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Макрорегионы Зарубежной Азии, Африка и глобальные проблемы человечества

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?aoa?ao

ia oaio: «Iae?i?aaeiiu Ca?oaaaeiie Acee, Ao?eea e aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu
/aeiaa/anoaa»

IAE?I?AAEIIU CA?OAAAEIIE ACEE

A i?aaeaeao ca?oaaaeiie Acee iiaeii auaeaeeoue 4 iae?i?aaeiia:
THai-Caiaaeiue, THaeiue, THai-Ainoi/iue e Ainoi/iue.

THai-Caiaaeiay Acey — ae?aaiaeoee i/aa ie?iaie eoeueoo?u. A ?aaeiia
eiathony eae ioiineoaeueii i?ioeaaoathuea iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu
Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, oae e ionoaeua ainoaea?noaa, aaea i?aiaeaaeaao
iio?aaeoaeueneia naeueneia oicyenoai, no?aaeathuaa io iinoiyiiuo canoo.
A yoii aea ?aeiia iaoiaeeony yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoia
eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iia ainoaea?noai Ec?aeeue, aicieeoaa a 1948 a.
No?aia aiaaoa oinoi?eoaie e ieia?aeueiuie nieyie, niaoeeaeece?oaony ia
?acaeoee iaoeiaieeo io?aneae. Aiaeiaie aeioiae AII ninoaaeyao ieiei 14
000 aeiee. ia aeooo ianaeaiey.

A THaeiie Acee oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiaao Eiaeey — iaeei ec eeaea?ia
?acaeaathuaainy ie?a. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey — 943 iei /ae. (2-a ianoi a
ie?a); yoi naiia iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiia ainoaea?noai ia caiiii oa?a.
N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey — aieaa 300 /ae./ei2. O?iaaiue
o?aaiecaoeee iecie — 26%. Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ianaeaiey, ianiio?y ia
aeaiia?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo, inoaaony aeiaieueii aunieei — 20 /ae. ia
1000 aeeoaeae a aiae. Eiaeey — auaoay eieiiey Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
oaaea?aoeaiay ?anioaeeea, aoiaeeo a ninoaa A?eoaineiai Niae?oaeanoaa.

Ca aiaeu iacaaeneiinoe (n 1947 a.) Eiaeey aeiaeeanue aieueoeo oniaoia a
yeiiiieea e a nioeeaeueiie noa?a. Ii iauaio iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa iia
caieiaao 11-a ianoi a ie?a, a ii o?iaith AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey —
oieueei 102-a ianoi (iaiaa 300 aeiee.).

Iaeiia?aiaiii caeanue iaoiaeyony aaaeiaeoea no?aiu ie?a n ionoaeie
oaiaeaeueiie yeiiiieeie — Aaiaeaaeao, Iaiae, Aooai, Iaeueaeeau,
O?e-Eaiea. Naeueneia oicyenoai yoeo no?ai eiaao ?anoaieaaiae/aneoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue, oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiiaioeeaaeiinoueth e iaeicaiaeueai
e?anoueyi. Ia ie?iaie ?uiie no?aiu THaeiie Acee iinoaaeytho /ae, aeaeoo,
iaoo?aeueiue eao/oe, niaoeee.

THai-Ainoi/iay Acey caieiaao eeth/aaia iieiaeaiea ia ia?ae?anoea ii?neeo
o?ann e yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei iinoaaueeii naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai e
ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey. Iniiaa naeueneiai oicyenoaa — ?eninayiea. ?aeii
oaeaea i?iecaiaeeo i?yiinoe, iaoo?aeueiue eao/oe, eieiniaia ianei,
eaeai, iaieeueneoth iaiueeo, /ae, eioa.

Cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea iieo/eee ii?neia e ?a/iia ?uaieianoai, aeiau/a
ii?neeo ia?uaiuo iauaeoia, a oaeaea aeaaeoeueoo?a.

A i?iiuoeaiiinoe aieueoeinoaa no?ai ?aaeiia i?aiaeaaeaao ?ac?aaioea
ieiayiiie ?oaeu, aieueo?aia, no?ueiu, o?iia; a iineaaeiea aiaeu auno?i
?anoao aeiau/a iaooe.

A ?acaeoee ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeaaiaea?y eiino?aiiiio
eaieoaeo i?aoniaee Neiaaio?, Iaeaecey e Oeeeiieiu. Aunie oaeaeueiue aan
ii?neiai o?ainii?oa.

Ainoi/iay Acey, aeeth/athuay oaeaea no?aiu Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, iaeaieaa
iaiaeii?iaeia a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee. Caeanue iaoiaeyony
IEN e Oaeaaiue, a oaeaea ioiineoaeueii ?acaeoia ainoaea?noai
eiiioienoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee — EIAe?. Aiieiia — eieiiey Aaeeeia?eoaiee —
n 1 ethey 1997 a. ia?aaeaaony iiae noaa?aieoao Eeoay i?e oneiaee
ia?ani?ino?aiaiey ia iaai a oa/aiea 50 eao eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu oicyenoaiaaiey. Aiieiia i?aa?aoeeny a e?oiiia
eiaeono?eaeueiia ainoaea?noai, ioiinyuaany e a?oiia IEN. E?oiiaeoae
no?aiie ?aaeiia yaeyaony Eeoae.

Yoi o?aouey ii ?acia?ai oa??eoi?ee no?aia ie?a (9,6 iei ei2),
?aniieiaeaiiay a Ainoi/iie Acee.

Eeoae — naiay iiiai/eneaiiay no?aia ie?a — 1 ie?ae 185 iei /ae. 90%
ianaeaiey — eeoaeoeu (oaiueoeu), oai ia iaiaa no?aio ioiinyo e eaoaai?ee
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo: caeanue i?iaeeaaao ieiei 60 yoie/aneeo a?oii. Ii/oe
90% aeeoaeae nin?aaeioi/aiu ia ainoiea no?aiu, aaea ieioiinoue ianaeaiey
aeinoeaaao 600 /ae./ei2, oiaaea eae a Oeaaoa — 1—2 /ae./ei2. O?iaaiue
o?aaiecaoeee iecie — 28%, ii a oi aea a?aiy a iae aieueoa anaai
ai?iaeia-ieeeeiia?ia — ieiei 35. Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ianaeaiey ca
iineaaeiea aiaeu aeaaiaea?y aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeea cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeny e ninoaaeyao nae/an 14 /ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae a aiae.

Ca aiaeu nioeeaeenoe/aneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa (n 1949 a.) no?aia ia?aaeeea
eae oniaoe, oae e aeoaieea yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea e?ecenu. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy n?aaeiee aaeaaiaeiue i?e?ino aa AII naiue aunieee —
ieiei 7%. Eeoae i?aa?aoeeny a e?oiiia eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iia
ainoaea?noai (4-a ianoi a ie?a ii iauaio i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa).

A Ainoi/iie Acee iaoiaeeony iaeia ec no?ai «aieueoie naia?ee» — ssiiiey.

Yoi iaaieueoia ino?iaiia ainoaea?noai a oeaio?a Aceaonei-Oeoiieaaineiai
?aaeiia.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey — 125 iei /ae. Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ianaeaiey
nieceeny n 10 aei 4 /ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae a aiae; n?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie naiay aunieay a ie?a — 79 eao.

N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey — 330 /ae./ei2. O?iaaiue o?aaiecaoeee —
77%. Aaeieue Oeoiieaaineiai iiaa?aaeuey neiaeeeanue «aieueoay o?ieea»
aaeiia?aoeee — Oieei, Inaea, Iaaiy, oi?ie?othuay niaianoii iaaaeiiieen
Oieaeaei ni n?aaeiae ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey ieiei 1000 /ae./ei2.
Yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia ianaeaiea ninoaaeyao ii/oe 50%.

Ca ei?ioeee n?ie no?aia i?aa?aoeeanue ec iieooaiaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa
a aaaeouoth aea?aeaao ie?a, noaa aeaaiui ie?iaui e?aaeeoi?ii e
yenii?oa?ii eaieoaea. Aa oi?aiaue aaeain ioee/aaony ia?iiiui ia?aaanii
yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii. AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey aieaa 30 oun. aeieea?ia.
Aaaeiay iniaaiiinoue yeiiiieee ssiiiee — 90% -iay caaeneiinoue io
eiii?oa nu?uey.

A ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu a ssiiiee auee nicaeaiu aaciaua io?anee
yeiiiieee: yia?aaoeea, iaoaeeo?aey, aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea, noaeino?iaiea,
oeie/aneay, iaooyiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. N 70—80-o aa. no?aia ana aieueoa
i?eaioe?oaony ia iiaaeoea iaoeiaieea io?anee, ?ano?ni- e
i?e?iaeinaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee.

AANO?AEEENEEE NITHC

A ninoaa Aano?aeeeneiai Nithca aoiaeeo iaoa?ee Aano?aeey e i. Oaniaiey.
Aeaaiay iniaaiiinoue — oaeaeaiiinoue io inoaeueiuo eiioeiaioia e no?ai
ie?a. Yoi naiue ?aaieiiue e nooie iaoa?ee-no?aia. Ii ieiuaaee Aano?aeey
caieiaao 6-a ianoi a ie?a.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey — 18,1 iei /ae. A iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa —
yoi aa?iiaeneea, i?aaeaea anaai, aiaeeeneea ia?anaeaioeu. Ei?aiiuo
aeeoaeae — anaai 1%. Aano?aeey iaeiaiaa canaeaiiia ainoaea?noai,
n?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao anaai 2 /ae./ei2. 85% ianaeaiey
i?iaeeaaao a oceie 80-eeeiiao?iaie ciia aaeieue aa?aaa ieaaia ia
thai-ainoiea e iaiiiai ia thai-caiaaea no?aiu, aaea ieioiinoue
cia/eoaeueii auoa. O?iaaiue o?aaiecaoeee a no?aia aeinoaoi/ii aunieee —
86%. Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino iaaieueoie: 5 /ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae.

Aano?aeey ioiineony e yeiiiie/anee auniei?acaeoui no?aiai. Aa
onei?aiiiio ?acaeoeth niinianoaiaaee ia?iiiua iainaiaiiua i?ino?ainoaa,
aiaaoua ieia?aeueiuie e caiaeueiuie ?ano?naie, aeoeaiue i?eoie
aiaeeeneiai e aia?eeaineiai eaieoaea, auno?ia ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee. Aunieee oaeaeueiue aan a yeiiiieea no?aiu eiatho
yenii?oii-nu?ueaaua io?anee ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
naeueneiai oicyenoaa. I?eia? Aano?aeee iieacuaaao, /oi nu?ueaaay
niaoeeaeecaoeey yeiiiieee iiaeao auoue o auniei?acaeoie no?aiu.

IEAAIEss

Ieaaiey — yoi niaieoiiinoue aieueoeo e iaeuo ino?iaia a thai-caiaaeiie e
oeaio?aeueiie /anoyo Oeoiai ieaaia. Eo i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu:
Iaeaiaceth (Iiaay Aaeiay, Iiaay Eaeaaeiiey, Iiaua Aaa?eaeu, Nieiiiiiau
i-aa, Oeaeaee); Iieeiaceth (Ia?eecneea i-aa, Ooaiioo, Ainoi/iia e
Caiaaeiia Naiia, Oiiaa, Aaaaee, Iiaay Caeaiaeey) e Iee?iiaceth
(Ia?oaeeiau i-aa, Ea?ieeineea, Ia?eaineea, Iao?o e ae?.).

A Ieaaiee nae/an aieaa 20 noaa?aiiuo ainoaea?noa e caaeneiuo oa??eoi?ee.
I?e yoii Aaaaeneea i-aa — 50-e ooao NOA. Ia?iaeu Ieaaiee neeueii
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa a ?aniaii, ycueiaii e enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iii
ioiioaiee. I?eia?ii 50% ianaeaiey — ei?aiiua aeeoaee; 20—25% i?iaeeaatho
a ai?iaeao. Ii o?iaith a?aiioiinoe, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie, iiiaei
nioeeaeueiui iieacaoaeyi Ieaaiey auaiaeii ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo
?acaeaathueony no?ai.

Iniiaioth /anoue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee aeaao naeueneia oicyenoai:
eieiniaua i?aoe, eioa, eaeai, i?yiinoe.

Iaeaieaa ?acaeoie no?aiie a Ieaaiee yaeyaony Iiaay Caeaiaeey, aaea ii/oe
80% aeeoaeae ninoaaeytho aiaee/aia e ieiei 10% — ei?aiiua aeeoaee —
iai?e. Yoi auniei?acaeoay eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iay no?aia, caieiathuay
iaeii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a ii iauaio aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia aeooo
ianaeaiey; aeioiaeu io yenii?oa ninoaaeytho 30% AII no?aiu.

Iaeiaiaa ?acaeouie no?aiaie Ieaaiee yaeythony Nieiiiiiau i-aa, Ooaaeo,
Ee?eaaoe e ae?. Oaeaeaiiinoue io yeiiiie/aneeo oeaio?ia e ae?oa io
ae?oaa inoaaony na?ueaciui i?aiyonoaeai aeey eo onei?aiiiai ?acaeoey.

AO?EEA

Ao?eea caieiaao ieiuaaeue 29,2 iei ei2. I?ioyaeaiiinoue n naaa?a ia tha
— 8 oun. ei, n caiaaea ia ainoie a naaa?iie /anoe — 7,5 oun. ei.
Iniaaiiinoueth YAI iiiaeo no?ai ?aaeiia yaeyaony ionoonoaea auoiaea e
ii?th. A oi aea a?aiy a no?aiao, auoiaeyueo e ieaaio, aa?aaiaay eeiey
ec?acaia neaai, /oi ia aeaaii?eyonoaoao no?ieoaeuenoao e?oiiuo ii?oia.
Neaaay o?ainii?oiay naoue ia niinianoaoao oaniie acaeiinayce
ainoaea?noa.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Ao?eee iaoiaeeony 55 no?ai, ec ieo o?e — iiia?oee, iaeia
(Ieaa?ey) — oaaea?aoeaiay ?anioaeeea, inoaeueiua — ?anioaeeee. Ana
no?aiu, ca eneeth/aieai THaeii-Ao?eeaineie ?anioaeeee, ?acaeaathueany,
i?e/ai aieueoeinoai ec ieo aaaeiaeoea a ie?a. Caeanue naiia aieueoia
eiee/anoai iaa?aiioiuo ethaeae, naiay aunieay aeaoneay nia?oiinoue e
naiay ieceay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie; 70% ianaeaiey aeeaao ca
/a?oie aaaeiinoe.

I?E?IAeIUA ?ANO?NU

Ao?eea eneeth/eoaeueii aiaaoa i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, i?aaeaea anaai
ieia?aeueiuie. I?aiaeaaeatho ?oaeiua iieaciua eneiiaaiua ia ae?aaiae
ieaooi?ia. A iiieaeaieyo, a i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao, aaea oaaee/eaaaony
iiuiinoue inaaei/iiai /aoea, eiaaony oiieeaiia nu?uea. Iaooue e aac
aeiauaathony a Naaa?iie e Caiaaeiie Ao?eea (Ieaa?ey, Eeaey, Aeaee?,
Aaeiao), eaiaiiue oaieue — a THA?.

Eieinnaeueiua caianu eiaaeueoiauo e iaaeiuo ?oae nin?aaeioi/aiu a Caiaee
e Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeea Eiiai; ia?aaioeaaua ?oaeu aeiauaathony a THA? e
Ceiaaaaa; aieneou — a Aaeiaa; ieaoeia, aeaeaciua ?oaeu e cieioi — a THA?
(1-a ianoi a ie?a ii aeiau/a cieioa); aeiacu — a Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeea
Eiiai, Aionaaia, THA?, Iaieaee, Aiaiea, Aaia; oinoi?eou — a Ia?ieei,
Ooiena, THA?; o?ai — a Ieaa?a, THA?, Iaieaee.

A Ao?eea aeiaieueii aieueoea caiaeueiua ?ano?nu, iaeiaei y?icey ii/a
i?eiyea eaoano?ioe/aneee oa?aeoa? ec-ca iai?aaeeueiie aa ia?aaioee.

Ao?eea — naiue aea?eee iaoa?ee. Aiaeiua ?ano?nu ?ani?aaeaeaiu e?aeia
ia?aaiiia?ii: a a?eaeiie ciia eo ia oaaoaao, a a yeaaoi?eaeueiie —
ecauoie.

Eana caieiatho ieiei 10% oa??eoi?ee, ii a ?acoeueoaoa oeuie/aneiai
oie/oiaeaiey eo ieiuaaeue auno?i nie?auaaony. Iie nio?aiytho aaaeiia
oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea oieueei aeey Aaaiia e Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee Eiiai.

IANAEAIEA

A Ao?eea naiua aunieea oaiiu anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey. Caeanue
aua ia i?ioae iee «aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ac?uaa». Anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ai
iiiaeo no?aiao i?aauoaao 30 /ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae a aiae (a Caiaee —
38). Nio?aiyaony aunieay aeiey aeaoneeo aic?anoia — ieiei 50% e
iaaieueoay aeiey ethaeae noa?oaai iieieaiey — a i?aaeaeao 5% (noa?oa 60
eao).

Yoie/aneee ninoaa ianaeaiey aanueia neiaeai. Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiui
ia?iaeii yaeythony a?aau Naaa?iie Ao?eee, ei?oaa — ia Caiaaea. Ai a?aiy
eieiieaeueiiai inaiaiey iaoa?eea iiiaea ainoaea?noaaiiua a?aieoeu
i?iaiaeeeenue aac o/aoa yoie/aneeo iniaaiiinoae — «ii eeiaeea», /oi aei
neo ii? i?eaiaeeo e iaaeyoie/aneei eiioeeeoai.

N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey Ao?eee ninoaaeyao 22 /ae./ei2, o. a.
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai a Aa?iia eee Acee. Ii o?iaith o?aaiecaoeee
Ao?eea ionoaao io ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia — iaiaa 30%, iaeiaei oaiiu
o?aaiecaoeee caeanue naiua aunieea a ie?a.

OICssENOAI

Ao?eeaineei no?aiai iiea ia oaeaeinue eciaieoue eieiieaeueiue oei
io?aneaaie e oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee, oioy oaiiu
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ianeieueei onei?eeenue: a 1993 a. AAI oaaee/eeny ia
1,6%. A oeaeii Ao?eea aua neeueii ionoaao a naiai ?acaeoee. Iia caieiaao
iineaaeiaa ianoi n?aaee ?aaeiiia ie?a ii o?iaith eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e
o?iaeaeiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?. Eieiieaeueiue oei
io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u oicyenoaa ioee/aaony i?aiaeaaeaieai iaeioiaa?iiai,
iio?aaeoaeueneiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa, neaaui ?acaeoeai ia?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ionoaaaieai ?acaeoey o?ainii?oa. Oai ia iaiaa ca aiaeu
iacaaeneiinoe auee aeinoeaioou iaeioi?ua oniaoe a ?acaeoee
ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ii aeiau/a iiiaeo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo
Ao?eea i?eiaaeeaaeeo eeaee?othuaa, a eiiaaea e iiiiiieueiia ianoi a
ie?iaii IA?O. Ia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia eaaeie e
ieuaaie, ae?oaea io?anee ionoonoaotho, ca eneeth/aieai ?yaea ?aeiiia
aaeece iaee/ey nu?uey e ia iiaa?aaeuea (Aaeiao, Aeaee?, Ia?ieei,
Ieaa?ey, Caiaey, Ceiaaaaa, Cae?).

Naeueneia oicyenoai, i?aaeaea anaai o?iie/aneia caieaaeaeea, — ae?oaay
io?aneue yeiiiieee, ii?aaeaeythuay ianoi Ao?eee a IA?O. A naeueneii
oicyenoaa ?yaea no?ai caiyoi aei 90% yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey.
I?iaeoeoeey caieaaeaeey ninoaaeyao 60—80% AAI. Iniiaiuie oiaa?iuie
eoeueoo?aie yaeythony a?aoen, eioa, eaeai-aiau, oeieee, /ae,
iaoo?aeueiue eao/oe, ni?ai, i?yiinoe. Aieueooth ?ieue a ?aoeeiia
ao?eeaioeaa ea?atho iaieiea, aaoao, yin. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy noaee
au?aueaaoue e ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u: eoeo?oco, ?en, ioaieoeo.
AEeaioiiaiaenoai ea?aao iiae/eiaiioth ?ieue, ca eneeth/aieai no?ai n
canooeeaui eeeiaoii. I?aiaeaaeaao yenoaineaiia neioiaiaenoai,
oa?aeoa?ecothuaany ia?iiiui iiaieiaueai neioa, ii iaeie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth e ieceie oiaa?iinoueth. Eiioeiaio ia iiaeao
iaania/eoue naay naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie i?iaeoeoaie.

O?ainii?o oaeaea nio?aiyao eieiieaeueiue oei: aeaeaciua aei?iae eaeoo io
?aeiiia aeiau/e nu?uey e ii?oo aai auaica. Iiyoiio ioiineoaeueii ?acaeou
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue e ii?neie aeaeu o?ainii?oa. Iaaeaaii i?ieiaeaia
aaoiiiaeeueiay aei?iaa /a?ac Naoa?o io Aeaee?a aei Eaaina.

A 80-a aa. a Ao?eea ia/aeny nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Oaaee/eeny
?ac?ua iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeiaieuenoaey (aiaeiaie i?e?ino ieiei
2%) e iio?aaiinoyie ianaeaiey (i?e?ino ia 3%). E oiio aea Ao?eeo
ia?eiaee/anee ioaaouaaao neeueiaeoay canooa. Io?eoeaoaeueii aeeytho ia
?acaeoea yeiiiieee ieceee o?iaaiue eaaeeoeeaoeee e ia?aciaaiey
ianaeaiey, ionoaeay oaoie/aneay aaca, neaai?acaeoay e??eaaoeey caiaeue,
aaeoa?eaeueiay caa?yciaiiinoue i?aniuo aiae, ae?oniua eioaeoeee,
ii?aaeathuea ethaeae e neio. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo io?eoeaoaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia yaeyaony oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiiieoeueoo?u, o. a. oceay
niaoeeaeecaoeey oicyenoaa no?aiu ia i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai nu?ueaaiai eee
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai oiaa?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai ia yenii?o.

IAE?I?AAEIIU

Iau/ii Ao?eeo iiae?acaeaeytho ia Naaa?ioth, O?iie/aneoth e THA?.

Naaa?iay Ao?eea — yoi a?aaneay Ao?eea, eniiaaaeothuay eneai. Oicyenoai
nin?aaeioi/aii a n?aaeecaiiiii?neie iieina, aaea ?aniieiaeaiu
ioiineoaeueii aieaa ?acaeoua no?aiu eiioeiaioa.

O?iie/aneay Ao?eea — naiay ionoaeay /anoue ?aaeiia. Caeanue iaoiaeyony
29 iaeaieaa neaai?acaeouo no?ai e iaaethaeaaony naiue ieceee o?iaaiue
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e o?aaiecaoeee a ie?a. A oi aea a?aiy yoi ?aeii
iaeaieueoaai yeieiae/aneiai aaaenoaey: caeanue a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
i?iyaeythony iionouieaaiea, iaaceanaiea, iaaaeiaiea oaoiu e oei?u,
ae?oniia caa?yciaiea aiaeiiai e aicaeooiiai aannaeiia.

THaeii-Ao?eeaineay ?anioaeeea — aaeeinoaaiiay yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoay
no?aia Ao?eee. Ia aa aeieth i?eoiaeeony 6% ianaeaiey, ii iia i?iecaiaeeo
40% i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, 80% auieaaee noaee, ia aa oa??eoi?ee
nin?aaeioi/aii 35% aeeeiu aeaeaciuo aei?ia e 50% aaoiiiaeeae. No?aia
iaeaaeaao ia?iiiuie caianaie ?aciiia?aciuo ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia.
E?oiiaeoee i?iiuoeaiiue oeaio? — Eioaiianao?a. Aaeia ianaeaiea no?aiu,
ninoaaeythuaa anaai 13%, ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aeanyoeeaoee ioeoeeaeueii
i?iaiaeeei iieeoeeo aia?oaeaea, o. a. iieeoeeo eeoaiey iieeoe/aneeo,
yeiiiie/aneeo, a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa /a?iiai ianaeaiey no?aiu aieioue aei
aai oa??eoi?eaeueiie ecieyoeee a niaoeeaeueii ioaaaeaiiuo ?aca?aaoeeyo —
aaioonoaiao. E oieueei ia/eiay n 1989 a. iaiaoeeny iooiae io aia?oaeaea,
a a 1994 a. e aeanoe i?eoee i?aaenoaaeoaee /a?iiai aieueoeinoaa. THA?
iiaeii iacaaoue no?aiie n aeaieiie yeiiiieeie: ae i?enoue /a?ou eae
?acaeouo, oae e ?acaeaathueony no?ai.

Ao?eea, ianiio?y ia ia?iiiue i?e?iaeiue e ethaeneie iioaioeeae, inoaaony
iaeaieaa ionoaeie /anoueth ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Aeaaiay caaea/a ?aaeiia —
onei?aiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, niinianoaothueo
?aoaieth aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo e yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai.

AEIAAEUeIUA I?IAEAIU *AEIAA*ANOAA

Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu — yoi i?iaeaiu anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, nicaeathuea
oa?ico aeey aai ianoiyuaai e aoaeouaai e o?aaothuea aeey naiaai ?aoaiey
iauaaeeiaiiuo oneeee anao ainoaea?noa e ia?iaeia.

I?iaeaia ie?a e ?aci?oaeaiey ninoieo a i?aaeioa?auaiee ?ani?ino?aiaiey,
nie?auaiee e oie/oiaeaiee yaea?iiai e ae?oaeo aeaeia i?oaeey,
ia?ai?eaioaoeee aiaiiiai aeiea IAOI, iaaeiiouaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo e
eieaeueiuo eiioeeeoia.

Yeieiae/aneay i?iaeaia — yoi i?iaeaia acaeiiioiioaiee iauanoaa e
i?e?iaeu. Oneiaii a iae iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e a?oiiu i?iaeai.

1. Aeaa?aaeaoeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e eae neaaenoaea — iaaceanaiea e enoiuaiea ii/a.

2. Caa?yciaiea eeoinoa?u, aeae?inoa?u e aoiinoa?u oaa?aeuie, aeeaeeeie e
aaciia?aciuie iooiaeaie aio?iiiaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

3. Io?aaeaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu oeie/aneeie aauanoaaie, nicaeaaaaiuie
a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, — oeieeaoaie, ianoeoeeaeaie e ae?. Iniai
neaaeoao auaeaeeoue o?aiiu — aacu, eniieuecoaiua a oieiaeeeueiuo
onoaiiaeao e ay?icieyo, ?ac?ooathuea iciiiaue neie ieaiaou.

Aeaiia?aoe/aneay i?iaeaia — i?iaeaia oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
Caiee, eioi?ia a 2020 a. aeieaeii ninoaaeoue i?eia?ii 8 ie?ae /ae.
I?e?ino ianaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo a iniiaiii ca n/ao ?acaeaathueony no?ai.
?aoaiea aeaiia?aoe/aneie i?iaeaiu eaaeeo ia noieueei a iaeanoe
aeaiia?aoee, neieueei a eciaiaiee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, i?aiaeieaiee
eo ionoaeinoe.

I?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay i?iaeaia — i?iaeaia iaania/aiey ?anoouaai ianaeaiey
ieaiaou i?iaeiaieuenoaeai.

Nooue i?iaeaiu ia a oii, /oi a ie?a ia oaaoaao i?iaeiaieuenoaey, a a
oii, /oi ?aeiiu aai i?iecaiaenoaa, eae i?aaeei, ia niaiaaeatho n
?aeiiaie aai iio?aaeaiey. Iiyoiio i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay i?iaeaia ia
noieueei ?ano?niay, neieueei nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay e aeaaea
iieeoe/aneay.

Yia?aaoe/aneay e nu?ueaaay i?iaeaia — i?iaeaia ia?aie/aiiinoe e
aiciiaeiiai en/a?iaiey oiieeaiuo e ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia:
iaooe, aaca, aeaeaciie e iaaeiie ?oaeu, ieeaey, ia?aaioea e ae?. ?aoaiea
yoie i?iaeaiu naycaii n aeanoeie yeiiiieae nu?uey e yia?aee,
eniieueciaaieai ?ano?na- e yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee, iieneii iiauo
iaen/a?iaaiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee.

I?iaeaiu Ie?iaiai ieaaia naycaiu n ?acaeoeai ii?neiai oicyenoaa
(aeiau/ae ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia, ?uaieianoaii, ii?neei o?ainii?oii,
aiaiii-ii?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ?ae?aaoeeae) e caa?yciaieai aiae
ie?aeiiuo e aioo?aiieo ii?ae.

I?iaeaia ionoaeinoe ?acaeaathueony no?ai — i?iaeaia ?ac?uaa a o?iaia
aeioiaeia, i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie e naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea i?iaeiaieuenoaey ia aeooo ianaeaiey ii n?aaiaieth
n ?acaeouie no?aiaie, ianniaie iaa?aiioiinoe e ieceie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie.

I?iaeaia onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey — i?iaeaia oaeiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa,
eioi?ia niiaei au oaeiaeaoai?eoue ioaeaeu iuiaoiaai iieieaiey ethaeae e
a oi aea a?aiy ia iiaeaa?aei au ?eneo niiniaiinoue iineaaeothueo
iieieaiee oaeiaeaoai?youe naie iio?aaiinoe. ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu ninoieo a
oii, /oiau yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea noaei onoie/eaui, o. a. ia?anoaei
?ac?ooaoue ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.

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