiu a Caea?iaouea).

Nae/an i?iaeaia n cieioii a no?aia auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii. Iiieii
Ea?iao, aaea ia ianoi?iaeaeaieyo Ioaeeaaneii e Naoeye ?acaaaeaii 56 o
iaoaeea, a iauea aai ?ano?nu ioeaieaathony a 400 o (iethn 5500 o
na?aa?a, 2,7 iei. o naeioea, 5,3 iei. o oeeiea), cia/eoaeueiua
i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu cieioa (400 o) i?aaeiieaaathony a Aeiiaanna
(Aia?eeianeia e ae?oaea ianoi?iaeaeaiey). Iaeiaei iniiaiie cieioiiiniie
i?iaeioeeae n/eoaaony Oe?aeineee ueo n i?iaiiciuie ?ano?naie 2400 o
yoiai iaoaeea.

Ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie eiiieaen (INE) yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ninoaaiie
/anoueth oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaeo ?acaeouo e ?acaeaathueony
no?ai. INE aeeth/aao a naay iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee iioaioeeae
(i?aaiecaoeee aaieiae/aneiai, ai?iiai, iaiaaoeoaeueiiai,
aaieiai-yeiiiie/aneiai e eiiai i?ioeey), aaieiai?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou
(aaieiae/aneay neoaeaa), ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaoth aaco (?acaaaeaiiua
caianu e i?iaiiciua ?ano?nu iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo), ai?iiaeiauaathuea e
ia?a?aaaouaathuea i?aaei?eyoey (i?iecaiaenoaa), niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ia
ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu yenii?oii-eiii?oiua i?aaiecaoeee.

E /eneo aanueia cia/eiuo anoanoaaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeinoiyiee
(aiaaonoa) iiiaeo noaa?aiiuo no?ai ioiinyony eo ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu
(iieaciua eneiiaaiua), eioi?ua yaeythony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia
oniaoiiai e i?ia?anneaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, a oaeaea ?inoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, i?iiuoeaiiiai iioaioeeaea e aeaaininoiyiey
ia?iaea. INE nicaea?o aeey ainoaea?noa aaniiua aa?aioee eo yeiiiie/aneie
e iieeoe/aneie iacaaeneiione, a a ?yaea neo/aaa iaania/eaaao
nouanoaaiiua iinooieaiey naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethou ca n/ao
yenii?oa iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo e i?iaeoeoia ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioee.

*aeiaa/anoai a naiae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eniieuecoao e iio?aaeyao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ?aciiia?aciuo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo – iaooe, aaca, oaey, ?oae iaoaeeia, iaiaoaeee/aneeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo, oeie/aneiai nu?uey, no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e ae?. Iau?iu
ai?iuo ?aaio, aeiau/e e ia?a?aaioee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey iaoeeiiii
oaaee/eaaaony, iinoiyiii ?anoe?yaony oaeaea e ia?a/aiue aeiauaaaiuo
ieia?aeueiuo ia?aciaaiee.

Ia aeaiiii yoaia aaaeiie caaea/ae noaiiaeony ?aaeueiay, ecaaaeaiiay io
eeoiaai iioeiecia e iieeoecaoeee, ioeaiea aiciiaeiinoae e ia?niaeoea INE
a ?aoaiee nia?aiaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caaea/. ?ano?niue iioaioeeae
iaae? Oe?aeiu aeaenoaeoaeueii cia/eoaeai, iaeiaei aai ?aaeecaoeey
iio?aaoao iiiaiieaiiaiai ?aoaiey oeaeiai eiiieaena neiaeiuo i?iaeai a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie. Iiyoiio iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea,
aaieiai?acaaaei/iua, ai?iua, iaiaaoeoaeueiua e i?i/ea aniaeou
aeayoaeueiinoe e ?acaeoey INE aeieaeiu ioiineoueny e /eneo aaaeiaeoeo,
i?ei?eoaoiuo caaea/. Aeiau/a e ia?a?aaioea ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia
yaeythony iaeiie ec aeioiaeiuo iaeanoae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a naie
ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu – aaaeiaeoaa iaoeeiiaeueiia aeinoiyiea e cia/eiay
noaouey yenii?oa.

*oiau ?aoeeiiaeueii, ?aioaaaeueii, ia nia?aiaiiii ie?iaii o?iaia, n
/aoei i?i?aaioaiiuie e iao/ii iainiiaaiiuie ia?niaeoeaaie, ni no?iaei
niaethaeaieai yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe e iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania
aanoe ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaia oicyenoai Oe?aeiu, aacioeaaaoaeueiui
i?aaenoaaeyaony iia?aoeaiay ?ac?aaioea e i?eiyoea eiiieaena
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia e ae?oaeo aeieoiaioia, ii?aaeaeythueo,
iai?aaeythueo, iaania/eaathueo e ?aaoee?othueo aeayoaeueiinoue INE a
oeaeii e aai io?aneae.

Yoio i?ioeann neiaeai e iiiaia?aiai, o?aaoao o/anoey oe?ieiai e?oaa
eiiiaoaioiuo niaoeeaeenoia (aaieiaia, ai?iyeia, yeiiiienoia, iieeoeeia e
ae?.). Eae ia?aue oaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee, caeanue ?ac?aaioaiu e
i?aaeeiaeaiu, eiioeaiooaeueiua iieiaeaiey ?acaeoey INE, eanathueany
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e
ae?oaeo i?iaeai. Eiiiaoaioii e ananoi?iiia ianoaeaeaiiua, iaeaieaa
iioeiaeueiua e iauaeoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaieoiiinoue
eaeae, ia?aiao?ia e iieiaeaiee, aeieaeiu noaoue iniiaie ia?aii/a?aaeiiai
iaeaoa caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia, eiioeaioeee e eiuo
eaoaai?ee, iaania/eaathueo i?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea INE Oe?aeiu.

I?eiyoea e aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea niioaaonoaothueo caeiiia, aeoia e
eiioeaioeee iaoneiaeo ?aoeeiiaeueioth, yooaeoeaioth e yeiiiie/anee
auaiaeioth aeayoaeueiinoue INE a iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
oneiaeyo. A yoii eiioaenoa neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey iieeoecaoeee oao eee eiuo eaoaai?ee INE, ?aaii eae e
ae?oaeo io?aneae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oioy a ?yaea neo/aaa yoi
aanueia o?oaeii e aeaaea iaaiciiaeii i?aaeioa?aoeoue. I?eia?ia yaeaiee
iieeoecaoeee oaeiai ?iaea aeinoaoi/ii a iaoa neiaeiia a?aiy (oaieue,
iaooue, cieioi e ae?.). A i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaiai
noaaeeueiiai iauanoaa aeieaeai ainiiaenoaiaaoue ?acoi, aeeciaiiay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoue, yeiiiie/aneay ?aioaaaeueiinoue,
niaethaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo (iaoeeiiaeueiuo) eioa?ania.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ?anniao?eaaaiua caeanue i?iaeaiu, iieiaeaiey, aii?inu,
aniaeou iinyo iaiauaiiue oa?aeoa?, ?ac?aaioaiu e inaauaiu a ?acee/iie
noaiaie, ia iaeioi?ua ec ieo iiaoo auoue aeueoa?iaoeaiua oi/ee c?aiey,
ae?oaea eioa?i?aoaoeee, oieeiaaiey e ?aoaiey, /oi i?aaeoniao?eaaao
niioaaonoaothuea aeeneonnee e ianoaeaeaiey. Iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee i?iaeai
eee eo ioaeaeueiua aii?inu inoaeenue iiea iaioaa/aiiuie. Iiyoiio
i?eiaieoaeueii e eiie?aoiui iauaeoai (io?aneyi, i?aaei?eyoeyi,
ianoi?iaeaeaieyi, aeaeai ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey e o.i.) yoe eaoaai?ee e
iieiaeaiey iiaoo aeiiieiyoueny e ooi/iyoueny ?yaeii niaoeeoe/aneeo
aniaeoia, i?enouei yoei iauaeoai. I?aaenoaaeaiiua o?aeoiaee cao?iioouo
i?iaeai e iieiaeaiee i?aaeeaaathony anai caeioa?aniaaiiui aeey aeaeiaiai
e eiino?oeoeaiiai ianoaeaeaiey

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