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Ea?no (ea?noiaua yaeaiey) – oeaeue ?yae yaeaiee, aucaaiiuo ?anoai?aieai
(auuaea/eaaieai) iaeioi?uo ai?iuo ii?iae. Aia?aua yoe yaeaiey auee
eco/aiu ia ecaanoeiaii ieaoi Ea?no a THaineaaee. Iie ano?a/athony oai,
aaea ?ani?ino?aiaiu ?anoai?eiua ii?iaeu: eaiaiiay nieue, aein, iae,
ecaanoiyee, aeieiieou. Iiaa?oiinoiua e iiaecaiiua aiaeu auuaea/eaatho a
ieo aieueoea e iaeua iieinoe, eiathuea ia?aaeei i?e/oaeeeaua oi?iu,
ia?acothuea iaua?u, i?iaaeu, a?iou. Eiaaea ?ooeony e?iaey iaae
ea?noiauie ionoioaie eee auuaea/eaathony ii?iaeu, aicieeatho
naiaia?aciua oi?iu ?aeueaoa – ea?noiaua. Ec ieo iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu
ai?iiee ?acee/iuo ?acia?ia e oi?i, eioeiaeiu e i?iaaeu; ea?u –
oaeoaeaiey, eaiaau, uaee, ai?icaeu, i?i?acathuea caiioth iiaa?oiinoue.
Iiae aeeyieai ea?noa i?ienoiaeeo iaiaei oaeeaeoaeueiuo yaeaiee:
i?iiaaeatho (a aoeaaeueiii niunea i?iaaeeaathony iiae caieth) ?aee,
?o/uee, ic??a; ia ii?neii aeia ec ea?noiauo iieinoae eceeaathony i?aniua
aiaeu. Iaeioi?ua eaaaiaeu i aiacaiii en/acathueo ai?iaeao (iai?eia?, i
Eeoaaea) naycaiu, nei?aa anaai, iiae aia/aoeaieai ea?noiauo i?iaaeia.
Eco/aiea ea?noa naycaii i?aaeaea anaai n i?aeoe/aneeie ioaeaeaie:
no?ieoaeuenoaii iinaeaiee e ioaeaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, yenieoaoaoeeae
aeaeaciuo aei?ia e o.ae. Ea?no i/aiue ineiaeiyao iiaecaiiua ?aaiou:
i?ioiaeeo oaoo, oiiiaeae, ooieai. Ii iiae caie?e ea?no iiaeao noaoue e
iiiiuieeii /aeiaaea: ii ea?noiaui iaua?ai niaeaieiaai oaea?ony
i?iieeiooue ia nioie iao?ia a aeoaeiu ai?.

Iiai-Aoiineay iaua?a ia Eaaeaca

Ea?noiaua iaua?u – caia/aoaeueiua nicaeaiey i?e?iaeu. I?e/oaeeeaua
eaae?eiou, aaea?ae, aaee/anoaaiiua a?iou e «aacaeiiiua» i?iianoe;
eaiaiiua «ninoeueee» noaeaeoeoia e noaeaaieoiaua eieiiiu; ao?iua iioiee,
aiaeiiaaeu e oeoaeoea ic??a; iniaue aeeaioiue ie? – an? yoi ano?a/aaony
a ea?noiauo iaua?ao. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo i/aiue aaeeee. Ciaiaieoay
Eoiao?neay iaua?a a I?aaeo?aeuea eiaao aeeeio 4,6 ei. Ea?no auaaao
ae?aaiee e nia?aiaiiue. Aeey aai ia?aciaaiey iaaeinoaoi/ii i?enoonoaey
?anoai?eiuo ii?iae. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao aeoaeia caeaaaiey iiaecaiiuo
aiae, eo oeie/aneee ninoaa, ?aeueao, eeeiao, a oaeaea aeayoaeueiinoue
/aeiaaea.

Ea?no, ea?noiaua yaeaiey (iai. Karst, io iacaaiey ieaoi Ea?no, eee E?an,
a THaineaaee), yaeaiey, aicieeathuea a ?anoai?eiuo i?e?iaeiuie aiaeaie
ai?iuo ii?iaeao, e i?ioeann eo ia?aciaaiey. Ea?no (aaieia.)
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eiiieaenii iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo oi?i, naiaia?aceai
oee?eoeyoeee e ?aaeeia iiaecaiiuo aiae, ?a/iie naoe e ic??: ?acaeaaaony
a ea?aiiaoiuo e iaea?aiiaoiuo ii?iaeao. A i?aaeaeao iaoa?eeia
iaiaae?iiua e iia?aa?iiua ea?noothueany ii?iaeu caieiatho (a iei. ei2):
ea?aiiaoiua — aei 40 aeinu e aiaeae?eou — ieiei 7, eaiaiiay nieue — aei
4. Ea?aiiaoiua ii?iaeu ?anoai?ythony i?e o/anoee naiaiaeiie oaeaeeneiou

(CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 « Ca+++ 2HCO–3)

eee ae?oaeo ieia?aeueiuo e i?aaie/aneeo eeneio. Noeueoaoiua ii?iaeu e
eaiaiiay nieue iiaoo ?anoai?youeny a aiaea aac niioonoaothueo ?aaeoeee.
Ea?no (aaieia.) ?acaeaaaony iiae niaieoiiui aicaeaenoaeai iiaa?oiinoiuo
e iiaecaiiuo aiae. ?anoai?aiea ai?iie ii?iaeu /anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony
iaoaie/aneei ?aciuaii. I?e yoii ?aciua iiaeao iiaeaioaaeeaaoueny
?anoai?aieai niaae iaaeaeo c??iaie ii?iaeu, /oi inaiaiaeaeaao eo io
noeaieaiey e iaeaa/aao niua.

Aeey iiaa?oiinoe ea?noiauo ianoiinoae oa?aeoa?iu iaeeea ai?icaeu —
ea??u, caieiooua oaeoaeaiey: ai?iiee, aaiiu, eioeiaeiu, iieuey,
anoanoaaiiua eieiaeoeu e oaoou, neaiua (caieiooua a ieaeiai eiioea)
aeieeiu e aaeee. Iniaaiii oeie/iu ai?iiee (eiie/aneea, eioeiia?aciua,
aethaeoeaia?aciua eeai a aeaea yi iai?aaeeueiie oi?iu) aeeaiao?ii io 1
aei 200 i e aeoaeia io 0,5 aei 50 i. Ia aeia ai?iiie e ae?oaeo
iiieaeaiee ano?a/athony aiaeiiiaeiuathuea ioaa?noey — iiii?u. Eioeiaeiu
e ai?iiee iiaoo oi caiieiyoueny aiaeie, oi inooaoueny (ia?eiaee/anee
en/acathuea ic??a). Eioeiaeiu ieiuaaeueth aei ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia e
nioai ei2, n e?oouie ai?oaie, ?iaiui aeiii, en/acathueie ?a/eaie e
?o/ueyie ecaanoiu iiae iacaaieai iieueaa.Ea??u (io iai. Karren),
ai?icaeu (aeoaeiie io ianeieueeeo naioeiao?ia aei 1—2 i e aieaa),
oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaeanoae ?acaeoey aieiai ea?noa. ?aniieiaeaiu
ia?aeeaeueiuie ?yaeaie eee aaoaenouie eaae?eioaie, iau/ii ?acaeaeaiu
oceeie, ino?uie a?aaiyie. Aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa auuaea/eaaiey
aeiaeaeaaie, oaeie niaaiaie, ?aaea ii?neie e ?a/iie aiaeie iiaa?oiinoe
ecaanoiyeia e ae?. ?anoai?eiuo ai?iuo ii?iae. *anoi ?acaeaathony ii
o?aueiai (o?aueiiua Ea??u (ea?no) e ae?.). Ia e?oouo neaeenouo
iiaa?oiinoyo Ea??u (ea?no) ia naycaiu n o?aueiaie (aeaeiaeiaua Ea??u
(ea?no), noaiiua Ea??u (ea?no)). Ia?aaeei Ea??u (ea?no) caieiatho
aieueoea ieiuaaee, ia?acoy ea??iaua iiey.

A caea?noiaaiiuo ianneaao ia?acothony ?acee/iua iiaecaiiua oiaeu,
iieinoe, iaua?u, eioi?ua /anoi ?acaeaathony aaeieue o?auei. Aeeeiiaeoea
iaua?u ie?a i?aauoatho 100 ei (iai?eia?, iaua?iua nenoaiu Oeeio-?eaeae a
Eaiooeee, NOA, O?eeio a Aeueiao, Oaaeoea?ey). Aeoaieea ea?noiaua
eieiaeoeu e anoanoaaiiua oaoou, eee i?iianoe, ninoaaeytho ia?aoiae
iaaeaeo iiaa?oiinoiuie e iiaecaiiuie oi?iaie Ea?no (aaieia.) Aeoai/aeoea
i?iianoe ie?a — Iuea?-Nai-Ia?oai 1110 i (O?aioeey — Eniaiey) e Aa?aea
1122 i (Eca?, O?aioeey). A NNN? Iaca?ianeay i?iianoue a ?aeiia Ni/e ia
Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca eiaao aeoaeio ieiei 500 i.

Iaua?u, e?oiiua iieinoe a aa?oieo oieuao caiiie ei?u, niiauathueany n
iiaa?oiinoueth caiee aoiaeiuie ioaa?noeyie. Ia?acothony ioo?i
auuaea/eaaiey e ?aciuaa ?anoai?eiuo aiaeie ai?iuo ii?iae – ecaanoiyeia,
aeieiieoia, aeinia e ae?. (ea?noiaua Iaua?u, ni. Ea?no), a oaeaea a
?acoeueoaoa noooicee, iiaecaiiiai ?aciuaa o?auei auaao?eaaiey (aeeienoue
inaaaeiea?no), aa?acee, auaeoaaiey i?iaeoeoia auaao?eaaiey neaeueiuo
ii?iae, ia?aciaaiey ?ane?uouo oaeoiie/aneeo o?auei, ia?aaiiia?iiai
ioeiaeaiey iaeioi?uo aaieiae/aneeo ia?aciaaiee, iai?eia? o?aaa?oeiia,
auoaeaiey eaau ec-iiae oaea canouaoae eaaiaie ei?ee, oayiey eueaea
(eaaeieeiaua a?iou) e ae?. i?ioeannia. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua Iaua?u –
ea?noiaua. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie neiaeiua nenoaiu i?ioiaeia e caeia
noiia?iie aeeeiie iau/ii a ianeieueei aeanyoeia ei (ni. oaaeeoeo).
Iieinoe ea?noiauo Iaua?u, iniaaiii a ecaanoiyeao, /anoi oe?aoaiu
?aciiia?aciuie eaiaeueiuie e iao?/iuie ia?aciaaieyie: noaeaeoeoaie,
noaeaaieoaie, eieiiiaie (noaeaaiaoaie), eaiaiiuie caiaaanyie e
ae?aie?iaeaie.

Ia aeia ea?noiauo Iaua?u ano?a/athony iiaecaiiua ?o/uee, ?aee e ic??a.
Iaua?u iiaoo i?inoe?aoueny a ai?eciioaeueiii iai?aaeaiee
(ai?eciioaeueiua Iaua?u), e?ooi iioneaoueny aiec eee ninoiyoue ec aieaa
eee iaiaa ai?eciioaeueiuo iieinoae, /a?aaeothueony n e?oouie e
aa?oeeaeueiuie iiaecaiiuie eaiaeaie, ooiaeyueie ia cia/eoaeueioth
aeoaeio (aeoai/aeoea ea?noiaua i?iianoe ie?a – Iuea?-Nai-Ia?oai e Aa?aea
ai O?aioeee – niioaaonoaaiii 1171 e 1141 i). Ia?aaeei ano?a/athony
iiiaiyoaaeiua Iaua?u.

Eeeiaoe/aneee ?aaeei Iaua?u caaeneo io oiai, iai?aaeaia ee iieinoue
aaa?o io aoiaea (o?ieua Iaua?u) eee aiec (iaoeiia?aciua oieiaeiua
Iaua?u), eeai Iaua?u yaeyaony neaiciie, i?iaeoaiie. A iaoeiia?aciuo e
neaiciuo Iaua?u eiiaaea ano?a/athony ia en/acathuea eaoii eaaeyiua
ia?aciaaiey – eaaeyiua e?enoaeeu, ninoeueee, iaieuau. Oaeea Iaua?u
iacuaathony eaaeyiuie (Eoiao?neay a I?eo?aeuea, Aaeaaaineaya I?eaiaa?uea
e ae?.).

Iaua?u ianaeaiu naiaia?aciie iaua?iie oaoiie, ?yae i?aaenoaaeoaeae
eioi?ie ano?a/aaony a noiaeiuo oneiaeyo e ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee.
Iaeioi?ua Iaua?u eniieueciaaeenue ethaeueie eaiaiiiai aaea eae aeeeeua.
A ieo iaoiaeyo einoe auia?oeo aeeaioiuo, i?oaeey o?oaea e einoiua
inoaoee ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea, ?enoiee e ?iniene ia noaiao e iioieeao
(ni., iai?eia?, Aeueoaie?a, Eaiiaa iaua?a). Eiiieaeniui eco/aieai iaua?
caieiaaony niaeaieiaey. Iiiaea iaua?u ie?a yaeythony iauaeoaie oo?ecia.

Iaua?iay oaoia, niaeaioaoia, eiiieaen aeeaioiuo, iaeoathueo a iaua?ao,
o?aueiao ai?iuo ii?iae e eiuo ianoiiaeoaieyo aeiiaae (iiaecaiiie iaeanoe
aeecie). Eco/aaony aeiniaeaieiaeae, niueathuaeny n iaoeie i aeecie a
iiaecaiiuo aiaeao – o?aaoiaeieiaeae (eee aeeth/athuae iineaaeithth).
Aeey Iaua?iay oaoia oa?aeoa?iu i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiaeo a?oii
aaniicaiii/iuo, a ec iicaiii/iuo – iaeioi?ua caiiiaiaeiua (iai?eia?,
i?ioae) e iaua?iua ?uau. Iaua?iay oaoia aeaeyo iau/ii ia 3 yeieiae/aneea
a?oiiu: o?iaeiaeiioia (iinoiyiiuo iaeoaoaeae aeiiaae), o?iaeioeeia
(aeeaoueo iiieii aeiiaae, aaea iie i?ioiaeyo iieiue aeeciaiiue oeeee, e
aia a?, a noiaeiuo oneiaeyo) e o?iaeienaiia (i?ioiaeyueo a aeiiaaa
/anoue aeeciaiiiai oeeeea). Aeey o?iaeiaeiioia oa?aeoa?iu
aeaieaiaioaoeey, neaiioa, a oaeaea (aeey aeeaioiuo, iaeoathueo a e?oiiuo
iiaecaiiuo iieinoyo) oaeeeiaiea i?eaeaoeia, eiiaaea oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia
oaea (oae iacuaaaiue iaua?iue aeaaioeci); iaiai aauanoa o ieo caiaaeeai,
aeeciaiiue oeeee iau/ii ?anoyioo. Iaua?ai, eae i?aaeei, i?enoue aunieay
aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa, /oi niya/aao ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oneiaeyie a aiaea e
ia nooa (iiyoiio aiaeiua aeeaioiua iiaoo caeanue aeieai aeeoue aia
aiaeu, a nooiiooiua ia?aiinyo ia?eiaee/aneea caoiieaiey, eiiaaea
aeiauaatho ieuo a aiaea), a oaeaea iinoiyiiay oaiia?aoo?a. A nayce n
ionoonoaeai a aeiiaaa cae?iuo ?anoaiee, aeeciue caeanue
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aianaieai i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeia ecaia (aoaii eaoo/eo
iuoae, i?eiineiua aiaeie ?anoeoaeueiua inoaoee e o.i.) e
aeayoaeueiinoueth aaoio?ioiuo oaiineioace?othueo aaeoa?ee (iai?eia?,
Perabacterium spelei a iaua?ao O?aioeee). Iiiaea o?iaeiaeiiou – ?aeeeou
aieueoeo eee iaeuo ae?aaieo oaoi. Nooiiooiay Iaua?iay oaoia oi?ie?oaony
ca n/?o oaoiu, iaeoathuae a eaniie iiaenoeeea, ii/aa, ii?ao e o.i.,
aiaeiay – a cia/eoaeueiie /anoe eiaao ii?neia i?ienoiaeaeaiea.

Iaua?iua ?uau, iaeeea ?uau (aeeeia aei 10—13 ni), iaeoathuea a aiaei?iao
iaua? e ea?noiauo iieinoae; ninoaaiay /anoue iaua?iie oaoiu. E Iaua?iua
?uau ioiinyony: 4 aeaea ec 3 ?iaeia nai. Amblyopsidae (iaeoatho a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea, i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaua?ao aannaeia Ienneneie) ec
io?yaea ea?iicoaiia?aciuo; 4 aeaea ec 3 ?iaeia naiaenoaa Brotulidae
(iieoino?ia THeaoai, Eoaa e Aaaaineea ino?iaa) ec io?yaea ieoiaia?aciuo;
1 aeae naiaenoaa Characidae (Iaeneea) e 1 aeae naiaenoaa Cyprinidae
(Ao?eea) ec io?yaea ea?iiia?aciuo; ianeieueei aeaeia ec naiaenoaa
Ictaluridae, Amiuridae, Clariidae e iaeioi?uo ae?. io?yaea niiiia?aciuo.
Ana Iaua?iua ?uau aeeai?iaeyue eee auiaoeaatho ee?o a aeaaa?iie iieinoe.
Aeaca iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ?aaeooee?iaaiu.

Eiiieaen iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo ea?noiauo oi?i iaeaieaa iieii
au?aaeai a oii neo/aa, eiaaea iiaa?oiinoue ?anoai?eiuo ai?iuo ii?iae
iaiaaeaia — aieue Ea?no (aaieia.) Ii ?anoai?eiua ai?iua ii?iaeu iiaoo
auoue iie?uou: neiai ii/au e ae??ia (oiaaea ionoonoaotho iaiaae?iiua
ea??u) — caaea?iiaaiiue Ea?no (aaieia.); ia?anoai?eiuie ?uoeuie
inaaeeaie (aeey iiaa?oiinoe oa?aeoa?iu ai?iiee e ae?oaea oi?iu
«i?inanuaaiey», ia?acothueany ioo?i aiuaaiey a o?aueiu e ionoiou
ea?noothueony oieu ?uoeuo iie?iaiuo ia?aciaaiee) — iie?uoue Ea?no
(aaieia.); ia?anoai?eiuie neaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie (ec iiaa?oiinoiuo
oi?i oa?aeoa?iu oieueei i?iaaeu) — a?iie?iaaiiue Ea?no (aaieia.)
?anoai?eiua ii?iaeu iiaoo auoue aiiaua aeoaiei iia?aaaiu iiae
iaea?noothueieny oieuaie, e oiaaea ea?noiaua oi?iu ia iiaa?oiinoe ia
au?aaeaiu — iia?aa?iiue Ea?no (aaieia.) Naiaia?aciua ea?noiaua
eaiaeoaoou iaaethaeathony a o?iie/aneeo no?aiao, ia?aaeei n oa?aeoa?iuie
inoaioeaie ec ecaanoiyeia (eiie/aneee Ea?no (aaieia.), aaoaiiue Ea?no
(aaieia.) e ae?.). Naiaia?acii i?ioaeatho ea?noiaua i?ioeannu a oneiaeyo
?ani?ino?aiaiey iiiaieaoiai??ceuo ai?iuo ii?iae.

Ea?noiaua ianoiinoe aaaeiu iiaa?oiinoiuie aiaeioieaie. ?aee e ?o/uee
/anoi ooiaeyo a iiaecaiiua iieinoe, i?iaeaeaa a ieo /anoue naiaai iooe,
auoiaeyo iiyoue ia iiaa?oiinoue a aeaea iiuiuo enoi/ieeia (aieethcia),
aeaaiui ia?acii ii e?ayi ea?noiauo ianneaia. Oee?eoeyoeey iiaecaiiuo
aiae iaeaieaa eioaineaia a i?eaeieeiiuo o/anoeao e a ciiao oaeoiie/aneeo
ia?ooaiee, aaea neeueiaa ?acaeaaaony Ea?no (aaieia.) A ieaooi?iaiiuo
?aaieiiuo oneiaeyo aioo?aiiae /anoe («yae?a») aiaei?acaeaeia iau/ii
auaatho caea?noiaaiu neaaaa, /ai i?eaeieeiiua o/anoee.

N ea?noiauie yaeaieyie aiaoia noiaeiu yaeaiey inaaaeiea?noa,
aicieeathuea ai eueaeo e i??ceuo a?oioao (oa?iiea?no), a iaeeiiaeiii/iuo
e ii?enouo a?oioao («eeanoiea?no», «aeeienoue Ea?no (aaieia.)»,
«e?nniaue Ea?no (aaieia.)», iaoaie/aneay noooicey, i?inaaeee); a eo
?acaeoee iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho oece/aneea i?ioeannu — oayiea eueaea,
iaoaie/aneia aicaeaenoaea aeaeaeouaeny aiaeu e i?. I?ioeannu, naycaiiua
n auuaea/eaaieai nieae ec ?uoeuo a?oioia, n ?anoai?aieai ecaanoeiaiai e
aeiniaiai oeaiaioa ian/aieeia e eiiaeiia?aoia, ninoaaeytho a?oiio
ea?noiai-noooiceiiiuo i?ioeannia. A yoeo ii?iaeao aiaea ?anoai?yao
oieueei aeeth/aiey eee oeaiaio, a iniiaiay ianna ii?iaeu (aeeienoua
/anoeoeu, ianie, aaeueea) oaeaeyaony iaoaie/aneei aeaenoaeai
aeaeaeouaeny aiaeu.

Ea?no ineiaeiyao i?iiuoeaiiia, aeeeeuiia e o?ainii?oiia no?ieoaeuenoai,
nii?oaeaiea AYN, aiaeio?aieeeu (ecaanoiu neo/ae oeeueo?aoeee aiaeu ec
aiaeio?aieeeu e aeaaea ?ac?ooaiey ieioei ec-ca yaeaiee Ea?no (aaieia.)).
Iiaecaiiua iieinoe e o?aueiu oiaiueoatho i?i/iinoue a?oioa, /oi
canoaaeyao aanoe niaoeeaeueiua ecuneaiey i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa, i?ieeaaeea
aei?ia e o.ae. I?e ioiineoaeueii neaaii ?acaeoee Ea?no (aaieia.)
aeiioneaaony no?ieoaeuenoai aeeeuo caeaiee a 5 yoaaeae n iaycaoaeueiui
oneeaieai ooiaeaiaioia, caeeaaeee aeaeaciaaoiiiuo iiynia e o.i.

Ea?no (aaieia.) ia?aaeei cao?oaeiyao aeiau/o iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo a
caea?noiaaiiuo ianneaao, ii eiiaaea eniieuecothony aai ae?aie?othuea
naienoaa. Aianoa n oai iaeioi?ua iieaciua eneiiaaiua auiieiytho
ea?noiaua iieinoe, ia?acoy ianoi?iaeaeaiey naeioeiauo, oeeieiauo e
aeaeaciuo ?oae, aieneoia, oinoi?eoia, iaooe e ai?th/eo aacia, ?innuiae
cieioa, aeiacia e ae?.

A NNN? Ea?no (aaieia.) ?acaeo ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao ia Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie
?aaieia, a E?uio, ia O?aea e a I?aaeo?aeuea, ia ia?aaeiauo o?aaoao
Aieueoiai Eaaeaca, a N?aaeiae Acee (ieaoi Onoth?o, o?aaou Ea?aoao,
Aeaeneee, Ca?aaoaineee, Iao?a Ia?aiai e ae?.), ianoaie a Eacaoneii
iaeeiniii/ieea, a ai?ao THaeiie Neae?e, a I?eaiaa?uea e ia Aeaeueiai
Ainoiea. Ca ?oaaaeii iniaaiii eioaineaii Ea?no (aaieia.) ?acaeo a
THaineaaee, n/eoathuaeny no?aiie eeanne/aneiai Ea?no (aaieia.), ai
iiiaeo ae?. no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao NOA, a
Aano-Eiaeee (ia Eoaa, Ioy?oi-?eei, ssiaeea), a Eeoaa (iniaaiii a
Aoaine-*aeoaineii aaoiiiiiii ?aeiia e i?iaeioeee THiueiaiue), ia
iieoino?iaa Eiaeieeoae e ae?.

Ea?noiaua iaua?u Ai?iiai E?uia

A Ai?iii E?uio ea?no iieo/ee aanueia cia/eoaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea,
iniaaiii a i?aaeaeao Ia?aie a?yaeu E?uineeo Ai?. Yoi naycaiii eae n
eeoieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie yee (iicaeiath?neea oienoineineoua
i?aii?e?iaaiiua ecaanoiyee), oae e n oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue inaaeeia i?eo?i/aia eiaiii e iaeaieaa aicauoaiiie
/anoe iieoino?iaa. A i?aaeai?iie e noaiiie /anoe E?uia ea?noiaua yaeaiey
oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiaiu, ana aea eiaiii au?iaiaiiay aa?oeiiay iiaa?oiinoue
E?uineeo ai? (yeeu) n/eoaaony eeanne/aneei ?aeiiii ?ani?ino?aiaiey
ea?noa.

Ea?no a i?aaeaeao Ai?iiai E?uia eco/aeny iaoiaeaie aaiii?oieiaee,
aeae?ia?aoee, ea?oia?aoee, ii oaeaea e aaioece/aneeie iaoiaeaie
(Aieiaoeei e ae?. 1966), ia Ae-Iao?eineie yeea i?iaiaeeeenue aeiaieueii
oiieea iaaethaeaiey iaae ninoaaii e eiee/anoaii aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia.

Iiaa?oiinoue yee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ae?aaithth y?iceiiioth
iiaa?oiinoue, n?acathuoth neie iiae oaeii, /oi nicaeaao aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey ea?noa: aiaea iiaeao i?iieeaoue aaeoaue ianneaa
eae ii oaeoiie/aneei o?aueiai, oae e ii ianeiaieth. Nenoaia
oaeoiie/aneeo o?auei ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao ?enoiie ea?noiaiai ?aeueaoa,
niaeanii nenoaiai o?auei caeeaaeuaathony e?oiiua a?acu iiaa?oiinoiuo
aiaeioieia (iai?eia?, Aieueoie eaiueii E?uia), e eneaaeathony oi?iu
ea?noiauo ai?iiie, i?eia?aoay yeeeiniaeaeioth oi?io, auoyioooth aaeieue
i?aiaeaaeathuae nenoaiu o?auei.

N?aaeiyy nei?inoue ea?noiaie aeaioaeaoeee ii aeaiiui A.I. Aeoaeyineiai
ninoaaeyao a oeaeii aeey Ai?iiai E?uia ieiei 21.8 ii/1000 eao
(Aeoaeyineee 1971,1977), aac o/aoa iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea (?an/aou
i?iecaiaeeeenue enoiaey ec ninoaaa iiaecaiiuo aiae), neaaeiaaoaeueii,
?aaeueiay nei?inoue aua aieueoa. A E?uio eco/aiea i?ioeannia e
?acoeueoaoia ea?noiaaiey eiaao ia?iiiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea: iniiaiua
iooe aiaeiniaaaeaiey naycaiu n iiaecaiiuie aiaeiiiniuie ai?eciioaie,
i?eo?i/aiiuie e ciia eiioaeoa oeeoa oaa?e/aneie na?ee e aa?oiath?neeo
ecaanoiyeia. Iiuiua enoi/ieee auoiaeyo a naaa?iii neeiia E?uineeo ai?.

Ieaoi *aou?aeaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie y?eee i?eia? oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?ie
i?ioeannu ea?noiaaiey aeiieie?otho iaae inoaeueiuie nia?aiaiiuie
i?ioeannaie. Ieaoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eciee?iaaiiue iannea ieioiuo
aa?oiath?neeo ecaanoiyeia, neoaeaueo aiaeioii?aie, auoyioouie a
ia?eaeeiiaeueiii iai?aaeaiee. Aai naaa?iue e?ae iiouai, ainoi/iue e
caiaaeiue neaai i?eiiaeiyou, a thaeiue e?ae e?ooi caae?ai, /oi a iauai
nicaeaao oi?io niaea, ioe?uoiai ia naaa?. Aai n?aaeiyy ieaeiyy /anoue
eiaao n?aaeithth aunioo ieiei 900i, e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieuea. Aai
iiaa?oiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /a?aaeothueany ai?iiee e iieiaea oaaeu.
A oeaeii n?aaeiyy /anoue ieaoi ae?aie?oao anth iiaa?oiinoue ianneaa
/a?ac nenoaio iiii?ia e eieiaeoeaa, niaaeeiythueo iiaa?oiinoue e
iiaecaiiua iieinoe aieioue aei nieioiuo aiaeiiiniuo ai?eciioia aaeece
eiioaeoa n oeeoai oaa?e/aneie na?ee. Anth nenoaio iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
eae aieueooth ai?iieo n iaeanoueth nai?a i?eia?ii 40 ei.ea.

Neaaeothuee ii ianooaao no?oeoo?iue o?iaaiue i?aaenoaaeai ioaeaeueiuie
ai?iieaie, aeeaiao? eioi?uo eciaiyaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao – io 20 aei
200 i. Cia/eoaeueii ?acee/aynue ii aeoaeia e oi?ia, ai?iiee eiatho
noiaeiia no?iaiea: iieiaia eiie/aneia oaeoaeaiea a oeaio?a eiaao
ae?aie?othuee eaiae – iiii?a eee eieiaeaoe. Ae?aie?othuee eaiae /anoi
ane?uo a aeaea i?iaaea, eee ceythuae o?aueiu, a inoaeueiuo ai?iieao
iiii?a caaeoa aeeienoui iaoa?eaeii, e ia?ae?uoa aea?iii, oae /oi ia aeia
ai?iiee auaeaeyaony iaeia eee ianeieueei iyoai aoeiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
?aniieiaeaiiuo iaae aoiaeaie iiii?. Ia iiaa?oiinoe iaiaaeathueony a
neeiia ai?iiie ecaanoiyeia oaeaea ?acaeo ea?no. Ai?iiee ia ieaoi
*aou?aeaa eiatho eae i?aaeei aneiiao?e/ioth oi?io, neeii, neaaaaiue
iieiai iaaeathueie ecaanoiyeaie, iieiaee, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiue, naeouee
yoe ecaanoiyee – e?ooie, ec ioaeaeueiuo onooiia.

Ea??u ia neeiia ai?iiie nicaeatho o?aoee no?oeoo?iue o?iaaiue n
oa?aeoa?iui ?acia?ii 3-5 ni. Oaeei ia?acii, ia?oaeiue ea?no ia ieaoi
*aou?aeaa iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue ia o?ao no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiyo, iiaeiaiuo
ae?oa ae?oao. Eo oa?aeoa?iua ?acia?u 5-10 ei aeey iieuey a oeaeii,
150-200 i aeey ioaeaeueiuo ai?iiie e 3-5 ni aeey ea??ia. (10000 : 100 :
0.1), iie ?acee/athony ia 2- 3 ii?yaeea.

Iiaecaiiue ea?no i?aaenoaaeai nenoaiie iiii?ia, eieiaeoeaa e aaea?ae.
Yoe iieinoe oaeaea i/aiue neeueii ?acee/athony ii ?acia?ai. Naiua
e?oiiua – ?onea iiaecaiiuo ?ae, eae aeeaua, ?acaeaathueany, oae e
ia?oaua, inoaaeaiiua aiaeie. Eo oe?eia iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 5-10i , aunioa
oaeaea aei 10 i, a ienoiaeyueo eieieieao aei 15-20 i. Oaeea e?oiiua
iieinoe ?acaeou aaeieue i?ioyaeaiiuo o?auei, a oi/iinoe iiaoi?yy eo
ecaeau. Noaiu e iioieie iau/ii aeaaeeea, ii a ciia ienoiaeyueo
aiaeioieia iioieie i?aaenoaaeai eieieieaie n iaoa/iuie oi?iaie a ieaeiae
/anoe. Iaoaee neiaeaiu a?aaiieoii e i?e eciaiaiee oneiaee n?aaeu
ia/eiatho auno?i ?ac?ooaoueny, iie?uaaynue a?oaie aeaeoie ei?eie n ao?ui
iaeaoii aeeienouo /anoeoe a neo/aa aaioeeyoeee oiaeia iiaa?oiinoiui
aicaeooii. Aa?oeeaeueiua eieiaeoeu oaeeo ?acia?ia eiatho, eae i?aaeei,
ia?iaiue i?ioeeue, ai?icaeu ii noaiai aaeieue oa/aiey aiaeu. ?aeueao
noai ineiaeiai aeaenoaeai ae?oaeo aaaioia auaao?eaaiey, /anoi eiaao
iaeiii/iia no?iaiea. A e?oiiua iieinoe auoiaeeo aieueoia eiee/anoai
aieaa iaeeeo oiaeia e iiii?. A iniiaiii iie eiatho iai?aaeeueioth oi?io,
?aciuou aeaaiui ia?acii aaeieue e?oiiuo o?auei, ?anoe?yy eo e
niinianoaoy ?acaeoeth iiauo. A iaua?o iie auoiaeyo a aeaea aiiaiaeeenia,
noaeathueony a noi?iio io e?oiiie iieinoe. A iniiaiii oaeea oiaeu caaeou
?uoeui aeeienoui iaoa?eaeii, a eioi?ii ?acaeaaaony aoi?e/iay
ieia?aeecaoeey (eaeueoeeo). Iinoiyiiue i?iiin aeeienouo e ii/aaiiuo
na/oeoe – oaeaea oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa iiaecaiiiai ea?noa. Iaeeea oiaeu e
ii?u ?acaeaathony ii o?aueiai, iaeciaiaiiui eee neaai ?anoi/aiiui. Oaeei
ia?acii, a iiaecaiiii ea?noa iiaeii oaeaea auaeaeeoue o?e no?oeoo?iuo
o?iaiy, n oa?aeoa?iui aeeaiao?ii oiaeia 5-7i, 10-20 ni e 0.5-2 ni. (500:
20: 1) i?e/ai ?acee/ea a ianooaaa iaaeaeo o?iaiyie i?eia?ii ia ii?yaeie.
Oi anoue, iaeeoei nouanoaaiiue iaiueoee eiio?ano ianooaaia, iiaeii
caeeth/eoue, /oi iiaa?oiinoiue ea?no nouanoaaiii eioaineaiaa aeoaeiiiai.

Niaianoii n ea?noiaaieai ia iiaa?oiinoe ieaoi ?acaeaathony e iiieciaaua
iaeiianooaaiua i?ioeannu. E yai-ainoieo io iaua?u Yieia-Aae?-Oina? a
iieiaii neeiia aiaoiaai eieueoea ai?iiee (OI70) iaiaaeathony ioaeaeueiua
a?yaeu e ieiuaaeee ecaanoiyeia, aunooiathuea iaae aea?iii ia 10 – 15 ni,
A?yaeu auoyioou n thai-caiaaea ia naaa?i-ainoie, AC=30, aaeieue nenoaiu
o?auei. A yoeo auoiaeao ?acaeo aeu?/aoue e eeiaeiue ea?no, ea??u
aeoaeiie aei 20 ni , aeeaiao?ii aei 2-5 ni. Iie ?aniieaaathony ii
ieiuaaee ieiuaaeie eeai iaoii?yaei/aiii, eeai aaeieue nenoaiu o?auei,
ia?aeeaeueiie a?yaeai. Ae?oaay nenoaia iaiaa ?acaeoa, ii iae
?acaeaathony ioaeaeueiua ai?icaeee, AC=130, thai-caiaae. I aaeaeo
aeu?eaie ?acaeaathony ai?icaeee, iaiiieiathuea ieieaoth?iua yaa?ceiiiua
eioeu. A oeaeii iiaa?oiinoue ieiuaaeie i/aiue ia?iaiay.

A caaeneiinoe io no?oeoo?u ii?iae oi?ia ea??ia neeueii iaiyaony, ii
iauaa iai?aaeaiea eo ?acaeoey inoaaony iaeciaiiui.

E?ooecia neeiiia ai?iiee a yoii ianoa ia i?aauoaao 10 a?aae., ii aeeaea
e oeaio?o e?ooecia neeiia aic?anoaao nia/aea aei 20 a?aae., a ieaeiae
/anoe auoieaaeeaaaony, oae /oi aeii i?aeoe/anee ?iaiia, n aoeiie
?anoeoaeueiinoueth. A neeiia aunooiatho ioaeaeueiua aeuau n caiuoie
aa?oiae iiaa?oiinoueth. Ai?iiea eiaao aneiiao?e/ioth oi?io, auoyioooth n
thai-ainoiea ia naaa?i-caiaae, thaeiue e caiaaeiue neeiiu ai?iiee
niaea?aeao noaiee ecaanoiyeia aei 2i, o iiaeiiaeey a iaaieueoii
eiee/anoaa e?oiiay inuiue. A oneiaeyo iinoiyiiuo aiaeioieia ea?noiaaiea
i?eaiaeeo e i/aiue aeoaieie a?acea iioieia, e ia?aciaaieth i?aeoe/anee
aeaaeeeo noai eaiueiiia. A ?onea iioiea ?acaeaathony yaa?ceiiiua eioeu,
iiaa?oiinoue ecaanoiyeia i?i?acathony aeaeiaaie aaeieue naeoueo o?auei,
ia?acoy ianoaie ?enoiie ?onea, iioiaeee ia iaaiae?u. A iauai ?onei
?acaeaeaii ia ioaeaeueiua ieanu e ia?aeaou, ieanu eiatho aeae ?aceeouo
eoae ia iieiaeo ie?oaeuo ecaanoiyeiauo iiaa?oiinoyo, a ia?aeaou
ia?aciaaiu nenoaiie aeoaiei a?acaiiuo yaa?ceiiiuo eioeia e niaaeeiythueo
eo iaeeiiiuo aeaeiaia-i?ioie. A aeoaieeo eaiueiiao ia iiaa?oiinoue
auoiaeyo aiaeiiiniua ai?eciiou, aeaaay ia/aei iaeeueiui enoi/ieeai,
iai?eia? ?iaeiee Iaiey a Aieueoii Eaiueiia.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ea?noiaua iieinoe eiatho nianoaaiiua iacaaiey, iie
ecaanoiu oaea aeaaii eae aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe e i?aaeiaou ieoia. A
naaa?iie /anoe ieaeiaai ieaoi *aou?aeaa n?aaee aieueoie a?oiiu iaua?
ieiei onooia ieaoi iaoiaeeony aoiae a iaua?o Yieia-Aae?-Oina?. A iieiaii
neeiia ia iiaa?oiinoue auoiaeeo eieiaeaoe, aeeaiao?ii aei 2 i, Aai
aeoaeia 7i., ieaea ia/eiaaony inuiiie eiion a iaoe?iii caea. Io yoiai
caea ?anoiaeeony neiaeiay naoue i?ioiaeia ?acee/iie oe?eiu, /anoe/ii
ca?inoeo noaeaaiaoaie (“eaiaiiue ean”). Ia iiaa?oiinoe iiiaeo
noaeiaiaoia ?acaeou ei?aeeeou, aieaa aaoaenoua a ieaeiae /anoe. Oa, /oi
?aniieiaeaiu aeeaea e eieiaeoeo, iie?uou i?enuieie na?uo ii/aaiiuo
/anoeoe, e auno?i ?ac?ooathony. Ec iiiaeo iaoa/iuo oi?i ei?aeeeou ?anooo
iaaeeaiiaa anaai.

A ieaeieo caeao iaua?u, iauyaeaiiuo caiiaaaeiuie, i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey
iaoa/iuo oi?i i?aiaeaaeaao iaae ?ac?ooaieai e ii nae aeaiue, a aa?oieo
aea caeao i?aiaeaaeaao auaao?eaaiea. Iaua?a ieoeueoo?aia e iinauaaia.
Oaiia?aoo?a iiyoiio a iae ianeieueei auoa, /ai a iaeciaiaiiuo iaua?ao, a
ieiei eaii iyoiaie ?acaeaathony eeoaeieee e aiaei?inee, niinianoaothuea
aeiaaiiiio auaao?eaaieth. Ia iioieea aaeieue o?auei au?anoatho
a?aaiieoiaua a?aaie, caaa?oathueany noaeaeoeoaie ?acee/iie oieueiu.
Aianoa n iaua?ie I?aii?iie Yieia-Aae?-Oina? yaeyaony iniiaiui
yeneo?neiiiui iauaeoii *aou?aeaaa, a? cae?uoua caeu – eioa?aniaeoei
caiiaaaeieeii.

Aeeaea e oeaio?o ieaeiaai ieaoi ?aniieaaaaony a?oiia ai?iiie ?acee/iiai
?acia?a e ii?oieiaee. N?aaee ieo auaeaeyaony e?oiiay ai?iiea n i/aiue
e?ooie oeaio?aeueiie /anoueth (iaeia noaiea aa?oeeaeueiay, neeii aei
35-40), aiaoiaa eieueoei ii?inei ?aaeeeie aea?aaueyie. Ai?iiea
caaa?oaaony eieiaeoeai, e iacuaaaony Aacaeiiiie. Aeeaiao? aiaoiaai
eieueoeaaei 100i, aioo?aiiaai 40-50 i. A naiie ai?iiea oiaea ?anooo
ianeieueei aea?aaueaa, ieaeiea ia aeoaeia 7-10 ieaea iiaa?oiinoe. Ieaea
iaoiaeeony ianeieueei onooiia, caioaeuo e oaienouo, ia aeia ai?iiee ia
aeoaeia i?eia?ii 40 i io iiaa?oiinoe iaoiaeeony ai?euoei, ieaea eioi?iai
oneiaey ?acei iaiythony. Aeaaeiinoue aic?anoaao aei 100%, inaauaiiinoue
?acei iaaeaao. Iyoiaie ia noaiao ?anooo ioe e eeoaeieee. Ieaea
oaiia?aoo?a ia/eiaao iaaeaoue, ia aeoaeia 70 i io iiaa?oiinoe eieiaeaoe
ia?acoao ?acaeoa, aei 15 i ca n/ao ia?ooaiey iaeiie ec noai, eioi?ay
ioneaeaaaony oiieeie ieeoeaie ia?aeeaeueii iiaa?oiinoe eieiaeoea,
ia?acoy a noaiea a?aaaieo, ia?auaiioth aiec. A ea?iaiao eaaeeo niaa,
caianaiiue ceiie, ii nio?aiyaony aei na?aaeeiu eaoa. Ieaea aua iaeiiai
ai?euoea aei aeia iaua?u nioneaaony iaeieciaiaiiue ii oi?ia eieiaeaoe n
ai?icaeaie io aa?oeeaeueiuo aiaeioieia, eo ?eoi 2-3 ni. Ia aeoaeia 130 i
io iiaa?oiinoe eieiaeaoe aoiaeeo a eieieie, a ieaeiae aai /anoe ia
noaiao ?acaeou iaoa/iua oi?iu (noaeaeoeou, noaeaaiaou).

Aeii iaua?u neiaeaii ieeo/aoie inuiueth, a aeaa noi?iiu ?anoiaeyony
aaea?ae. Iaeia n?aco aea aoiaeeo a ciio eoiieia, eo noaiu iie?uou
iaoaeaie, ii aeii oaeaea neiaeaii ieeo/aoie inuiueth. Ae?oaay aaea?ay
ooiaeeo iieiai aiec, eiaao ie?oaeua i/a?oaiey i?ioeey, aac iaoaeia.
Aaea?ay caeiaeaia ii o?aueia, eioi?ay oaia?ue aeaeia a iioieea, iiaoi?yy
ecaeau aaea?ae. Aaeeinoaaiiua iaoaee a aaea?aa ?acaeou aaeieue yoie
o?aueiu.

Ana iaoaee a iaua?a iie?uou eaaa?iiciie aeaeoi-ei?e/iaaie ei?eie, aeii
nooia – a iauai, iaua?a ia ?acaeaaaony, ?ac?ooaaony ia/eiay n aa?oiae
/anoe eieiaeoea.

Neeueii caea?noiaaiiua ianneau i?aaenoaaeytho aeeaua nenoaiu, a eioi?uo
e?iia iinoaiaiiie o?ainii?oe?iaee iaoa?eaea naa?oo aiec iinoiyiii
i?ienoiaeeo ?iaeaeaiea e oie/oiaeaiea ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i ?aeueaoa,
eciaiaiey neaaathueo ai?iuo ii?iae. Yoa nenoaia ninoieo eo
?aciiianooaaiu iiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia, acaeiiaeaenoaea eioi?uo nicaeaao
i/aiue neiaeiua ea?oeiu.

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