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Государство Ватикан

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Aaoeeai, ainoaea?noai-ai?iae Aaoeeai, iacaaeneiia ainoaea?noai,
nicaeaiiia ii Eaoa?aineei niaeaoaieyi (eiiei?aeaoo) iaaeaeo
?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth e eoaeueyineei ainoaea?noaii io 11
oaa?aey 1929. ?aniieiaeai a caiaaeiie /anoe ?eia ia i?aaii aa?aao
?.Oea?. Ianoii?aauaaiea aunoeo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey ?einei-eaoiee/aneie
oea?eiaueth. Caeanue iaoiaeyony niai? na. Iao?a e Aaoeeaineea aeai?oeu n
iocayie e aeaeeioaeie, aaeieieno?aoeaiua caeaiey, oea?eae, aeeeua aeiia,
aeai?u e naaeu. Aaoeeai – naiia iaeaiueeia ainoaea?noai ie?a. Aai
ieiuaaeue 0,44 ea. ei. Ianaeaiea (ie. 1000 /aeiaae) iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueii,
i?aiaeaaeatho eoaeueyioeu e oaaeoea?oeu.

Aaoeeai eiaao naiua oaniua nayce n Eoaeeae, /a?ac eioi?oth i?ioiaeeo
iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea ainoaea?noaa-ai?iaea e iioie iinaoeoaeae.
Aeaooeieaeiay aeaeaciiaei?iaeiay aaoea i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 275 i naycuaaao
Aaoeeai n naoueth eoaeueyineeo aeaeaciuo aei?ia. A 1932 aue ioe?uo
ioaeaeaiiue i?aii?ii aiecae. Aaoeeai eiaao nianoaaiioth eiinoeoooeeth,
aa?a, oeaa e ae?oaea neiaieu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Ii /aeaieo
nianoaaiioth iiiaoo, eiaao naith ii/oiaoth naycue e naith
?aaeeinoaioeeth. A Aaoeeaia ecaeaaony aaeaaeiaaiay aacaoa «Inna?aaoi?a
?iiaii», a oaeaea iiiaeanoai eiea, i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aeeaeiciiai
niaea?aeaiey.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai

Aa?oiaiay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay, eniieieoaeueiay e noaeaaiay aeanoue a
Aaoeeaia i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaia. N 1978 ii 2005 iaia (ioeoeeaeueii 264-e) –
Eiaii Iaaae II (a ie?o Ea?ieue Aieouea). ?iaeeeny a 1920 a Aaaeiaeoea
(Iieueoa), eco/ae iieueneoth oeeieiaeth e oaao?iaaaeaiea, ?aaioae
aeoa?ii. N 1942 eco/ae oaieiaeth ia iiaeiieueiuo naieia?ao a
ieeoie?iaaiiie aa?iaineeie aieneaie Iieueoa, caoai – a ?eia. A 1946 noae
nayuaiieeii a Iieueoa, iinea 1953 i?aiiaeaaae a Eaoiee/aneii
oieaa?neoaoa a Ethaeeia, a 1964 noae a?oeaieneiiii E?aeiaa, a 1967 –
ea?aeeiaeii. Iinea nia?oe iaiu Eiaiia Iaaea I aue eca?ai iaiie, noaa,
oaeei ia?acii, ia?aui iaeoaeueyioeai n 1523, caiyaoei yoio iino.

Ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n eaoiee/aneie oea?eae i?e iaia Eiaiia Iaaea II aue
iai?aaeai ia nio?aiaiea iniiaiuo oea?eiaiuo o?aaeeoeee i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiie ino?iaeiie iiaea?iecaoeee iiceoeee ii ?yaeo aii?inia.

Ie?iaini?eyoea iuiaoiaai iaiu iaoei iaeaieaa iieiia io?aaeaiea a
thaeeaeiie yioeeeeeea Oeaean e ?aoeei (Aa?a e ?acoi), eioi?oth ii
auionoee a 1998 e aeaaaeoeaoeeaoeth naiaai i?aauaaiey ia Nayoii
i?anoiea. Eiaii Iaaae II i?iaicaeanee, /oi ?acoi e aa?a aeieaeiu eaeoe
?oea ia ?oeo «a iieneao enoeiu», aac eioi?ie «iao naiaiaeu». N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iaia ianoaeaae ia nio?aiaiee ca Nayoui i?anoieii aunoaai
aaoi?eoaoa a aii?inao aa?u e iiaeaa?aae e?eoeea ana ?aoi?iaoi?neea
oa/aiey, a oii /enea e aioo?e eaoiee/aneie oea?eae (a oii /enea
«oaieiaeth inaiaiaeaeaiey»).

Neiaiee/aneia cia/aiea eiaee oaeea cayaeaiey, eae ?aaaeeeoaoeey
eoaeueyineiai o/aiiai 17 a. Aaeeeai Aaeeeay e iieayiea a nayce ni Nayoui
aiaeii. Aaeeeay eieaeceoeey i?aneaaeiaaea ca ooaa?aeaeaiey i oii, /oi
Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa Nieioea. A iiya?a 1992 iaia i?eciae, /oi
oea?eiaue ioeaaeanue a «o?aae/aneii acaeiiii iaiiieiaiee». A yiaa?a 2000
Eiaii Iaaae II a nayce n ia/aeii Nayoiai aiaea aunooiee n cayaeaieai Iaa
eoeueia (Iiy aeia), a eioi?ii iii?inee o aiaa e ethaeae i?iuaiey ca
ioeaee e oiouaiey, aeiiouaiiua oea?eiaueth a i?ioeii. A iniiao yoie
aeaeea?aoeee eaa aeieoiaio Caauoue e i?eie?eoueny, ?ac?aaioaiiue iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaenaaeaoaey eiia?aaaoeee ii aii?inai aa?u ea?aeeiaea
Eicaoa ?aooeeiaa?a. A iai n niaeaeaieai aiai?eeinue i iaoa?ieiinoe e
ianeeee a ioiioaiee eiaeiiuneyueo, ?aeeaeiciuo aieiao e e?anoiauo
iioiaeao, «a?aaeaeaaiinoe e iaaeiaa?ee iiiaeo o?enoeai a ioiioaiee
aa?aaa». Cayaeaiea Iaa eoeueia auei aini?eiyoi iauanoaaiiinoueth eae
enoi?e/aneia; i?anna oa?aeoa?eciaaea aai eae naiia cia/eoaeueiia niauoea
iiioeoeeaoa Eiaiia Iaaea II. Aunooiay a 2000 a Ea?onaeeia, iaia caaa?ee
aa?aeneee ia?iae, /oi eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue «aeoai/aeoa niaeaeaao a
nayce n iaiaaenoueth, i?aneaaeiaaieyie e aioenaieoneeie aeoaie,
eiaaea-eeai e aaea-eeai niaa?oaiiuie o?enoeaiaie a ioiioaiee aa?aaa».

Aaoeeai i?iaeieaeae ?acaeaaoue nioeeaeueioth aeieo?eio
?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Ii n/eoaao iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/
ai?ueao n aaaeiinoueth. A 1991 ia i?acaeiiaaiee noieaoey ni aeiy
ecaeaiey yioeeeeeee ?a?oi iiaa?oi, iinayuaiiie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeea,
iaia i?ecaae ieacaoue iiiiuue e iiaeaea?aeeo ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai.
Iiaay yioeeeeeea ii yoiio aii?ino Oeaioaneion aiion iiaeoaa?aeeea
nioeeaeueioth i?eaioaoeeth eaoieeoeecia. A i?iiiaaaeyo, ?a/ao e
aunooieaieyo a ?acee/iuo no?aiao e ii ?aciui iiaiaeai iaia inoaeaeae
nioeeaeueioth iani?aaaaeeeainoue, aac?aaioeoeo e yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio,
ii?iaeaeathuoth ieuaoo. Aunooiay ia?aae Aaia?aeueiie annaiaeaae III a
1995, ii iaiiiiee ainoaea?noaai i aoiaiiinoe e i?ecaae eo e iiiiue
aaaeiui a ie?a, e ai?ueaa i?ioea iaoeeiiaeecia, aieiu e ianeeey.

A oi aea naiia a?aiy Eiaii Iaaae II i?ioeaeony ethaiio ia?aniio?o
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iaaaoeaiiai ioiioaiey ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e
i?aaeinoaaeaieth aeaiueiai i?aaa auoue nayuaiieeaie, i?aaa ia aai?o, e
ioiaia cai?aoa aeey eaoiee/aneeo nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae ia anooieaiea a
a?ae, e eiio?ieth iaae ?iaeaeaaiinoueth e o.ae. Oaeeo eciaiaiee
ianoie/eai o?aaotho noi?iiieee ?aoi?i, a oii /enea a naiie oea?eae, a
oaeaea aeaineea i?aaiecaoeee e o.ae.

Iaineay yioeeeeeea Aa?eoaoen nieaiaei? (Neyiea enoeiu, 1993) iaycuaaea
aieneiiia a aii?inao aa?u e ii?aee eceaaaoue niaea?aeaiea o/aiey
oea?eae. Ionooieaiey inoaeaeaeenue ei eae «yoe/aneee ?aeyoeaeci».

Ia Ainueiii ?aaoey?iii neiiaea aieneiiia a 1990 auei aia?aua ioe?uoi
iinoaaeaii iiae aii?in nio?aiaiea oeaeeaaoa – aaca?a/ey eaoiee/aneeo
nayuaiieeia. Iaeiaei a 1992 iaia iiaeoaa?aeee a aiinoieueneii iineaiee,
/oi iooiaea io yoie ii?iu ia aoaeao. Aua ?ac ia yoii ii cayaee a
iineaiee ei anai nayuaiieeai a ai?aea 1995.

Iiaue eaoaoecen eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, ecaeaiiue a 1992 acaiai noa?iai
(1566) neaaeiaae eeiee II Aaoeeaineiai niai?a (1962–1965). Ii nio?aiye
oeaeeaao e i?iaicaeaoae «caueoo /aeiaa/aneie aeecie n iiiaioa ca/aoey»,
oi anoue ii-i?aaeiaio io?eoeae i?aai ia aai?o. Aaoeeai inoaeaeaao oaeaea
i?aaeio?aiaiea io aa?aiaiiinoe. Iineaaeiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa aucuaatho a
aae?an eaoiee/aneie oea?eae iaeeaeaiioth e?eoeeo ni noi?iiu iiiaeo
aeaineeo i?aaiecaoeee e ?acaeaathueony no?ai. Ii Aaoeeai ia eciaiee naia
ioiioaiea e aeaiiui aii?inai, /oi auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, a /anoiinoe a
iaineii Iineaiee e naiueyi (1994). A aiinoieueneii iineaiee I?aeeiaoei
naea?aeioaeen (1994) Eiaii Iaaae II ieii/aoaeueii eneeth/ee
aiciiaeiinoue ?oeiiieiaeaiey aeaiuei a nayuaiieee. A Iineaiee e
aeaiueiai (1995) iaia iiaeaa?a e?eoeea aeene?eieiaoeeth aeaiuei, ii
iiaeoaa?aeee eo iaaeiiouaiea e naio nayuaiieeia.

A yioeeeeeea Yaaiaaeeoi aeoy (Aaaiaaeea aeecie, 1995) iaia i?e/eneee
aai?o e i?yiiio e aeia?iaieueiiio oaeenoao iaaeiiuo ethaeae. Ii i?ecaae
e ?acaeoeth iiaie «eoeueoo?u aeecie» e e i?ioeainoiyieth anai caeiiai,
iai?aaeaiiui i?ioea aeecie. I?iaeaio ia?aianaeaiey, iniaaiii a no?aiao
«O?aoueaai ie?a», neaaeoao, ii iiaieth iaiu, ?aoaoue n iiiiuueth
na?ueaciie naiaeiie e nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, nicaeaiey ii?iaeueiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, naieoa?ii-iaaeeoeeineeo, eoeueoo?iuo
oneiaee e aieaa ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia, a ia iooai
aiaae?aiey i?ia?aii eiio?iey iaae ?iaeaeaaiinoueth, i?ioeaica/aoi/iuo
n?aaenoa, noa?eeecaoeee e aai?oia. A 1999 iaia cai?aoee eaoiee/aneei
einoaioeeyi Aa?iaiee auaeaaaoue ni?aaee, eioi?ua iiaee naieoeeiie?iaaoue
aai?ou.

Aei 1996 aeaenoaiaaee ii?iu, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie iaio ecae?aei ia
iiaeeciaiiue n?ie niaoeeaeueiia nia?aiea ea?aeeiaeia – eiieeaa. N 1971 a
auai?ao iaiu iiaee o/anoaiaaoue eeoue ea?aeeiaeu iieiaea 80 eao (e
eiioeo 1990-o aiaeia – 123 /aeiaaea). Iiaay aiinoieueneay eiinoeoooeey
1996 Oieaa?ne aeiieie a?aaen (Ei anae ianoaa aiaeueae) eciaiyea
i?ioeaaeo?o auai?ia iaiu. Ioiaiyeny i?eioeei eca?aiey niaoeeaeueiuie
aeaeaae?iaaiiuie ea?aeeiaeaie – «ecae?aoaeyie». Aeey eca?aiey iaiu a
eieeaaee ea?aeeiaeia (eiinenoi?ee) o?aaoaony oaia?ue aeaa o?aoe aieinia;
anee a oa/aiee 30 oo?ia aua?aoue iaio ia oaeanony, iiaeao auoue aaaaeaia
ae?oaay i?ioeaaeo?a aieiniaaiey.

A neo/aa ionoonoaey eee nia?oe iaiu oaeoueie aeaeaie oea?eae e Aaoeeaia
a?aiaiii ?oeiaiaeeo eaia?eaia Nayoie ?eineie oea?eae.

Aunoea eiinoeueoaoeaiua i?aaiu – Anaeaineee niai?, eieeaaey ea?aeeiaeia
e aieneiineee neiiae. I?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai ?aeeaeiciie,
iieeoe/aneie e oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth Aaoeeaia nin?aaeioi/aii a
?eineie eo?ee. Niaeanii Aiinoiee/aneei eiinoeoooeeyi ?aaeieie yeeeaney e
oieaa?ny (1968) e Ianoi? Aiion (1989), aaeieieno?aoeey eaoiee/aneie
oea?eae e Aaoeeaia ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo aaaeiinoa. Eniieiaieai ?aoaiee
iaiu e eii?aeeiaoeeae aeayoaeueiinoe ?eineie eo?ee caieiaaony
Ainoaea?noaaiiue nae?aoa?eao. Aai aeaaa – ainoaea?noaaiiiio nae?aoa?th –
i?aaeinoaaeaiu ana iieiiii/ey a iaeanoe naaoneiai noaa?aieoaoa;
oaeoe/anee ii eniieiyao iaycaiiinoe i?aiuea?-ieieno?a. N 1991
ainoaea?noaaiiue nae?aoa?ue – ea?aeeiae Aiaeaeaei Niaeaii. ?iaeeaoeeny a
1927 a Naaa?iie Eoaeee, ii noae nayuaiieeii a 1950, a 1978 ?oeiiieiaeai
a aieneiiu. A 1980-o aiaeao – iaineee iinie (ioioeee) a *eee, n 1988 aue
nae?aoa?ai ii ioiioaieyi n ainoaea?noaaie (ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae)
Aaoeeaia. A ninoaaa Ainoaea?noaaiiiai nae?aoa?eaoa aeaenoaotho, a
/anoiinoe, naeoeee ii iauei aii?inai (aioo?aiiei aeaeai) e ii naycyi n
ainoaea?noaaie (eiino?aiiui aeaeai).

Ae?oaea i?aaiu eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e Aaoeeaia: aeaayoue eiia?aaaoeee,
eee aeeeanoa?ee (ieienoa?noa), a oii /enea ii aii?inai aa?io/aiey; 11
iaineeo eiiennee; ath?i; Aiinoieueneay aeaeeioaea e i?i/ea o/?aaeaeaiey.
TH?eaee/aneea einoaioeee – Aunoee oea?eiaiue noae, Aunoee o?eaoiae
Aiinoieueneiai noaea e ianoiue o?eaoiae. Ii?yaeie iiaeaea?aeeaaao
iaineay aaa?aeey, ninoiyuay ec oaaeoea?neeo aaa?aeaeoeaa.

Enoi?ey

Naaoneea aeaaeaiey iaiu a Eoaeee aicieeee a 8 aaea, eiaaea o?aieneee
ei?ieue Ieiei iiaea?ee iaia Noaoaio II ?ei e ?yae i?iaeioeee
Oeaio?aeueiie /anoe no?aiu. A 1870 aienea Eoaeueyineiai ei?ieaanoaa
caiyee ?ei e eeoeee iaio naaoneie aeanoe. Eiioeeeo iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii Eoaeee e eaoiee/aneei Nayoui i?anoieii i?iaeieaeaeny aei
1929, eiaaea iaaeaeo noi?iiaie aue iiaeienai eiiei?aeao (Eaoa?aineea
niaeaoaiey). Niaeanii ei, Aaoeeai i?eciaaaeny noaa?aiiui ainoaea?noaii,
Eoaeey auiea/eaaea Aaoeeaio aaeaaiaeioth aeaiaaeioth eiiiainaoeeth, a
eaoieeoeeci i?eciaaaeny ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae Eoaeee. Iiaue
eiiei?aeao 1984 iiaeoaa?aeee noaa?aiiinoue Aaoeeaia, ii ioeoeeaeueii
i?aaeinoaaee eoaeueyioeai naiaiaeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiey.

A iaeanoe aioo?aiiae aeecie aeanoe Aaoeeaia i?iaiaeyo aeanoeoth
iieeoeeo. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi eeoue a ieoya?a 1993, iinea aeanyoeeaoiaai
nii?a iaia i?eciae i?ionithc naaoneeo neoaeaueo e ?aaioieeia. N ieoya?y
1995 ana 2500 ?aaioieeia Aaoeeaia aeieaeiu auee iiae/eiyoueny iiaui
neoaeaaiui eino?oeoeeyi, eioi?ua aeeth/aee «aa?iinoue iaia», ioeac io
?acaiaeia e aai?oia.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeeyiea Aaoeeaia iie?aaony ia ia?iiiia /enei aa?othueo
eaoieeeia (ieiei 800 iei.), iiue iiiaoaneeo i?aeaiia e naaoneeo
eaoiee/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. Ni a?aiaie naiaai anooieaiey ia i?anoie iaia
Eiaii Iaaae II niaa?oee aieaa 100 ca?oaaaeiuo iiacaeie – iaeiiie/anoa,
iinaoea iiiaeanoai no?ai ia anao eiioeiaioao. A oiaea yoeo aeceoia ii ia
oieueei ano?a/aeny n aa?othueie, caieiaeny oea?eiaiuie aeaeaie,
eaiiiece?iaae nayouo e o.ae., ii aanaaeiaae n aaaeoueie iieeoeeaie no?ai
ie?a, ianoaeaeae n ieie aeeaio?aiauouea aii?inu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeecie.

E eiioeo 20 a. Aaoeeai iiaeaea?aeeaae aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey ni 168
no?aiaie ie?a, a eioi?uo ii i?aaenoaaeai iaineeie iineaie (ioioeeyie). A
ia/aea 1990-o Aaoeeai onoaiiaee aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey ni no?aiaie
Ainoi/iie e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu, eioi?ua ?aiaa iaoiaeeeenue iiae
oi?aaeaieai eiiioienoe/aneeo ia?oee, a oaeaea n ?yaeii ainoaea?noa
auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Aaoeeai aeoeaii aunooiaao ca nio?aiaiea ie?a e o?aaoee?iaaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioeeeoia. A 1991 ii i?aaeinoa?aaae io aieiu a
Ia?neaeneii caeeaa. Eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ea?aea aeaeioth ?ieue a
i?ae?auaiee a?aaeaeaineeo aiei a Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eea. Ai a?aiy
iiacaeie a yoio ?aaeii iaia i?ecuaae e i?ae?auaieth a?aaeaeaineie aieiu
a Aaaoaiaea, i?eie?aieth a Ieea?aaoa, ooaa?aeaeaieth «iiaie eoeueoo?u
nieeaea?iinoe e ethaae».

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyao Aaoeeai aeinoeaeaieth o?aaoee?iaaiey ia
Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. Aei 1994 iaineia ainoaea?noai ia iiaeaea?aeeaaei
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee n Ec?aeeai, ia i?eciaaay a?aieoeu
Ec?aeeueneiai ainoaea?noaa, a Ea?onaeei – aai noieeoeae. Oieueei a
1993–1994 iaa ainoaea?noaa aeiaiai?eeenue i acaeiiii i?eciaiee e
iaycaeenue aanoe ai?ueao ni anaie oi?iaie aioenaieoecia, ?anecia e
?aeeaeiciie iaoa?ieiinoe; Ec?aeeue iiiaauae io?aiyoue o?enoeaineea
nayouie, niaethaeaoue i?aaa /aeiaaea, naiaiaeo niaanoe e
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey. A 1994 Aaoeeai onoaiiaee ioeoeeaeueiua ioiioaiey n
I?aaiecaoeeae inaiaiaeaeaiey Iaeanoeiu.

A 2003 Aaoeeai inoaeee aia?eeaii-aiaeeeneia aiaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a
E?aea, aunooiea ca ie?iia ?aoaiea eiioeeeoa.

Aaoeeai i?eaioe?oaony ia oeo/oaiea ioiioaiee n ae?oaeie
aa?ieniiaaaeaieyie. Aiinoieueneia iineaiea iaiu I?eaioaea eoiai (Naao n
Ainoiea, 1995) i?ecaaei e aeeaeiao n ainoi/iuie o?enoeaineeie oea?eayie,
a oii /enea n i?aaineaaiuie. I?e yoii eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue i?eciaea
naith aeieth ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?aneie 1054 iaaeaeo eaoieeeaie e
i?aaineaaiuie. A ecaeaiiie a oii aea aiaeo yioeeeeeea Oo oioi neio
(Ionoue iie noaioo aaeeiuie) iaia aunooiee ca aaeeinoai o?enoeai, ii
ii-i?aaeiaio ianoaeaae ia oii, /oi eiaiii eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue neoaeeo
aiieiuaieai oea?eae O?enoa. A ethia 1995 iaia e eiinoaioeiiiieueneee
iao?ea?o ianoaeeee i?iaeaiu iaaeoea?eiaiiai aeeaeiaa e i?iaaee
niaianoioth neoaeao a niai?a Nayoiai Iao?a a Aaoeeaia. A 1999
i?aaenoaaeoaee eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e Anaie?iiai nithca ethoa?ai iinea
o?eaeoeaoeeaoiaai aeeaeiaa iiaeienaee Niaianoiia cayaeaiea ia o/aiee ia
ii?aaaeaiee, o?aaoee?iaaa oai naiui nii?, eioi?ue aieaa 450 eao iacaae
noae i?e/eiie oea?eiaiiai ?aneiea a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

N aeaeaa?y 1991 Aaoeeai iiaeaea?aeeaaao ioeoeeaeueiua ioiioaiey n
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeeae. Iaeiaei eo ?acaeoea naea?aeeaaaony na?ueaciuie
?aciiaeaneyie iaaeaeo ?einei-eaoiee/aneie e ?onneie i?aaineaaiie
oea?eayie. ?IOe iaaeiyao eaoiee/aneoth oea?eiaue a i?eaea/aiee e naaa
aa?othueo a ?aaeiia, eioi?ue Iineianeay iao?ea?oey n/eoaao naiae
«eaiiie/aneie oa??eoi?eae». Caieaie?iaaiiay ia 1997 ano?a/a iaiu n
iao?ea?oii ?onneie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae Aeaeneai II (ia?aay ni a?aiaie
?aneiea a 1054) ia ninoiyeanue. Neiiae ?IOe ioiaiee aa ec-ca ?aciiaeanee
ii aii?ino i i?eaea/aiee aa?othueo. A 1998 iao?ea?o ioeoeeaeueii cayaee,
/oi ano?a/a n iaiie i?iecieaeao oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee «Aaoeeai
i?iaeaiiino?e?oao oaa?aeoth aieth iieii/eoue n aa?anneae oieaoia»
(oea?eaae, aunooiathueo ca iauaaeeiaiea iiae aeaaainoaii Aaoeeaia). A
naith i/a?aaeue, Aaoeeai ia i?eciaao i?eoycaiee ?IOe ia
eneeth/eoaeueiinoue ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Iaaeiaieuenoai Aaoeeaia aucaae iiaue caeii i ?aeeaee, i?eiyoue a ?innee
a 1997. Niaeanii aai iieiaeaieyi, eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ia oa??eoi?ee
?O iieuecoaony i?eciaiiui i?aaiaui noaoonii, ii ia eiaao oao eueaio e
i?eaeeaaee, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeaiu ?IOe.

A?oeoaeoo?a

Iaineay ?aceaeaioeey a Aaoeeaia, iaoiaeeaoayny ii ninaaenoao ni noa?ui
niai?ii na. Iao?a, auea aicaaaeaia i?e iaia Neiiaoa (498–514).
Ioeoeeaeueiie ?aceaeaioeeae a N?aaeiea aaea aue Eaoa?aineee aeai?aoe, e
oieueei a eiioea 14 a. iaiu ieii/aoaeueii ia?anaeeeenue a Aaoeeai. A
1450 iaia Ieeieae V auaeaeioe eaeath i no?ieoaeuenoaa aieueoiai iaineiai
aeai?oea iaiin?aaenoaaiii e naaa?o io niai?a na. Iao?a, aeey /aai
iineaaeiee i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia?aianoeoue. Iaeiaei iaia oia?, ia
aeiaeaeaaoenue ?aaeecaoeee yoiai caiunea. A 1473 i?e iaia Neenoa IV auea
aicaaaeaia Neenoeineay eaiaeea, a i?e aai i?aaiieea Eiiieaioee VIII a
naaa?iie /anoe Aaoeeaia aue nii?oaeai aoi?ie aeai?aoe, iaiueoeo
?acia?ia.

Aeoeaiia no?ieoaeuenoai ?acaa?ioeinue i?e iaia THeee II (1503–1513) –
aeaeiii aeayoaea yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. Ii i?iaeoo aai aeaaiiai
a?oeoaeoi?a A?aiaioa, iiaue niai? na. Iao?a aeieaeai aue i?aaenoaaeyoue
a ieaia a?a/aneee e?ano e caaa?oaoueny ia?iiiui eoiieii. Aiineaaenoaee
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei caiiai ni?iaeoe?iaae e iino?iee eoiie. A?aiaioa nicaeae
eiiiiceoeeth Aaeueaaaea?a – aeaa aeeeiiuo ia?aeeaeueii eaeoueo e?uea,
naycuaaaoeo aeai?oeu iai Ieeieay V e Eiiieaioey VO e caaa?oaaoeony
ieoae. Yoio i?iaeo, aue iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaai eeoue a eiioea 16 a., e a
?acoeueoaoa auee iauaaeeiaiu ?aiaa ?aciauaiiua no?iaiey.

I?aaiiee THeey II iaia Eaa O (1513–1521) ii?o/ee A?aiaioa iino?ieoue
eiaeaeee – e?uoua aioo?aiiea aeai?eee, iuia ecaanoiua iiae iacaaieai
Eiaeaeee ?aoayey. Iie i?eiueatho e aeaaiiio aeai?oeo n ainoi/iie
noi?iiu. Caoai i?e Iaaea III (1543–1549) auea i?eno?iaia eaiaeea Iaaea
ii i?iaeoo ecaanoiiai a?oeoaeoi?a Aioiiei aea Naiaaeei. Oai iaoiaeyony
iineaaeiea e?oiiua aeeaiieniua oaaeaa?u Ieeaeaiaeaeaei: Ia?auaiea na.
Iaaea e Io/aie/anoai na. Iao?a. Naiaaeei yaeyaony oaeaea aaoi?ii i?iaeoa
aieueoiai caea i?eaiia (Naea ?aaeaea).

I?e iaia Neenoa V (1585–1590) aeeeiiue aioo?aiiee aeai? Aaoeeaia aue
iaiieiaeio oiaiueoai ca n/ao aeaeeioa/iiai oeeaaey, i?ioyioaoaainy io
iaeiiai e?uea Aaeueaaaea?a aei ae?oaiai. A?oeoaeoi?ii Aeaeiaaiie
Ei?aioei Aa?ieie i?e iaia O?aaia VIII (1623–1644) aue ni?iaeoe?iaai
iiioiaioaeueiue ia?aaeiue aoiae a niai? na. Iao?a n i?aii?iie eanoieoeae
e aeaoiy eieiiiaaeaie, ieaeieythueie ieiuaaeue ia?aae niai?ii.

Ia/eiay n 18 a. a?oeoaeoi?u Aaoeeaia caieiaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii
nicaeaieai aai iocaaa. Iocae Iei-Eeaiaioeii n nia?aieai ciaiaieouo
aioe/iuo noaooe e iicaee ?acianoeeny ai aeai?oea Eiiieaioey VIII. Iiaia
e?uei i?ieiaeaiiia /a?ac aeai? Aaeueaaaea?a ia?aeeaeueii aeaeeioa/iiio
e?ueo, auei iino?iaii i?e Iea VII (1800–1823) aeey yeniiceoeee
eieeaeoeee aioe/iuo noaooe. Iaia A?eai?ee OVI (1831–1846) iniiaae
Aaeiaoneee e Yo?onneee iocae. Ii eieoeeaoeaa iaiu Iey XI (1922–1939)
auea nicaeaia ea?oeiiay aaea?ay (Ieiaeioaea). ?yaeii n iae i?e iaiao
Eiaiia OOIII (1958–1963) e Iaaea VI (1963–1978) auei iino?iaii caeaiea,
aaea ?acianoeeenue oeaiiua eieeaeoeee ?aiiao?enoeaineeo e ?eineeo
i?aaeiaoia iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u, eioi?ua ?aiaa yeniiie?iaaeenue a
Eaoa?aineii aeai?oea. A 1971 a thaeiie /anoe Aaoeeaia aue iino?iai iiaue
cae iaineeo aoaeeaioeee.

Nie?iaeua eneonnoaa

Aaoeeai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?oiiaeooth nie?iaeuieoeo i?iecaaaeaiee
eneonnoa. Iiiaea ec ieo – yoi o?anee, niaoeeaeueii iaienaiiua ia
aioo?aiieo noaiao aeai?oeia. A aaea?ayo e aioo?aiieo aeai?eeao nia?aiu
oaaeaa?u aeeaiiene, neoeueioo?u e ae?oaeo aeaeia eneonnoaa.

N?aaee nie?iaeu Aaoeeaia auaeaeythony o?anee a Neenoeineie eaiaeea,
iaienaiiua Ieeaeaiaeaeaei a 1508–1512 aiaeao ii caeaco iaiu THeey II.
Caeanue i?aaenoaaeaiu noeaiu ec aeaeaeneie Eieae Auoey io nioai?aiey
/aeiaaea aei aai a?aoiiaaeaiey. Iie ?aciauaiu a i?yiioaieueiuo e
o?aoaieueiuo y/aeeao, «iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo» ?eniaaiiuie iueaaeanoaeaie e
ae?oaeie a?oeoaeoo?iuie yeaiaioaie. Nioie iiioiaioaeueiuo oeao?
ecia?aaeaiu a ii?aceoaeueiii ?aciiia?acee aeaeaeaiee e iic. Noieue aea
aeoaieia aia/aoeaiea i?iecaiaeeo o?anea No?aoiue noae, caaa?oaiiay
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei a 1541. Iia caieiaao anth aeoa?ioth noaio. A ioee/ea io
e?ani/iuo o?anie ia iioieea, iinayuaiiuo nthaeaoai Aaooiai Caaaoa,
No?aoiue noae ia?aaeaao o?aae/aneoth ea?oeio eiioea naaoa. Oioy
ecia/aeueiua iooaiee ni a?aiaiai neeueii iiooneiaee, ana aua nio?aiyaony
eiiiiceoeey ea?oeiu.

A Neenoeineie eaiaeea i?aaenoaaeaiu oaeaea ae?oaea caia/aoaeueiua
i?iecaaaeaiey yiioe ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey, nicaeaiiua Ia?oaeaeeii,
Aiooe/aeee, Neiuei?aeee, Ae?eaiaeaei, Ieioo?eeeei e Eiceii ?icaeee.

Ia yoaaea, ?aniieiaeaiiii iaae Neenoeineie eaiaeeie, ?aciauaiu
ciaiaieoua noaioeu (eiiiaou) ?aoayey, eioi?ua ?anienuaaeenue ii caeaco
ianeieueeeo iai. Nai ?aoayeue oai?ee i?e THeee II e Eueaa O. ?aaioa auea
caaa?oaia i?e Eeeiaioa VII o/aieeaie ?aoayey. O?anee a yoeo noaioeao
nicaeaaaeenue a yiioo, eiaaea Aic?iaeaeaiea aeinoeaei naiaai ?anoeaaoa:
a Noaioea aeaeea Naiueyoo?a – Aoeineay oeiea, Aeenioo e Ia?ian eenoe
?aoayey, a Noaioea ae” Yeeiaei?i – aai aea Ecaiaiea Yeeiaei?a,
Inaiaiaeaeaiea aiinoiea Iao?a ec oaiieoeu, Ianna a Aieuenaia, a a
Noaioea aeaeue Ei/aiaeei – Iiaea? a Ai?ai (caaa?oaia Aeaeoeei ?iiaii e
aai iiiiuieeaie) e Ei?iiiaaiea Ea?ea Aaeeeiai iaiie Eueaii III.
Aeae.?iiaii aianoa n ae?oaei o/aieeii ?aoayey Aeae.O.Iaiie inouanoaee
caiunae ?aoayey ii aeaei?aoeee naiie aieueoie ec noaioe, Caea
Einoaioeia, o?aneaie, aini?iecaiaeyueie yieciaeu ec aeecie eiia?aoi?a
Eiinoaioeia. A naiae/aoie aaea?aa, eee Eiaeaeee ?aoayey, o/aieee e
iiiiuieee ?aoayey ii aai ?enoieai ?anienaee iioieie noeaiaie ec Aaooiai
Caaaoa (o.i. «Iaeie Aeaeeae ?aoayey». Ai?i/ai iaeioi?ua enoi?eee
eneonnoaa aeatho iaaaeaeaaoioth ioeaieo ?iee ?aoayey a aeaei?aoeaiie
nenoaia Eiaeaeee.

Ec ae?oaeo aaoeeaineeo o?anie ioiaoei ?aaiou O?a Aiaeaeaeeei,
aini?iecaiaeyuea noeaiu ec aeecie nayouo Noaoaia e Eaa?aioey a eaiaeea
iaiu Ieeieay V; iieie iaiu Aeaenaiae?a VI, ecaanoiua eae aia?oaiaiou
Ai?aeaea, iuoii ?anienaiiua Ieioo?eeeei noeaiaie ec nayuaiiie enoi?ee e
ec ycu/aneeo ieoia; o?anee ec enoi?ee iainoaa a Naea ?aaeaea, nicaeaiiua
Aeaei?aeaei Aaca?e, O?ai/anei Naeueaeaoe e Oaaea?eai Aecoeea?i e
ae?oaeie ooaeiaeieeaie. O?anee Aaoeeaineie aeaeeioaee, nthaeaou eioi?uo
/anoe/ii iaaayiu ?inienyie, iaia?oaeaiiuie ai aeai?oea eiia?aoi?a
Ia?iia; ?inienue iioieea Caea Aeueaeia?aiaeeineie naaaeueau noeaiaie ec
aeecie Nainiia, i?eiaaeeaaeauay eenoe Aaeaei ?aie, e o?anee a eaiaeea
Nai-Aeaeaia, auiieiaiiua ii caeaco iaiu O?aaia VIII aeeaiienoeai 17 a.
Iueao?i aea Ei?oiia.

Caia/aoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa yeniiie?othony a iocayo Aaoeeaia.
A Ieiaeioaea nia?aia aiaaoay eieeaeoeey ea?oei yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e
Aa?ieei. Caeanue eiaaony o?e oaaeaa?a ?aoayey: Iaaeiiia ec Oieeiuei,
Oniaiea Aiai?iaeeoeu e I?aia?aaeaiea, a oaeaea iiiaeanoai aiaaeaiia,
nicaeaiiuo ii yneecai ?aoayey aeey Neenoeineie eaiaeeu n ecia?aaeaieai
aeayiee aiinoieia. Ec ae?oaeo auaeathueony i?iecaaaeaiee aeeaiiene
auaeaeythony Nayoie Ea?aiey Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, Ieaoa Aeaeiaaiie
Aaeeeie, Iieiaeaiea ai a?ia Ea?aaaaeaei, Io/aie/anoai na. Y?acia Ionnaia
e ianoa?nee iaienaiiia ?aniyoea aiinoiea Iao?a Aaeaei ?aie.

Aaoeeaineia nia?aiea ae?aaiinoae – iaeii ec eo/oeo a ie?a. Iiieii
aiaaoie eieeaeoeee iaeuo oi?i ?eineiai eneonnoaa, aeeth/athuae noaeei,
?acioth neiiiaoth einoue, a?iico e iicaeeo, caeanue i?aaenoaaeaiu
caia/aoaeueiua ia?acoeu ?eineie aeeaiiene ec ?aneiiie Iiiiae e
Aa?eoeaioia. Naiua oeaiiua ec ieo – o.i. Aeueaeia?aiaeeineay naaaeueaa e
Iaeennaaau iaecaaee.

ssae?i aaoeeaineeo nia?aiee ae?aaiinoae ninoaaeyao Iocae Iei-Eeaiaioeii,
aaea aeaiiino?e?oaony aieueoeinoai noaooe, nia?aiiuo ?eineeie iaiaie.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo noiyee ia aeeea eiia?aoi?a Aae?eaia aeec Oeaiee e ai
aeai?oea eiia?aoi?a Ia?iia. Iie iineoaeeee enoiaeiuie iiaeaeyie aeey
neoeueioi?ia yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey, aaeioiiaeyaoeony aioe/iui eneonnoaii.
Iaeaieaa ciaiaieo ainoiaeyuee e 1 a. aei i.y. Aaeueaaaea?neee oi?n,
eioi?ue eiie?iaaeny oeaeuie iieieaieyie ianoa?ia yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.
Oaeoth aea oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho neoeueioo?iay a?oiia Eaieii,
eioi?oth Ieeaeaiaeaeaei n/eoae oaaeaa?ii, e noaooy Aiieeiia
Aaeueaaaea?neiai (aa?iyoiee anaai, ?eineay eiiey a?a/aneie a?iiciaie
neoeueioo?u 4 a. aei i.y.), aucuaaaoay ainoeuaiea a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Iocae Euey?aiiioe oaeaea iaeaaeaao oeaiiuie a?oaieiae/aneeie
eieeaeoeeyie. A aai aaea?aa Eaieaea?ei nia?aii iiiaeanoai ae?aaieo
iaaeienae. A naiii iocaa aiaaoi i?aaenoaaeaiu ?eineea noaooe e iniaaiii
athnou, a oii /enea i?ae?aniue athno Oeeoea?iia. Naiua oeaiiua a
ynoaoe/aneii ioiioaiee yeniiiaou nin?aaeioi/aiu a A?a//i Ioiai. Caeanue
auaeaeythony I?eia Ii?oa Aoaonoon – eo/oaa ec nio?aieaoeony ecia?aaeaiee
ia?aiai ?eineiai eiia?aoi?a; aaeeeieaiioth noaooth Ieea, aiieiuathuoth
o?aaeeoeee yeeeiecia (ae?aaiee aia ?ae i?aaenoaao a aeaea aeaaioa,
iaeaieaiiiai aaoaaie aeaoae); i?ae?anioth ?eineoth eiieth Aei?eoi?a
(eiiueaiinoea) Iieeeeaoa.

A?aai?eaineee iocae iinayuai aaeiaoneiio e yo?onneiio eneonnoao. Naiua
ciaiaieoua nie?iaeua yoiai iocay – noaooy aiaa Ia?na ec Oiaee (4 a. aei
i.y.) e i?ae?anii nio?aieaoayny a?iaieoea ?aaieeie-Aaeanne (7 a. aei
i.y.).

Aaoeeaineay aeaeeioaea ian/eouaaao i?eia?ii 65 oun. ?oeiienae, 400 oun.
ecaeaiiuo oiiia, 100 oun. aaia?aoe/aneeo ea?o e a?aath? e nauoa 100 oun.
aaeeieoe n aaoia?aoaie. A aeaeeioaea aeaenoaoao aunoaaea iaeaieaa
oeaiiuo e e?aneai ioi?ieaiiuo ecaeaiee, o?aiyueony a Aaoeeaia. N?aaee
iiiai/eneaiiuo noa?eiiuo eeethno?e?iaaiiuo eiea eiathony aeaa ?oeiiene 4
a. i.y. n iiyoe/aneeie oaenoaie Aa?aeeey. Noa?eiiua ?oeiieniua oaenou
i?iecaaaeaiee Aa?aeeey, Oeeoea?iia e Oa?aioeey neoaeao ia?aienoi/ieeaie
aeey nia?aiaiiuo ecaeaiee yoeo aaoi?ia. Ae?oaea yeniiiaou aeaeeioaee
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaoi?neea ?oeiiene e ienueia oaeeo ecaanoiuo
aeayoaeae N?aaeiaaaeiauey e Aic?iaeaeaiey, eae Oiia Aeaeineee, Iao?a?ea,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, ?aoayeue, Ethoa? e Aai?eo VIII; eeethno?aoeee Aiooe/aeee
e Aiaeanoaaiiie eiiaaeee Aeaioa; ?eineee aeiaaiee Aioiiei aea Naiaaeei;
aeaa oaaeaa?a aecaioeeneiai eneonnoaa – Naeoie Aeaeiooa ?ieea e
Iaiieiaeii Aaneeey II; a oaeaea oeaeue ?yae ecaeaiee Aeaeee (naiay
?aiiyy ec ieo iaia/aoaia a na?aaeeia 15 a. Aooaiaa?aii), aeeth/ay
yecaiiey?u naiiai iaeaiueeiai e naiiai aieueoiai oi?iaoa.

 Aaoeeaineea naaeu i?inoe?athony e caiaaeo io Aaoeeaineiai aeai?oea e
ia?aie/aiu e?aiinoiuie noaiaie, aicaaaeaiiuie ?aciuie iaiaie ia/eiay n
yiio Aic?iaeaeaiey e Aa?ieei. A naiie caiaaeiie /anoe naaeia iaoiaeeony
eaoiyy ?aceaeaioeey iaiu Eueaa XIII, aaea aei 1936 ?aniieaaaeanue
Aaoeeaineay iana?aaoi?ey. Iniai auaeaeyaony eaoiyy ?aceaeaioeey iaiu Iey
IV n e?ani/iuie o?aneaie aioo?e e ecyuiie eaieie nia?oaee.

Iieeoe/aneee aniaeo iainoaa ni a?aiaiai noae aanueia i/aaeaeiui, n oao
ii? eae ?ei, iinea ia?aiina eiia?aoi?neie ?aceaeaioeee ia Ainoie,
ia?anoae yaeyoueny ianoii i?aauaaiey eiai-eeai ec aunoeo iieeoe/aneeo
eeoe. Aeaaea iinea ?acaeaea eiia?ee caiaaeiua eiia?aoi?u i?aaeii/eoaee
?aciauaoue naith ?aceaeaioeeth a aieaa iaaeaaeii oe?aieaiiie ?aaaiia.
Caeanue iaoiaeeeny oeaio? i?aaeaiey Iaeiae?a e noieeoea inoaioneiai
ei?ieaanoaa. Caeanue aea, iinea iaaeaiey inoaioia, iaoiaeeeanue
?aceaeaioeey iaianoieea aecaioeeneiai eiia?aoi?a a Eoaeee – yeca?oa e
oeaio? ?aaaiineiai yeca?oaoa.

A oi aea a?aiy, a ?eia iaoeeiiii aic?anoaao ?ieue Iaiu eae caueoieea
ioaeaeathuaainy ianaeaiey. Oae, Eaa I anooiaaony ca ?ei ia?aae Aooeeie e
Aaeca?eoii, a Aaeanee – ia?aae Oaiaei?eoii. Eanneiaei?, auaoee i?e
inoaioneie aeanoe praefectus praetorio, oaeoe/anee aaa?ee iiia/aiea i
ie?neeo aeaeao Iaia Eiaiio II. Eiaaea eiia?aoi? THnoeieai a 554 aiaeo
ecaeae “I?aaiaoe/aneoth naieoeeth”, Iaia, aianoa n Naiaoii, aue ii?o/ai
eiio?ieue iaae ia?aie e aanaie. N oiai a?aiaie a oa/aiea aeaoo aaeia
Iaiu auee iaeaieaa eiyeueiuie noi?iiieeaie aecaioeeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
a ai?ueaa n aoi?aeaieai eaiaiaa?aeia, oai aieaa iaiaoiaeeiuie, /oi Naiao
ia?anoae nouanoaiaaoue n 603 aiaea. Iie oaeaea auee aaeeinoaaiiui
noaeii, a eioi?ii ?eineia ianaeaiea, i?aaeinoaaeaiiia i?iecaieo
aecaioeeneeo /eiiaieeia e aiaiiuo, iiaei eneaoue iie?iaeoaeuenoaa e
caueou. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi aaeaa ee eiaaea aua iainoai auei
oae iiioey?ii a oeaio?aeueiie Eoaeee, e /oi ia auei ae?oaiai oaeiai
aeaea, eioi?ia ei?aiiia ianaeaiea, oieueei ia/aaoaa aiiaue
i?aaieciauaaoueny a aiaiiua io?yaeu, caueuaei au n aieueoei ?aaieai, /ai
naiaiaeo e iacaaeneiinoue ?eineiai I?anoiea.

Eiaaea aecaioeeneea eiia?aoi?u, ca?aaeaiiua oeaca?i-iaienoneeie
oaiaeaioeeyie, iuoaeenue nie?ooeoue iainoai, iie ano?aoeee a ?eineie
ieeeoeee nii?ioeaeaiea, ia iicaieeaoaa ei inouanoaeoue naie ieaiu.
Ia?oeeoey?eci Eoaeee i?iaoaeee aa e nieioee aie?oa Iaiu. Eiaaea
eiia?aoi? THnoeieai II a 692 aiaeo iiiuoaeny neeie aeinoaaeoue a
Eiinoaioeiiiieue Iaio Na?aey II (eae ?aiaa yoi i?iecioei n ian/anoiui
Ia?oeiii I), /oiau auioaeeoue o iaai niaeanea n eaiiiaie O?oeeueneiai
Niai?a, nicaaiiiai eiia?aoi?ii, ieeeoeey ?aaaiiu e Iaioaiieena,
?aniieiaeaiiiai io iaiin?aaenoaaiii e thao io iaa, nia?aaoenue, anooieea
a ?ei e canoaaeea oeoe eiia?aoi?neeo iineaiieeia. Oaeea niauoey
iiaoi?yeenue e i?eia?aee cia/aiea au?aaeaiey ia?iaeiuo iano?iaiee.
Eiaaea Iaia Eiinoaioei, iineaaeiee Iaia, iiauaaaoee a Eiinoaioeiiiiea (a
710 aiaeo), ioaa?a eniiaaaeaiea aa?u iiaiai eiia?aoi?a, Aa?aeaia,
?eieyia iiaeaea?aeaee aai, ioeacaaoenue i?eciaoue eiia?aoi?a eee
iineaiiiai ei aiaiiiai i?aaeoaey (dux). Yoio i?aaeoaeue niia anooieoue a
aeieaeiinoue ia ?aiaa, /ai i?eoei ecaanoea, /oi eiia?aoi?-a?aoee
naa?aioo e caiaiai i?aaineaaiui. Yoi i?iecioei a 713 aiaeo. Aeaoiy
aiaeaie iicaeiaa ia iaineee i?anoie, caieiaaiue aei yoiai naiueth
ainoi/iuie Iaiaie, anooiee ?eieyiei A?eai?ee II, eioi?iio i?aaenoiyei
i?ioeainoiyoue Eueao III Enaa?o a nii?a ia eeiiiii/eoaiee. Aeey ?eia
ianoaei a?aiy inoaaeoue Ainoie e ia?aoeoueny e Caiaaeo, caeeth/eoue
nithc n aa?iaii-?iiaineeie ia?iaeaie, iaeiei ec neaaenoaee /aai e noaei
ia?aciaaiea Oea?eiaiiai Ainoaea?noaa. Iaiu eaaei iiaee au iiiuoaoueny
na?ineoue aecaioeeneia y?ii e ?aiueoa, /ai ia/aeny ia?eiae
eeiiiai?/anoaa. Anee iie e oaea?aeeaaeenue io yoiai, oi eeoue iioiio,
/oi oi?ioi iniciaaaee, /oi oaeea iiiuoee auee au i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiuie. Iie
i?aaeaeaeaee, /oi eiiaoe aecaioeeneiai aeaaeu/anoaa e ia/aei
eaiaiaa?aeneiai i?aaeaiey iiaee au niaianoue a iaeii e oiaea a?aiy.
Iaiaoiaeeii auei aia/aea onoaiiaeoue oaeo oiai, /oi aecaioeeoeu ia iiaoo
aieaa caueuaoue Iaio io eaiaiaa?aeia, a caoai iaeoe neeo, eioi?ay iiaea
au caueoeoue aai. Iaa yoe oneiaey auee eniieiaiu a na?aaeeia VIII
noieaoey.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Iocae Aaoeeaia. ?ei. I., 1974

E?aneeia A.A. Aaoeeai: enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue. I., 1991

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