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Iacicieneay y?a

Iacicieneay y?a aeaeeony ia o?eaniaue, th?neee e iaeiaie ia?eiaeu iauae
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 173 iei. eao. Ioeiaeaiey yoeo ia?eiaeia
ninoaaeytho niioaaonoaothuea nenoaiu, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe ia?acotho
iacicieneoth a?oiio. O?eaniaay nenoaia auaeaeaia a Aa?iaiee, th?neay e
iaeiaay — a Oaaeoea?ee e O?aioeee. O?eaniaay e th?neay nenoaiu aeaeyony
ia o?e ioaeaea, iaeiaay — ia aeaa.

I?aaie/aneee ie?

I?aaie/aneee ie? iacicieneie y?u neeueii ioee/aaony io iaeaicieneie. Ia
niaio auia?oei a ia?ie iaeaicieneei a?oiiai iiyaeeenue iiaua —
iacicieneea.

A iacicieneeo ii?yo iieo/eee eneeth/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea aieiaiiiaea
iieethnee — aiiiieou e aaeaiieou, ?acei oaaee/eeinue ?aciiia?acea e
eiee/anoai aeaonoai?/aouo e a?thoiiiaeo iieethneia, iiyaeeenue e
?acaeaaeenue oanoeeo/aaua ei?aeeu. Ec iicaiii/iuo oe?iei
?ani?ino?aieeenue einoenoua ?uau e ieaaathuea ?aioeeee.

Ia nooa ainiiaenoaiaaee /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciua i?aniueathueany
(iniaaiii aeeiicaa?u). N?aaee iacaiiuo ?anoaiee eniuoaee ?anoeaao
aieinaiaiiua.

I?aaie/aneee ie? o?eaniaiai ia?eiaea. Iniaaiiinoueth i?aaie/aneiai ie?a
yoiai ia?eiaea yaeyeinue nouanoaiaaiea iaeioi?uo a?oae/aneeo
iaeaicieneeo a?oii, oioy i?aiaeaaeaee oaea iiaua — iacicieneea.

I?aaie/aneee ie? ii?y. N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu
aieiaiiiaea e aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee. N?aaee aieiaiiiaeo
ainiiaenoaiaaee oea?aoeou, eioi?ua auoanieee aiieaoeoia. Oa?aeoa?iui
?iaeii aue oea?aoeoan n oeie/iie oea?aoeoiaie ia?aai?iaei/iie eeieae.
Iiyaeeenue ia?aua aaeaiieou, ii a o?eana eo auei aua iaei.

Aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee canaeeee aiaaoua ieuae iaeeiaiaeiua o/anoee, ia
eioi?uo a iaeaicia iaeoaee a?aoeiiiaeu. Aeaonoai?ee auno?i ?acaeaaeenue,
noaiiaeeenue aieaa ?aciiia?aciu ii ninoaao. Oaaee/eeinue /enei
a?thoiiiaeo iieethneia, iiyaeeenue oanoeeo/aaua ei?aeeu e iiaua ii?neea
aaee n i?i/iui iaioee?ai.

I?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny ii?neea iicaiii/iua. N?aaee ?ua nie?aoeeinue
/enei o?yuaauo, noaee ?aaeee eenoaia?ua e aeaiyeiaeuoauea. Ia niaio ei
iiyaeeenue einoenoua ?uau. A ii?yo iaeoaee ia?aua /a?aiaoe, e?ieiaeeeu e
eooeicaa?u — e?oiiua ieaaathuea yua?u, iioiaeea ia aeaeueoeiia.

I?aaie/aneee ie? nooe oiaea eciaieeny. Auie?aee noaaioeaoaeu, a
i?aniueathueany noaiiaeeenue ainiiaenoaothuae a?oiiie. Ia niaio
auie?athuei eioeeicaa?ai e caa?iia?aciui yua?ai i?eoee iacicieneea
aeeiicaa?u, iniaaiii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieaoeany a th?a e iaeo. A eiioea
o?eana iiyaeeenue ia?aua ieaeiieoathuea, iie eiaee iaaieueoea ?acia?u e
i?eieoeaiia no?iaiea.

?anoeoaeueiue ie? a ia/aea o?eana aue neeueii iaaaeiai, neacuaaeinue
aeeyiea canooeeaiai eeeiaoa. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia o?eana eeeiao
oaeaaeieeny, iiyaeeenue ?aciiia?aciua iacicieneea iaii?ioieee e
aieinaiaiiua (oeeeaaeiaua, aeieaiaua e ae?.). Ia?yaeo n ieie auee oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu oaieiua. E eiioeo o?eana oei?a i?eia?aea iacicieneee
iaeee, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny ainiiaenoaii aieinaiaiiuo.

I?aaie/aneee ie? th?neiai ia?eiaea

I?aaie/aneee ie? th?u aue iaeaieaa oeie/iui aeey iacicieneie y?u.

I?aaie/aneee ie? ii?y. N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo ainiiaenoaiaaee aiiiieou,
iie eiaee neiaeioth ia?aai?iaei/ioth eeieth e auee /?acau/aeii
?aciiia?aciu ii oi?ia ?aeiaeiu e aa neoeueioo?a. Iaeiei ec oeie/iuo
iicaeiath?neeo aiiiieoia yaeyaony ?iae ae?aaoeoan ni naienoaaiiuie
oieueei aio io/eaie ?aaa? ia ?aeiaeia. Iiiai noaei aaeaiieoia, eo ?ino?u
ano?a/athony a ianniaii eiee/anoaa a th?neeo aeeiao. Oa?aeoa?iuie
?iaeaie yaeythony oeeeeiae?ioaooen n aeeeiiui oeeeeiae?e/aneei ?ino?ii e
aeaieeoan n ?ino?ii aa?aoaiiia?aciie oi?iu.

Aeaonoai?/aoua e a?thoiiiaea iieethnee noaee iiiai/eneaiiu e
?aciiia?aciu. N?aaee aeaonoai?ie auei iiiai ono?eoe n oienoie ?aeiaeiie
?aciiia?aciie oi?iu. A ii?yo iaeoaee ?acee/iua oanoeeo/aaua ei?aeeu,
ii?neea aaee e iiiai/eneaiiua i?inoaeoea.

N?aaee ii?neeo iicaiii/iuo i?iaeieaeaee ainiiaenoaiaaoue ?uaiyua?u —
eooeicaa?u, iiyaeeenue /aooe/aoua yua?u — iacicaa?u, iioiaeea ia
aeaaioneeo coaanouo yua?eoe. Auno?i ?acaeaaeenue einoenoua ?uau.

I?aaie/aneee ie? nooe aue i/aiue naiaia?aciui. Aac?acaeaeueii
ainiiaenoaiaaee aeaaioneea yua?u — aeeiicaa?u — ?aciiia?aciie oi?iu e
?acia?ia. N ia?aiai acaeyaea iie eaaeoony i?eoaeueoeaie ec aiacaiiiai
ie?a eee ieiaeii oaioacee ooaeiaeieeia.

Iaeaieaa aiaaou inoaoeaie aeeiicaa?ia ionouiy Aiae e ninaaeiea o/anoee
Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. Yoa ia?iiiay oa??eoi?ey a oa/aiea 150 iei. eao aei
th?neiai ia?eiaea iaoiaeeeanue a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo,
aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey eneiiaaiie oaoiu.
I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi yoa iaeanoue yaeeanue i/aaii aicieeiiaaiey
aeeiicaa?ia, ioeoaea iie ?annaeeeenue ii anaio naaoo aieioue aei
Aano?aeee, Ao?eee, Aia?eee.

Aeeiicaa?u eiaee aeaaioneea ?acia?u. Nia?aiaiiua iai neiiu — naiua
e?oiiua naaiaeiy ec iacaiiuo aeeaioiuo (?inoii aei 3,5 i e iannie aei
4,5 o) — eaaeoony ea?eeeaie ii n?aaiaieth n aeeiicaa?aie. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiuie auee ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua aeeiicaa?u. «AEeaua ai?u» —
a?aoeicaa?u, a?iioicaa?u e aeeieiaeiee — eiaee aeeeio aei 30 i e
aeinoeaaee 40—50 o. Ia?iiiua noaaicaa?u ianee ia nieia aieueoea (aei 1
i) einoiua ieanoeiu, eioi?ua caueuaee eo ianneaiia oaei. Ia eiioea
oainoa noaaicaa?ia iaoiaeeeenue ino?ua oeiu. N?aaee aeeiicaa?ia auei
iaiaei no?aoiuo oeuieeia, eioi?ua ia?aaeaeaaeenue ai?acaei auno?aa naieo
o?aaiyaeiuo ni?iaee/ae. ?aciiiaeaeenue aeeiicaa?u i?e iiiiue yeoe,
ca?uaay eo a ai?y/ee ianie, eae yoi aeaeatho nia?aiaiiua /a?aiaoe. A
Iiiaieee aei neo ii? iaoiaeyo ae?aaiea eeaaeee yeoe aeeiicaa?ia.

Aicaeooioth n?aaeo inaieee eaoathuea yua?u — ioa?icaa?u n ino?uie
ia?aiii/aouie e?ueueyie. N?aaee ieo auaeaeyeenue ?aioi?eioe — coaanoua
yua?u, ieoaaoeany ?uaie e ianaeiiuie. A eiioea th?u iiyaeeenue
ia?aiioeoeu — a?oaiioa?eenu — aaee/eiie n aaeeo, iie nio?aieee iiiaea
/a?ou naieo i?aaeeia — i?aniueathueony.

?anoeoaeueiue ie? nooe ioee/aeny ?anoeaaoii ?aciiia?aciuo aieinaiaiiuo:
oeeeaaeiauo, aeieaiauo, oaieiuo e ae?. TH?neay oei?a auea aeiaieueii
iaeii?iaeiie ia caiiii oa?a e oieueei a eiioea th?u ia/aee iaia/aoueny
oei?enoe/aneea i?iaeioeee.

I?aaie/aneee ie? iaeiaiai ia?eiaea

A oa/aiea yoiai ia?eiaea i?aaie/aneee ie? i?aoa?iae nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey. A ia/aea ia?eiaea ii aue noiaeai n th?neei, a a iicaeiai iaeo
noae ?acei nie?auaoueny ca n/ao auie?aiey iiiaeo iacicieneeo a?oii
aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee.

I?aaie/aneee ie? ii?y. N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu oa aea
a?oiiu i?aaieciia, eae e a th?neii ia?eiaea, ii ninoaa eo eciaieeny.

I?iaeieaeaee ainiiaenoaiaaoue aiiiieou, n?aaee ieo iiyaeeinue iiiai oi?i
n /anoe/ii eee ii/oe iieiinoueth ?acaa?iooie ?aeiaeiie. Ecaanoiu iaeiaua
aiiiieou ni nie?aeueii-eiie/aneie (eae oeeoee) e iaeeiia?aciie
?aeiaeiie. A eiioea ia?eiaea ana aiiiieou auia?ee.

Aaeaiieou aeinoeaee naiaai ?anoeaaoa, iie auee iiiai/eneaiiu e
?aciiia?aciu. Iniaaiii oe?iei aue ?ani?ino?aiai ?iae aaeaiieoaeea n
?ino?ii, iioiaeei ia neaa?o. Oaaee/eaaeinue cia/aiea aeaonoai?/aouo e
a?thoiiiaeo iieethneia, iie iinoaiaiii caoaaouaaee ainiiaenoaothuaa
iieiaeaiea. N?aaee aeaonoai?ie auei iiiai ono?eoe, eiioea?aionia e
iaeoaiia. A o?iie/aneeo ii?yo iicaeiaai iaea iaeoaee naiaia?aciua
aieaeiaeaeiua aeiio?eou. Ii oi?ia naiae ?aeiaeiu iie iaiiieiatho aoaie e
iaeeii/iuo ei?aeeia. Yoi yaeyaony aeieacaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi yoe
aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee aaee i?ee?aieaiiue ia?ac aeecie, a ioee/ea io
naieo ni?iaee/ae. Aieueoiai ?aciiia?acey aeinoeaee a?thoiiiaea
iieethnee, iniaaiii e eiioeo ia?eiaea. N?aaee ii?neeo aaeae
ainiiaenoaiaaee ?acee/iua iai?aaeeueiua aaee, iaeiei ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae
eioi?uo yaeyaony ?iae iee?anoa? n ?aeiaeiie na?aeoeaaeaeiie oi?iu.

Oaieiaiaeiua iicaeiaiaeiaua ii?y auee ia?aiieiaiu iee?ioaoiie, n?aaee
eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeaee iaeeea oi?aieieoa?u—aeiaeaa?eiu e
oeueo?aiee?ineiie/aneea iaeiieeaoi/iua ecaanoeiaua aiaei?inee —
eieeieeoioi?eaeu. Neiieaiea eieeieeoia ia?aciauaaei oiieee ecaanoeiaue
ee, ec eioi?iai a aeaeueiaeoai oi?ie?iaaeny ien/ee iae. Iaeaieaa iyaeea
?aciinoe ien/aai iaea ii/oe oeaeeeii ninoiyo ec eieeieeoia, i?eianue
oi?aieieoa? a ieo iacia/eoaeueia.

A ii?yo auei iiiai iicaiii/iuo. Auno?i ?acaeaaeenue einoenoua ?uau, e
iie caaiaauaaee ii?neoth n?aaeo. Aei eiioea ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaee
ieaaathuea yua?u — eooeicaa?u, iicicaa?u.

I?aaie/aneee ie? nooe a ?aiiai iaeo iaei ioee/aeny io th?neiai. A
aicaeooa ainiiaenoaiaaee eaoathuea yua?u — ioa?iaeaeoeee, iioiaeea ia
aeaaioneeo eaoo/eo iuoae. ?aciao eo e?ueueaa aeinoeaae 7—8 i, a a NOA
aue iaia?oaeai neaeao aeaaioneiai ioa?iaeaeoeey n ?aciaoii e?ueueaa 16
i. Ia?yaeo n oaeeie a?iiaaeiuie eaoathueie yua?aie iaeoaee ioa?iaeaeoeee
?acia?ii ia aieaa ai?iauey. Ia nooa i?iaeieaeaee ainiiaenoaiaaoue
?acee/iua aeeiicaa?u, ii a eiioea iaeiaiai ia?eiaea ana iie auia?ee
aianoa ni naieie ii?neeie ni?iaee/aie.

Iacaiiay oei?a ?aiiaiaeiaie yiioe, eae e a th?a, oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue
ainiiaenoaii aieinaiaiiuo ?anoaiee, ii ia/eiay n eiioea ?aiiaai iaea
iiyaeythony e auno?i ?acaeaathony iie?uoinaiaiiua, eioi?ua aianoa n
oaieiuie noaiiayony ainiiaenoaothuae a?oiiie ?anoaiee e eiioeo iaeiaiai
ia?eiaea. Aieinaiaiiua ?acei nie?auathony a eiee/anoaa e ?aciiia?acee,
iiiaea ec ieo auie?atho.

Oaeei ia?acii, a eiioea iacicieneie y?u i?iecioee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey
eae a aeeaioiii, oae e a ?anoeoaeueiii ie?a. En/acee ana aiiiieou,
aieueoeinoai aaeaiieoia e a?aoeiiiae, ana aeeiicaa?u, e?ueaoua yua?u,
iiiaea aiaeiua ?aioeeee, ae?aaiea ioeoeu, ?yae a?oii aunoeo ?anoaiee ec
aieinaiaiiuo.

N?aaee yoeo nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee iniaaiii ii?aaeaao auno?ia
en/aciiaaiea n eeoea Caiee iacicieneeo aeaaioia — aeeiicaa?ia. *oi aea
yaeeinue i?e/eiie aeaaee noieue aieueoie e ?aciiia?aciie a?oiiu
aeeaioiuo? Yoa oaia aeaaii i?eaeaeaao o/aiuo e aei neo ii? ia noiaeeo ni
no?aieoe eiea e iao/iuo aeo?iaeia. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeanyoeia
aeiioac, e iiyaeythony iiaua. A iniiao iaeiie a?oiiu aeiioac iieiaeaiu
oaeoiie/aneea i?e/eiu — neeueiue i?iaaiac aucaae nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey
iaeaiaaia?aoee, eeeiaoa e ieuaauo ?ano?nia. Ae?oaea aeiioacu naycuaatho
aeaaeue aeeiicaa?ia n i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeeaoeie a einiina, aeaaiui
ia?acii n eciaiaieai einie/aneie ?aaeeaoeee. O?aouey a?oiia aeiioac
iauyniyao aeaaeue aeaaioia ?acee/iuie aeieiae/aneeie i?e/eiaie:
ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo iauaiii iicaa e aanii oaea aeeaioiuo; auno?ui
?acaeoeai oeuiuo ieaeiieoathueo, iiaaeaaoeo iaeeeo aeeiicaa?ia e yeoea
e?oiiuo; iinoaiaiiui ooieuaieai nei?eoiu yeoe aei oaeie noaiaie, /oi
aeaoaiuoe ia iiaee aa i?iaeoue. Nouanoaotho aeiioacu, naycuaathuea
aeaaeue aeeiicaa?ia n oaaee/aieai iee?iyeaiaioia a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea,
n eenei?iaeiui aieiaeaieai, n auiuaaieai ecaanoe ec ii/au eee n
aic?anoaieai neeu oyaeanoe ia Caiea aei oaeie noaiaie, /oi
aeaaiou-aeeiicaa?u auee ?acaeaaeaiu nianoaaiiui aanii.

O?oaeii ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea eaeie-eeai ec yoeo aeiioac. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
a eaaeaeie ec ieo anoue aieueoay eee iaiueoay aeiey i?aaaeu (ca
eneeth/aieai niaa?oaiii iaaa?iyoiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee, eioi?ua oaeaea
auneacuaaeenue). Ianiiiaiii, oeaeue eiiieaen i?e/ei aucaae aeaaeue
aeeiicaa?ia, a oaeaea neeueiua eciaiaiey a ninoaaa ae?oaeo a?oii
aeeaioiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a.

No?oeoo?a caiiie ei?u e iaeaiaaia?aoey a ia/aea y?u

A ia/aea iacicieneie y?u no?oeoo?a caiiie ei?u neeueii ioee/aeanue io
no?oeoo?u, nouanoaiaaaoae a ia/aea iicaeiaai iaeaiciy. Aieueoea
eciaiaiey i?iecioee a no?iaiee aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynia. A ?acoeueoaoa
aa?oeeineie neeaae/aoinoe caaa?oeeinue aaineieeeiaeueiia ?acaeoea
O?aei-Iiiaieueneiai, Aoeaioe/aneiai e A?eoe/aneiai iiynia, /anoae
Oeoiieaaineiai e N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai iiynia. N ia/aea iaciciy ana yoe
eieinnaeueiua ii ieiuaaee oa??eoi?ee i?aa?aoeeenue a iieiaeua ieaooi?iu,
eioi?ua niaaeeieee ae?aaiea ieaooi?iu naaa?iiai iieooa?ey a ia?iiiue
ieaooi?iaiiue iannea Eaa?acey, ioaeaeyaoeeny io Aiiaeaaiu
aaineieeeiaeueiuie iaeanoyie N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai iiyna.
Aaineieeeiaeueiue ?aaeei i?iaeieaeae nouanoaiaaoue oieueei a
N?aaeecaiiiii?neii e Oeoiieaaineii iiynao ia cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeo
ieiuaaeyo, /ai a ia/aea iaeaicieneie y?u, oae eae ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe
yoeo iiynia i?aa?aoeeenue a iieiaeua ieaooi?iu.

Ana yoe eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a caiiie ei?u neeueii io?aceeenue ia
iaeaiaaia?aoee. A ia/aea iacicieneie y?u iaa ieaooi?iaiiuo ianneaa —
Eaa?acey e Aiiaeaaia iaoiaeeeenue a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo, ii?y
?aniieaaaeenue a aaineieeeiaeueiuo iaeanoyo e caeeaaee e?aaaua /anoe
ieaooi?i.

Nouanoaiaaea aiaaeeia Oeoiai ieaaia e ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny aiaaeeia
Eiaeeeneiai ieaaia.

Enoi?ey aaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynia

Aaineieeeiaeueiua iiyna a oa/aiea iaciciy ?acaeaaeenue ii-?aciiio. Ia
cia/eoaeueiuo oa??eoi?eyo N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai e Oeoiieaaineiai iiynia
i?iaeieaeaeinue aaineieeeiaeueiia ?acaeoea. Nouanoaaiiui ?acee/eai a
enoi?ee yoeo iiynia auei eioaineaiia i?iyaeaiea iacicieneie
neeaae/aoinoe a Oeoiieaaineii, a oi a?aiy eae a N?aaeecaiiiii?neii iiyna
iia neacaeanue ai?acaei neaaaa e ioaaoeea iaiueoea ieiuaaee.

Ana ae?oaea iiyna a oa/aiea iaciciy ?acaeaaeenue eae iieiaeua ieaooi?iu.

N?aaeecaiiiii?neee aaineieeeiaeueiue iiyn

Aaineieeeiaeueiua oneiaey a oa/aiea anae iacicieneie y?u nio?aiyeenue ia
iaoe?iie oa??eoi?ee iiyna a i?aaeaeao aeaoo aaineieeeiaeueiuo iaeanoae —
Aeueieenei-Aeiaeaeneie e Eiaeiiaceeneie. Aeueieenei-Aeiaeaeneay iaeanoue
ioaaouaaea caiaaeioth e oeaio?aeueioth /anoe iiyna (THaeiay Aa?iia,
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiay Ao?eea, Iaeay Acey, Aeiaeae); Eiaeiiaceeneay —
ainoi/ioth (Ae?ia, Eiaeiiacey, /anoue Oeeeiieineeo ino?iaia).
Iacicieneay neeaae/aoinoue i?iyaeeanue oe?iei ia oa??eoi?ee iiyna, ii
neeaae/aoua no?oeoo?u — iacicieaeu — aicieeee oieueei ia ainoiea
(THaeiue Oeaao, Eiaeieeoae, Iaeaeea).

E?aaaua /anoe N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai iiyna, eioi?ua a ?acoeueoaoa
aa?oeeineie neeaae/aoinoe i?aa?aoeeenue a neeaae/aoua no?oeoo?u —
aa?oeeieaeu (cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie
Ao?eee e o. ae.), ?acaeaaeenue a iacicia eae iieiaeua ieaooi?iu.

Aeueieenei-Aeiaeaeneay aaineieeeiaeueiay iaeanoue. Iacicieneay enoi?ey
yoie ia?iiiie iaeanoe eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeia. Iia oi?ioi ainnoaiiaeaia
a thaeiie /anoe Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ia Eaaeaca. Aeey iiieiaiey iniiaiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey Aeueieenei-Aeiaeaeneie iaeanoe a iacicia e?aoei
?anniio?ei enoi?eth ?acaeoey Eaaeaca, eco/aiioth n aieueoie iieiioie.

Ia/eiay n iaciciy ia Eaaeaca nouanoaiaaee aeaa aaineieeeiaeueiua
nenoaiu. Ia naaa?a ?aniieaaaeanue nenoaia Aieueoiai Eaaeaca, iia
ioaaouaaea oa??eoi?eth nia?aiaiiiai Aieueoiai Eaaeacneiai o?aaoa e
i?ioyaeaaeanue a i?aaeaeu Ai?iiai E?uia. Ia thaa — nenoaia Iaeiai
Eaaeaca, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeeee A?iaiey, thaeiua /anoe Aca?aaeaeaeaia
e A?ocee. Aaieiae/aneay enoi?ey yoeo aaineieeeiaeueiuo nenoai
nouanoaaiii ?acee/aeanue.

O?eaniaay enoi?ey Eaaeaca ainnoaiiaeaia ieioi, oae eae o?eaniaua
ioeiaeaiey ano?a/aiu ia aanueia ia?aie/aiiuo o/anoeao. Ii?iaeu
i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ecaanoiyeaie. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ia Eaaeaca a
o?eana nouanoaiaae iaeeiaiaeiue ii?neie aannaei, ii cia/eoaeueiua /anoe
oa??eoi?ee i?aaenoaaeyee niaie nooo. Ii?neie aannaei a oa/aiea o?eana
iinoaiaiii ?anoe?yeny.

TH?neay e iaeiaay enoi?ey Eaaeaca oi?ioi ainnoaiiaeaia, iia i?ioaeaea a
neiaeiuo oneiaeyo. Eiaiii a yoe ia?eiaeu oi?ie?iaaeenue e ?acaeaaeenue
iaa aaineieeeiaeueiua nenoaiu. A ?aiiae th?a ia ianoa Aieueoiai Eaaeaca
nouanoaiaae oe?ieee e aeoaieee i?iaea, a eioi?ii iaeaieeaaeanue i/aiue
iiuiay oieua aeei n i?ineiyie ian/aieeia. A n?aaeiae th?a yoio i?iaea
?acaeaeeeny ia aeaa /anoe, a aai oeaio?a aicieeei aaiaioeeeeiaeueiia
iiaeiyoea. A naaa?iii i?iaeaa i?iaeieaeaeinue iaeiieaiea i/aiue iiuiuo
ian/aii-aeeienouo inaaeeia (a Aeaaanoaia iiuiinoue ieaeiae e n?aaeiae
th?u aeinoeaaao 7 ei), a a thaeiii i?iaeaa inaaeeiiaeiieaiea
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue iiaeaiaeiuie aoeeaie/aneeie eceeyieyie. N iicaeiae
th?u iaa i?iaeaa ?acaeaaeenue niaa?oaiii iainiaeaiii.. A naaa?iii
oi?ie?iaaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii ea?aiiaoiua ioeiaeaiey, a thaeiii —
iiuiay oieua oeeoaaie oi?iaoeee.

Iiaeiaiua oneiaey inaaeeiiaeiieaiey nio?aieeenue e a iaeiaii ia?eiaea.
Oeaio?aeueiay aaiaioeeeeiaeue i?iaeieaeaea ?anoe?youeny, i?iaeau ana
aieaa iainiaeyeenue. A eiioea iaeiaiai ia?eiaea i?iecioei iauaa
iiaeiyoea e ?aa?anney ii?y.

Ii-eiiio oei ?acaeoea Iaeieaaeacneie aaineieeeiaeueiie nenoaiu. A
th?neii ia?eiaea ia Iaeii Eaaeaca i?iecioee ?aceea oaeoiie/aneea
iiaeaeaeee, aiciee ?yae aeoaeiiuo ?aceiiia, ii eioi?ui ec iiaeei?iaie
/anoe caiiie ei?u iiaeieiaeny aaa?o iaaiaoe/aneee iaoa?eae. Ii ?aceiiai
ioaeaeueiua e?oiiua o/anoee iioneaeenue,- ae?oaea iiaeieiaeenue. A
ia?aciaaaoainy ii/oe oe?ioiii i?iaeaa a ii?neeo oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaeanue
iiiaieeeiiao?iaay oieua yoooceaia iniiaiiai ninoaaa.

A ?aiiaiaeiaoth yiioo Iaeue Eaaeac aue ioaa/ai iiaeiyoeyie e
i?aaenoaaeye niaie nooo, a iicaeiai iaeo i?iecioee iauea iioneaiey e
niiaa ia/aeinue oi?ie?iaaiea iiuiuo inaaei/ii-aoeeaie/aneeo oi?iaoeee.

Iacicieneay enoi?ey ae?oaeo aaineieeeiaeueiuo nenoai
Aeueieenei-Aeiaeaeneie aaineieeeiaeueiie iaeanoe iaia?oaeeaaao /a?ou
noiaenoaa n ?anniio?aiiie enoi?eae Eaaeaca. Ana aaineieeeiaeueiua
nenoaiu yoie iaeanoe iaoiaeeeenue a iacicia ia aeaaiii yoaia
aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey — iianaianoii i?ienoiaeeee neiaeiua
aeaeaeaiey caiiie ei?u, oneiaeiyeanue oaeoiie/aneay no?oeoo?a,
iaeaieeaaeenue iiuiua oieue inaaei/iuo e aoeeaie/aneeo ii?iae ?acee/iiai
ninoaaa. A ie?aeiiuo aaineieeeiaeueiuo i?iaeaao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ieiei
ieaooi?iaiiuo ianneaia (Aeueiu, Aieueoie Eaaeac e ae?.), iaeaieeaaeenue
i?aeiouanoaaiii ian/aii-aeeienoua e ea?aiiaoiua inaaeee aac
aoeeaie/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Ai aioo?aiieo i?iaeaao (Iaeue Eaaeac e ae?.),
iaiai?io, aoeeaiiaaiiua ioeiaeaiey i?aiaeaaeatho.

Oeoiieaaineee aaineieeeiaeueiue iiyn

Oeoiieaaineee iiyn ie?oaeaao aiaaeeio Oeoiai ieaaia a aeaea ia?aaiiia?ii
?anoe?ythuaeny e noaeathuaeny iieinu. A oa/aiea anae enoi?ee Caiee yoio
iiyn anaaaea aue naiie e?oiiie aaineieeeiaeueiie no?oeoo?ie. A iacicia a
aai i?aaeaeao auaeaeyeinue ianeieueei aaineieeeiaeueiuo iaeanoae,
eioi?ua i?eiueaee iaiin?aaenoaaiii e aiaaeeia Oeoiai ieaaia. Oa?aeoa?iie
iniaaiiinoueth ?acaeoey yoeo iaeanoae auei iianaianoiia i?iyaeaiea
iacicieneie neeaae/aoinoe, eioi?ay a ?aciuo aaineieeeiaeueiuo iaeanoyo
i?ioaeaea ia iaeeiaeiai. A iaeieo iaeanoyo iacicieneay neeaae/aoinoue
i?eaaea e caaa?oaieth aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia a eiioea iaciciy
(Ei?aeeeuea?neay, Aa?oiyinei-*oeioneay); a ae?oaeo aaineieeeiaeueiia
?acaeoea i?iaeieaeaeinue e a eaeiicieneoth y?o (Ainoi/ii-Aceaoneay,
Aiaeeeneay e ae?.).

Iacicieneee i?iaaiac aucaae cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a
iaeaiaaia?aoe/aneie ianoaiiaea ia oa??eoi?ee Oeoiieaaineiai iiyna.
Aicieeee iaoe?iua ai?iua ianneau, nie?aoeeenue ieiuaaee ii?neeo
aannaeiia, neeueii eciaieeenue i/a?oaiey iaoa?eeia e ii?ae.

O?aei-Iiiaieueneee neeaae/aoue iiyn

A ia/aea iaciciy any oa??eoi?ey yoiai iiyna i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ai?ioth
neeaae/aooth no?aio, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie aaineieeeiaeueiue ?aaeei
caaa?oeeny a eiioea iaeaicieneie y?u. A oa/aiea iaciciy ia anae ieiuaaee
iiyna ainiiaenoaiaaee i?ioeannu ?aciuaa e eeoue eia-aaea a eciee?iaaiiuo
aiaaeeiao iaeaieeaaeenue eiioeiaioaeueiua ioeiaeaiey, eioi?ua a ?yaea
o/anoeia yaeythony oaeaiiniuie. Ii?neia inaaeeiiaeiieaiea iaaethaeaeinue
a th?neii e iaeiaii ia?eiaeao oieueei a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe iiyna.
Iii auei aucaaii iioneaieyie a iaeanoe nia?aiaiiie Caiaaeii-Neae?neie
ieciaiiinoe e o?aina?anneae ii?y ec A?eoe/aneiai aannaeia. N
iacicieneeie ii?neeie ioeiaeaieyie naycaiu caeanue e?oiiaeoea
ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe e ai?th/aai aaca.

Enoi?ey aaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey ae?aaieo ieaooi?i

A iacicieneoth y?o aaieiae/aneay enoi?ey Eaa?acee nouanoaaiii
ioee/aeanue io enoi?ee Aiiaeaaiu. Ieaooi?iaiiue iannea Eaa?acey, a
ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeeee ana ae?aaiea ieaooi?iu naaa?iiai iieooa?ey, a
o?eana iaoiaeeeny a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo, a a th?a e iaeo e?oiiua
o/anoee aai oa??eoi?ee eniuoaee iioneaiey e o?aina?anneth ii?y. THaeiue
ieaooi?iaiiue iannea — Aiiaeaaia — a oa/aiea iaciciy eniuoae
cia/eoaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey. Ii ?aniaeny ia /anoe, iaaeaeo eioi?uie
aicieeee e?oiiua ieaaie/aneea aiaaeeiu.

Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneay ae?aaiyy ieaooi?ia

Iacicieneay enoi?ey yoie ieaooi?iu i?ioaeaea a aeinoaoi/ii niieieiie
ianoaiiaea. A o?eaniaii ia?eiaea ieaooi?ia auea i?eiiaeiyoui o/anoeii
caiiie ei?u e iaeiieaiea eiioeiaioaeueiuo aeethaeaeueiuo e ica?iuo
ioeiaeaiee i?ienoiaeeei a Iineianeie, Iieuenei-Eeoianeie e I?eeanieeneie
neiaeeecao. Aeaaiuie enoi/ieeaie niina iaeiii/iiai iaoa?eaea auee ai?iua
ianneau O?aea e Oeiaia. Oieueei a thaeioth /anoue I?eeanieeneie
neiaeeecu i?iieeaei ii?a n thaa — ec N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai iiyna.

A ia/aea th?neiai ia?eiaea i?iaeaaiea ioaaoeei iaaieueoea o/anoee ia
thaa ieaooi?iu e ii?a i?iieeei ia oa??eoi?eth Aeiiaanna. Ii?neie aannaei
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeny a n?aaeiae th?a, ii caieiae iaoe?ioth
Oe?aeineoth neiaeeeco, ia?aciaaaoothny naaa?iaa Oe?aeineiai ueoa e
niaaeeiythuothny ia thai-ainoiea n I?eeanieeneie neiaeeecie, eioi?ay
oiaea auea iie?uoa ii?ai. A n?aaeiae th?a i?iaeaaiey ioaaoeee caiaaeioth
e naaa?i-ainoi/ioth /anoe ieaooi?iu (Iieuenei-Eeoianeoth e Ia/i?neoth
neiaeeecu). Iianaianoii iaeaieeaaeenue iaeiiiuiua ian/aii-aeeienoua
ioeiaeaiey. I?iaeieaeathueany i?iaeaaiey i?eaaee e ?anoe?aieth ii?neiai
aannaeia, e a iicaeiae th?a o?aina?anney aeinoeaea iaeneioia. A
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ieaooi?iu niaaeeieeenue ii?neea aiaeu,
o?aina?anne?iaaaoea n thaa, caiaaea e naaa?i-ainoiea. Aiciee iaoe?iue
ii?neie aannaei, a eioi?ii ana a?aiy nouanoaiaaee iaeeiaiaeiua oneiaey.
Ia aieueoeo ieiuaaeyo yoiai aannaeia iaeaieeaaeenue iaeiiia?aciua oaiiua
aeeiu n ai?eciioaie ianeia e oinoi?eoia. Iiuiinoue aa?oiath?neeo aeei
aeinoeaaao anaai ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia iao?ia.

A ia/aea iaeiaiai ia?eiaea ii?neie aannaei ia ieaooi?ia aua ioaaouaae
cia/eoaeueioth oa??eoi?eth, ii ieiuaaeue aai nie?auaeanue. I?ienoiaeeei
iaiaeaiea, e iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaaeanue ?ieue ian/aiiai iaoa?eaea a
ioeiaeaieyo. Naycue n N?aaeecaiiiii?neei e A?eoe/aneei aannaeiaie
nio?aiyeanue ii/oe aei eiioea ?aiiaiaeiaie yiioe.

Ia ?oaaaea ?aiiaai e iicaeiaai iaea i?iecioei inooaiea naaa?iie /anoe
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iu e i/a?oaiey ii?neiai aannaeia ia iae
noaee eiuie. I?iaeaaiey nio?aieeenue oieueei a thaeiie /anoe ieaooi?iu,
aaea iaoiaeeeny ii?neie aannaei oe?ioiiai iai?aaeaiey, aoiaeeaoee a
ninoaa ae?aaiaai ieaaia, iieo/eaoaai iacaaiea Oaoen. Yoio ia?iiiue ieaai
nouanoaiaae a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ainoi/iiai iieooa?ey aua a
iaeaicieneoth y?o e a oa/aiea aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee iaiye naie
i/a?oaiey, oi ?anoe?yynue, oi noaeaynue. A iicaeiaiaeiaoth yiioo Oaoen
aeinoea iaeneiaeueiuo ?acia?ia. Yoi auei a?aiy e?oiiaeoae a enoi?ee
Caiee ii?neie o?aina?annee, ioaaoeaoae anth oa??eoi?eth
N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai iiyna e cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie
e Naaa?ii-Ao?eeaineie ae?aaieo ieaooi?i. Ia Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie
ieaooi?ia, aea e a ae?oaeo o/anoeao Oaoena, ?acei eciaieeny oa?aeoa?
inaaeeiiaeiieaiey a iicaeiaiaeiaii aannaeia ii n?aaiaieth n aieaa
?aiieie yiioaie. ?acei aic?inea ?ieue ea?aiiaoiuo inaaeeia, iianaianoii
iaeaieeaaeenue ia?aaee, ecaanoiyee, ea?aiiaoiua aeeiu e ien/ee iae.

A eiioea iacicieneie y?u oa??eoi?eth Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iu
ioaaoeee iiaeiyoey e ii?a ooei ca aa i?aaeaeu.

Neae?neay ae?aaiyy ieaooi?ia

A oa/aiea iacicieneie y?u aieueoay /anoue yoie ieaooi?iu i?aaenoaaeyea
niaie i?eiiaeiyooth iaeanoue. Ii?a caeeaaei oieueei naaa?ioth e
naaa?i-ainoi/ioth ie?aeiu.

A o?eaniaii ia?eiaea a caiaaeiie /anoe ieaooi?iu a Ooiaonneie neiaeeeca
i?iaeieaeaeinue ia?aciaaiea iiuiie o?aiiiaie oi?iaoeee, eioi?ia
ia/aeinue aua a eiioea ia?ineiai ia?eiaea. O?aiiiaue aoeeaieci aeinoea
iaeneioia a ia/aea o?eana, aoeeaie/aneea ecaa?aeaiey iaaiu iniiaiiai
ninoaaa i?ienoiaeeee a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo. Ia aaieiae/aneie ea?oa
Neae?neie ieaooi?iu oi?ioi aeaeii ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?eaniauo neae?neeo
o?aiiia a Ooiaonneie neiaeeeca ia ieiuaaee aieaa 1,5 iei. ei2. A th?neee
e iaeiaie ia?eiaeu ia Neae?neie ieaooi?ia aicieeee e oi?ie?iaaeenue aeaa
e?oiiua neiaeeecu; ia naaa?a — Oaoaianeay e ia naaa?i-ainoiea —
Eainei-Aeetheneay. Eo eiioo?u io/aoeeai aunooiatho ia aaieiae/aneie
ea?oa. A Oaoaianeie neiaeeeca iaeaieeaaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii ii?neea, a
a Eainei-Aeetheneie — eiioeiaioaeueiua ioeiaeaiey. Aieueoia cia/aiea
eiatho aa?oiath?neea e ieaeiaiaeiaua ioeiaeaiey Eainei-Aeetheneie
neiaeeecu, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie iiuioth oaeaiinioth na?eth n
eieinnaeueiuie caianaie eaiaiiiai e ao?iai oaey (2648 ie?ae. o). A
th?neee ia?eiae oaeaiaeiieaiea i?ienoiaeeei e ia thai-caiaaea Neae?neie
ieaooi?iu. Caeanue a n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie Eaineie e E?eooneie
aiaaeeia iaeiieeanue oaeaiiniay oi?iaoeey aieueoie iiuiinoe. Iniaaiii
aaeeee caianu oaey a Eaineii aannaeia (1220 ie?ae. o), a E?eooneii iie
cia/eoaeueii ne?iiiaa (87 ie?ae. o).

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aoaonoa E., Ao?eai C. Ii iooyi ?acaeoey aeecie. – I?aaa, 1971

2. Aaiaeon A. *a?ac ai?u a?aiaie. – I., 1993

3. Io?aoia I.A. I?ienoiaeaeaiea iaoa?eeia e ieaaie/aneeo aiaaeei. – I.,
1995

4. Iaieia A.E. Eaaeoeeee A.N. e ae?. E?aoeee eo?n iaeaiioieiaee. – I.,
1988

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