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Характеристика природы Свердловской области

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Oaaea?aeueiia aaaionoai ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth ?O OAEOO

EAOAAe?A EAIAeOAOOIIAI NO?IEOAEUeNOAA

?aoa?ao ii i?aaeiaoo «Eaiaeoaoou O?aea»

Oaia:

«Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?e?iaeu Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe»

Aeaoa?eiao?a 2009 a.

Ieai.

1. Iniaaiiinoe ?aeueaoa Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

1.1. O?aeueneay ai?iay no?aia.

1.2. Caiaaeii-Neae?neay ?aaieia.

1.3. Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneay (?onneay) ?aaieia.

2. Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

3. Aiaeiua ?ano?nu Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

4. ?anoeoaeueiue ie? Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

5. AEeaioiue ie? Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

6. Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Iniaaiiinoe ?aeueaoa Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

Naa?aeeianeay iaeanoue (ieiuaaeue 194,5 oun. ea. ei) — naiay aieueoay ia
O?aea. Iia ?aniieiaeaia ia nouea O?aeueneie ai?iie no?aiu,
Caiaaeii-Neae?neie e Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaiei.

1.1. O?aeueneay ai?iay no?aia.

Ia aeieth yoie naiie aeeaiieniie /anoe iaeanoe i?eoiaeeony 35 % aa
ieiuaaee. Naiua aunieea ai?u Naaa?iiai O?aea nin?aaeioi/aiu ia
naaa?i-caiaaea. Caeanue aeaaiue aiaei?acaeaeueiue o?aaao nio?aiee naia
noa?eiiia iacaaiea: Iiyniaue Eaiaiue. Ianeieueei ainoi/iaa aai
aicauoathony ai?u Ioi?oai (1182 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y), *enoii (1291),
Aeaiaaeeei Eaiaiue (1492), Einueaeineee Eaiaiue (1519), Na?aa?yineee
Eaiaiue (1300), Oueaeneee Eaiaiue (1400) e Eiiaeaeianeee Eaiaiue (1570).

THaeiaa Eiiaeaeianeiai Eaiiy aunioa ai? caiaoii nieaeaaony, inaaay eeiey
aiaei?acaeaea noaiiaeony iaiaa /aoeie. Ia/eiaaony N?aaeiee O?ae. Iannea
Ea/eaia? aeinoeaaao auniou 878 i, Aoia?neee e?yae — 700 i.

Ia oe?ioa Aeaoa?eiao?aa ia?aaae o ai?u Aa?aciaie, aaea onoaiiaeai
iaaeene «Aa?iia — Acey» (ia Iineianeii o?aeoa), iaoiaeeony ia aunioa
iaiiiaei aieaa 400 i. Aiaei?acaeae ianoieueei neaai iaicia/ai, /oi aac
yoiai iiiciaaaoaeueiiai ciaea ii/oe iacaiaoai.

E thao io Aeaoa?eiao?aa ai?u aiiaue iiauoathony: ?aaaeeineee, a caoai e
Eiiiaaeianei-Ooaeaeneee aiaei?acaeaeueiua o?aaou i?aauoatho 600— 700 i.
A ioee/ea io naaa?iie ai?iie /anoe iaeanoe ?aeueao caeanue aieaa
naeaaeai, aeieeiu ?ae ia noieue aeoaiei a?acaiu. ?aee oaeoo niieieiaa,
aa?aaa eo iau/ii iaaunieea.

1.2. Caiaaeii-Neae?neay ?aaieia.

Caiaaeii-Neae?neay ?aaieia (63 % ieiuaaee iaeanoe). Yoi iaoe?iay
caaiei/aiiay /anoue ia ainoiea iaeanoe, n?aaee eioi?ie eia-aaea
auaeaeythony iaaieueoea oaaeu e aicauoaiiinoe.

Oae, ia naaa?i-ainoiea io/aoeeai au?aaeaia Naaa?i-Ninueaeineay
aicauoaiiinoue, i?inoe?athuayny aeaeaei ia naaa?, ca i?aaeaeu iaeanoe. A
?aeueaoa aa i?aiaeaaeatho oe?ieea e ieineea oaaeu, ?an/eaiaiiua
aeieeiaie ?ae Naaa?iay e Iaeay Ninueaa e eaaui i?eoieii Oaaaeu ?. Iaeui.
N?aaeiea auniou— 180—150 i, caiaoai iauee oeeii iiaa?oiinoe ia ainoie.
Oa/aiea ?ae niieieiia. Caaiei/aiiinoue ninoaaeyao 11— 20%.

THaeiaa, io ieaeiaai oa/aiey Iaeuia e Eicueau e aaeieue anae aeieeiu ?.
Oaaaeu, ?aniieiaeaia naiay iiieaeaiiay /anoue iaeanoe—iaoe?iay
Eiiaeeineay ieciaiiinoue (iia auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu iaeanoe ia ainoie);
aunioa aa anaai eeoue 90 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y, iiaa?oiinoue ii/oe
ieineay, neeueii caaiei/aiiay (ia 20—37%)- Oaaaea — aeaaiay ?aea yoie
ieciaiiinoe— oeie/ii ?aaieiiay: oe?ieay, iieiiaiaeiay, n iiiai/eneaiiuie
oa??anaie, iaoeythuay n?aaee ian/aii-aeeienouo ioeiaeaiee — nia?aiaiiiai
e ae?aaiaai ?a/iiai aeethaey.

THai-ainoie caiaaeiineae?neie /anoe iaeanoe aieaa aicauoai: caeanue
iaoiaeeony aieueoay Oo?eineay ?aaieia. Iia i?inoe?aaony io a.
Eaiainea-O?aeueneiai ia thai-caiaaea aei i?aaiaa?aaeuey aeieeiu Oaaaeu
ia naaa?a e ainoiea. Auniou aa 160—180 i, a a aeieeia Oo?u— 120 — 130 i.
Oo?eineay ?aaieia, eiathuay iauee oeeii e ainoieo, caiaoii ?an/eaiaia
?aeaie Oaaeeii, Ieoeae, Iuoiie, Enaoueth e eo i?eoieaie. ?a/iay naoue
“ii n?aaiaieth n Eiiaeeineie ieciaiiinoueth aoua, caaiei/aiiinoue
iaiueoa: ia iaaeaeo?a/uea Oaaee — Ieoea — aei 5%, Iuoia — Enaoue —
aei 10 %. Oa/aiea ?ae iau/ii niieieiia.

1.3. Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneay (?onneay) ?aaieia.

Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneay (?onneay) ?aaieia (ieiei 2% oa??eoi?ee). E iae
ioiineony thai-caiaae iaeanoe (caiaaeiay /anoue E?aniiooeineiai ?aeiia).
Caeanue aicauoaaony naaa?i-ainoi/iue e?ae Ooeineiai ieaoi n aai io?iaii
Nueaeineei e?yaeai (e?yae oyiaony a naaa?i-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee e
ooiaeeo a Ia?ineoth iaeanoue). Iiaa?oiinoue ieaoi (iniiaiay /anoue aai
iaoiaeeony a Aaoee?ee) aeaaiaea?y ainiiaenoao ecaanoiyeia, aeieiieoia,
aiaeae?eoia e aeinoaoi/iiio eiee/anoao aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia (500 ii)
eniau?aia ea?noiauie ai?iieaie, nooeie eiaaie; caeanue iiiai iaua?. A
aeieeiao ?ae – Oou e aa i?eoieia — iiaeieiathony aaee/anoaaiiua
ecaanoiyeiaua ooanu (eaiie Aeeeaaa, Nieieeiue, AEaeoue e ae?.).

Iiiaea ianoa iaeanoe, iniaaiii aa ai?iii?iiuoeaiiie /anoe, i?aia?aciaaiu
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea. Caeanue inoaeenue io ai?iuo ?ac?aaioie
ioaaeu ionoie ii?iaeu — oa??eeiiu eee caeeoua aiaeie io?aaioaiiua
?oaeieee e ea?uea?u, i?aa?aoeaoeany a aeeaiieniua ica?a (iai?eia?,
Oaeueeia Eaiaiue iiae Nuna?oueth). Eia-aaea oaea ia/aoa ?aeoeueoeaaoeey
— ainnoaiiaeaiea eaiaeoaooia.

Iaeanoue ?aniieiaeaia a oia?aiiuo eeeiaoe/aneeo oe?ioao — iaaeaeo 62 e
56° n. o. Cia/eoaeueiia oaeaeaiea io Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia aeaeaao aa
eeeiao aieaa eiioeiaioaeueiui.

2. Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

Eeeiao iaeanoe oi?ie?oaony iiae aeeyieai ia?aiina aicaeooiuo iann n
caiaaea, ni noi?iiu Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia, e io/anoe iiae aeeyieai
nooiai aicaeooa, i?eiineiiai ec noaiae Eacaonoaia e oieiaeiiaiaicaeooa
ec A?eoeee.

O?aeueneea ai?u neoaeao aa?uea?ii aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey aicaeooiuo iann n
caiaaea ia ainoie, ii iie ia iaoatho i?iaeaeaeaieth aai n naaa?a ia tha
e n thaa ia naaa?. I?i?uau oieiaeiiai a?eoe/aneiai aicaeooa n naaa?a
aeaeatho ceiu no?iauie. Nooie e oaieue aicaeoo ec Eacaonoaia ceiie ianao
cia/eoaeueiia iioaieaiea, a eaoii aucuaaao ?aceia iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u
aicaeooa. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ceiu ia N?aaeiai O?aea iiiai nieioea, aao?u
ia neeueiua. Eaoii a?iciaua eeaie auaatho eeoue a ethea, aea e oi ia
/anoi.

3. Aiaeiua ?ano?nu Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

Aieueoay /anoue iaoeo ?ae ia/eiaaony a ai?ao. ?aee caiaaeiiai neeiia
(*oniaay, Nueaa, Ooa e eo i?eoiee) ioiinyony e aannaeio Aieae, a ?aee,
noaeathuea n ai? ia ainoie (Oaaaea n enoieaie Ninueaie e Eicueaie, Oo?a,
Iuoia, Enaoue e eo i?eoiee),— e aannaeio Iae. Naiua cia/eoaeueiua ?aee
iaeanoe — Oaaaea e Oo?a ia ainoiea, *oniaay — ia caiaaea. Ieoaiea ?ae
i?aeiouanoaaiii niaaiaia, io/anoe aeiaeaeaaia e a?oioiaia.

Ii/oe ia eaaeaeie ai?iie ?aea anoue caaiaeneea i?oaeu. A i?ioeii oe?iei,
eniieueciaaeanue iaoaie/aneay neea aiaeu. Aeey yoiai no?ieeenue ia ?aeao
ieioeiu, nicaeaaaeenue i?oaeu. Aeec i?oaeia oi?ie?iaaeenue ai?iaea. Ia
Iaeaa, Oaaeea, Enaoe auea nicaeaia oeaeay oeaii/ea oaeeo i?oaeia. Yoi
aucaaei eciaiaiea ?aaeeia ?ae: o ieioeiu iie ia?anoaee caia?caoue, ia
noaei aanaiiaai eaaeioiaea.

Oaia?ue ia iiiaeo ?aeao nicaeaiu iiaua aiaeio?aieeeua aeey
aiaeiniaaaeaiey ai?iaeia, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue — Aeaoa?eiao?aa
(Aie/e-oeineia e Aa?oiaiaea?ianeia ia ?. *oniaie, Iycaiao?ianeia ia ?.
Ooa).

A iaeanoe ian/eouaaaony ianeieueei ouny/ ica?. *aua anaai yoi iaaieueoea
aiaeiaiu. Iniiaiay ianna ica? — auaoea noa?eoeu, iie ?aniieaaathony a
aeieeiao ?ae, iniaaiii a iieiao Oaaaeu e Oo?u. Ai?iua ica?a aieaa
aeoaieea e aeeaiieniua. Iie nin?aaeioi/aiu ia thaa— a ie?anoiinoyo
Naa?aeeianea (Ayoneia, Oeoianeia, Oaaaooe, Enaoneia, Aaeoui, Oa?oao) e
ia naaa?a (Oaaoeueoaineea, Aa?oiaa, Naaoeia, Aieueoia e Iaeia
Eiynueieineea e ae?.).

Naiia aeoaieia ai?iia ica?i — Aacaeiiiia (ieiei 50 i), caoai — Naaoeia
(38 i), Oaaaooe (9 i); naiia aieueoia — Iaeuineee Ooiai — a aeieeia ?.
Iaeui, aai ieiuaaeue — 66,7 ea. ei. A aannaeia Oaaaeu nin?aaeioi/aiu e
ae?oaea cia/eoaeueiua ica?a — Aieueoie Aaaeeueneee Ooiai, ica?i Aieueoia
Eiae?a, Oaeoaineia e i?.

A aiaeiaiao aiaeeony ?aciiia?aciay ?uaa, aeeeeiaoece?iaaia iiaeao?a.
*anoue ica? aiaaoa nai?iiaeaauie a?ycyie e eiaao icaei?iaeoaeueiia
cia/aiea (iai?eia?, ica?i Iieoaaai).

Ieia?aeueiuo enoi/ieeia e eeth/ae a iaeanoe iaiiiai, eco/aiu iie
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ia aaca iaeioi?uo ec ieo i?aaieciaaiu eo?i?ou, n?aaee ieo
iaeaieaa ecaanoiu Ieaeiana?aeineee, Eo?uee, Iayi, Iaooiai.

4. ?anoeoaeueiue ie? Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

Aieueoay /anoue Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe ?aniieiaeaia a i?aaeaeao
oaieii-eaniie (oaaaeiie) ciiu, e oieueei aa thai-ainoi/iay e
thai-caiaaeiay ie?aeiu ioiinyony e eaninoaie.

A ai?ao oi?ioi au?aaeaia aunioiay iiyniinoue ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiiai
iie?iaa.

Aeaaiia aiaaonoai iaeanoe — eana — caieiatho 65 % aa ieiuaaee. Eana
eiatho aaaeiia aiaeiio?aiiia, ii/aicaueoiia, icaei?iaeoaeueiia e
eoeueoo?ii-ynoaoe/aneia cia/aiea. Ia?yaeo n oaeaie (aa ?aaieiiuie e
ai?iuie aa?eaioaie) ano?a/athony o/anoee oe?ieieenoaaiii-oaieiuo e
oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania (niaoaiiua eeiiai-aeiaua e aeoaiaua ia
thai-caiaaea, ayciaua — ia thai-ainoiea), a oaeaea niniiaua e
niniiai-aa?aciaua i?aaeeaninoaiiua ai?u a thai-ainoi/iii Cao?aeuea.

N?aaee oaieiuo eania iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu niniiaua: ia eo aeieth
i?eoiaeeony 40,3 % anae eaniie ieiuaaee. Niniiaua eana ia ainoi/iii
neeiia O?aea noi?ie?iaaeenue oaea a ia/aea iineaeaaeieeiaiai ia?eiaea (a
aieioeaia) e nouanoaotho ia iaiaa 10 000 eao. Aeueieee ninoaaeytho —
16,3 %, eaae?iaieee — 6,2, ieooa/e — 1,6, eenoaaiie/ieee — 0,2 %. N?aaee
eenoaaiiuo iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu aa?aciaua (30 %) e ineiiaua, (4,8%).
Aeiey oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eania i/aiue iaea — 0,6%.

Ii oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe i?ioiaeyo a?aieoeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey iaeioi?uo
ae?aaaniuo ?anoaiee – eaniia?aciaaoaeae: thaeiay — eaae?a neae?neiai,
naaa?iay — eeaia ino?ieenoiiai, ainoi/iay — aeoaa iaueiiaaiiiai, ayca e
eeueia. Aeaeaa ae?oaeo ia naaa? e ainoie i?iaeaeiooa a?aieoea eeiu
iaeeieenoiie.

Iniiaiie o?ii o?aeueneei ai?iicaaiaeneei oaieiui eanai iaianea caaioiaea
ae?aaaneiu aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa e aeayoaeueiinoe caaiaeia, ieioei,
iaeueieoe e ae?oaeo oicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae, iniaaiii aeey iieo/aiey
ae?aaaniiai oaey (any iaoaeeo?aey O?aea aieioue aei ia/aea iaoaai aaea
eniieueciaaea eiaiii ae?aaaniue oaieue). Nie?auaieth eania niinianoaiaae
ia?aaiae /anoe eaniuo oaiaeee a naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee, a oaeaea
eaniua iiaea?u. Aeaaea caaioiaea euea aeey ieaoaiey eaioae e
ecaioiaeaiey ii/aea — i?iiuneia, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia O?aea aei
?aaiethoeee,— cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeea caianu eeiu.

Oicyenoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea eana oaaee/eaaeinue ii ia?a ?inoa ianaeaiey
e ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ca iineaaeiea 250—300 eao ii/oe ana eana a
iaeanoe i?ieaeaiu nieioiuie ?oaeaie ia iaiaa aeaoo-o?ao ?ac, oae /oi ai
iiiaeo ianoao (aie?oa ai?iaeia e ?aai/eo iinaeeia a iniaaiiinoe)
niniiaua e ae?oaea oaieiua eana niaieeenue aa?aciauie, ineiiauie e
niniiai-aa?aciauie.

Ciia oaeae aeaeeony ia o?e iiaeciiu: naaa?ioth, n?aaeithth e thaeioth.

Naaa?iay oaeaa a ai?iie /anoe ?ani?ino?aiaia ia tha ii/oe aei
Eiiaeaeianeiai Eaiiy, ia ?aaieia e iae ioiineony aannaei aa?oieo oa/aiee
Iaeuia e Eicueau. Caeanue i?aiaeaaeatho eaae?iai-ieooiai-aeiaua eana. Ia
?aaieiao eana neeueii caaiei/aiu e /a?aaeothony n ianneaaie noaaiiauo
aa?oiauo aieio. Ano?a/athony e niniiaua eana. Ai?iay oaeaa auoa 800—900
i niaiyaony iaoe?ieei iiynii iaeeieanee ec aa?acu, eau, noeaieeiaie
oi?iu eaae?a, /a?aaeothueony n iaaieueoeie iieyiaie ieceio?aaiuo eoaia
(yoi iiyn iiaeaieueoeiaue), a iineaaeiea ia?aoiaeyo (auoa 1000—1100 i) a
ai?iua eaiaienoua (aieueoeiaua) ooiae?u. Caeanue ?ani?ino?aiaia
?anoeoaeueiinoue ioia, eeoaeieeia, ea?eeeiauo ea e aa?ac. Naiua aunieea
aa?oeiu ii/oe aieu — yoi oea?noai eaiaiiuo ?innuiae (iiyn oieiaeiuo
aieueoeiauo ionouiue).

Oaieiua eana n?aaeiaoaaaeiiai oeia ?ani?ino?aiaiu ii o?aaoo ia tha aei
aa?oiaueaa ?. Oo?u (thaeiaa ai?u Ea/eaia?). Caeanue i?iec?anoaao
aeiaieueii iaeiiia?aciay eaae?iai-ieooiai-aeiaay oaeaa, ano?a/athony
/enoua ai?iua eaae?iaieee. Caaiei/aiiinoue ai?iuo eania iaiiiai iaiueoa,
/ai ia ninaaeiae ?aaieia. N?aaeiyy oaeaa a caiaaeiineae?neie /anoe
iaeanoe caieiaao oeaio?aeueioth e naaa?ioth oa??eoi?ee Eiiaeeineie
ieciaiiinoe. Ooo i?aiaeaaeatho aeiai-ieooiaua eana, cia/eoaeueia
i?eianue aoi?e/iuo aa?aciauo e ineiiauo eania ia ianoao aa?ae e au?oaie.
1

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu aieioa eae noaaiiaua, oae e o?aayiua a ni/aoaiee n
caaiei/aiiuie eanaie (nia?aie, ?yiaie).

THaeiay oaeaa ?ani?ino?aiaia a ai?ao N?aaeiaai O?aea e ia ?aaieiao
Cao?aeuey. ?acei i?iyaeythony ?acee/ey a eanao caiaaeiiai e ainoi/iiai
neeiiia: ia caiaaea (I?aaeo?aeuea) i?aiaeaaeaao oaiiioaieiay oaeaa ec
ieoou e aee, ?aaea eaae?a. A aiaei?acaeaeueiie iieina, a i?aaeaeao
ainoi/iuo i?aaeai?ee e ia Cao?aeueneie aicauoaiiinoe iniiao
?anoeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeytho niniiaua eana ?aciuo oeiia, i?aeiouanoaaiii
o?aayiua. A eonoa?ieeiaii y?ona yoeo eania ia?aaeei ano?a/aaony eeia.
I/aiue iiiai aoi?e/iuo eania — aa?acieeia e ineiieeia. Ia ?aaieiao
Cao?aeuey thaeiay oaeaa aieaa eee iaiaa caaiei/aia.

A Cao?aeuea i?e aeaeaeaiee ia tha oaeaa onooiaao ianoi i?aaeeaninoaiiui
niniiaui ai?ai, eioi?ua a ioee/ea io thaeiioaaaeiuo cia/eoaeueii
inoaiiaiu. Iinoaiaiii e iie en/acatho, onooiay ianoi aa?aciaui e
ineiiaui eieeai. A iaaeaeo?a/uea Ieoea — Iuoia — Enaoue eania iaei,
caeanue iaoe?iua iaoioiua caiee.

Ia thai-caiaaea iaeanoe ai?iay thaeiay oaeaa nii?eeanaaony n ?aeiiii
?acaeoey oe?ieieenoaaiii-oaieiuo e iaaieueoeo o/anoeia oe?ieieenoaaiiuo
eania (Oaeeineee, A?oeineee, Ieaeiana?aeineee ?aeiiu) ec aee, ieoou,
eeiu, eeaia, ayca, ?aaea — aeoaa. Iniaiyeii noiyo eaiaeoaoou
E?aniiooeineie eaninoaie I?aaeo?aeuey.

A aeieeiao ai?iuo e iniaaiii ?aaieiiuo ?ae ?ani?ino?aiaiu eoaa. A ai?ao
iie oyioony eeoue oceeie iieineaie, ii ia ?aaieiao ianoaie oi?ioi
nio?aieeenue, caieiay aieueooth ieiuaaeue ii ?aeai Oaaaea, Oo?a e eo
i?eoieai.

Caeeaiua eoaa a iieiao ?ae iau/ii eniieuecothony iiae naiieinu,
nooiaeieueiua — eae ianoaeua.

5. AEeaioiue ie? Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe.

AEeaioiue ie? iaeanoe neaai ioee/aaony io ninaaeieo ?aaiei. Caeanue
ano?a/athony eae aa?iiaeneea (ii?ea aa?iiaeneay, /a?iue oi?ue, ?a/iie
aia?, oaiiiciaue ae?icae), oae e aceaoneea aeaeu (neae?neay einoey,
na?ay eo?iiaoea), a oaeaea aeaeu, eiathuea aieaa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea,— aa?iaceaoneea (einue, ?iniiaoa, ao?oiaeoe, eaniay
eoieoea e i?.). Ii oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe i?ioiaeyo thaeiua a?aieoeu
?ani?ino?aiaiey naaa?iiai ieaiy (aeeeiai), ?iniiaoe, niaiey, eaniie
eoieoeu, auae?u, ao?oiaeoea, aony-aoiaiieea, oaiiiciaiai ae?icaea;
naaa?iua a?aieoeu ii?ee aa?iiaeneie, caeoea-?onaea, aieueoiai noneeea,
noaiiiai oi?y, i?uoeie yua?eoeu; naaa?iay e caiaaeiay a?aieoeu einoee
neae?neie e na?ie eo?iiaoee, a oaeaea ainoi/iay a?aieoea /a?iiai
oi?y.

I?aiaeaaeatho iaeoaoaee oaeae: einue, ao?ue iaaeaaaeue, ?unue, aiee,
eoieoea e niaieue, eeneoea e?aniay, aaeea e ae?. Eeoue ia thai-caiaaea e
thai-ainoiea aiaeyony aeeaioiua, iau/iua aeey noaiiie e eaninoaiiie cii:
einoey neae?neay, aieueoie, iaeue e ?uaeaaaoue noneeee, oiiy/ie
Yaa?niaiia noaiiay iuoiaea, no?ie, cayoe-?onae, na?ay eo?iiaoea,
ionoaeueaa, ia?aiae e ae?.

E?iia ianoiuo anoue e aeeeeiaoece?iaaiiua aeaeu: aia?eeaineay ioneoniay
e?una — iiaeao?a, ii?ea aia?eeaineay. I?iaiaeeony aeeeeiaoecaoeey
ia?aea, iyoienoiai ieaiy, a a naiia iineaaeiaa a?aiy — eaaaia. Aaaeaony
?aaioa ii ?aaeeeeiaoecaoeee, o. a. ii ainnoaiiaeaieth a iaeanoe aueiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey (iai?eia?, ?a/iiai aia?a).

*eneaiiinoue aeeaioiuo aiae io aiaea iaiyaony, /oi naycaii n eo
ei/aaeaie, eciaiaieai caiania ei?iia, iiaiaeiuo oneiaee e i?. Ii
n?aaiaieth n i?ioeuie aaeaie aeeaioiue ie? O?aea e Cao?aeuey ineoaeae.
?ino ianaeaiey, ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oeuie/aneia eno?aaeaiea eania e
aeeaioiuo a noa?ie ?innee e ae?oaea i?e/eiu i?eaaee ia oieueei e
oiaiueoaieth /eneaiiinoe iiiaeo aeaeia, ii e e nie?auaieth iaeanoe eo
?ani?ino?aiaiey. Iai?eia?, aeeeee, naaa?iue ieaiue a XVII e ia?aie
iieiaeia XVIII aa. aue ?ani?ino?aiai io ooiae?u ia naaa?a aei thaeiie
ieiia/iinoe O?aeueneeo ai?. Ca iineaaeiea 100 eao oieueei a i?aaeaeao
iaoae iaeanoe thaeiay a?aieoea nianoeeanue n 56° n. o. (ie?anoiinoe a.
Iieaaneiai) aei 59°30’—60° n. o. (o. a. i?eia?ii ia 400 ei). Ia naaa?a
iaeanoe iiaeii ano?aoeoue eae aeeeeo, oae e iaeiiaoiaiiuo ieaiae
Ieaiaaiae/aneea oicyenoaa anoue a aini?iioicao Eaaeaaeueneii e
Aa?eineii.

A niaaoneia a?aiy auee i?eiyou ia?u ii io?aia e aiciaiiaeaieth ?aaeeeo
aeaeia aeeaioiuo. *eneaiiinoue iiiaeo ec ieo ainnoaiiaeaia, iaeanoue
?ani?ino?aiaiey ?anoe?aia, a ii niaieth aeinoeaea i?aaeieo ?acia?ia.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey eioaineaiay ?oaea eania, i?eiaiaiea
yaeioeieeaoia, no?ieoaeuenoai ieioei ia ?aeao aucaaee oooaeoaiea oneiaee
iaeoaiey iiiaeo aeeaioiuo, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeia eo io?aia.

A iaeanoe iao i?aaenoaaeoaeae ieaeiieoathueo, eioi?ua auee au aianaiu a
E?anioth eieao ?innee eee E?anioth eieao INII. Ii iaeioi?ua aeaeu ioeoe
oai oaea i?aaenoaaeaiu. Yoi i?eu — aa?eoo e iiaeeueiee, i?eai-aaeioaino,
neiia, nieie-nainai, e?aniiciaay eaca?ea (iineaaeiyy a iaeanoe auaaao
oieueei ia i?ieaoa, aea e oi ia naaa?a). Eae e aacaea a no?aia, ioioa a
iaeanoe ?aaoee?oaony iniauie i?aaeeaie, ooaa?aeaeaiiuie niaoeeaeueiuie
?aoaieyie Naa?aeeianeiai iaeeniieeiia. Aaaaeaiu eeoeaiceiiiue iono?ae
einy, einoee, ao?iai iaaeaaaey, niaiey e eoieoeu, auae?u, aia?a; ii
iniaui ?ac?aoaieyi iono?aeeaatho iiaeao?o e aa?noea. Ia ?aaeeea aeaeu,
oaeea, eae naaa?iue ieaiue, eaaaaeue-eeeeoi, aeo?aaeue na?ue, na?ay e
aaeay eo?iiaoee, auiue, aea?aiee, /aaeie, eia/ee, ia?aiae, ionoaeueaa e
ia anao iaeeeo iaa/eo ioeoe ioioa iieiinoueth cai?auaia.

Aaaeouoth ?ieue a io?aia e aini?iecaiaenoaa aeeeeo aeeaioiuo ea?atho
ioioie/uee caeacieee. Iie aeaenoaotho ia?yaeo n ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
eiiia?aoeaiuie i?iiuneiauie e nii?oeaiuie ioioie/ueeie oicyenoaaie.

6. Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Eaionoei A. A., Ei?iaa E. I., «Aaia?aoey Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe»
(o/aaiia iiniaea). Aeaoa?eiao?a: «N?aaeia-o?aeueneia eieaeiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai», 1996a.

2. A?oeiiaa I. I., «Caiiaaaeiua ianoa Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe». –
Naa?aeeiane: N?aaeia-o?aeueneia eieaeiia ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1984a.

3. Iaoaaaa A. E., «Aaia?aoe/aneea iacaaiey O?aea». Naa?aeeiane:
N?aaeia-O?aeueneia eieaeiia ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1993 a.

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