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Nouanoaotho iiiyoey ia ioiineoaeueiii e aaniethoiii aic?anoa ai?iuo
ii?iae.

Ioiineoaeueiue aaieiae/aneee aic?ano – a?aiy eaeiai-eeai niauoey
ioiineoaeueii ae?oaiai aaieiae/aneiai niauoey. Ii?aaeaeyaony ii inoaoeai
auia?oeo i?aaieciia, niaea?aeaueony a ai?iuo ii?iaeao –
iaeaiioieiae/aneee iaoiae, e ii niioiioaieth aaieiae/aneeo oae: neiaa,
eeic, iioieia iaaeaeo niaie – aaieiai-no?aoea?aoe/aneee iaoiae.

Iniiaie iaeaiioieiae/aneiai iaoiaea neoaeeo i?eioeei iineaaeiaaoaeueiie
niaiu iaiiaoi?ythueony a ?ac?acao oaoienoe/aneeo e oei?enoe/aneeo
eiiieaenia, io?aaeathueo yoaiiinoue eo enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iie
eniieuecotho iaeii ec iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee yaiethoeeiiiiai o/aiey –
iaia?aoeiinoue yaiethoeee: i?aaieci ia iiaeao aa?iooueny, oioy au
/anoe/ii, e i?aaeiaio ninoiyieth, eioi?ia auei oaea inouanoaeaii a ?yaeo
aai i?aaeeia. Oa eee eiua aeaeu ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue
ia Caiea oieueei iaeei ?ac. Iie iiyaeythony, iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeii
?annaeythony ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe, a caoai auie?atho, onooiay
aeeciaiioth a?aio aieaa i?eniiniaeaiiui e eciaieaoaeny ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea i?aaieciai. Iiyoiio, eaaeaeue eiiieaen eneiiaaiuo i?aaieciia,
i?eo?i/aiiue e oiio eee eiiio neith, io?aaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue yoai
?acaeoey i?aaie/aneiai ie?a e yaeyaony iaiiaoi?eiui. Yoi e aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue inoaoee eneiiaaiuo i?aaieciia aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey ioiineoaeueiiai aic?anoa ai?iuo ii?iae, ii?aaeaeeoue eaeea
ioeiaeaiey ae?aaiaa, a eaeea – iieiaea, aeaaea anee iie ae?oa n ae?oaii
ia eiioaeoe?otho.

Iiieii iaeaiioieiae/aneiai oe?iei i?eiaiythony iee?iiaeaiioieiae/aneee,
nii?iai-iueueoeaaie, aeeaoiiiaue e ae?oaea iaoiaeu.

Aaieiai-no?aoea?aoe/aneee iaoiae iniiaai ia oii iieiaeaiee, /oi a
?ac?aca ii?iaeueii caeaaathueo ioeiaeaiee (ia ia?aaa?ioouo iinea
iaeiieaiey) ieaeaeaaeauee neie anaaaea ae?aaiaa auoaeaaeauaai (caeii I.
Noaii 1669 a.), a i?i?aaiiua ii?iaeu – aieaa ae?aaiea ii ioiioaieth e
i?i?uaathuei.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueiiai aic?anoa ai?iuo ii?iae iicaieeei ana
ecaanoiua ioeiaeaiey caiiiai oa?a ?acaeaeeoue ia iyoue a?oiiu:
a?oaeneoth, i?ioa?icieneoth, iaeaicieneoth, iacicieneoth e
eaeiicieneoth. A?aiy iaeiieaiey ioeiaeaiee a?oii iacaaii y?ie. Y?u
?acaeaeythony ia ia?eiaeu (oaae. 10).

A?oaeneay y?a icia/aao ae?aaiaeoay, a n o/aoii iineaaeothuae
i?ioa?icieneie – a?aiaie ia?ae/iie aeecie eee aicieeiiaaiey aeecie,
aeiaeeciaiiay. Iaeaicieneay y?a – a?aiy ae?aaiae aeecie, iacicieneay –
n?aaeiae aeecie, eaeiicieneay – iieiaeie aeecie.

Oaaeeoea 10. Aaio?iiieiae/aneay oeaea

O aia ? icieY?uIa?eiaeuEaeiicieneay – Kz*aoaa?oe/iue – QIaiaaiiaue –
NIaeaiaaiiaue –  P  Iacicieneay – MzIaeiaie – KTH?neee – IO?eaniaue –
TIaeaicieneay – PzIa?ineee – PEaiaiiioaieueiue (ea?aii) – CAeaaiineee –
DNeeo?eeneee – SI?aeiaeeneee – OEaia?eeneee –  NAeieaia?ee,
e?eioicieI?ioa?icieneay – Pt A?oaeneay – Ar

Ioiineoaeueiay aaio?iiieiaey ia aeaao ?aaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
enoeiiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe y? e ia?eiaeia. Iia iicaieyao noaeeoue
eeoue i iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eo ai a?aiaie. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue y? e
ia?eiaeia a ieeeeiiao eao ?aoaao aaniethoiay aaio?iiieiaey.

Aaniethoiue aaieiae/aneee aic?ano – aic?ano ai?iuo ii?iae, ieia?aeia,
?oae, onoaiaaeeaaaiue ?acee/iuie ?aaeeieiae/aneeie iaoiaeaie ii
iaeiieaieth a ieia?aeao e ai?iuo ii?iaeao i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ecioiiia e au?aaeaiiue a aaeeieoeao ano?iiiie/aneiai
a?aiaie. En/eneaiea aaaeaony io ianoiyuaai a?aiaie, a ienoiaeyuai
ii?yaeea.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaniethoiiai aic?anoa eniieuecothony aeaiiua ii
?aaeeiaeoeaiiio ?aniaaeo o?aia, oi?ey, eaeey, oaea?iaea e iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. Aeey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ecioiiia
yenia?eiaioaeueiui iooai ii?aaeaeai ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea – i?iiaaeooie
a?aiaie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai ethaia eiee/anoai aeaiiiai iaonoie/eaiai
ecioiia oiaiueoeony iaiieiaeio, i?aa?aoynue a noaaeeueiua ecioiiu
ae?oaeo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. Ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea Th232 ?aaai13,9
ie?ae. eao, U238 – 4,51 ie?ae. eao, U235 – 710 iei. eao, C14 – 5,5-6
oun. eao.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey aaniethoiiai aic?anoa ii
ecioiiai o?aia e oi?ey, eo i?aa?auaieth a noaaeeueiua ecioiiu naeioea e
aaeey. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ii yoiio iaoiaeo eniieuecothony ieia?aeu,
niaea?aeauea aei 1% U eee Th: iiiaoeeo, oee?eii e ae?.

U238 ? 8He4 + Pb206

U235 ? 7He4 + Pb207

Th232 ? 6He4 + Pb208

I?eiaiyaony a?aiiiaue: K40 ? Ar40, no?iioeeaaue: Rb87 ? Sr87 e ae?.
?aaeeioaea?iaeiue iaoiae iniiaai ia eco/aiee ?aniaaea N14,
ia?acothuaainy iiae aicaeaenoaeai einie/aneie ?aaeeaoeee ia N12
aicaeooa.

Naiuie ae?aaieie ia Caiea ii?aaeaeaiu ian/aieee ec Caiaaeiie Aano?aeee,
aic?ano oee?eiiia a eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 4,2 ie?ae. eao. Eiathony
ioaeeeaoeee e i aieaa ae?aaiai aaniethoiii aic?anoa a 5,6 ie?ae. eao e
aieaa, ii ioeoeeaeueiie iaoeie oaeea oeeo?u ia i?eieiathony. Aic?ano
eaa?oeeoia ec A?aieaiaeee e Naaa?iie Eaiaaeu ii?aaeaeai a 4 ie?ae. eao,
a?aieoia Aano?aeee e THaeiie Ao?eee aei 3,8 ie?ae. eao.

Ia/aei iaeaiciy ii?aaeaeaii a 570 iei. eao, iaciciy – a 240 iei. eao,
eaeiiciy – a 67 iei. eao

A?oaeneay y?a. Naiua ae?aaiea ii?iaeu, iaiaaeathueany ia iiaa?oiinoe
iaoa?eeia, ia?aciaaeenue a a?oaeneoth y?o. ?aniiciaaaiea yoeo ii?iae
cao?oaeiaii, iineieueeo eo auoiaeu ?ann?aaeioi/aiu e a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa ia?ae?uou iiuiuie oieuaie aieaa iieiaeuo ii?iae. Oai, aaea yoe
ii?iaeu iaiaaeathony, iie ianoieueei iaoaii?oeciaaiu, /oi ca/anooth
iaeuecy ainnoaiiaeoue eo enoiaeiue oa?aeoa?. Ai a?aiy iiiai/eneaiiuo
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo yoaiia aeaioaeaoeee auee ?ac?ooaiu iiuiua oieue yoeo
ii?iae, a nio?aieaoeany niaea?aeao i/aiue iaei eneiiaaiuo i?aaieciia e
iiyoiio eo ei??aeyoeey cao?oaeieoaeueia eee aiiaua iaaiciiaeia.
Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi naiua ae?aaiea ecaanoiua a?oaeneea ii?iaeu,
aa?iyoii, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie neeueii iaoaii?oeciaaiiua inaaei/iua
ii?iaeu, a aieaa ae?aaiea ii?iaeu, ia?ae?uoua eie, auee ?anieaaeaiu e
?ac?ooaiu a ?acoeueoaoa iiiai/eneaiiuo iaaiaoe/aneeo eio?ocee. Iiyoiio
aei neo ii? ia iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu ia?ae/iie caiiie ei?u.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea eiathony aeaa aieueoeo a?aaea auoiaeia ia
iiaa?oiinoue a?oaeneeo ii?iae. Ia?aue ec ieo – Eaiaaeneee ueo –
?aniieiaeai a oeaio?aeueiie Eaiaaea ii iaa noi?iiu Aoaeciiiaa caeeaa.
Oioy ianoaie a?oaeneea ii?iaeu ia?ae?uou aieaa iieiaeuie, ia aieueoae
/anoe oa??eoi?ee Eaiaaeneiai ueoa iie neaaatho aeiaaioth iiaa?oiinoue.
Ae?aaiaeoea ecaanoiua a yoii ?aeiia ii?iaeu i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aii?aie,
anieaeiuie e e?enoaeee/aneeie neaioeaie, ia?aneaeaathueieny n eaaaie.
Ia?aiia/aeueii caeanue auee ioeiaeaiu ecaanoiyee e aeeienoua neaioeu,
aiineaaenoaee caia/aoaiiua eaaaie. Caoai yoe ii?iaeu eniuoaee
aicaeaenoaea iiuiuo oaeoiie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee, eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeaeenue
e?oiiuie a?aieoiuie eio?oceyie. A eiia/iii eoiaa oieue inaaei/iuo ii?iae
iiaeaa?aeenue neeueiiio iaoaii?oecio. Iinea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
aeaioaeaoeee yoe neeueii iaoaii?oeciaaiiua ii?iaeu ianoaie auee
auaaaeaiu ia iiaa?oiinoue, ii iauee oii ninoaaeytho a?aieou.

Auoiaeu a?oaeneeo ii?iae eiathony oaeaea a Neaeenouo ai?ao, aaea
neaaatho a?aaie iiiaeo o?aaoia e ioaeaeueiua aa?oeiu, iai?eia?
Iaeen-Iee. Aieaa iieiaeua ii?iaeu oai ?ac?ooaiu aeaioaeaoeeae.

A Aa?iia a?oaeneea ii?iaeu iaiaaeathony ia oa??eoi?ee Aaeoeeneiai ueoa a
i?aaeaeao Ii?aaaee, Oaaoeee, Oeieyiaeee e ?innee. Iie i?aaenoaaeaiu
a?aieoaie e neeueii iaoaii?oeciaaiiuie inaaei/iuie ii?iaeaie. Oaeea aea
auoiaeu a?oaeneeo ii?iae eiathony ia thaa e thai-ainoiea Neae?e, a
Eeoaa, caiaaeiie Aano?aeee, Ao?eea e ia naaa?i-ainoiea THaeiie Aia?eee.
Ae?aaiaeoea neaaeu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aaeoa?ee e eieiiee
iaeiieeaoi/iuo neia-caeaiuo aiaei?ineae Collenia auee iaia?oaeaiu a
a?oaeneeo ii?iaeao thaeiie Ao?eee (Ceiaaaaa) e i?iaeioeee Iioa?ei
(Eaiaaea).

 I?ioa?icieneay y?a. A ia/aea i?ioa?iciy iinea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
aeaioaeaoeee nooa auea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ?ac?ooaia, ioaeaeueiua
/anoe iaoa?eeia eniuoaee iia?oaeaiea e auee caoiieaiu iaeeiaiaeiuie
ii?yie, a iaeioi?ua ieciaiiua eioeiaeiu ia/aee caiieiyoueny
eiioeiaioaeueiuie ioeiaeaieyie. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea naiua cia/eoaeueiua
auoiaeu i?ioa?icieneeo ii?iae eiathony a /aou?ao ?aeiiao. Ia?aue ec ieo
i?eo?i/ai e thaeiie /anoe Eaiaaeneiai ueoa, aaea iiuiua oieue aeeienouo
neaioeaa e ian/aieeia ?anniao?eaaaiiai aic?anoa iaiaaeathony aie?oa ic.
Aa?oiaai e naaa?i-ainoi/iaa ic. Ao?ii. Yoe ii?iaeu eiatho eae ii?neia,
oae e eiioeiaioaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea oeacuaaao ia
oi, /oi iieiaeaiea iaeeiaiaeiuo ii?ae ia i?ioyaeaiee i?ioa?iciy
cia/eoaeueii iaiyeinue. Ai iiiaeo ianoao ii?neea e eiioeiaioaeueiua
inaaeee ia?aneaeaathony n iiuiuie eaaiauie oieuaie. Ii ieii/aiee
inaaeeiiaeiieaiey i?ienoiaeeee oaeoiie/aneea aeaeaeaiey caiiie ei?u,
i?ioa?icieneea ii?iaeu i?aoa?iaaaee neeaaeeiia?aciaaiea e oi?ie?iaaeenue
e?oiiua ai?iua nenoaiu. A i?aaeai?iuo ?aeiiao e ainoieo io Aiiaea/ae
eiathony iiiai/eneaiiua auoiaeu i?ioa?icieneeo ii?iae. Ia?aiia/aeueii
iie ioeaaaeenue a aeaea ieanoia ecaanoiyeia e aeeienouo neaioeaa, a
caoai ai a?aiy i?iaaiaca (ai?iia?aciaaiey) iaoaii?oeciaaeenue e
i?aa?aoeeenue a i?aii?a, anieaeiua e e?enoaeee/aneea neaioeu. A ?aeiia
Aieueoiai eaiueiia iiuiay oieua i?ioa?icieneeo ian/aieeia, aeeienouo
neaioeaa e ecaanoiyeia ianiaeanii ia?ae?uaaao a?oaeneea ii?iaeu. A
naaa?iie /anoe Neaeenouo ai? auea ioeiaeaia oieua i?ioa?icieneeo
ecaanoiyeia iiuiinoueth ie. 4600 i. Oioy i?ioa?icieneea ia?aciaaiey a
yoeo ?aeiiao eniuoaee aicaeaenoaea oaeoiie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee e auee niyou
a neeaaeee e ?acaeou ?aceiiaie, yoe iiaeaeaeee auee iaaeinoaoi/ii
eioaineaiuie e ia iiaee i?eaanoe e iaoaii?oecaoeee ii?iae. Iiyoiio oai
nio?aieeenue enoiaeiua inaaei/iua oaenoo?u.

A Aa?iia cia/eoaeueiua auoiaeu i?ioa?icieneeo ii?iae eiathony a
i?aaeaeao Aaeoeeneiai ueoa. Iie i?aaenoaaeaiu neeueii iaoaii?oeciaaiiuie
i?aii?aie e anieaeiuie neaioeaie. Ia naaa?i-caiaaea Oioeaiaeee iiuiay
oieua i?ioa?icieneeo ian/aieeia ia?ae?uaaao a?oaeneea a?aieou e
e?enoaeee/aneea neaioeu. Iaoe?iua auoiaeu i?ioa?icieneeo ii?iae
ano?a/athony ia caiaaea Eeoay, a oeaio?aeueiie Aano?aeee, thaeiie Ao?eea
e oeaio?aeueiie /anoe THaeiie Aia?eee. A Aano?aeee oeacaiiua ii?iaeu
i?aaenoaaeaiu iiuiie oieuae iaiaoaii?oeciaaiiuo ian/aieeia e aeeienouo
neaioeaa, a a ainoi/iie A?aceeee e thaeiie Aaianoyea – neeueii
iaoaii?oeciaaiiuie anieaeiuie e e?enoaeee/aneeie neaioeaie.

Eneiiaaiua neia-caeaiua aiaei?inee Collenia aanueia oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu ia anao iaoa?eeao a iaiaoaii?oeciaaiiuo ecaanoiyeao
i?ioa?icieneiai aic?anoa, aaea oaeaea iaia?oaeaiu iaiiiai/eneaiiua
iaeiiee ?aeiaei i?eieoeaiuo iieethneia. Iaeiaei inoaoee aeeaioiuo i/aiue
?aaeee, e yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aieueoeinoai i?aaieciia
ioee/aeinue i?eieoeaiui no?iaieai e aua ia eiaei oaa?aeuo iaiei/ae,
eioi?ua nio?aiythony a eneiiaaiii ninoiyiee. Oioy neaaeu eaaeieeiauo
ia?eiaeia oeene?othony aeey ?aiieo yoaiia enoi?ee Caiee, iaoe?iia
ieaaeaiaiea, eiaaoaa ii/oe aeiaaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, ioia/aaony
oieueei a naiii eiioea i?ioa?iciy.

Iaeaicieneay y?a. Iinea oiai, eae nooa ia?aaeeea aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae
aeaioaeaoeee a eiioea i?ioa?iciy, iaeioi?ua aa oa??eoi?ee eniuoaee
i?iaeaaiea e auee caoiieaiu iaeeiaiaeiuie ii?yie. A ?acoeueoaoa
aeaioaeaoeee aicauoaiiuo o/anoeia inaaei/iue iaoa?eae niineeny aiaeiuie
iioieaie a aaineieeeiaee, aaea iaeiieeenue oieue iaeaicieneeo inaaei/iuo
ii?iae iiuiinoueth aieaa 12 ei. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea a ia/aea iaeaicieneie
y?u ia?aciaaeenue aeaa e?oiiua aaineieeeiaee. Iaeia ec ieo, iacuaaaiay
Aiiaea/neie, i?ioyioeanue io naaa?iie /anoe Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia /a?ac
thai-ainoi/ioth Eaiaaeo e aeaeaa ia tha e Iaeneeaineiio caeeao aaeieue
ine nia?aiaiiuo Aiiaea/ae. Ae?oaay aaineieeeiaeue niaaeeiyea Naaa?iue
Eaaeiaeoue ieaai n Oeoei, i?ioiaey ianeieueei ainoi/iaa Aeynee ia tha
/a?ac ainoi/ioth /anoue A?eoaineie Eieoiaee e caiaaeioth /anoue
Aeueaa?ou, aeaeaa /a?ac ainoi/ioth Iaaaaeo, caiaaeioth THoo e thaeioth
Eaeeoi?ieth. Oaeei ia?acii Naaa?iay Aia?eea auea ?acaeaeaia ia o?e
/anoe. A ioaeaeueiua ia?eiaeu iaeaiciy aa oeaio?aeueiua ?aeiiu io/anoe
caoiieyeenue e iaa aaineieeeiaee niaaeeiyeenue iaeeiaiaeiuie ii?yie. A
ae?oaea ia?eiaeu a ?acoeueoaoa ecinoaoe/aneeo iiaeiyoee nooe eee
eieaaaiee o?iaiy Ie?iaiai ieaaia i?ienoiaeeee ii?neea ?aa?annee, e
oiaaea a aaineieeeiaeyo ioeeaaeuaaeny oa??eaaiiue iaoa?eae, niuoue ec
nii?aaeaeueiuo aicauoaiiuo ?aeiiia.

A iaeaicia noiaeiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaee e ia ae?oaeo iaoa?eeao. A
Aa?iia ia?iiiua ii?y ia?eiaee/anee caoiieyee A?eoaineea i-aa, oa??eoi?ee
Ii?aaaee, Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aaeueaee e Eniaiee, a oaeaea iaoe?ioth
iaeanoue Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu io Aaeoeeneiai ii?y aei O?aeueneeo
ai?. E?oiiua auoiaeu iaeaicieneeo ii?iae eiathony oaeaea a Neae?e, Eeoaa
e naaa?iie Eiaeee. Iie yaeythony ei?aiiuie ii?iaeaie a aieueoeinoaa
?aeiiia ainoi/iie Aano?aeee, naaa?iie Ao?eee, a oaeaea a naaa?iuo e
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao THaeiie Aia?eee.

Iaeaicieneay y?a aeaeeony ia oanoue ia?eiaeia iaiaeeiaeiaie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, /a?aaeothueony n e?aoeia?aiaiiuie yoaiaie
ecinoaoe/aneeo iiaeiyoee eee ii?neeo ?aa?annee, ai a?aiy eioi?uo a
i?aaeaeao iaoa?eeia inaaeeiia?aciaaiea ia i?ienoiaeeei (?en. 9, 10).

Eaia?eeneee ia?eiae – naiue ?aiiee ia?eiae iaeaicieneie y?u, iacaaiiue
ii eaoeineiio iacaaieth Oyeuena (Eaia?ey), aaea aia?aua auee eco/aiu
ii?iaeu yoiai aic?anoa. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea a eaia?ee iaa aaineieeeiaee
auee caoiieaiu, a ai aoi?ie iieiaeia eaia?ey oeaio?aeueiay /anoue
iaoa?eea caieiaea noieue ieceia iieiaeaiea, /oi iaa i?iaeaa
niaaeeiyeenue iaeeiaiaeiui ii?ai e oai iaeaieeaaeenue neie ian/aieeia,
aeeienouo neaioeaa e ecaanoiyeia. A Aa?iia e Acee i?ienoiaeeea e?oiiay
ii?neay o?aina?anney. Yoe /anoe naaoa auee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
caoiieaiu. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyee o?e e?oiiuo iainiaeaiiuo ianneaa nooe
(Aaeoeeneee ueo, A?aaeeneee i-ia e thaeiay Eiaeey) e ?yae iaaieueoeo
eciee?iaaiiuo o/anoeia nooe a thaeiie Aa?iia e thaeiie Acee. Iaiaa
e?oiiua ii?neea o?aina?annee i?ienoiaeeee a Aano?aeee e oeaio?aeueiie
/anoe THaeiie Aia?eee. Eaia?ee ioee/aeny aeiaieueii niieieiuie
oaeoiie/aneeie ianoaiiaeaie.

A ioeiaeaieyo yoiai ia?eiaea nio?aieeenue ia?aua iiiai/eneaiiua
eneiiaaiua, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i ?acaeoee aeecie ia Caiea. Oioy
iacaiiua ?anoaiey eee aeeaioiua ia ioia/aiu, iaeeiaiaeiua
yieeiioeiaioaeueiua ii?y e caoiieaiiua aaineieeeiaee eciaeeiaaee
iiiai/eneaiiuie aaniicaiii/iuie aeeaioiuie e aiaeiuie ?anoaieyie.
Iaeaieaa iaiau/iua e eioa?aniua aeeaioiua oiai a?aiaie – o?eeiaeou (?en.
11), eeann auia?oeo i?eieoeaiuo /eaienoiiiaeo, auee oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu a eaia?eeneeo ii?yo. Eo ecaanoeiai-oeoeiiaua iaioee?e
iaia?oaeaiu a ii?iaeao yoiai aic?anoa ia anao iaoa?eeao. E?iia oiai,
nouanoaiaaei iiiai oeiia iea/aiiaeo (a?aoeiiiae), iieethneia e ae?oaeo
aaniicaiii/iuo. Oaeei ia?acii, a eaia?eeneeo ii?yo i?enoonoaiaaee ana
iniiaiua oi?iu aaniicaiii/iuo i?aaieciia (ca eneeth/aieai ei?aeeia,
ioaiie e iaeaoeeiiae).

A eiioea eaia?eeneiai ia?eiaea aoeueoay /anoue nooe eniuoaea iiaeiyoea e
i?iecioea e?aoeia?aiaiiay ii?neay ?aa?anney.

I?aeiaeeneee ia?eiae – aoi?ie ia?eiae iaeaicieneie y?u (iacuaathueeny ii
eiaie eaeueoneiai ieaiaie i?aeiaeeia, ianaeyaoaai oa??eoi?eth Oyeuena).
A yoio ia?eiae iaoa?eee niiaa eniuoaee i?iaeaaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aaineieeeiaee e ieciaiiua eioeiaeiu i?aa?aoeeenue a iaeeiaiaeiua ii?y. A
eiioea i?aeiaeea ie. 70% oa??eoi?ee Naaa?iie Aia?eee auei caoiieaii
ii?ai, a eioi?ii ioeiaeeeenue iiuiua oieue ecaanoiyeia e aeeienouo
neaioeaa. Ii?ai auee iie?uou oaeaea cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiu e
Acee, /anoe/ii – Aano?aeey e oeaio?aeueiua ?aeiiu THaeiie Aia?eee.

Ana eaia?eeneea aaniicaiii/iua i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e a i?aeiaeea.
E?iia oiai, iiyaeeenue ei?aeeu, iaeaoeeiiaeu (aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee),
ioaiee e ia?aua iicaiii/iua. A Eiei?aaei a i?aeiaeeneeo ian/aieeao
iaia?oaeaiu o?aaiaiou naiuo i?eieoeaiuo iicaiii/iuo – aan/aethnoiuo
(ino?aeiaea?i), o eioi?uo ionoonoaiaaee ianoiyuea /aethnoe e ia?iua
eiia/iinoe, a ia?aaeiyy /anoue oaea auea iie?uoa einoiuie ieanoeieaie,
ia?acothueie caueoiue iaioee?ue.

Ia iniiaa iaeaiiaaieoiiai eco/aiey ii?iae onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia
i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe iaeaiciy Naaa?iay Aia?eea ?aniieaaaeanue a
yeaaoi?eaeueiie ciia. Eneiiaaiua i?aaieciu e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
ecaanoiyee yoiai a?aiaie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ainiiaenoaa a i?aeiaeea
oaieuo iaeeiaiaeiuo ii?ae. Aano?aeey ?aniieaaaeanue aeec THaeiiai
iiethna, a naaa?i-caiaaeiay Ao?eea – a ?aeiia naiiai iiethna, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony caia/aoeaaoeieny a i?aeiaeeneeo ii?iaeao Ao?eee
i?eciaeaie oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ieaaeaiaiey.

A eiioea i?aeiaeeneiai ia?eiaea a ?acoeueoaoa oaeoiie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee
i?ienoiaeeee iiaeiyoea iaoa?eeia e ii?neay ?aa?anney. Ianoaie ei?aiiua
eaia?eeneea e i?aeiaeeneea ii?iaeu eniuoaee i?ioeann
neeaaeeiia?aciaaiey, eioi?ue nii?iaiaeaeaeny ?inoii ai?. Yoio
ae?aaiaeoee yoai i?iaaiaca iineo iacaaiea eaeaaeiineie neeaae/aoinoe.

Neeo?eeneee ia?eiae. Aia?aua ii?iaeu yoiai ia?eiaea auee eco/aiu oaeaea
a Oyeuena (iacaaiea ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeeo io eaeueoneiai ieaiaie neeo?ia,
ianaeyaoaai yoio ?aaeii).

Iinea oaeoiie/aneeo iiaeiyoee, iciaiaiiaaaoeo ieii/aiea i?aeiaeeneiai
ia?eiaea, ianooiee aeaioaeaoeeiiiue yoai, a caoai a ia/aea neeo?a
iaoa?eee niiaa eniuoaee i?iaeaaiea, a ii?y caoiieee ieciaiiua ?aeiiu. A
Naaa?iie Aia?eea a ?aiiai neeo?a ieiuaaeue ii?ae nouanoaaiii
nie?aoeeanue, iaeiaei a n?aaeiai neeo?a iie caiyee ii/oe 60% aa
oa??eoi?ee. Noi?ie?iaaeanue iiuiay oieua ii?neeo ecaanoiyeia ieaaa?neie
oi?iaoeee, iieo/eaoae naia iacaaiea io Ieaaa?neiai aiaeiiaaea, ii?ia
eioi?iai iia neaaaao. A iicaeiai neeo?a ieiuaaee ii?ae neeueii
nie?aoeeenue. A iieina, i?inoe?athuaeny io nia?aiaiiiai ooaoa Ie/eaai
aei oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e, iaeaieeaaeenue iiuiua
nieaiiniua ieanou.

A Aa?iia e Acee neeo?eeneea ii?y auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu e caieiaee
ii/oe oa aea oa??eoi?ee, /oi e eaia?eeneea ii?y. Iacaoiieaiiuie
inoaaaeenue oa aea eciee?iaaiiua ianneau, /oi e a eaia?ee, a oaeaea
cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee naaa?iiai Eeoay e Ainoi/iie Neae?e. A Aa?iia
iiuiua ecaanoiyeiaua oieue iaeaieeaaeenue ii ia?eoa?ee thaeiie
ieiia/iinoe Aaeoeeneiai ueoa (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie /anoe/ii caoiieaiu
Aaeoeeneei ii?ai). Iaaieueoea ii?y auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ainoi/iie
Aano?aeee, naaa?iie Ao?eea e a oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao THaeiie Aia?eee.

A neeo?eeneeo ii?iaeao iaia?oaeaiu a iauai oa aea iniiaiua
i?aaenoaaeoaee i?aaie/aneiai ie?a, /oi e a i?aeiaeeneeo. Iacaiiua
?anoaiey a neeo?a aua ia iiyaeeenue. N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo ai?acaei
aieaa iaeeueiuie noaee ei?aeeu, a ?acoeueoaoa aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
eioi?uo ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao noi?ie?iaaeenue ianneaiua ei?aeeiaua ?eou.
O?eeiaeou, noieue oa?aeoa?iua aeey eaia?eeneeo e i?aeiaeeneeo ii?iae,
oo?a/eaatho naia aeiieie?othuaa cia/aiea: eo noaiiaeony iaiueoa eae a
eiee/anoaaiiii, oae e aeaeiaii ioiioaieyo. A eiioea neeo?a iiyaeeinue
iiiaeanoai e?oiiuo aiaeiuo /eaienoiiiaeo, iacuaaaiuo ya?eioa?eaeaie, eee
?aeinei?ieiiaie.

Neeo?eeneee ia?eiae a Naaa?iie Aia?eea caaa?oeeny aac e?oiiuo
oaeoiie/aneeo iiaeaeaeae. Iaeiaei a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a yoi a?aiy
ia?aciaaeny iiyn eaeaaeiieae. Yoa ai?iay oeaiue i?inoe?aeanue ia
oa??eoi?ee Ii?aaaee, Oioeaiaeee e E?eaiaeee. I?iaaiac i?ienoiaeee oaeaea
a naaa?iie Neae?e, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aa oa??eoi?ey auea oae auniei
iiaeiyoa, /oi aieueoa oaea ieeiaaea ia caoiieyeanue.

Aeaaiineee ia?eiae iacaai ii eiaie a?aonoaa Aeaaii a Aiaeee, aaea
aia?aua auee eco/aiu ii?iaeu yoiai aic?anoa. Iinea aeaioaeaoeeiiiiai
ia?a?uaa ioaeaeueiua ?aeiiu iaoa?eeia niiaa eniuoaee iia?oaeaiea e auee
caoiieaiu iaeeiaiaeiuie ii?yie. A naaa?iie Aiaeee e /anoe/ii a
Oioeaiaeee iieiaeua eaeaaeiieaeu i?aiyonoaiaaee i?iieeiiaaieth ii?y.
Iaeiaei eo ?ac?ooaiea i?eaaei e iaeiieaieth iiuiuo oieu oa??eaaiiuo
ian/aieeia a aeieeiao i?aaeai?iuo ?ae. Yoa oi?iaoeey ae?aaieo e?aniuo
ian/aieeia ecaanoia oi?ioi nio?aieaoeieny eneiiaaiuie ?uaaie. THaeiay
Aiaeey a yoi a?aiy auea iie?uoa ii?ai, a eioi?ii ioeaaaeenue iiuiua
oieue ecaanoiyeia. Cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee ia naaa?a Aa?iiu auee oiaaea
caoiieaiu ii?yie, a eioi?uo iaeaieeaaeenue neie aeeienouo neaioeaa e
ecaanoiyeia. I?e a?acaiee ?aeia a yoe oieue a ?aeiia ianneaa Yeoaeue
ia?aciaaeenue aeeaiieniua ooanu, eioi?ua iiaeieiathony ii aa?aaai
aeieeiu.

Aeaaiineea ii?y iie?uaaee iiiaea ?aeiiu aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee,
thaeiie Neae?e e thaeiiai Eeoay. Iaoe?iue ii?neie aannaei caoiiee
oeaio?aeueioth e caiaaeioth Aano?aeeth. Yoa oa??eoi?ey ia iie?uaaeanue
ii?ai n eaia?eeneiai ia?eiaea. A THaeiie Aia?eea ii?neay o?aina?anney
?ani?ino?aieeanue ia iaeioi?ua oeaio?aeueiua e caiaaeiua ?aeiiu. E?iia
oiai, nouanoaiaae oceee noaoe?ioiue i?iaea a Aiaciiee. A Naaa?iie
Aia?eea i/aiue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu aeaaiineea ii?iaeu. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
aieueoae /anoe yoiai ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaee aeaa e?oiiuo
aaineieeeiaeueiuo aannaeia. A n?aaeiai aeaaiia ii?neay o?aina?anney
?ani?ino?aieeanue ia oa??eoi?eth nia?aiaiiie aeieeiu ?. Ienneneie, aaea
iaeiieeanue iiiaineieiay oieua ecaanoiyeia.

A aa?oiai aeaaiia iiuiua ai?eciiou neaioeaa e ian/aieeia noi?ie?iaaeenue
a ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Yoe iaeiii/iua oieue
niioaaonoaotho yoaio ai?iia?aciaaiey, ia/aaoaiony a eiioea n?aaeiaai
aeaaiia e i?iaeieaeaaoaiony aei ieii/aiey yoiai ia?eiaea. Ai?u
i?inoe?aeenue aaeieue ainoi/iiai e?uea Aiiaea/neie aaineieeeiaee (io
nia?aiaiiuo thai-ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia NOA aei thai-ainoi/iie Eaiaaeu). Yoio
?aaeii aue neeueii iiaeiyo, aai naaa?iay /anoue i?aoa?iaea
neeaaeeiia?aciaaiea, caoai oai i?iecioee iaoe?iua a?aieoiua eio?ocee.
Yoeie a?aieoaie neiaeaiu ai?u Oaeo-Iaoioein a Iueth-Ayiioe?a,
Noioi-Iaoioei a Aeaei?aeaeee e ?yae ae?oaeo ai?iuo nii?oaeaiee.
Aa?oiaaeaaiineea, o.i. Aeaaeneea, ai?u auee ia?a?aaioaiu
aeaioaeaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie. A ?acoeueoaoa e caiaaeo io Aiiaea/neie
aaineieeeiaee iaeiieeanue neienoay oieua ian/aieeia, iiuiinoue eioi?uo
ianoaie i?aauoaao 1500 i. Iie oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu a ?aeiia ai?
Eyoneeee, ioeoaea e iioei iacaaiea ian/aieeia Eyoneeee. A iaiueoeo
ianooaaao ai?iia?aciaaiea a yoi aea a?aiy i?iyaeeinue a iaeioi?uo
?aeiiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. I?iaaiac e oaeoiie/aneea iiaeiyoey caiiie
iiaa?oiinoe iineoaeeee i?e/eiie ii?neie ?aa?annee a eiioea aeaaiineiai
ia?eiaea.

A aeaaiia i?iecioee iaeioi?ua aaaeiua niauoey a yaiethoeee aeecie ia
Caiea. Ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao caiiiai oa?a auee iaia?oaeaiu ia?aua aannii?iua
iaoiaeee iacaiiuo ?anoaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, a ie?anoiinoyo Aeeaia (oo.
Iueth-Ei?e) auei iaeaeaii iiiai aeaeia iaii?ioieeiia?aciuo, aeeth/ay
aeaaioneea ae?aaiaeaeiua.

N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu aoaee, ei?aeeu, ioaiee,
a?aoeiiiaeu e iieethnee (?en. 12). Nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei oeiia
o?eeiaeoia, oioy eo /eneaiiinoue e aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeenue ii n?aaiaieth n neeo?ii. Aeaaii /anoi iacuaatho «aaeii ?ua»
aeaaiaea?y iuoiiio ?anoeaaoo yoiai eeanna iicaiii/iuo. Oioy aua
nouanoaiaaee i?eieoeaiua aan/aethnoiua, i?aiaeaaeaoue noaee aieaa
niaa?oaiiua oi?iu. Aeoeiia?aciua ?uau aeinoeaaee a aeeeio 6 i. A yoi
a?aiy iiyaeeenue aeaiyeiaeuoauea ?uau, o eioi?uo ieaaaoaeueiue iocu?ue
o?ainoi?ie?iaaeny a i?eieoeaiua eaaeea, /oi iicaieyei ei nouanoaiaaoue
eaeia-oi a?aiy ia nooa, a oaeaea eenoaia?ua e eo/aia?ua. A aa?oiai
aeaaiia iaia?oaeaiu ia?aua neaaeu iacaiiuo aeeaioiuo – e?oiiuo
naeaiaiae?iiiaeiaiuo caiiiaiaeiuo, iacuaaaiuo noaaioeaoaeaie.
Iniaaiiinoe neaeaoa iieacuaatho, /oi iie ?acaeeenue ec aeaiyeiaeuoaueo
?ua iooai aeaeueiaeoaai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey eaaeeo e aeaeieciaiaiey
ieaaieeia e i?aa?auaiey eo a eiia/iinoe.

Eaiaiiioaieueiue ia?eiae. Iinea iaeioi?iai ia?a?uaa iaoa?eee niiaa
eniuoaee iia?oaeaiea e eo ieciaiiua o/anoee i?aa?aoeeenue a iaeeiaiaeiua
ii?y. Oae ia/aeny eaiaiiioaieueiue ia?eiae, iieo/eaoee naia iacaaiea ii
oe?ieiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth oaieueiuo caeaaeae eae a Aa?iia, oae e a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea. A Aia?eea aai ?aiiee yoai, oa?aeoa?eciaaaoeeny
ii?neeie ianoaiiaeaie, ?aiueoa iacuaaee ienneneineei ii iiuiie oieua
ecaanoiyeia, noi?ie?iaaaoaeny a i?aaeaeao nia?aiaiiie aeieeiu ?.
Ienneneie, a oaia?ue aai ioiinyo e ieaeiaio ioaeaeo eaiaiiioaieueiiai
ia?eiaea.

A Aa?iia ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai eaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea oa??eoi?ee
Aiaeee, Aaeueaee e naaa?iie O?aioeee auee aieueoae /anoueth caoiieaiu
ii?ai, a eioi?ii noi?ie?iaaeenue iiuiua ai?eciiou ecaanoiyeia.
Caoiieyeenue oaeaea iaeioi?ua ?aeiiu thaeiie Aa?iiu e thaeiie Acee, aaea
ioeiaeeeenue iiuiua neie aeeienouo neaioeaa e ian/aieeia. Iaeioi?ua ec
yoeo ai?eciioia eiatho eiioeiaioaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e niaea?aeao
iiiai eneiiaaiuo inoaoeia iacaiiuo ?anoaiee, a oaeaea aiauatho
oaeaiiniua ieanou. Iineieueeo ieaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiua oi?iaoeee iaei
i?aaenoaaeaiu a Ao?eea, Aano?aeee e THaeiie Aia?eea, iiaeii
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi yoe oa??eoi?ee iaoiaeeeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii a
noaay?aeueiuo oneiaeyo. E?iia oiai, eiathony naeaeaoaeuenoaa oe?ieiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey oai iaoa?eeiaiai ieaaeaiaiey.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea Aiiaea/neoth aaineieeeiaeue n naaa?a ia?aie/eaaee
Aeaaeneea ai?u, a n thaa, ni noi?iiu Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa, a iaa
i?iieeaei Ienneneineia ii?a, eioi?ia caeeaaei e aeieeio Ienneneie.
Iaaieueoea ii?neea aannaeiu caieiaee iaeioi?ua o/anoee ia caiaaea
iaoa?eea. A ?aeiia aeieeiu Ienneneie iaeaieeaaeanue iiiaineieiay oieua
ecaanoiyeia e neaioeaa. Iaeei ec yoeo ai?eciioia, o.i. eiaeeaineee
ecaanoiye, eee nia?aaieo, yaeyaony oi?ioei no?ieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii. Ii
eniieueciaaeny i?e nii?oaeaiee iiiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo caeaiee a
Aaoeiaoiia.

A eiioea eaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea a Aa?iia oe?iei i?iyaeeinue
ai?iia?aciaaiea. Oeaie ai? i?inoe?aeenue io thaeiie E?eaiaeee /a?ac
thaeioth Aiaeeth e naaa?ioth O?aioeeth a thaeioth Aa?iaieth. Yoio yoai
i?iaaiaca iacuaatho aa?oeeineei, eee aa?enoeeeneei. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea
eieaeueiua iiaeiyoey i?ienoiaeeee a eiioea ienneneineiai ia?eiaea. Yoe
oaeoiie/aneea aeaeaeaiey nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ii?neie ?aa?anneae, ?acaeoeth
eioi?ie niinianoaiaaee oaeaea ieaaeaiaiey thaeiuo iaoa?eeia.

A oeaeii i?aaie/aneee ie? ieaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiiai (eee ienneneineiai)
a?aiaie aue oaeei aea, eae e a aeaaiia. Iaeiaei, iiieii aieueoaai
?aciiia?acey oeiia ae?aaiaeaeiuo iaii?ioieeia, oei?a iiiieieeanue
ae?aaiaeaeiuie ieaoiaie e eaeaieoiauie (ae?aaiaeaeiuie
/eaienoinoaaaeueiuie eeanna oaiuae). Aaniicaiii/iua a iniiaiii auee
i?aaenoaaeaiu oaie aea oi?iaie, /oi e a aeaaiia. A ienneneineia a?aiy
noaee aieaa iau/iuie ii?neea eeeee – aeiiiua aeeaioiua, ii oi?ia
noiaeiua n oeaaoeii. N?aaee eneiiaaiuo iicaiii/iuo iiiai/eneaiiu
aeoeiiiaeiaiua ?uau e noaaioeaoaeu.

A ia/aea iicaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiiai a?aiaie (a Naaa?iie Aia?eea –
iaineeueaaineiai) oneiaey ia iaoa?eeao noaee auno?i iaiyoueny. Eae
neaaeoao ec cia/eoaeueii aieaa oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiioeiaioaeueiuo
inaaeeia, ii?y caieiaee iaiueoea i?ino?ainoaa. Naaa?i-caiaaeiay Aa?iia
aoeueooth /anoue yoiai a?aiaie iaoiaeeeanue a noaay?aeueiuo oneiaeyo.
Iaoe?iia yieeiioeiaioaeueiia O?aeueneia ii?a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeinue a
naaa?iie e oeaio?aeueiie ?innee, a e?oiiay aaineieeeiaeue i?inoe?aeanue
/a?ac thaeioth Aa?iio e thaeioth Aceth (nia?aiaiiua Aeueiu, Eaaeac e
Aeiaeae ?aniieiaeaiu aaeieue aa ine). Yoio i?iaea, eiaiothueeny
aaineieeeiaeueth, eee ii?ai, Oaoen, nouanoaiaae ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea
iineaaeothueo aaieiae/aneeo ia?eiaeia.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Aiaeee, Aaeueaee e Aa?iaiee i?inoe?aeenue ieciaiiinoe.
Caeanue a ?acoeueoaoa iaaieueoeo eieaaaoaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee caiiie ei?u
i?ienoiaeeei /a?aaeiaaiea ii?neeo e eiioeiaioaeueiuo ianoaiiaie. Eiaaea
ii?a ionooiaei, oi?ie?iaaeenue ieciaiiua caaiei/aiiua eaiaeoaoou n
eanaie ec ae?aaiaeaeiuo iaii?ioieeia, ae?aaiaeaeiuo ieaoiia e
eaeaieoiauo. I?e ianooiaiee ii?ae inaaei/iua ia?aciaaiey ia?ae?uaaee
eana, oieioiyy ae?aaaniua inoaoee, eioi?ua i?aa?auaeenue a oi?o, a caoai
a oaieue. A iicaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiia a?aiy ia iaoa?eeao THaeiiai
iieooa?ey ?ani?ino?aieeinue iie?iaiia ieaaeaiaiea. A THaeiie Aia?eea a
?acoeueoaoa ii?neie o?aina?annee, i?iieeaaoae n caiaaea, auea caoiieaia
aoeueoay /anoue oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiuo Aieeaee e Ia?o.

A ?aiiaiaineeueaaineia a?aiy a Naaa?iie Aia?eea Aiiaea/neay
aaineieeeiaeue caieioeanue, oo?aoeea naycue n Ie?iaui ieaaiii, e a
ainoi/iuo e oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao NOA iaeaieeaaeenue oa??eaaiiua
ian/aieee. A na?aaeeia e eiioea yoiai ia?eiaea ai aioo?aiieo ?aeiiao
Naaa?iie Aia?eee (oae aea, eae a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia) i?aiaeaaeaee
ieciaiiinoe. Caeanue iaeeiaiaeiua ii?y ia?eiaee/anee onooiaee ianoi
aieioai, a eioi?uo iaeaieeaaeenue iiuiua oi?oyiua caeaaee, aiineaaenoaee
o?ainoi?ie?iaaaoeany a e?oiiua oaieueiua aannaeiu, eioi?ua i?inoe?athony
io Iaineeueaaiee aei ainoi/iiai Eaicana. Iaeioi?ua caiaaeiua ?aeiiu
Naaa?iie Aia?eee caeeaaeenue ii?ai ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe yoiai
ia?eiaea. Oai ioeaaaeenue neie ecaanoiyeia, neaioeaa e ian/aieeia.

Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea noaay?aeueiuo ianoaiiaie a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
niinianoaiaaei yaiethoeee iacaiiuo ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Aeaaioneea eana
ec ae?aaiaeaeiuo iaii?ioieeia e ieaoiia iie?uaaee iaoe?iua caaiei/aiiua
ieciaiiinoe. Yoe eana eciaeeiaaee ianaeiiuie e iaoeiia?aciuie. Iaeei ec
aeaeia ianaeiiuo, naiue e?oiiue a aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee, aue iioiae ia
nia?aiaiioth no?aeico, ii eiae ?aciao e?ueueaa ie. 75 ni. Cia/eoaeueii
aieueoaai aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey aeinoeaee noaaioeaoaeu. Iaeioi?ua
i?aauoaee a aeeeio 3 i. Oieueei a Naaa?iie Aia?eea a aieioiuo
ioeiaeaieyo iaineeueaaineiai a?aiaie auei iaia?oaeaii aieaa 90 aeaeia
yoeo aeaaioneeo caiiiaiaeiuo, eiaaoeo noiaenoai n naeaiaiae?aie. A yoeo
aea ii?iaeao auee iaeaeaiu inoaoee ae?aaiaeoeo i?aniueathueony. Iaeiaei
ec-ca o?aaiaioa?iinoe iaoiaeie o?oaeii ninoaaeoue iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea
i ii?oieiaee yoeo aeeaioiuo. Aa?iyoii, yoe i?eieoeaiua oi?iu auee
iioiaee ia aeeeaaoi?ia.

Ia?ineee ia?eiae. Eciaiaiey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee, ia/aaoeany a
iicaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiia a?aiy, aua aieueoa i?iyaeeenue a ia?ineii
ia?eiaea, caaa?oeaoai iaeaicieneoth y?o. Aai iacaaiea i?ienoiaeeo io
Ia?ineie iaeanoe a ?innee. A ia/aea yoiai ia?eiaea ii?a caieiaei
O?aeueneoth aaineieeeiaeue – i?iaea, neaaeiaaaoee niaeanii i?inoe?aieth
nia?aiaiiuo O?aeueneeo ai?. Iaeeiaiaeiia ii?a ia?eiaee/anee iie?uaaei
iaeioi?ua ?aeiiu Aiaeee, naaa?iie O?aioeee e thaeiie Aa?iaiee, aaea
iaeaieeaaeenue neienoua oieue ii?neeo e eiioeiaioaeueiuo inaaeeia –
ian/aieeia, ecaanoiyeia, aeeienouo neaioeaa e eaiaiiie niee. Ii?a Oaoen
nouanoaiaaei ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe ia?eiaea, e a ?aeiia naaa?iie
Eiaeee e nia?aiaiiuo Aeiaeaaa ia?aciaaeanue iiuiay oieua ecaanoiyeia.
Ia?ineea ioeiaeaiey aieueoie iiuiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiu a ainoi/iie e
oeaio?aeueiie Aano?aeee e ia ino?iaao THaeiie e THai-Ainoi/iie Acee. Iie
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a A?aceeee, Aieeaee e A?aaioeia, a oaeaea a
thaeiie Ao?eea.

Iiiaea ia?ineea oi?iaoeee a naaa?iie Eiaeee, Aano?aeee, Ao?eea e THaeiie
Aia?eea eiatho eiioeiaioaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Iie i?aaenoaaeaiu
oieioiaiiuie eaaeieeiauie ioeiaeaieyie, a oaeaea oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie aiaeii-eaaeieeiauie ianeaie. A Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie
Ao?eea yoeie ii?iaeaie ia/eiaaony iiuiay oieua eiioeiaioaeueiuo
ioeiaeaiee, ecaanoiay eae na?ey ea?o.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea ia?ineea ii?y caieiaee iaiueooth ieiuaaeue ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeoueie ia?eiaeaie iaeaiciy. Aeaaiay o?aina?anney
?ani?ino?aiyeanue ec caiaaeiie /anoe Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa ia naaa? /a?ac
oa??eoi?eth Iaeneee e i?iieeea a thaeiua ?aeiiu oeaio?aeueiie /anoe NOA.
Oeaio? yoiai yieeiioeiaioaeueiiai ii?y ?aniieaaaeny a i?aaeaeao
nia?aiaiiiai ooaoa Iueth-Iaeneei, aaea noi?ie?iaaeanue iiuiay oieua
ecaanoiyeia na?ee eyieoai. Aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe iiaecaiiuo aiae yoe
ecaanoiyee i?eia?aee nioiaoth no?oeoo?o, iniaaiii y?ei au?aaeaiioth a
ciaiaieouo Ea?enaaaeneeo iaua?ao (oo. Iueth-Iaeneei, NOA). Ainoi/iaa, a
Eaicana e Ieeaoiia, ioeiaeeeenue i?ea?aaeiua oaoeee e?aniuo aeeienouo
neaioeaa. A eiioea ia?ie, eiaaea ieiuaaeue, caiyoay ii?ai, cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeanue, noi?ie?iaaeenue iiuiua nieaiiniua e aeiniiiniua oieue.

A eiioea iaeaicieneie y?u, io/anoe a eaiaiiioaieueiii ia?eiaea e io/anoe
– a ia?ineii, ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao ia/aeny i?iaaiac. Iiuiua oieue
inaaei/iuo ii?iae Aiiaea/neie aaineieeeiaee auee niyou a neeaaeee e
?acaeou ?aceiiaie. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaeenue ai?u Aiiaea/e. Yoio yoai
ai?iia?aciaaiey a Aa?iia e Acee iacuaatho aa?oeeineei, eee
aa?enoeeeneei, a a Naaa?iie Aia?eea – aiiaea/neei.

?anoeoaeueiue ie? ia?ineiai ia?eiaea aue oaeie aea, eae e ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia eaiaiiioaieueiiai. Iaeiaei ?anoaiey eiaee iaiueoea ?acia?u e ia
auee oae iiiai/eneaiiu. Yoi oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi eeeiao ia?ineiai
ia?eiaea noae oieiaeiaa e nooa. Aaniicaiii/iua aeeaioiua ia?ie auee
oianeaaeiaaiu io i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea. Aieueoie nea/ie i?iecioae a
yaiethoeee iicaiii/iuo (?en. 13). Ia anao iaoa?eeao eiioeiaioaeueiua
ioeiaeaiey ia?ineiai aic?anoa niaea?aeao iiiai/eneaiiua inoaoee
i?aniueathueony, aeinoeaaaoeo a aeeeio 3 i. Ana yoe i?aaeee iacicieneeo
aeeiicaa?ia ioee/aeenue i?eieoeaiui no?iaieai e aiaoia auee iioiaee ia
yua?eoe eee aeeeaaoi?ia, ii eiiaaea eiaee iaiau/iua iniaaiiinoe,
iai?eia?, aunieee ia?oniia?aciue ieaaiee, i?ioyaeaathueeny io oae aei
oainoa aaeieue nieiu, o aeeiao?iaeiia. Ana aua iiiai/eneaiiuie auee
noaaioeaoaeu.

A eiioea ia?ineiai ia?eiaea ai?iia?aciaaiea, i?iyaeaoaany ai iiiaeo
?aeiiao caiiiai oa?a ia oiia iauaai iiaeiyoey iaoa?eeia, i?eaaei e
noieue cia/eoaeueiui eciaiaieyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, /oi ia/aee
auie?aoue iiiaea oa?aeoa?iua i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeaicieneie oaoiu. Ia?ineee
ia?eiae aue caeeth/eoaeueiie noaaeeae nouanoaiaaiey iiiaeo
aaniicaiii/iuo, iniaaiii o?eeiaeoia.

Iacicieneay y?a, iiae?acaeaeyaiay ia o?e ia?eiaea, ioee/aeanue io
iaeaicieneie i?aiaeaaeaieai eiioeiaioaeueiuo ianoaiiaie iaae ii?neeie, a
oaeaea ninoaaii oei?u e oaoiu. Iacaiiua ?anoaiey, iiiaea a?oiiu
aaniicaiii/iuo e iniaaiii iicaiii/iua aeeaioiua i?eniiniaeeenue e iiaui
ianoaiiaeai e i?aoa?iaee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey.

O?eaniaue ia?eiae ioe?uaaao iacicieneoth y?o. Aai iacaaiea i?ienoiaeeo
io a?a/. trias (o?ieoea) a nayce n /aoeei o?ao/eaiiui no?iaieai oieue
ioeiaeaiee yoiai ia?eiaea a naaa?iie Aa?iaiee. A iniiaaiee oieue
caeaaatho e?aniioeaaoiua ian/aieee, a na?aaeeia – ecaanoiyee, a aaa?oo –
e?aniioeaaoiua ian/aieee e aeeienoua neaioeu. Ia i?ioyaeaiee o?eana
cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiu e Acee auee caiyou ica?aie e
iaeeiaiaeiuie ii?yie. Yieeiioeiaioaeueiia ii?a iie?uaaei Caiaaeioth
Aa?iio, i?e/ai aai aa?aaiaay eeiey i?ineaaeeaaaony ia oa??eoi?ee Aiaeee.
A yoii ii?neii aannaeia e iaeaieeaaeenue auoaoiiiyiooua no?aoioeie/aneea
inaaeee. Ian/aieee, caeaaathuea a ieaeiae e aa?oiae /anoyo oieue,
io/anoe eiatho eiioeiaioaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Ae?oaie o?eaniaue
ii?neie aannaei i?iieeae ia oa??eoi?eth naaa?iie ?innee e
?ani?ino?aiyeny e thao ii O?aeueneiio i?iaeao. Ia?iiiia ii?a Oaoen
oiaaea iie?uaaei i?eia?ii oaeoth aea oa??eoi?eth, eae e a
iicaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiia e ia?ineia a?aiy. A yoii ii?a iaeiieeanue iiuiay
oieua aeieiieoiauo ecaanoiyeia, eioi?uie neiaeaiu Aeieiieoiaua Aeueiu
naaa?iie Eoaeee. Ia thaa oeaio?aeueiie Ao?eee o?eaniaue aic?ano eiaao
aoeueoay /anoue aa?oiae oieue eiioeiaioaeueiie na?ee ea?o. Yoe ai?eciiou
ecaanoiu iaeeeai eneiiaaiuo inoaoeia i?aniueathueony. A eiioea o?eana ia
oa??eoi?ee Eieoiaee, Aaianoyeu e A?aaioeiu ia?aciaaeenue iie?iau
aeaa?eoia e ianeia eiioeiaioaeueiiai aaiacena. I?aniueathueany,
iaeaeaiiua a yoeo neiyo, iaia?oaeeaatho oaeeaeoaeueiia noiaenoai n
oaoiie na?ee ea?o a thaeiie Ao?eea.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea o?eaniaua ii?iaeu ia oae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu, eae a
Aa?iia e Acee. I?iaeoeou ?ac?ooaiey Aiiaea/ae – e?aniioeaaoiua
eiioeiaioaeueiua ianee e aeeiu – iaeaieeaaeenue ai aiaaeeiao,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ainoi/iaa yoeo ai? e eniuouaaaoeo iia?oaeaiea. Yoe
ioeiaeaiey, ia?aneaeaathueany n ai?eciioaie eaau e ieanoiauie
eio?oceyie, ?acaeou ?aceiiaie e eiatho iaaeaiea e ainoieo. A
Iuetha?eneii aannaeia a Iueth-Aeaea?ne e aeieeia ?.Eiiiaeoeeoo ei
niioaaonoaotho ei?aiiua ii?iaeu na?ee iuetha?e. Iaeeiaiaeiua ii?y
caieiaee iaeioi?ua caiaaeiua ?aeiiu Naaa?iie Aia?eee, aaea
iaeaieeaaeenue ecaanoiyee e aeeienoua neaioeu. Eiioeiaioaeueiua
ian/aieee e aeeienoua neaioeu o?eana auoiaeyo ii ai?oai Aieueoiai
eaiueiia (oo. A?eciia).

I?aaie/aneee ie? a o?eaniaii ia?eiaea aue nouanoaaiii eiui, /ai a
ia?ineii ia?eiaea. Aeey yoiai a?aiaie oa?aeoa?ii iaeeea e?oiiuo oaieiuo
aea?aaueaa, inoaoee eioi?uo /anoi ano?a/athony a o?eaniauo
eiioeiaioaeueiuo ioeiaeaieyo. Aeeienoua neaioeu oi?iaoeee /eie ia naaa?a
A?eciiu ianuuaiu ie?aiaiaeuie noaieaie aea?aaueaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
auaao?eaaiey neaioeaa iie iaiaaeeeenue e oaia?ue ia?acotho eaiaiiue ean.
Oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/eee naaiaieeiaua (eee oeeeaaeioeou), ?anoaiey n
oiieeie eee ai/iieiaeaeiuie noaieaie e naenathueie n iaeooee
?anna/aiiuie, eae o iaeuei, eenoueyie. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu naaiaieeiauo
nouanoaotho e a nia?aiaiiuo o?iie/aneeo ?aeiiao. Ec aaniicaiii/iuo
naiuie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie auee iieethnee, n?aaee eioi?uo i?aiaeaaeaee
aiiiieou (?en. 14), eiaaoea ioaeaeaiiia noiaenoai n nia?aiaiiuie
iaooeeonaie (eee ei?aaeeeaie) e iiiaieaia?ioth ?aeiaeio. Nouanoaiaaei
iiiai aeaeia aeaonoai?/aouo iieethneia. Cia/eoaeueiue i?ia?ann i?iecioae
a yaiethoeee iicaiii/iuo. Oioy noaaioeaoaeu auee aua aeiaieueii iau/iu,
i?aiaeaaeaoue noaee i?aniueathueany, n?aaee eioi?uo iiyaeeinue
iiiaeanoai iaiau/iuo a?oii (iai?eia?, oeoicaa?u, oi?ia oaea eioi?uo
auea, eae o nia?aiaiiuo e?ieiaeeeia, a /aethnoe oceea e aeeeiiua n
ino?uie eiie/aneeie coaaie). A o?eana aia?aua iiyaeeenue ianoiyuea
aeeiicaa?u, yaiethoeeiiii aieaa ?acaeoua, /ai eo i?eieoeaiua i?aaeee.
Eiia/iinoe o ieo auee iai?aaeaiu aiec, a ia a noi?iiu (eae o
e?ieiaeeeia), /oi iicaieyei ei ia?aaeaeaaoueny iiaeiaii ieaeiieoathuei e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaei iaae caieae. Aeeiicaa?u ia?aaeaeaaeenue ia caaeieo
iiaao, oaea?aeeaay ?aaiiaanea i?e iiiiue aeeeiiiai oainoa (eae eaiao?o),
e ioee/aeenue iaaieueoei ?inoii – io 30 ni aei 2,5 i. Iaeioi?ua
i?aniueathueany i?eniiniaeeenue e aeecie a ii?neie n?aaea, iai?eia?
eooeicaa?u, ooeiaeua eioi?uo iioiaeeei ia aeoeuea, a eiia/iinoe
o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue a ia/oi n?aaeiaa iaaeaeo eanoaie e ieaaieeaie, e
ieaceicaa?u, ooeiaeua eioi?uo noaei oieiuaiiui, oay auoyioeanue, a
eiia/iinoe i?aa?aoeeenue a eanou. Iaa yoe a?oiiu aeeaioiuo noaee aieaa
iiiai/eneaiiuie a iineaaeothuea yoaiu iacicieneie y?u.

TH?neee ia?eiae iieo/ee naia iacaaiea io ai? TH?a (a naaa?i-caiaaeiie
Oaaeoea?ee), neiaeaiiuo iiiaineieiie oieuae ecaanoiyeia, aeeienouo
neaioeaa e ian/aieeia. A th?a i?iecioea iaeia ec e?oiiaeoeo ii?neeo
o?aina?annee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Ia?iiiia yieeiioeiaioaeueiia ii?a
?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia aieueoae /anoe Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee e
i?iieeaei a iaeioi?ua caiaaeiua ?aeiiu aa?iiaeneie ?innee. A Aa?iaiee
ecaanoiu iiiai/eneaiiua auoiaeu aa?oiath?neeo eaaoiiuo iaeeica?ienouo
ecaanoiyeia, a eioi?uo auee iaia?oaeaiu iaiau/iua eneiiaaiua. A Aaaa?ee,
a ciaiaieoii ianoa/ea Cieaioioai, iaeaeaiu inoaoee e?ueaouo
i?aniueathueony e iaa ec ecaanoiuo aeaeia ia?auo ioeoe.

Ii?a Oaoen i?inoe?aeinue io Aoeaioeee /a?ac thaeioth /anoue Ie?aiaeneiai
i-iaa aaeieue N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y e /a?ac THaeioth e THai-Ainoi/ioth
Aceth auoiaeeei e Oeoiio ieaaio. Aoeueoay /anoue naaa?iie Acee a yoio
ia?eiae ?aniieaaaeanue auoa o?iaiy ii?y, oioy yieeiioeiaioaeueiua ii?y n
naaa?a i?iieeaee a Neae?ue. Eiioeiaioaeueiua ioeiaeaiey th?neiai
aic?anoa ecaanoiu a thaeiie Neae?e e naaa?iii Eeoaa.

Iaaieueoea yieeiioeiaioaeueiua ii?y caieiaee ia?aie/aiiua ieiuaaee
aaeieue iiaa?aaeuey caiaaeiie Aano?aeee. Ai aioo?aiieo ?aeiiao Aano?aeee
eiathony auoiaeu th?neeo eiioeiaioaeueiuo ioeiaeaiee. Aoeueoay /anoue
Ao?eee a th?neee ia?eiae ?aniieaaaeanue auoa o?iaiy ii?y. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeyea aa naaa?iay ie?aeia, caeeaaaoayny ii?ai Oaoen. A THaeiie
Aia?eea auoyiooia oceia ii?a caiieiyei aaineieeeiaeue, ?aciauaaoothny
i?eia?ii ia ianoa nia?aiaiiuo Aiae.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea th?neea ii?y caieiaee aanueia ia?aie/aiiua oa??eoi?ee
ia caiaaea iaoa?eea. Iiuiua oieue eiioeiaioaeueiuo ian/aieeia e e?ithueo
aeeienouo neaioeaa iaeiieeenue a ?aeiia ieaoi Eiei?aaei, iniaaiii e
naaa?o e ainoieo io Aieueoiai eaiueiia. Ian/aieee ia?aciaaeenue ec
ianeia, neaaaaoeo ionouiiua aethiiua eaiaeoaoou eioeiaei. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?ioeannia auaao?eaaiey ian/aieee i?eia?aee iaiau/iua oi?iu (eae,
iai?eia?, aeeaiieniua ino?ieiia/iua ieee a iaoeeiiaeueiii ia?ea Caeii
eee iaoeeiiaeueiue iaiyoiee ?aeiaio-A?eaeae, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie
aicauoathuothny ia 94 i iaae aeiii eaiueiia a?eo n i?ieaoii 85 i; yoe
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe iaoiaeyony a ooaoa THoa). Ioeiaeaiey aeeienouo
neaioeaa oi?iaoeee ii??enii ciaiaieou iaoiaeeaie 69 aeaeia eneiiaaiuo
aeeiicaa?ia. Oiieiaeenia?niua inaaeee a yoii ?aeiia, aa?iyoii,
iaeaieeaaeenue a oneiaeyo caaiei/aiiie ieceiu.

?anoeoaeueiue ie? th?neiai ia?eiaea a iaueo /a?oao aue noiaeai n
nouanoaiaaaoei a o?eana. Ai oei?a aeiieie?iaaee naaiaieeiaua e oaieiua
ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu. Aia?aua iiyaeeenue aeieaiaua – aieinaiaiiua
oe?ieieenoaaiiua ae?aaaniua ?anoaiey n iiaaeathuae inaiueth eenoaie
(aa?iyoii, yoi naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo aieinaiaiiuie e iie?uoinaiaiiuie
?anoaieyie). Aaeeinoaaiiue aeae yoiai naiaenoaa – aeieai aeaoeiianoiue –
nio?aieeny aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie e n/eoaaony naiui ae?aaiei
i?aaenoaaeoaeai ae?aaaniuo, iienoeia aeeaui eneiiaaiui.

TH?neay oaoia aaniicaiii/iuo aanueia noiaeia n o?eaniaie. Iaeiaei aieaa
iiiai/eneaiiuie noaee ei?aeeu-?eoino?ieoaee, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeenue
ii?neea aaee e iieethnee. Iiyaeeenue iiiaea aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee,
?iaenoaaiiua nia?aiaiiui ono?eoeai. Ana aua auee iiiai/eneaiiu aiiiieou.

Iicaiii/iua auee i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii i?aniueathueieny,
iineieueeo noaaioeaoaeu auia?ee a eiioea o?eana. Aeeiicaa?u aeinoeaee
eoeueieiaoeee naiaai ?acaeoey. Oaeea o?aaiyaeiua oi?iu, eae aiaoicaa?u e
aeeieiaeiee, noaee ia?aaeaeaaoueny ia /aou?ao eiia/iinoyo; iiiaea eiaee
aeeeiiua oath e oaino. Yoe aeeaioiua i?eia?aee aeaaioneea ?acia?u (aei
27 i a aeeeio), a iaeioi?ua aaneee aei 40 o. O ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae o?aaiyaeiuo aeeiicaa?ia iaiueoeo ?acia?ia, iai?eia?
noaaicaa?ia, ?acaeeny caueoiue iaioee?ue, ninoiyaoee ec ieanoei e oeiia.
O ieioiyaeiuo aeeiicaa?ia, a /anoiinoe aeeicaa?ia, noi?ie?iaaeenue
e?oiiua aieiau n iiuiuie /aethnoyie e ino?uie coaaie, a aeeeio iie
aeinoeaaee 11 i e ia?aaeaeaaeenue ia aeaoo eiia/iinoyo. Ae?oaea a?oiiu
i?aniueathueony oiaea auee aanueia iiiai/eneaiiu. A th?neeo ii?yo
iaeoaee ieaceicaa?u e eooeicaa?u. Aia?aua iiyaeeenue eaoathuea
i?aniueathueany – ioa?icaa?u, o eioi?uo ?acaeeenue ia?aiii/aoua e?ueuey,
eae o eaoo/eo iuoae, a ianna oiaiueoeeanue ca n/ao o?oa/aouo einoae.

Iiyaeaiea ioeoe a th?a – aaaeiue yoai a ?acaeoee aeeaioiiai ie?a. A
eaaoiiuo ecaanoiyeao Cieaioioaia auee iaia?oaeaiu aeaa ioe/ueeo neaeaoa
e ioia/aoee ia?ueaa. Iaeiaei yoe i?eieoeaiua ioeoeu aua eiaee iiiai
/a?o, iaueo n i?aniueathueieny, aeeth/ay ino?ua coau eiie/aneie oi?iu e
aeeeiiua oainou.

TH?neee ia?eiae caaa?oeeny eioaineaiie neeaae/aoinoueth, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?ie ia caiaaea NOA noi?ie?iaaeenue ai?u Nuea??a-Iaaaaea, eioi?ua
i?inoe?aeenue aeaeueoa ia naaa? a i?aaeaeu nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie
Eaiaaeu. Aiineaaenoaee thaeiay /anoue yoiai neeaae/aoiai iiyna niiaa
eniuoaea iiaeiyoea, eioi?ia i?aaeii?aaeaeeei no?iaiea nia?aiaiiuo ai?.
Ia ae?oaeo iaoa?eeao i?iyaeaiey i?iaaiaca a th?a auee iacia/eoaeueiu.

Iaeiaie ia?eiae. A yoi a?aiy iaeaieeaaeenue iiuiua neienoua oieue
iyaeiai neaai oieioiaiiiai aaeiai ecaanoiyea – iaea, io eioi?iai
i?iecioei iacaaiea ia?eiaea. Aia?aua oaeea neie auee eco/aiu a
iaiaaeaieyo ii aa?aaai i?ieeaa Ia-aea-Eaea aeec Aeoa?a (Aaeeeia?eoaiey)
e Eaea (O?aioeey). A ae?oaeo /anoyo naaoa ioeiaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai
aic?anoa oiaea iacuaatho iaeiauie, oioy oai ano?a/athony e ae?oaea oeiu
ii?iae.

A iaeiaie ia?eiae ii?neea o?aina?annee ioaaouaaee cia/eoaeueiua /anoe
Aa?iiu e Acee. A oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia ii?y caeeaaee aeaa noaoe?ioiuo
aaineieeeiaeueiuo i?iaeaa. Iaeei ec ieo ?aniieaaaeny a i?aaeaeao
thai-ainoi/iie Aiaeee, naaa?iie Aa?iaiee, Iieueoe e caiaaeiuo ?aeiiia
?innee e ia e?aeiai ainoiea aeinoeaae noaia?eaeeiiaeueiiai O?aeueneiai
i?iaeaa. Ae?oaay aaineieeeiaeue, Oaoen, nio?aiyea naia i?aaeiaa
i?inoe?aiea a thaeiie Aa?iia e naaa?iie Ao?eea e niaaeeiyeanue n thaeiie
ieiia/iinoueth O?aeueneiai i?iaeaa. Aeaeaa ii?a Oaoen i?iaeieaeaeinue a
THaeiie Acee e ainoi/iaa Eiaeeeneiai ueoa niaaeeiyeinue n Eiaeeeneei
ieaaiii. Ca eneeth/aieai naaa?iie e ainoi/iie ie?aei, oa??eoi?ey Acee ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai iaeiaiai ia?eiaea ia caeeaaeanue ii?ai, iiyoiio oai
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu eiioeiaioaeueiua ioeiaeaiey yoiai a?aiaie. Iiuiua
neie iaeiauo ecaanoiyeia i?aaenoaaeaiu ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu. A naaa?iuo ?aeiiao Ao?eee, eoaea caoiaeeei ii?a Oaoen,
iaeiieeenue aieueoea oieue ian/aieeia. Ianee ionouie Naoa?a
ia?aciaaeenue a iniiaiii ca n/ao i?iaeoeoia eo ?ac?ooaiey. Aano?aeey
iie?uaaeanue iaeiauie yieeiioeiaioaeueiuie ii?yie. A THaeiie Aia?eea ia
i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe iaeiaiai ia?eiaea Aiaeneee i?iaea caeeaaeny
ii?ai. Ainoi/iaa aai ia cia/eoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee A?aceeee ioeiaeeeenue
oa??eaaiiua aeaa?eou e ianee n iiiai/eneaiiuie inoaoeaie aeeiicaa?ia.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea ie?aeiiua ii?y caieiaee aa?aaiaua ?aaieiu
Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia e Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa, aaea iaeaieeaaeenue ianee,
aeeiu e iaeiaua ecaanoiyee. Ae?oaia ie?aeiiia ii?a ?aniieaaaeinue ia
caiaaeiii iiaa?aaeuea iaoa?eea a i?aaeaeao Eaeeoi?iee e aeioiaeeei aei
thaeiuo iiaeiiaeee aic?iaeaeaiiuo ai? Nuea??a-Iaaaaea. Iaeiaei
iineaaeiyy naiay e?oiiay ii?neay o?aina?anney ioaaoeea caiaaeiua ?aeiiu
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Naaa?iie Aia?eee. A yoi a?aiy noi?ie?iaaeny iaoe?iue
aaineieeeiaeueiue i?iaea Neaeenouo ai?, e ia?iiiia ii?a
?ani?ino?aiyeinue io Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa /a?ac nia?aiaiiua Aaeeeea
?aaieiu e Neaeenoua ai?u ia naaa? (caiaaeiaa Eaiaaeneiai ueoa) aieioue
aei Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai ieaaia. Ai a?aiy yoie o?aina?annee auea
ioeiaeaia iiuiay iiiaineieiay oieua ian/aieeia, ecaanoiyeia e aeeienouo
neaioeaa.

A eiioea iaeiaiai ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeee eioaineaiue i?iaaiac a THaeiie e
Naaa?iie Aia?eea e Ainoi/iie Acee. A THaeiie Aia?eea inaaei/iua ii?iaeu,
iaeiieaoeany a Aiaeneie aaineieeeiaee ca ianeieueei ia?eiaeia, auee
oieioiaiu e niyou a neeaaeee, /oi i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth Aiae.
Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii a Naaa?iie Aia?eea ia ianoa aaineieeeiaee
noi?ie?iaaeenue Neaeenoua ai?u. Ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao ie?a oneeeeanue
aoeeaie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue. Eaaiaua iioiee iie?uee anth thaeioth
/anoue i-iaa Eiaeinoai (oaeei ia?acii noi?ie?iaaeinue iaoe?iia ieaoi
Aeaeai), a iaaieueoea eceeyiey eaau eiaee ianoi a A?aaee e Ainoi/iie
Ao?eea. Ana iaoa?eee eniuoaee cia/eoaeueiua iiaeiyoey, e i?iecioea
?aa?anney anao aaineieeeiaeueiuo, yieeiioeiaioaeueiuo e ie?aeiiuo ii?ae.

Iaeiaie ia?eiae iciaiaiiaaeny ianeieueeeie e?oiiuie niauoeyie a ?acaeoee
i?aaie/aneiai ie?a. Iiyaeeenue ia?aua oeaaoeiaua ?anoaiey. Eo eneiiaaiua
inoaoee i?aaenoaaeaiu eenoueyie e ae?aaaneiie ii?iae, iiiaea ec eioi?uo
?anooo e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy (iai?eia?, eaa, aeoa, eeai e ayc). Iaeiaay
oaoia aaniicaiii/iuo a oeaeii aiaeiae/ia th?neie. N?aaee iicaiii/iuo
aeeaioiuo ianooieea eoeueieiaoeey aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey
i?aniueathueony. Nouanoaiaaee o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu aeeiicaa?ia. Oeuiua n
oi?ioi ?acaeouie ianneaiuie caaeieie eiia/iinoyie auee i?aaenoaaeaiu
oe?aiiicaa?aie, eioi?ua a aeeeio aeinoeaaee 14 i, a a aunioo – 5 i.
Iieo/eea ?acaeoea a?oiia aeaoiiaeo o?aaiyaeiuo aeeiicaa?ia (eee
o?aoiaeiioia) n oe?ieeie oieiuaiiuie /aethnoyie, iaiiieiathueie ooeiue
eetha. Iiiai/eneaiiua neaeaou yoeo aeeaioiuo ano?a/athony a iaeiauo
eiioeiaioaeueiuo ioeiaeaieyo Naaa?iie Aia?eee. E o?aoueae a?oiia
ioiinyony ?iaaoua aeeiicaa?u n ?acaeoui einoyiui ueoii, caueuaaoei
aieiao e oath. Oeie/iue i?aaenoaaeoaeue yoie a?oiiu – o?eoea?aoiin n
ei?ioeei iiniaui e aeaoiy aeeeiiuie iaaeaeaciuie ?iaaie.

A iaeiauo ii?yo iaeoaee ieaceicaa?u e eooeicaa?u, iiyaeeenue ii?neea
yua?eoeu iicacaa?u n auoyiooui ooeiaeuai e n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeie
eanoiaeaeiuie eiia/iinoyie. Ioa?icaa?u (eaoathuea yua?u) oo?aoeee coau e
eo/oa ia?aaeaeaaeenue a aicaeooiii i?ino?ainoaa, /ai eo th?neea i?aaeee.
O iaeiiai ec aeaeia ioa?icaa?ia – ioa?aiiaeiia – ?aciao e?ueueaa
aeinoeaae 8 i.

Ecaanoiu aeaa aeaea ioeoe iaeiaiai ia?eiaea, nio?aieaoea iaeioi?ua
ii?oieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?aioeeee, iai?eia? ?aciauaiiua a aeueaaieao
coau eiie/aneie oi?iu. Iaeei ec ieo – aania?i?ien (iu?ythuay ioeoea) –
i?eniiniaeeny e aeecie a ii?a.

Oioy ia?aoiaeiua oi?iu, aieueoa iioiaeea ia ?aioeeee, /ai ia
ieaeiieoathueo, ecaanoiu n o?eana e th?u, aia?aua iiiai/eneaiiua inoaoee
ianoiyueo ieaeiieoathueo auee iaia?oaeaiu a eiioeiaioaeueiuo
aa?oiaiaeiauo ioeiaeaieyo. I?eieoeaiua ieaeiieoathuea iaeiaiai ia?eiaea
ioee/aeenue iaaieueoeie ?acia?aie e /ai-oi iaiiieiaee nia?aiaiiuo
caiea?iae.

Oe?iei ?acaeoua ia Caiea i?ioeannu ai?iia?aciaaiey e oaeoiie/aneea
iiaeiyoey iaoa?eeia a eiioea iaeiaiai ia?eiaea i?eaaee e noieue
cia/eoaeueiui eciaiaieyi i?e?iaeu e eeeiaoa, /oi iiiaea ?anoaiey e
aeeaioiua auia?ee. Ec aaniicaiii/iuo en/acee ainiiaenoaiaaaoea a
iacicieneeo ii?yo aiiiieou, a ec iicaiii/iuo – ana aeeiicaa?u,
eooeicaa?u, ieaceicaa?u, iicacaa?u e ioa?icaa?u.

Eaeiicieneay y?a, ioaaouaaaoay iineaaeiea 65 iei. eao, iiae?acaeaeyaony
ia o?aoe/iue (a ?innee i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue aeaa ia?eiaea – iaeaiaaiiaue e
iaiaaiiaue) e /aoaa?oe/iue ia?eiaeu. Oioy iineaaeiee ioee/aeny iaeie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth (aic?anoiua ioeaiee aai ieaeiae a?aieoeu
eieaaethony io 1 aei 2,8 iei. eao), ii nua?ae aieueoia cia/aiea a
enoi?ee Caiee, iineieueeo n iei naycaiu iaiaeiie?aoiua iaoa?eeiaua
ieaaeaiaiey e iiyaeaiea /aeiaaea.

O?aoe/iue ia?eiae. A yoi a?aiy iiiaea ?aeiiu Aa?iiu, Acee e Naaa?iie
Ao?eee auee iie?uou iaeeiaiaeiuie yieeiioeiaioaeueiuie e aeoaieiaiaeiuie
aaineieeeiaeueiuie ii?yie. A ia/aea yoiai ia?eiaea (a iaiaaia) ii?a
caieiaei thai-ainoi/ioth Aiaeeth, naaa?i-caiaaeioth O?aioeeth e
Aaeueaeth e oai iaeiieeanue iiuiay oieua ianeia e aeei. Ana aua
i?iaeieaeaei nouanoaiaaoue ii?a Oaoen, i?inoe?aaoaany io Aoeaioe/aneiai
aei Eiaeeeneiai ieaaia. Aai aiaeu caeeaaee Ie?aiaeneee e Aiaiieineee
iieoino?iaa, naaa?iua ?aeiiu Ao?eee, thai-caiaaeioth Aceth e naaa?
Eiaeinoaia. A yoii aannaeia ioeaaaeenue iiuiua ai?eciiou ecaanoiyeia.
Aoeueoay /anoue naaa?iiai Aaeioa neiaeaia ioiioeeoiauie ecaanoiyeaie,
eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue a ea/anoaa no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea i?e
aicaaaeaiee ie?aieae.

A yoi a?aiy ii/oe any thai-ainoi/iay Acey auea caiyoa ii?neeie
aannaeiaie e iaaieueoia yieeiioeiaioaeueiia ii?a ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia
thai-ainoiea Aano?aeee. O?aoe/iua ii?neea aannaeiu iie?uaaee naaa?ioth e
thaeioth ieiia/iinoe THaeiie Aia?eee, a yieeiioeiaioaeueiia ii?a
i?iieeaei ia oa??eoi?eth ainoi/iie Eieoiaee, naaa?iie Aaianoyeu e
thaeiie Iaoaaiiee. Iiuiua oieue eiioeiaioaeueiuo ianeia e aeaa?eoia
iaeaieeaaeenue a aannaeia Aiaciiee.

Ie?aeiiua ii?y ?aniieaaaeenue ia ianoa nia?aiaiiuo Aa?aaiauo ?aaiei,
i?eeaaathueo e Aoeaioe/aneiio ieaaio e Iaeneeaineiio caeeao, a oaeaea
aaeieue caiaaeiiai iiaa?aaeuey Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Iiuiua oieue
eiioeiaioaeueiuo inaaei/iuo ii?iae, ia?aciaaaoeony a ?acoeueoaoa
aeaioaeaoeee aic?iaeaeaiiuo Neaeenouo ai?, iaeaieeaaeenue ia Aaeeeeo
?aaieiao e a iaaeai?iuo aiaaeeiao.

Ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao caiiiai oa?a a na?aaeeia o?aoe/iiai ia?eiaea
i?ienoiaeee aeoeaiue i?iaaiac. A Aa?iia ia?aciaaeenue Aeueiu, Ea?iaou e
Eaaeac. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea ia caeeth/eoaeueiuo yoaiao o?aoe/iiai
ia?eiaea noi?ie?iaaeenue Aa?aaiaua o?aaou (a i?aaeaeao nia?aiaiiuo
ooaoia Eaeeoi?iey e I?aaii) e Eaneaaeiua ai?u (a i?aaeaeao I?aaiia e
Aaoeiaoiia).

O?aoe/iue ia?eiae iciaiaiiaaeny nouanoaaiiui i?ia?annii a ?acaeoee
i?aaie/aneiai ie?a. Nia?aiaiiua ?anoaiey aicieeee aua a iaeiaii
ia?eiaea. Aieueoeinoai o?aoe/iuo aaniicaiii/iuo auee iaiin?aaenoaaiii
oianeaaeiaaiu io iaeiauo oi?i. Iiiai/eneaiiaa noaee nia?aiaiiua
einoenoua ?uau, oiaiueoeeenue /eneaiiinoue e aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea
caiiiaiaeiuo e i?aniueathueony. I?iecioae nea/ie a ?acaeoee
ieaeiieoathueo. Io i?eieoeaiuo oi?i, iioiaeeo ia caiea?iae e aia?aua
iiyaeaoeony a iaeiaii ia?eiaea, aa?oo ia/aei iiiaea oi?iu, ioiinyueany
oaea e ia/aeo o?aoe/iiai ia?eiaea. Naiua ae?aaiea eneiiaaiua inoaoee
eioaaeae e neiiia iaia?oaeaiu a ieaeiao?aoe/iuo ii?iaeao. Iiyaeeenue
ieioiyaeiua e ia?iieiiuoiua aeeaioiua.

Aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea aeeaioiuo neeueii aic?inei, iaeiaei iiiaea ec ieo
auia?ee oaea e eiioeo o?aoe/iiai ia?eiaea, a ae?oaea (iiaeiaii iaeioi?ui
iacicieneei i?aniueathueiny) aa?ioeenue e ii?neiio ia?aco aeecie, eae,
iai?eia?, eeoiia?aciua e ii?neea naeiuee, o eioi?uo ieaaieee
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua eiia/iinoe. Eaoo/ea iuoe niiaee
eaoaoue aeaaiaea?y ia?aiiiea, niaaeeiythuae eo aeeeiiua iaeueoeu.
Aeeiicaa?u, auia?oea a eiioea iaciciy, onooieee ianoi ieaeiieoathuei,
eioi?ua noaee aeiieie?othuei eeannii aeeaioiuo ia nooa a ia/aea
o?aoe/iiai ia?eiaea.

*aoaa?oe/iue ia?eiae iiae?acaeaeyaony ia yiieaenoioeai, ieaenoioeai e
aieioeai. Iineaaeiee ia/aeny anaai 10 000 eao iacaae. Nia?aiaiiue
?aeueao e eaiaeoaoou Caiee a iniiaiii ioi?ieeenue a /aoaa?oe/iue
ia?eiae.

Ai?iia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeei a eiioea o?aoe/iiai ia?eiaea,
i?aaeii?aaeaeeei cia/eoaeueiia iiaeiyoea iaoa?eeia e ?aa?anneth ii?ae.
*aoaa?oe/iue ia?eiae iciaiaiiaaeny nouanoaaiiui iioieiaeaieai eeeiaoa e
oe?ieei ?acaeoeai iie?iaiiai ieaaeaiaiey a Aioa?eoeaea, A?aieaiaeee,
Aa?iia e Naaa?iie Aia?eea. A Aa?iia oeaio?ii ieaaeaiaiey aue Aaeoeeneee
ueo, ioeoaea eaaeieeiaue iie?ia ?ani?ino?aiyeny aei thaeiie Aiaeee,
n?aaeiae Aa?iaiee e oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. A Neae?e
iie?iaiia ieaaeaiaiea eiaei iaiueoea ?acia?u, a iniiaiii ia?aie/eaaynue
i?aaeai?iuie ?aeiiaie. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea eaaeieeiaua iie?iau caieiaee
a?iiaaeioth oa??eoi?eth, aeeth/ay aoeueooth /anoue Eaiaaeu e naaa?iua
?aeiiu NOA aieioue aei thaeiiai Eeeeiiena. A THaeiii iieooa?ee
/aoaa?oe/iue eaaeieeiaue iie?ia oa?aeoa?ai ia oieueei aeey Aioa?eoeaeu,
ii e aeey Iaoaaiiee. E?iia oiai, ia anao iaoa?eeao auei oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaii ai?iia ieaaeaiaiea.

A ieaenoioeaia auaeaeytho /aou?a iniiaiuo yoaia aeoeaecaoeee
ieaaeaiaiey, /a?aaeiaaaoeany n iaaeeaaeieeiaueyie, ai a?aiy eioi?uo
i?e?iaeiua oneiaey auee aeecee nia?aiaiiui eee aeaaea aieaa oaieuie.
Iineaaeiee eaaeieeiaue iie?ia ia oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiu e Naaa?iie Aia?eee
aeinoeaae iaeaieueoeo ?acia?ia 18–20 oun. eao iacaae e ieii/aoaeueii
?anoaye a ia/aea aieioeaia.

A /aoaa?oe/iue ia?eiae auia?ee iiiaea o?aoe/iua oi?iu aeeaioiuo e
iiyaeeenue iiaua, i?eniiniaeaoeany e aieaa oieiaeiui oneiaeyi. Iniai
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iaiiioa e oa?noenoiai iini?iaa, eioi?ua ianaeyee
naaa?iua iaeanoe a ieaenoioeaia. A aieaa thaeiuo ?aeiiao Naaa?iiai
iieooa?ey ano?a/aeenue ianoiaeiiou, naaeacoaua oea?u e ae?. Eiaaea
eaaeieeiaua iie?iau ?anoayee, i?aaenoaaeoaee ieaenoioeaiiaie oaoiu
auia?ee e eo ianoi caiyee nia?aiaiiua aeeaioiua. Ia?aiauoiua ethaee, a
/anoiinoe iaaiaea?oaeueoeu, aa?iyoii, nouanoaiaaee oaea ai a?aiy
iineaaeiaai iaaeeaaeieeiauey, ii /aeiaae nia?aiaiiiai oeia – /aeiaae
?acoiiue (Homo sapiens) – iiyaeeny eeoue a iineaaeithth eaaeieeiaoth
yiioo ieaenoioeaia, a a aieioeaia ?annaeeeny ii anaio caiiiio oa?o.

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