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Изменчивость, регуляция ландшафтов и их экологические каркасы

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I?aaeiao: Eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea.

Oaia: «Eciai/eainoue, ?aaoeyoeey eaiaeoaooia e eo yeieiae/aneea
ea?eanu».

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Yeieiae/aneee ea?ean i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiiai e aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooia.

2. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou.

3. Eanioicyenoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou.

4. Ai?iaeneea eaiaeoaoou.

5. ?ae?aaoeeiiiua aainenoaiu.

6. Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Yeieiae/aneee ea?ean i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiiai e aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooia

Nia?aiaiiua eaiaeoaoou a oeaeii iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ii noaiaie eo
aio?iiiaaiiie eciai/eainoe, aio?iiiaaiiie ?aaoeyoeee e ii eo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ooieoeeyi.

E?eoa?eai ?acaeaeaiey nia?aiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia yaeyaony, i?aaeaea anaai,
noaiaiue eo o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiie (eee eaeie-eeai eiie)
aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae. Yoio e?eoa?ee iicaieyao auaeaeeoue eaoaai?ee,
eceiaeaiiua a i?aaeuaeouai ?acaeaea.

Ae?oaie e?eoa?ee caeeth/aaony a iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee aio?iiiaaiiie
?aaoeyoeee eaiaeoaooia. N?aaee naii?acaeaathueony
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia, ia ?aaoee?oaiuo /aeiaaeii,
auaeaeythony:

– iinooicyenoaaiiua; iie iau/ii i?aaenoaaeaiu anoanoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noeoeannee. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii iacaaoue
ianneau au?oaeaiiiai eana;

– aainenoaiu oae iacuaaaiiai iiai/iiai aaiacena; oaeea aainenoaiu
nicaeaiu iai?aaeiaia?aiii a eaiaeoaooii-aaia?aoe/aneeo iieyo eaeeo-eeai
ae?oaeo aio?iiiaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee (caaiei/aiiua aa?aaa aiaeio?aieeeu. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?ia iiaeii iacaaoue eioaineaii ca?anoathuea aa?aaa e?oiiuo
aiaeio?aieeeu – Eaoianeia, E?aiai/oaneia, Aioeeineia, Aieaia?aaeneia e
ae?.).

Aio?iiiaaiii-?aaoee?oaiuie yaeythony i?aeoe/anee ana
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou, anee iie iinoiyiii eniieuecothony a
eaeeo-eeai oicyenoaaiiuo oeaeyo. Yoi ethaua i?iiuoeaiiua,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua, eanioicyenoaaiiua, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua e ae?oaea
eaiaeoaoou.

Aio?iiiaaiiay ?aaoeyoeey eaiaeoaooa a oe?ieii iiiyoee – yoi aanue
eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee ii iiaeaea?aeaieth no?oeoo?u e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooa a caaeaiiii ?aaeeia.

Aua iaeei e?eoa?ee – yoi nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay ooieoeeiiaeueiay
cia/eiinoue eaiaeoaooia. Yoa ooieoeey eaiaeoaooa io?aaeaao aai
cia/eiinoue a aeecie e oaeiaeaoai?aiee iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa e a
eiia/iii n/aoa anae ieaiaoa?iie aainenoaiu «i?e?iaea – iauanoai».

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee
eaiaeoaooia:

– ?ano?niaini?iecaiaeyuay;

– n?aaeiia?acothuay;

– i?e?iaeiio?aiiay;

– ainieoaoaeueiay;

– eioi?iaoeeiiiay.

Cia/aiea aieueoeinoaa iacaaiiuo ooieoeee oi?ioi ecaanoii e iniauo
eiiiaioa?eaa ia o?aaoao. Ioiineoaeueii iineaaeiae (a ia?a/ia),
eioi?iaoeeiiiie, ooieoeee ioiaoei, /oi iia oa?aeoa?ia aeey anao
eaiaeoaooia, ana iie a oie eee eiie noaiaie iaeaaeatho yoie ooieoeeae, a
iiiaea eaiaeoaoou iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiytho ianeieueei ooieoeee. A ieaia
aea oeaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee, ianiiiaiii, iaeaieaa oeaiia eioi?iaoeey
caiiaaaeieeia.

I?e yoii yeaiaiou yeieiae/aneiai ea?eana iiaoo auoue anoanoaaiiuie (a
/anoiinoe, a aa?ieaiaeoaooa yoi nio?aieaoeany eana ia ei?aiiuo neeiiao
aeieei, o?aiu – ae?aaanii-eonoa?ieeiaua niiauanoaa aaeieue ?onae ?ae) e
eneonnoaaiiuie (a oao aea aa?ieaiaeoaooao – iieacaueoiua eaniiieinu,
cai?oaeu e ae?.).

Aa?ieaiaeoaoo, iiieii naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee, aeeth/aao e
i?e?iaeiio?aiiua aainenoaiu. Iie a naith i/a?aaeue iiaoo auiieiyoue
ooieoeee iee?icaiiaaaeieeia, iee?icaeacieeia i?ieoioaoiu (ioeoe) e
yioiiioaoiu (ianaeiiuo). Any yeieiae/aneay eio?ano?oeoo?a a
aa?ieaiaeoaooa nicaeaao naiaia?aciua caueoiua eaiaeoaoou –
aaia?aoe/aneea iiey: aao?ieiiiua, i?ioeaiy?iceiiiiua, aeiaaiiua,
aaioeie/aneea.

I?e nicaeaiee eoeueoo?iiai eaiaeoaooa ai?iaea iaiaoiaeeii
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny i?aaeea ooieoeeiiaeueiie iiey?ecaoeee; niaeanii yoiio
i?aaeeo ia iaeiii eiioea ai?iaea iaiaoiaeeii ?aciauaoue ia?ee aeey
ioaeuoa, ea/aaiua o/?aaeaeaiey (aieueieoeu, i?ioeeaeoi?ee, aeiia ioaeuoa
e o.ae.), a ia ae?oaii aeieaeia ?aniieaaaoueny i?iiuoeaiiay ciia. I?e
yoii i?iiuoeaiiay ciia aeieaeia auoue ioaeaeaia io naeeoaaiie ciiu
caueoiie caeaiie aooa?iie iieinie, i?e/ai n iai?aiaiiui o/aoii
iai?aaeaiee aicaeooiuo iann e aiaeiuo iioieia. A eaeaaea caeanue aoaeao
auiieiyoueny oae iacuaaaiia i?aaeei aaeoi?a.

N niaethaeaieai yoiai i?eioeeia (i?aaeea) a iniiaiii i?iaeoe?iaaeenue e
/anoueth cano?aeaaeenue iaeioi?ua n?aaieoaeueii iieiaeua eee caiaoii
iaiiaeaiiua noa?ua ai?iaea a ?aeiiao ?ac?aaioee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Yoi
oaea oiiieiaaoeeny Yeeaanooc (Eacaonoai), Aoaeei (Aaeai?iaeneay iae.),
AEaeaciiai?ne (Eo?neay iaeanoue), No?aoo, Ieaeiaaa?oiane, O?ae e ae?.

Yeaiaiou yeieiae/aneiai ea?eana ai?iaea – yoi, i?aaeaea anaai caeaiua
ianaaeaeaiey. Iuia onoaaeaii, /oi a naeeoaaiie /anoe ai?iaeia ieiuaaeue
icaeaiaiiuo i?ino?ainoa aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 40 — 50%, i?e/ai 80% ec ieo
aeieaeii i?eoiaeeoueny ia e?oiiua caeaiua ianneau (ia?ee, neaa?u). A
ieaie?iaea ai?iaeneeo eaiaeoaooia aaaeii ?aoeoue i?iaeaio niioiioaiey
cano?iaiiuo ianneaia e ioe?uouo (aiaeii-caeaiuo) i?ino?ainoa. Yoi iiaeao
auoue iaania/aii oai, /oi ianneau ai?iaeneie cano?ieee ia aoaeoo
i?aauoaoue 2 – 2,5 ei a iiia?a/ieea e aoaeoo /a?aaeiaaoueny n ioe?uouie
i?ino?ainoaaie oe?eiie 0,5 – 1 ei. Neaaeoao no?aieoueny e oiio, /oiau
yeieiae/aneay eio?ano?oeoo?a ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa auea iai?a?uaiie,
ia?aciauaaea au oeaeinoiue yeieiae/aneee ea?ean. Yoi iniaaiii eanaaony
ieaeieo caaiueaa ai?iaeneeo eaiaeoaooiuo eaoai.

2. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou

Aa?ieaiaeoaoo – yoi i?e?iaeii-naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aainenoaia, a
eioi?ie aeaaiui no?oeoo?iui yeaiaioii yaeythony naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
oaiaeuey, a iiae/eiaiiuie – yeaiaiou yeieiae/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u (o.a.
yeieiae/aneee ea?ean). A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia iiaeii iacaaoue ecaanoiue a
Aa?iia eani-eoaiai-iieaaie eaiaeoaoo oeia «aieaae» ai O?aioeee e
aiaeiae/iua aio a Aaeueaee e Aaeeeia?eoaiee, ?yae aeeceeo e iei
eaiaeoaooia a Ai?iiaaeneie iaeanoe e Iiaeiineiauea. Iioeiaeueiia
ni/aoaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee e yeieiae/aneiai ea?eana,
aeinoeaaaiia a iiaeiaiuo eaiaeoaooao, iiauoaao onoie/eainoue nenoai.

Iieacii ciaoue, /oi caiaeueiue oiiae ?innee – yoi 1710 iei. aa, ec ieo
222 iei. (13%) – naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey, i?e/ai eeoue 7,8% –
ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee, 5,2% – ianoaeua e naiieinu, 51% ninoaaeytho eana,
1,2 % – caiiaaaeiua oa??eoi?ee, 1,6% – ianaeaiiua ioieou,
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, o?ainii?o.

Aanue caiaeueiue oiiae a ie?a ninoaaeyao 1,5 ie?ae. aa, ec ieo 13%
-ia?aaaouaaaiua caiee, a 19% – ianoaeua e naiieinu.

Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou – yoi aea?aaaineee aeae
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia. Eo aicieeiiaaiea ioiineony e yiioa
iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e yaeyaony aa ?acoeueoaoii. A
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiee aua ni a?aiai A.A. Aeieo/aaaa aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyeinue eo eco/aieth. Iinoaiaiii a eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiee auei
noi?ioee?iaaii aa?ieaiaeoaooiia iai?aaeaiea. A aai iniiaa eaaeeo
eiioeaioeey i?e?iaeii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aainenoaiu, eioi?ay e
i?aaeiieaaaao iaycaoaeueiia nii?yaeaiiia eco/aiea i?e?iaeiie e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ninoaaeythueo a i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooao.
Eiioeaiooaeueii iiaeaeue aa?ieaiaeoaooa yaeyaony, oaeei ia?acii, ia
oieueei aainenoaiiie, ii e yeinenoaiiie. Oeaeaniia?acii caeanue
iaiiiieoue iniiaiua caeiiu naeueneiai oicyenoaa, ?anniio?aiiua a ae?oaeo
eo?nao:

– caeii iacaiaieiinoe e ?aaiicia/iinoe aeecie ?anoaiee;

– caeii ieieioia (caeii Eeaeoa, ecaanoiue ec eo?nia aeieiaee e
yeieiaee);

– caeii iioeioia;

– caeii aica?aoa;

– caeii yia?aiiaiaia.

Anoue ?yae i?eioeeieaeueiuo ioee/ee caieaaeaeue/aneeo aa?ieaiaeoaooia io
i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia. A iniiaiii iie naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.

1. A aa?ieaiaeoaooa i?ienoiaeeo aio?iiiaaiiia eneaaeaiea anae yia?aaoeee
aa?iaainenoaiu. Ia?ooaiu anoanoaaiiua o?ioe/aneea nayce, caeii ie?aieaeu
yia?aee. Ecuiaaony aei 90% i?iaeoeoeee, a iioa?e ainiieiythony ca n/ao
aianaiey oaeia?aiee a ii/ao. I?e caeaiie ?aaiethoeee yia?aaoe/aneea
cao?aou a ethaii neo/aa iia?aaeatho ?ino o?iaeaeiinoe. Iiyoiio ai anao
aa?ieaiaeoaooao aeaenoaoao caeii nieaeaiey yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey; ia eaaeaeoth
aeiiieieoaeueioth aaeeieoeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
iaiaoiaeeiu ana aic?anoathuea cao?aou aio?iiiaaiiie yia?aee.

2.Aa?ieaiaeoaoo caieaaeaeue/aneiai oeia – yoi noeoeanneiiii i/aiue
iieiaeia ia?aciaaiea. Iiyoiio iaiueoa aai onoie/eainoue, oioy aai
aeieiae/aneay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue auoa, /ai o eaeie-eeai eiie eeeiaeniaie
nenoaiu. Caeanue iu iaaethaeaai aeaenoaey caeiia noeoeanneiiiiai
iiieiaeaiey. ?anoeoaeueiua niiauanoaa a aa?ieaiaeoaooao i?aaenoaaeaiu, a
iniiaiii, iaeiieaoieie ?anoaieyie, yeieiae/anee iaiaaeaaeiuie, iaeiaei
aanueia i?iaeoeoeaiuie. Ieiaeiaua aea?aauey, yaiaeieee, aeiia?aaeieee
caieiatho nouanoaaiii iaiueooth aeieth a aa?ieaiaeoaooao. Eoae,
aa?ioeaiic a oeaeii – yoi nicaeaiiia /aeiaaeii ?anoeoaeueiia niiauanoai,
iaeaaeathuaa iaeie yeieiae/aneie iaaeaaeiinoueth, ii i?e yoii aunieie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth.

3. Aa?ieaiaeoaoou ioaeaeathony a iinoiyiiie aio?iiiaaiiie ?aaoeyoeee,
oi?aaeaiee, iniiaaiiii ia iioeiaeueiii nioai?/anoaa /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu.

Niaeanii i?eioeeio i?e?iaeii-naeueneioicyenoaaiiie aaeaioeaiinoe
no?oeoo?a e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aa?ieaiaeoaooa aeieaeiu auoue iaeneiaeueii
aaeaioe?iaaiu e ianoiui i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi, e enoiaeiiio i?e?iaeiiio
eaiaeoaooo, ia ianoa eioi?iai ia?aciaaeny aa?ieaiaeoaoo.

Anoue ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee oaeie aaeaioaoeee. A iniiaiii iie naiaeyony
e neaaeothuaio:

1) aienuaaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee a ii?oieiae/aneoth no?oeoo?o
enoiaeiiai i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa;

2) iaycaoaeueiia aeeth/aiea a ninoaa aa?ieaiaeoaooa yeaiaioia
yeieiae/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u;

3) no?iaee aaeaioeaiue ioai? nenoai caieaaeaeey, niioaaonoaothuee
i?iaeiui naienoaai caiaeue;

4) i?eaeeaeaiea aa?ioeaiicia e anoanoaaiiui (caeanue iao/iue iooue – yoi
?ac?aaioea iieeeoeueoo?iuo iiiaiy?oniuo ianaaeaeaiee).

3. Eanioicyenoaaiiua eaiaeoaoou

Eanenoinoue anae Caiee a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 27%, a a
aeiaa?i-eoeueoo?ioth yiioo iia ninoaaeyea 70%. Eanenoinoue nooe ?O
ninoaaeyao ieiei 48% (ii iaeioi?ui aeaiiui 51%). Eana anae oa??eoi?ee
auaoaai NNN? auee iiae?acaeaeaiu ia o?e a?oiiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
cia/aiey, a eiaiii:

1) 15% – yoi eana caeacieeia e iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?eia, aiaeiio?aiiua e
ii/aicaueoiua eana, naieoa?ii-yeieiae/aneea eana aonoiianaeaiiuo
ianoiinoae, eana ?anoeoaeueiuo cii. A yoeo eanao ?ac?aoaiu oieueei
naieoa?iua ?oaee e oae iacuaaaiua ?oaee ooiaea. Ana eana yoie a?oiiu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie yeieiae/aneoth eio?ano?oeoo?o, e eo aeaaiay
ooieoeey – i?e?iaeiio?aiiay;

7% – eana oicyenoaaiii inaiaiiuo oa??eoi?ee. Nthaea, iiieii i?i/eo,
aeeth/aiu eana a aannaeiao anao aeaaiuo ?ae oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiaeneie /anoe
auaoaai NNN? e Oeaio?aeueiie Acee (e?iia eania aeaaiuo ?ae Aa?iiaeneie
?innee, yoi oaeaea eana a aannaeiao Aeiai?a, Aio-Aea?uee, e ae?.). Yoi
aonoiianaeaiiua naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aeiiu, a iaeioi?uo eaniia
oicyenoai i?eaioe?iaaii ia nio?aiaiea e oeo/oaiea eania. A ieo
aeiionoeiu eeoue auai?i/iua ?oaee ii?iae, aeinoeaoeo c?aeinoe;

3) 78% – yoi eana i?iiuoeaiiiai cia/aiey, o. a. eana oae iacuaaaiiai
aeaaiiai iieueciaaiey. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e iei ioiinyony eana
?anioaeee Eiie e Ea?aeee, A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe, eana Neae?e e
Aeaeueiaainoi/iiai ?aaeiia. A ieo ?ac?aoaiu nieioiua i?iiuoeaiiua ?oaee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii iniiaiay ooieoeey oaeeo eania – ?ano?niaini?iecaiaeyuay.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a ioa/anoaaiiii eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiee
eaniaiaenoai ?anniao?eaaaony i?aaeaea anaai a niioaaonoaee n
eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneie eiioeaioeeae (?aaiou Noea/aaa, Ii?iciaa).
?ac?aaioaia oeiieiaey eania, o/eouaathuay ninoaa ae?aainoiy e n?aaeo eo
i?iec?anoaiey, a /anoiinoe:

– aeiaua eana ia aeeienouo e oyaeaeinoaeeienouo ii/aao (?aiaie);

– oe?ieieenoaaiiua aeiaua eana ia eaaeinoaeeienouo e n?aaeianoaeeienouo
ii/aao (no?aiaie);

– niniiaua eana ia ianeao e ian/aiuo ii/aao (ai?u);

– aeoaiaua eana ia aiaaouo noaeeienouo ii/aao, ia?aaeei ea?aiiaoiuo
(aeoa?aau);

– niniiai-aeoaiaua eana e eenoaaiii-aeoaiaua eana ia noaeeienouo ii/aao,
a oii /enea ia eanniaeaeiuo noaeeieao (noaeoa?aau).

O/oaiu e iaeioi?ua eiua oeiieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eania.

Eaniua ianoiiaeoaiey (o?ioioiiu) i?e eo oeiieiae/aneii ?an/eaiaiee
iiae?acaeaeaiu e n o/aoii oaeiai oaeoi?a, eae aiaaonoai ii/a
ieoaoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie. Caeanue auaeaeaiu ieeaio?ioiua, ia-cio?ioiua e
iaoao?ioiua o?ioioiiu.

*oi eanaaony eania 1-e e 2-e a?oii (o.a. eania, a eioi?uo ?ac?aoaiu
auai?i/iua eee nieioiua i?iiuoeaiiua ?oaee), oi aeey ieo ?aeiiaiaeothony
iaeioi?ua iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eaniiieueciaaiey,
niaethaeaiea eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii e iaycaoaeueii:

1) iaenoiueiinoue, o. a. niaethaeaiea i?aaee ?an/aoiie eaninaee -oaeiai
iauaia au?oaaaiiai aaeaaiaeii eana, eioi?ue ?aaai eee ia i?aauoaao
aaeaaiaeiiai i?e?inoa ae?aaaneiu ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee;

2) iai?a?uaiinoue;

3) ?aaiiia?iinoue.

Aeaa iineaaeieo i?eioeeia iaania/eaatho aeeeoaeueioth nio?aiiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u eanioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. I?e eo
ia?ooaiee ianaeaiiua ioieou, aei?iae e aeaaea oeaeua
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuea i?aaei?eyoey iacaa?oaeaiu.

4. Ai?iaeneea eaiaeoaoou

Aiaeec aeaiiuo noaoenoeee ii ?yaeo no?ai iieacuaaao, /oi a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ieiei 50% ianaeaiey i?iaeeaaao a ai?iaeao, i?e/ai aeiey
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaaony. Ai?iaeneea eaiaeoaoou,
caieiathuea anaai 4% ieiuaaee anae nooe, noaiiayony oai ia iaiaa
i?aeiouanoaaiiie, aeaaiie (iai?eia?, Neiaaio?) n?aaeie iaeoaiey ethaeae.

A ai?iaeneeo eaiaeoaooao iaeaieaa ea?aeeiaeueii eciaiaia i?e?iaea
enoiaeiiai eaiaeoaooa. E?oiiue nia?aiaiiue ai?iae – yoi eneonnoaaiiue
(?oeioai?iue i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiue) eaiaeoaoo. A oeaeii ana ai?iaeneea
eaiaeoaoou – y?ei au?aaeaiiua eiiaeoiua aainenoaiu.

Iaeaieaa nio?aieaoaeny io enoiaeiiai eaiaeoaooa a ai?iaeao inoaaony
eeoiaaiiay iniiaa. Yoi eanaaony e?oiiuo iacioi?i ?aeueaoa, iaeeea aea
ia?iaiinoe /aua anaai iiaeaa?aathony eneonnoaaiiiio ieaaee?iaaieth. A
noa?eiiuo ai?iaeao aaeaie iaeaieeaaeny «eoeueoo?iue neie» aio?iiiaaiiuo
iaiinia.

Aieueoeinoai ai?iaeia ?aniieaaaaony a yeioiiiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo
iiceoeeyo. Iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ae?aaieo ai?iaeia. Aeaaiua oeiu
iieiaeaiey ai?iaeia neaaeothuea:

1) ai?iaea, ?aniieiaeaiiua a ?a/iuo aeieeiao e ia i?eiueathueo e
aeieeiai /anoyo iaaeaeo?a/ee. Yoi Iineaa (aeieeiu ?ae Iineau, ssocu),
Ia?eae (aeieeia ?. Naiu), Eeaa (aeieeia ?. Aeiai?a), Iine e Iiaineae?ne
(aeieeiu ?ae E?ouo e Iaue) e ae?. Caeanue i?aeoe/anee aacaea ia?acothony
e aeinoaoi/ii eaaei iaicia/athony ai?iaeneea eaoaiu a eaiaeoaooa
ai?iaeia. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?eo?i/aiiinoue e ?aniieiaeaiea oaeeo
eaoai eiatho enoi?e/aneea i?e/eiu, n eioi?uie naycaiu eae iniiaaiea, oae
e iiiaieaoiaa ?acaeoea yoeo ai?iaeia;

2) i?eii?neea ai?iaea, i?e/ai /anoi ?aniieiaeaiiua a onoueyo (eee
aeaeueoao) e?oiiuo ?ae. Yoi Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, Eiiaeii, Iueth-Ei?e,
Ano?aoaiue e ae?.;

3) iaaeai?ii-eioeiaeiiua e ai?ii-aeieeiiua ai?iaea — Iaoeei, Oaeeene,
Eaaoe, a ecaanoiie noaiaie Iiaieociaoee;

4)iiaeai?iua ai?iaea – Aeaaeeeaaeac, Aeia-Aoa, Aooaaaae. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ai?iaea, ioiinyueany e aeaoi iineaaeiei
a?oiiai, eniuouaatho /?acau/aeii iai?yaeaiioth oaoiiaaiioth iaa?oceo.
Iia au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a oi?ie?iaaiee niiaia. Iineaaeiaa naycaii
n /anoie i?aeoe/aneie iaiiaeaeaeiinoueth aicaeooiuo iann, aucaaiiie
ia?aianaeaiiinoueth e ?aciiia?aciuie aua?inaie. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai, a
/anoiinoe, yaeeinue iaeiie ec i?e/ei, naea?aeeaathueo iaiaoiaeeiia
?acaeoea Aeia-Aou, /oi, a /enea ae?oaeo i?e/ei, e iiaeaeei ia?aianaiea
noieeoeu Eacaonoaia ec Aeia-Aou a Anoaio (auaoee Aeiieeine –
Oeaeeiia?aae).

Ieaie?iaea ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa aeieaeia auoue aaeaioe?iaaia e
ia?iaiinoyi ?aeueaoa. Ii yoiio i?eioeeio ai?iaea aeaeyony ia aeaa oeia:

– iiiaiy?oniua – Iineaa («ia naie oieiao»), Iaeanna, Ia?eae e ae?.;

– iaeiiy?oniua – Naieo- Iaoa?ao?a, Niieaine, ?eaa.

Oe?iei ecaanoii, /oi iiiaiy?oniua ai?iaea ynoaoe/anee i?eaeaeaoaeueiaa,
aieaa ?aciiia?aciu, ii a ieo ai?acaei neiaeiaa i?ieeaaeuaaoue
eiiioieeaoeee e o?ainii?oiua a?oa?ee.

A ai?iaeao iinoaiaiii nicaeaaony oaoiiaaiiue a?oeoaeoo?iue ?aeueao,
nouanoaothuee a ieo ia?yaeo n anoanoaaiiui ?aeueaoii. Yoi ?aeueao
cano?iaiiuo ianneaia e ni/aoathueony n iei ioe?uouo i?ino?ainoa – oeeoe,
ieiuaaeae, ia?eia, neaa?ia. A ?acoeueoaoa a ai?iaeao ia?acothony
neaiciua eneonnoaaiiua «aeieeiu» i?ioyaeaiiuo ai?iaeneeo iaaeno?aeae (a
Iineaa — Eaieineee i?iniaeo, Oaa?neay oe., i?iniaeo Aa?iaaeneiai, a
Iaoa?ao?aa – Iaaneee i?iniaeo e ae?.). Yoio aeinoaoi/ii naiaia?aciue
a?oeoaeoo?iue ?aeueao ieacuaaao aanueia iuooeiia aeeyiea ia
oee?eoeyoeeth aicaeooiuo iann a ai?iaea, ia ianoiue ai?iaeneie eeeiao (a
iniaaiiinoe iee?ieeeiao aeai?a, anoaeueoiaiai iie?uoey, aaciia e o.ae.).

A e?oiiuo nia?aiaiiuo ai?iaeao oaieiaie aaeain neeueii o?ainoi?ie?iaai.
Iiiaieaoiea enneaaeiaaiey aeae?iiaoai?ieiae/aneeo neoaea iiiaeo no?ai
iieacaee, /oi ai?iaeneea eaiaeoaoou – yoi «ino?iaa oaiea», a ieo
oaiia?aoo?a ia 1 -2° auoa, /ai a iaiin?aaenoaaiii niaaeiuo n ieie
?aeiiao. Yoi naycaii n oaieiaui caa?yciaieai e iniaaiiinoyie iiaa?oiinoe
ai?iaeneeo eaiaeoaooia.

Ai?iaeneie a?oeoaeoo?iue eaiaeoaoo aeeyao ia iai?aaeaiea e nei?inoue
aao?a. Nei?inoue a oeaeii iaaeaao a 1,5-2 ?aca, ii aaeieue e?oiiuo
i?ioyaeaiiuo iaaeno?aeae, iniaaiii i?e niaiaaeaiee eo iai?aaeaiee n
ainiiaenoaothuei iai?aaeaieai aao?ia, aeotho neeueiua oae iacuaaaiua
«ei?eaei?iua aao?u» (i?eia?u – i?iniaeo Aa?iaaeneiai e Iiaeaeneia oinna
a Iineaa). A oi aea a?aiy a iieocae?uouo aioo?e-eaa?oaeueiuo eioeiaeiao
/anoi iaaethaeaaony canoie aicaeooiuo iann.

Ecaanoii oaeaea, /oi cia/eoaeueiay oa?ioiaaoinoue iiaa?oiinoe
ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa i?eaiaeeo e nicaeaieth iaeeey yaea?
eiiaeainaoeee, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue caiaoii iiauoaao e eiee/anoai
aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia a ai?iaeao (ia 20 – 30 ii a aiae).

Iniai iianiui yaeyaony caa?yciaiea aicaeooiiai aannaeia ai?iaeia
aua?inaie i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, o?ainii?oa, yia?aaoe/aneeo nenoai.
N?aaee iaeaieaa iianiuo oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee – SO2, NI, ?Ue, Zn, As,
Ni e ae?. Iaeiaei iiieii eo aicaeoo ai?iaeia caa?yciai e iiiaeie aanueia
iaoiaaiiuie iee?ii?aaieciaie – ia?aiin/eeaie iianiuo caaieaaaiee.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeieiae/aneiai caa?yciaiey yaeythony naaeee,
ionoieieee, iiey i?ioaiey e eaiaeecaoeey.

Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo, iniaaiii, anee ai?iaea ?aniieiaeaiu a
aaiii?oieiae/aneeo aeai?anneyo (aiaaeeiao), i?e aacaao?aiiie
aioeoeeeeiieaeueiie iiaiaea a ai?iaeneii eaiaeoaooa canoaeaaaony
caa?yciaiiue aicaeoo. Nicaeaaony eiaa?ney aicaeooiuo iann, oa?aeoa?iay,
a /anoiinoe, aeey Iaoeei, Oaeeene, Onoue-Eaiaiiai?nea e iiiaeo ae?oaeo
ai?iaeia. Caa?yciaiea aicaeooa neoaeeo aeaaiie i?e/eiie aua iaeiiai
oa?aeoa?iiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeaiey – niiaia – ay?icieae, ninoiyueo ec
aeuia, ooiaia e iuee. ?acee/athony aeaaeiue (eiiaeiineee), eaaeyiie
(aeyneeineee) e nooie (ein-aiaeaeaeanneee) oeiu niiaia. A /anoiinoe,
nooie niia ia?acoaony a aaciauo aua?inao iiae aicaeaenoaeai
oeueo?aoeieaoiaie ?aaeeaoeee Nieioea (Ein-Aiaeaeaean, Oieei, Aeia-Aoa,
Ieeai).

I?iaeaia eenei?iaeiiai iaania/aiey oaeaea /?acau/aeii aaaeia a ai?iaeao.
Eae ecaanoii, eenei?iae au?aaaouaaaony caeaiuie ianaaeaeaieyie, a
iio?aaeyaony i?e ?aaioa o?ainii?oa e aeuoaiee ethaeae. Iineao, a
/anoiinoe, nianaao aoiinoa?iay oee?eoeyoeey – caiaaeiue ia?aiin. A
ai?acaei aieaa oyaeaeuo oneiaeyo ieacuaathony i?ia?aoe/anee
eciee?iaaiiua ai?iaea.

Caaa?oay iaci? ai?iaeneeo eaiaeoaooia, aiiaue iiae/a?eiai, /oi eo
oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony e i?e?iaeiuie, e
aio?iiiaaiiuie oaeoi?aie. N?aaee i?e?iaeiuo oaeoi?ia aeaaiue –
eeoiaaiiay iniiaa, i?aaeaea anaai – ?aeueao. Aeaaiue aio?iiiaaiiue
oaeoi? aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa – yoi aai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iacia/aiea, o.a. nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay
ooieoeey ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ai?iaea Ai?iae iaania/eaaao aeeeuea,
?aaioo, ia?aciaaiea, ioaeuo, ea/aiea, eiiioieeaoeee aeeaouaai a ai?iaea
ianaeaiey. Yoe o?aaiaaiey iaoneiaeee auaeaeaiea a ai?iaeneii eaiaeoaooa
ianeieueeeo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii: naeeoaaiie,
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eoeueoo?iie, i?iiuoeaiiie, eiiioiaeueii-neeaaeneie,
o?ainii?oiie, ?ae?aaoeeiiiie, ea/aaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiie.

Yoe ooieoeeiiaeueiua ciiu ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa, anoanoaaiii, ia aacaea
e ia ai anao ai?iaeao iiaoo auoue /aoei auaeaeaiu, e, e?iia oiai, iie
ia?aaeei neiaeii ia?aieaoathony.

5. ?ae?aaoeeiiiua aainenoaiu

A iaoa a?aiy ioaeuo e ianniaue oo?eci i?aa?aoeeenue (eee i?aa?auathony)
a ioaeaeueioth io?aneue — ?ae?aaoeeiiioth eiaeono?eth, a a nia?aiaiiii
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiee noi?ie?iaaii e iniaia iao/iia iai?aaeaiea –
?ae?aaoeeiiiia eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea.

?ae?aaoeeiiiay aainenoaia (eee yeinenoaia) aeeth/aao i?e?iaeioth e
oaoie/aneoth iiaenenoaiu. Yoi a ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee aeaao i?aai iiiaei
enneaaeiaaoaeyi (e ia oieueei aaia?aoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey) auaeaeyoue
ianeieueei oeiia nianoaaiii ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo eaiaeoaooia. N?aco ioiaoei,
/oi a ?yaea neo/aaa (eo iaiaei) yoe oeiu, oi/iaa, eo ea/anoaa,
ia?anaeathony, iaeiaei eo auaeaeaiea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
nenoaiaoecaoeee, /oi a oi aea a?aiy iaeaa/aao e eco/aiea yoeo
eaiaeoaooia. Oeiu neaaeothuea.

1. ?ae?aaoeeiiii-ea/aaiua – yoi eaiaeoaoou eo?i?oiuo cii. Iie aeieaeiu
iaeaaeaoue iniauie i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, i?e/ai eiaiii ea/aaiiai,
aaeueiaieiae/aneiai ea/anoaa e naienoaa. Ia iuiaoiai yoaia i?e?iaeiay
n?aaea eo?i?oiuo cii oaea cia/eoaeueii i?aia?aciaaia: iino?iaiu
naiaoi?ee, ae?oaea ea/aaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, eiathony
ia?ee, naaeu, eaniia?ee, ieyaee, aannaeiu, oa??aieo?u.

2. ?ae?aaoeeiiii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua. Caeanue caianu aaeueiaieiae/aneeo
?ano?nia iau/ii ionoonoaotho (ca iaeioi?uie eneeth/aieyie, aaea iie
i?aaenoaaeaiu iacia/eoaeueiui eiee/anoaii e ianoiiai cia/aiey), iaeiaei
aanueia aeaaii?eyoia i?e?iaeiay n?aaea. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi eiioi?oiua
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey. Yoio oei eo?i?oia ?aniieaaaaony iau/ii aaeece
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia. Iino?iaiu iaineiiaou, aeiia ioaeuoa, eaiieiae,
oii?yaei/aia o?ainii?oiay naoue, aaeece eiathony /enoua eaniua ianneau e
aiaeiaiu, a oaeaea ieyaee, o?iiu e aei?iae.

C.?ae?aaoeeiiii-nii?oeaiua ciiu. Iie ?aniieiaeaiu a iniiaiii a ai?ao.
Oa?aeoa?ia i?aeiouanoaaiii aeeeay i?e?iaea. Caeanue nii?oaeathony
ooieeoea?u, eaiaoiua aei?iae, i?aaieciaaiu nianaoaeueiua neoaeau.

4. ?ae?aaoeeiiii-iiciaaaoaeueiua. Yoio oei ?ae?aaoeee eaiaeoaooia eiaao
aeaaiui ia?acii ainieoaoaeueioth ooieoeeth. Caeanue iau/ii ?aniieiaeaiu
oieeaeueiua i?e?iaeiua iauaeou – iaoeeiiaeueiua ia?ee, noa?eiiua
eoeueoo?iua oeaio?u (iocae, caiee, aeai?oeu e o.ae.)

Aieueoeinoai ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo eiiieaenia ?aniieiaeaii a yeioiiao. Oo?enoia
i?eaeaeatho i?e?iaeiua eiio?anou e iainaiaiiay aeeeay i?e?iaea.

?ae?aaoeeiiiua iaa?ocee, eae i?aaeei, i?eaiaeyo e e ?ae?aaoeeiiiie
aeea?annee aainenoai. Iaeaieaa iaaeyaeii yoi eeethno?e?oaony
auoaiouaaieai ?anoeoaeueiinoe e o.i. *anoi i?ienoiaeeo ?ani?ino?aiaiea
?oaea?aeueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe (ni?iyeia). Iniaaiii aea iianai
?ae?aaoeeiiiue aaiaeaeeci, o.a. caoeaieaiea oa??eoi?ee.

*oi eanaaony iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?eia, iiaeii ioiaoeoue eo ?acaeaeaiea ia
ianeieueei /anoae: caiiaaaeiia yae?i (cai?auaii iinauaiea oo?enoaie),
aooa?iay ciia, a eioi?ie aeiioneaaony eeoue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?oaiia
?ae?aaoeeiiiia eniieueciaaiea e, iaeiiaoe, ciia ianeoaeeaaiey ?ae?aaioia
(iinaoeoaeae, oo?enoia).

I?eia?u iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?eia: Eaeeionoiineee, Aaoea, I?eaaeeaeueneee,
?onneee ean, Eineiue ino?ia.

Eae e ethaie oei i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, eaiaeoaooii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey,
ieia?aeueiua aiaeu e ea/aaiua a?yce aeieaeiu oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny ?yaeii
eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae, iicaieythueo ioeaieaaoue
aiciiaeiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey ii oiio eee eiiio iacia/aieth, a oaeaea
?aaeueiua ianooaau yoiai eniieueciaaiey. Ieia?aeueiua aiaeu e ea/aaiua
a?yce iaeaaeatho anaie i?eciaeaie oaeeo ?ano?nia, eae iieaciua
eneiiaaiua, oae eae eiatho ia oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiua oeceei-oeie/aneea
naienoaa, ii e iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu e i?aaenoaaeaiu eiee/anoaaiii
(iauai, ianna, ?anoiae).

O?oaeiaa iaeoe eiee/anoaaiiia au?aaeaiea aeey eaiaeoaooii-eeeiaoe/aneeo
oneiaee aaeaeo eo eneeth/eoaeueiie neiaeiinoe e iiiaeanoaaiiinoe
neaaathueo eo eiiiiiaioia. Iaeiaei e aeey ieo i?eaieaiu oaeaea
eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee, oaeea, eae ?acia?u eaiaeoaooiuo oa??eoi?ee,
aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey ?aciauaiey eo?i?oiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?ioyaeaiiinoue e
oe?eia ieyaeiuo o/anoeia, aeaiiua i iiaoi?yaiinoe oeaiiuo a
eeeiaoioa?aiaaoe/aneii ioiioaiee iiaiae e ae?.

I?eiaieoaeueii e i?iaeaiai ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aaia?aoee e eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey
i?e?iaeiua ea/aaiua ?ano?nu i?eiyoi ?anniao?eaaoue a neaaeothueo
aniaeoao:

– aaiaoe/aneay iniiaa i?e?iaeii-ea/aaiuo ?ano?nia e eo naycue n
aeaaiaeoeie oaeoi?aie aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu;

– i?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee ea/aaiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia;

– ea?oe?iaaiea ea/aaiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eo
eco/aiiinoe;

– i?eioeeiu iiaeoiaea e auai?o iauaeoia eo?i?oiiai inaiaiey;

– i?iaeaiu io?aiu i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Iaeia /anoue iniiaiuo eaiaeoaooiia?acothueo eiiiiiaioia (eeeiao, ii/au,
?anoeoaeueiinoue) eiaao ciiaeueiue oa?aeoa?, naycaiiue n eciaiaieai
eiee/anoaa iinooiathuae nieia/iie yia?aee e aeaae, ae?oaay aea /anoue –
?aeueao, aeae?ia?aoe/aneay naoue, aaieiae/aneia no?iaiea (eeoiaaiiay
iniiaa) aciiaeueia e iaiin?aaenoaaiii n oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeie iiynaie e
ciiaie ia naycaia.

Iaeiaei ?a/iua aannaeiu, ii?neea aeaaoi?ee e e?oiiua ica?a – aciiaeueiua
iauaeou aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu – ianoo ia naaa yaiue ioia/aoie
ciiaeueiinoe, oae eae oaiia?aoo?a aiaeiuo iann iaoiaeeony a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n eeeiaoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie, a yoi ii?aaeaeyao
i?eaiaeiinoue yoeo iauaeoia e oaeannioa?aiee. Naycue n aaia?aoe/aneeie
ciiaie eiatho e ea/aaiua a?yce (iaeieaeu), oae eae ia oi?ie?iaaiea eo
iniiaiuo oeiia ciiaeueiua eaiaeoaooii-eeeiaoe/aneea oaeoi?u e
aaioeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaeoaooa iaeeaaeuaatho nouanoaaiiue
ioia/aoie (Ia?aeueiai, 1975; Iinioia, Oienoeoei, 1977 e ae?.).

Ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ea/aaiuo a?ycae, oi?ie?othueony a
iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeiaiao, iaoneiaeaiu iniaaiiinoyie aaioeiee eaiaeoaooia
?aciuo oeiia (eaniuo, noaiiuo, ionouiiuo, eoaiauo).

Iniiau eeanneoeeaoeee ea/aaiuo ?ano?nia caeiaeaiu aeaeiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ioa/anoaaiiie oeieu eo?i?oieiaee (A.A. Eiceineei, A.A.
Aeaenaiae?iaui, A.A. Eaaiiaui, A.A. Iaa?aaaui, I.A. *oaoeiaui e ae?.).
Iia aace?oaony ia eco/aiee ninoaaa, naienoa e ?acee/iuo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?e?iaeiuo oaeoi?ia, iaoaiecia eo aeaenoaey ia caei?iauea e aieueiie
i?aaieci n o/aoii aeinoeaeaiee eeeiaoieiaee, aeae?ieiaee,
aeae?iaaioeiee, aaioeiee eaiaeoaooa e ae?oaeo iaoe. Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo iniiaiua naienoaa ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo aainenoai,
yaeyaony eeeiao. Iaeiaei iiea aua iao iauai?eiyouo e?eoa?eaa
oa?aeoa?enoeee eeeiaoa e iiaiae, a iieiie ia?a ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi
eo?i?oieiaee (Eo?naiia, 1973).

A aieueoeinoaa eeanneoeeaoeee eeeiaoia iau/ii iiae/a?eeaaaony eo naycue
n eaiaeoaooii-eeeiaoe/aneeie iiynaie e ciiaie. A /anoiinoe, E.N. Aa?a
auaeaeye oeiu eeeiaoia a iieiii niioaaonoaee n ieie.

A.I. Aeenia (1956) iniiaae eeanneoeeaoeeth eeeiaoia ia ioeaiea
?acoeueoaoia acaeiiaeaenoaey eeeiaoi?aaoee?othueo oaeoi?ia – ?aaeeiia
oee?eoeyoeee aoiinoa?u e ?aaeeaoeee – n iniaaiiinoyie
oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneie ciiaeueiinoe. Ii auaeaeye iiyna: a?eoe/aneee,
noaa?eoe/aneee, oia?aiiue, noao?iie/aneee, a oaeaea eeeiaoe/aneea
iaeanoe e iiaeiaeanoe. A.A. A?eai?ueaa e I.I. Aoaeuei (1959) ii noaiaie
oaeaaeiaiey e oa?ie/aneei oneiaeyi a oaieue ia?eiae auaeaeyee iniiaiua
eeeiaoe/aneea ciiu, a ii oneiaeyi niaaeiinoe e no?iainoe ceiu – oeiu
eeeiaoe/aneeo iaeanoae.

A iaaeeoeeineie eeeiaoieiaee i?eiaiythony iaoiaeu eiiieaeniie
eeeiaoieiaee, /oi iicaieyao au?aaeaoue eeeiao /a?ac ?aaeeiu iiaiaeu.
Iniiaiiieiaeieeii iaoiaea – /eaiii-ei??aniiiaeaioii ?AI A.A. Oaaei?iaui
i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey, a eioi?ie iiiaiia?acea oeiia iiaiae
iiae?acaeaeaii ia eeannu, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a?oiiaie, a a iniiaa eaaeeo
iiiyoea «iiaiaea nooie» (oaae.1). Naycaii yoi n oai, /oi ai anao
aiaiiey?iuo ?aeiiao n nooi/iie ia?eiaee/iinoueth naycai aeaaiue
iiaiaeiia?acothuee oaeoi? – ?aaeeaoeeiiiue ?aaeei.

Oaaeeoea 1

Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaiae

(ii A. A. Oaaei?iao n aeiiieiaieyie E. A. *oaoeiaa, 1962)

Iiia? EeannIaeiaiiaaiea eeanna iiaiaeAacii?iciua iiaiaeuINieia/iay,
i/aiue aea?eay e i/aiue nooayINieia/iay, aea?eay e nooay
IIINieia/iay, oia?aiii aeaaeiay e aeaaeiayVNieia/iay, oia?aiii aeaaeiay
e aeaaeiay n iaea/iie ii/uethIVIaea/iay aeiai e iaeiiaea/iay
ii/uethVIIanio?iay aac inaaeeiaVIIAeiaeaeeeaay (ianio?iay n
inaaeeaie)XVII/aiue aea?eay e i/aiue aeaaeiayIiaiaeu n ia?aoiaeii
oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa /a?ac 0°NVIIIIaea/iayIXNieia/iayIi?iciua
iiaiaeuXNeaai ii?iciayXIOia?aiii ii?iciayXIICia/eoaeueii
ii?iciayOONeeueii ii?iciayXVAEanoiei ii?iciayE?aeia ii?iciay

Eco/aiea aicaeaenoaey iiaiae ?acee/iuo eeannia ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea
iicaieyao auaeaeeoue iiaiaeu, iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiua aeey i?iaaaeaiey
?acee/iuo aeaeia eeeiaoioa?aiee. E oaeei iiaiaeai i?aaeaea anaai
ioiinyony nieia/iua (I, II, III e V eeanna), aeaaii?eyoiua aeey oe?ieiai
eniieueciaaiey anao aeaeia eeeiaoiea/aiey e oaeannioa?aiee: eoiaiey a
ii?a, ica?ao, ?aeao e aannaeiao, a oaeaea aeey ea/aaiuo oa??aieo?ia e o.
ae. Aeinoaoi/ii aeaaii?eyoia aeey ea/aiey a eaoiaa a?aiy oaeaea iiaiaea
IV eeanna (iaea/iay aeiai). Inoaeueiua eeannu aacii?iciuo iiaiae
(ianio?iua, aeiaeaeeeaua, a oaeaea i/aiue aea?eea e i/aiue aeaaeiua)
iaeuecy i?eciaoue i?eaiaeiuie aeey eeeiaoioa?aiee.

N?aaee iiaiae n ia?aoiaeii oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa /a?ac 0° e ii?iciuo
iaeaieueooth oeaiiinoue eiatho iiaiaeu IX e XI eeannia (i?e iaee/ee
nieia/iiai aeiy), eioi?ua nicaeatho aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey i?iaoeie,
ceiiaai nii?oa, nia ia aa?aiaeao e aeey ae?oaeo aeaeia eeeiaoiea/aiey.

Iiaiaeu n iiauoaiiie ii?iciinoueth (XII e XIII eeannia) oaea
cao?oaeiytho i?iaaaeaiea eeeiaoiea/aiey, i?e iiaiaeao XIV e XV eeannia
iii i?aeoeeiaaoueny ia iiaeao.

Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaiae ii A. A. Oaaei?iao (ni. oaae. 1) o?aaoao
aeaeueiaeoae aeaoaeecaoeee e niaa?oainoaiaaiey. A /anoiinoe, eae
ioia/aao A. I. ?aoia? (1967), «ionoonoaea a eeanneoeeaoeee A. A.
Oaaei?iaa aeaoaeecaoeee nieia/iuo e aea?eeo iiaiae ii oaeei aaaeiui
iieacaoaeyi, eae oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa (auoa 22,2°N), aaoa? e einieyoeey,
ia iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue /anoioo aicieeiiaaiey e noaiaiue aeeneiioi?oa
a nayce n aicaeaenoaeai ?acee/iuo iiaiaeiuo eiiieaenia yoeo eeannia
iiaiae ia oaieiaia ninoiyiea /aeiaaea».

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eeanneoeeaoeee iiaiae iaoei io?aaeaiea a
eeanneoeeaoeee A. I. Eeuee/aaie, a iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeaiu oaeea
iieacaoaee, eae iaea/iinoue, aeaaeiinoue, aoiinoa?iua inaaeee,
yeaeaaeaioii-yooaeoeaiay oaiia?aoo?a (aeey oaieiai a?aiaie aiaea) e
aaeeu aeanoeinoe iiaiaeu ii Aaoiaio (aeey oieiaeiiai a?aiaie aiaea).

A ea/anoaa iiiuoee ?ac?aaioaoue eeanneoeeaoeeth eeeiaoa, aieaa oanii
oaycaiioth n iaaeeoeeineeie aniaeoaie aeeyiey eeeiaoa ia /aeiaaea,
iiaeao auoue iacaaia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay oeceieiai-aeaeaie/aneay
eeanneoeeaoeey oeiia eeeiaoa ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN?, i?aaeeiaeaiiay
Ae. I. Aeaieiie, E. N, Eaiae?i?ii e A. I. ?aoia?ii. A yoie
eeanneoeeaoeee a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie aeeyiey ia /aeiaaea oieiaeiuo e
oaieuo iiaiae iiiaioa auaeaeythony oeiu eeeiaoa: I – oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iaee/eai oieiaeiie e eiioi?oiie iiaiaeu; I -ioee/aaony io I aeeth/aieai
oaieie e aea?eie iiaiaeu; III – iauaaeeiyao oieiaeioth, i?ioeaaeioth e
eiioi?oioth iiaiaeu; IV – ioee/aaony io III iaee/eai oaieie iiaiaeu; V –
oaieay e aea?eay iiaiaea; VI – i/aiue aea?eay iiaiaea; VII – aeeth/aao
iiaiaeu io i?ioeaaeiie aei oaieie, a a VIII – aeiaaaeyaony e VII e
i/aiue aea?eay iiaiaea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Oaaaenaeao E. N. ,Aoeeia E. E. Eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea. Aeaoa?eiao?a:
O?ae. ain. eanioaoi. oi-o, 2007.

2. Ieeieaaa A.A Eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiea. Ynoaoeea e aeecaei. I.: Aiaeo I?ann,
2003.

3. Ia?aeueiai A.E. Aaioeiey eaiaeoaooa. I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1975.

4. Oeeeiiiae/ E.N. Ea?oia?aoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
?ae?aaoeeiiiuo nenoai. I.: Iaoea, 1983.

5. Oaiaei?iineee A. A. Iauaeou eaiaeoaooiie a?oeoaeoo?u. I.: IAOE, 2003.

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