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Геологическая история Земли в позднем палеозое

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?aoa?ao

Aaieiae/aneay enoi?ey Caiee a iicaeiai iaeaicia

1. Iauaa iiiyoea iicaeiaai iaeaiciy

Iicaeiee iaeaicie aeaeeony ia aeaaiineee, eaiaiiioaieueiue e ia?ineee
ia?eiaeu iauae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a 170 iei. eao. Ioeiaeaiey yoeo
ia?eiaeia ninoaaeytho niioaaonoaothuea nenoaiu, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe
ia?acotho aa?oiaiaeaicieneoth iiaea?oiio. Aeaaiineay e eaiaiiioaieueiay
nenoaiu auee onoaiiaeaiu a Aiaeee, ia?ineay — ia oa??eoi?ee auaoae
Ia?ineie aoaa?iee ?innee. Aeaaiineay e eaiaiiioaieueiay nenoaiu aeaeyony
ia o?e ioaeaea, ia?ineay — ia aeaa.

2. I?aaie/aneee ie?

I?aaie/aneee ie? iicaeiaai iaeaiciy aue cia/eoaeueii aiaa/a
?aiiaiaeaicieneiai, aai ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeei eae a ii?yo, oae e ia
nooa. Ia niaio auia?oei eee i?eoaaeoei a oiaaeie ae?aaiei
?aiiaiaeaicieneei a?oiiai aeeaioiuo i?eoee iiaua — iicaeiaiaeaicieneea.
N?aaee ii?neeo aaniicaiii/iuo aeinoeaee ?anoeaaoa caieiaua a?aoeiiiaeu,
/aou?aoeo/aaua ei?aeeu, i?inoaeoea — oocoeeieaeu, aieiaiiiaea iieethnee
— aiieaoeou. Ec iicaiii/iuo a ii?yo a eciaeeee ano?a/aeenue ?acee/iua
?uau. Eioaineaii canaeyeanue nooa, ia iae i?iec?anoaea iuoiay
?anoeoaeueiinoue; iiyaeeenue e auno?i ?annaeyeenue iacaiiua iicaiii/iua.

I?aaie/aneee ie? aeaaiineiai ia?eiaea. A aeaaiia i?aaie/aneee ie?
aeinoea aieueoiai ?aciiia?acey ia oieueei a ii?yo, ii e ia nooa.
I?aaie/aneee ie? ii?y. Caieiaua a?aoeiiiaeu auee i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu,
auno?i yaiethoeeiie?iaaee e ainiiaenoaiaaee n?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo,
canaeea eo/oea iaeeiaiaeiua o/anoee aeaaiineeo ii?ae. Aieueooth ?ieue
ea?aee i?aaenoaaeoaee io?yaea nie?eoa?eae.

Aiieaoeou, iiyaeaoenue a ia/aea aeaaiia, auno?i e oe?iei
?ani?ino?aieeenue a ii?yo. Iie eiaee ?aeiaeio ni neaaie neoeueioo?ie e
i?inoie ia?aai?iaei/iie eeieae. Oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai yaeyaony ?iae
oeiaieoan n aeaaeeie e ieineie ?aeiaeiie, caino?aiiie o e?aaa. Oaeay
oi?ia ?aeiaeiu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi oeiaieoan aue oi?ioei ieiaoeii.

N?aaee eaeieiaeeo auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ii?neea eeeee,
i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?uo yaeyaony ?iae eoi?annie?eieoan. I?iaeieaeaee
naia ?acaeoea i?inoaeoea — oi?aieieoa?u, aoaee, ioaiee, aeaonoai?/aoua e
a?thoiiiaea iieethnee, ii ana iie eiaee aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea.

N?aaee aiaeiuo iicaiii/iuo a eciaeeee ano?a/aeenue ?aciiia?aciua ?uau, e
iiyoiio aeaaii /anoi iacuaatho «aaeii ?ua». A ia/aea aeaaiia iiyaeeenue
e auia?ee a aai eiioea ieanoeiieiaeea ?uau, i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?uo
yaeyaony ioa?eooen n iiuiui iaioee?ai a ia?aaeiae /anoe oaea. A
aeaaiineeo eiioeiaioaeueiuo aannaeiao oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeenue
eenoaia?ua e aeaiyeiaeuoauea ?uau. Ec aeaaiineeo eenoaia?uo iiaeii
oeacaoue aieiioeoeona, a ec aeaiyeiaeuoaueo — aeeioa?ona.

I?aaie/aneee ie? nooe. Ia nooa i?iecioee neeueiua eciaiaiey ii
n?aaiaieth n neeo?ii. Eiioeiaiou noaee iaeoaaiu. A eiioea aeaaiia
iiyaeeenue ia?aua iacaiiua iicaiii/iua — ae?aaiaeoea caiiiaiaeiua —
noaaioeaoaeu. Iie i?iecioee io eenoaia?uo ?ua. Iicaeiaaeaaiineay
eooeinoaaa ec A?aieaiaeee nio?aieea a no?iaiee oaea iiiai iaueo /a?o n
eenoaia?uie ?uaaie, ii aa iyoeiaeua eiia/iinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaotho oaea i
iacaiiii ia?aca aeecie.

Ii?aceoaeueii auno?i ?acaeaaeenue e ?annaeyeenue iacaiiua ?anoaiey. A
oa/aiea aeaaiia iiyaeeenue iniiaiua oeiu aunoeo ?anoaiee: ieaoiiaeaeiua,
/eaienoinoaaaeueiua, ae?aaiea iaii?ioieee e aieinaiaiiua. ?eieioeou,
iiyaeaoenue a neeo?a, aeinoeaee ?anoeaaoa a na?aaeeia aeaaiia e auia?ee
e eiioeo ia?eiaea. Oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai yoeo i?eieoeaiuo iacaiiuo
?anoaiee aue ?iae ?eiey ni noaaeai, aaoayueiny ia aeaa /anoe.

I?aaie/aneee ie? eaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea. A ea?aiia i?aaie/aneee ie?
aeinoea eneeth/eoaeueiiai ?aciiia?acey eae a ii?yo, oae e ia nooa. Yoi
auei a?aiy ?anoeaaoa iaeaicieneeo aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee.

I?aaie/aneee ie? ii?y. N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo ainiiaenoaiaaee
oi?aieieoa?u — oocoeeieaeu, caieiaua a?aoeiiiaeu, aiieaoeou,
/aou?aoeo/aaua ei?aeeu, ioaiee, ii?neea eeeee e ae?aaiea ii?neea aaee.

N?aaee i?inoaeoeo eneeth/eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey aeinoeaee oocoeeieaeu. Eo
?aeiaeiee iioiaeea ia ?eniaua ca?ia, o/anoaiaaee a oi?ie?iaaiee
oocoeeiiauo ecaanoiyeia.

A?aoeiiiaeu auee iiiai/eneaiiu, eciaieeny eo ninoaa ii n?aaiaieth n
aeaaiineei ia?eiaeii. I?aiaeaaeaee ?acee/iua i?iaeoeoeaeu, n?aaee
eioi?uo ano?a/aeenue oi?iu n i/aiue e?oiiie ?aeiaeiie —
aeaaioii?iaeoeoonu iiiai auei nie?eoa?eae — nie?eoa?ia, oi?enoeoania,
ana iie o/anoaiaaee a oi?ie?iaaiee ecaanoiyeia aianoa n ei?aeeaie,
ioaieaie e ii?neeie eeeeyie.

N?aaee ei?aeeia aeinoeaee ?anoeaaoa /aou?aoeo/aaua, eae iaeeii/iua, oae
e eieiieaeueiua. Oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai eieiieaeueiuo ei?aeeia
yaeyaony no?ieoaeue ?eoia — ?iae eeoino?ioeeii. Oe?iei auee
?ani?ino?aiaiu oaoaoeaeu. – Ana eaiaiiioaieueiua ei?aeeu o/anoaiaaee a
iino?iaiee ?eoia, iau/ii aianoa n ieie ano?a/athony e ioaiee.
I?iaeieaeaee naia ?acaeoea aiieaoeou, oneiaeiyeanue eo ia?aai?iaei/iay
eeiey e neoeueioo?a ?aeiaeiu. N?aaee eaeieiaeeo auee ?aciiia?aciu e
iiiai/eneaiiu ii?neea eeeee, ec /eaieeia noaaeae eioi?uo neiaeaiu ieanou
oae iacuaaaiuo e?eiieaeiuo ecaanoiyeia.

I?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny ?uau, oioy eo eiee/anoai e ?aciiia?acea
ianeieueei oiaiueoeeinue ii n?aaiaieth n aeaaiiii. Iniaaiii iiiai auei
o?yuaauo aeoeiauo ?ua, ea?aii aue a?aiaiai eo ?anoeaaoa.

I?aaie/aneee ie? nooe ao?ii ?acaeaaeny. Ia eiioeiaioao ?inee ianoiyuea
eana n aeaaioneeie aea?aaueyie, aei 30—40 i a aunioo e aei 2 i a
iiia?a/ieea. Aeinoeaee ?anoeaaoa ieaoiiaeaeiua, n?aaee ieo auaeaeyeenue
aeaaioneea eaieaeiaeaiae?iiu e neaeeey?ee, ec noaieia eioi?uo
noi?ie?iaaeenue e?oiiua caeaaee eaiaiiiai oaey a Aa?iia. A eciaeeee
?inee /eaienoinoaaaeueiua e n?aaee ieo eieiiiiia?aciua eaeaieou —
i?aaeee nia?aiaiiuo oaiuae. Iiiai i?iec?anoaei ianoiyueo iaii?ioieeia e
i?eieoeaiuo aieinaiaiiuo — ei?aeaeoia, aunioa eioi?uo aeinoeaaea 30 i.
Ec noaieia aeaaioia-ei?aeaeoia noi?ie?iaaeenue oaieueiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
Neae?e.

A eiioea ea?aiia iaiaoeeanue /aoeay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ?anoeoaeueiiai
ie?a — iiyaeeenue o?e oei?enoe/aneea iaeanoe: o?iie/aneay —
Aa?aia?eeneay (Aa?iia e Naaa?iay Aia?eea), naaa?iay oia?aiiay —
Aiaa?neay (Neae?ue) e thaeiay oieiaeiay — Aiiaeaaineay.

Ia nooa auei iiiai ?acee/iuo ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua auno?i ?aciiiaeaeenue
aeaaiaea?y ionoonoaeth ioeoe. A aicaeooa eaoaee aeaaioneea no?aeicu n
?aciaoii e?ueueaa aei 1 i.

Noaaioeaoaeu aeinoeaee ?anoeaaoa, ianaeyee aa?aaa ica? e aieio, eaniua
ca?inee. A eiioea ia?eiaea iiyaeeenue ia?aua ae?aaiea a?oiiu
i?aniueathueony — eioeeicaa?u e caa?iia?aciua yua?u.

I?aaie/aneee ie? ia?ineiai ia?eiaea. A oa/aiea yoiai ia?eiaea
i?aaie/aneee ie? i?aoa?iae na?ueaciua eciaiaiey. A ia/aea ia?eiaea ii
aue noiaeai n eaiaiiioaieueiui, a a iicaeiae ia?ie ii noae ?acei
nie?auaoueny ca n/ao auie?aiey iiiaeo iaeaicieneeo a?oii aeeaioiuo e
?anoaiee. Yoi auei neaaenoaeai aieueoeo ia?aiai ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee
ec-ca eioaineaiuo i?ioeannia ai?iia?aciaaiey (nie?auaiea ii?neeo
aannaeiia, a?eaeecaoeey eeeiaoa e o. i.).

I?aaie/aneee ie? ii?y. N?aaee aaniicaiii/iuo ainiiaenoaiaaee
oocoeeieaeu, caieiaua a?aoeiiiaeu e aiieaoeou. Oiaiueoeeanue ?ieue
/aou?aoeo/aauo ei?aeeia, ioaiie e eaeieiaeeo. Oocoeeieaeu auee aanueia
?aciiia?aciu a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea. N?aaee aieiaiiiaeo iieethneia a
?aiiae ia?ie auee iaeeueiu aiieaoeou, a a iicaeiae ia?ie iie onooieee
naia ianoi oea?aoeoai, aeinoeaoei ?anoeaaoa a o?eana. A?aoeiiiaeu ea?aee
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?aiiae ia?ie; i?iaeieaeaee no?ieoue ?eou ei?aeeu
e ioaiee. Iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaaeanue ?ieue aeaonoai?/aouo e a?thoiiiaeo
iieethneia.

Eiiaoe ia?ineiai ia?eiaea iciaiaiiaaeny auie?aieai iiiaeo iaeaicieneeo
aaniicaiii/iuo: oocoeeieae, /aou?aoeo/aauo ei?aeeia e oaaoeyo,
aiieaoeoia, o?eeiaeoia, aieueoeinoaa a?aoeiiiae e ii?neeo eeeee.
Eciaiaiey i?iecioee e n?aaee ii?neeo iicaiii/iuo: auia?ee ae?aaiaeoea
eenoaia?ua e aeaiyeiaeuoauea ?uau, nie?aoeeinue eiee/anoai o?yuaauo ?ua.

I?aaie/aneee ie? nooe oaeaea eniuoae neeueiua ia?aiaiu. A?eaeecaoeey
eeeiaoa nouanoaaiii iiaeeyea ia ninoaa iacaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe e
iicaiii/iuo. Iniaaiii ?aceea eciaiaiey i?iecioee a o?iie/aneie
i?iaeioeee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ia?eiaea.

Iinoaiaiii auie?atho aeaaioneea ae?aaiaeaeiua ieaoiiaeaeiua,
/eaienoinoaaaeueiua e ei?aeaeou, ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiythony ae?aaiea
oaieiua. Oei?enoe/aneee ninoaa iianthaeo iaiiaeyaony, aeinoeaaao naiaai
iaeneioia iainiaeaiiinoue ia oeoiaaia?aoe/aneea i?iaeioeee.

Auie?aao aieueoeinoai noaaioeaoaeia, oieueei /anoue ec ieo
i?eniiniaeeanue e aeecie a nooeo iaeanoyo. Iaiai?io, iaeaicieneea
i?aniueathueany aeinoeaee naiaai ?anoeaaoa. N?aaee ieo auee oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu ei?ioeiiiaea ia?aeacaa?u — iaoeethaeea, ii aeiaieueii
e?oiiua (aei 2—3 i) o?aaiyaeiua aeeaioiua e oeuieee — eiino?aioeaaee.

I?ioeann auie?aiey iaeaicieneeo aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee i?ienoiaeee
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy. Ii aue iaoneiaeai eae anoanoaaiiuie caeiiaie
yaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey i?aaie/aneiai ie?a, oae e neeueiuie eciaiaieyie
iaeaiaaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee.

3. No?oeoo?a caiiie ei?u e iaeaiaaia?aoey a ia/aea iicaeiaai iaeaiciy

A ia/aea aeaaiineiai ia?eiaea no?oeoo?a caiiie ei?u ioee/aeanue io
no?oeoo?u, nouanoaiaaaoae a ia/aea ?aiiaai iaeaiciy. Eciaiaiey i?iecioee
a aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynao, aaea aicieeee neeaae/aoua ai?iua oeaie
eaeaaeiieae. No?iaiea aaineieeeiaeueiuo neeaae/aouo iiynia
oneiaeieeinue, a eo i?aaeaeao nouanoaiaaee iaeanoe aaeeaeueneie
neeaae/aoinoe, eioi?ua i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny, eae iieiaeua
ieaooi?iu; iaeanoe eaeaaeiineie neeaae/aoinoe, aaea caeii/eeny aeaaiue
aaineieeeiaeueiue yoai e, iaeiiaoe, aieueooth /anoue iiynia caieiaee
iaeanoe, a eioi?uo i?iaeieaeaeny aeaaiue yoai aaineieeeiaeueiiai
?acaeoey.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a iaeaiaaia?aoee, iniaaiii a naaa?iii
iieooa?ee, aaea neeueii eciaieeenue i/a?oaiey ii?ai, e nooe. Ia thaa
i?iaeieaeae nouanoaiaaoue ia?iiiue iaoa?ee Aiiaeaaia, iacia/eoaeueiua
e?aaaua /anoe eioi?iai auee iie?uou aiaeaie iaeeeo ii?ae.

4. Enoi?ey aaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynia

Aaineieeeiaeueiua iiyna a oa/aiea iicaeiaai iaeaiciy ?acaeaaeenue
ii-?aciiio. Ia iaoe?iuo ieiuaaeyo anao iiynia ainiiaenoaiaae
aaineieeeiaeueiue ?aaeei. Nouanoaaiiui niauoeai iicaeiaiaeaicieneie
enoi?ee yaeyeny aa?oeeineee i?iaaiac, eioi?ue i?iyaeeny ai anao
aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynao e i?eaae e aicieeiiaaieth iaoe?iuo neeaae/aouo
iaeanoae — aa?oeeieae. A ?acoeueoaoa aa?oeeineie neeaae/aoinoe ia
cia/eoaeueiuo ieiuaaeyo caaa?oeeny aaineieeeiaeueiue ?aaeei, a
Aoeaioe/aneee, O?aei-Iiiaieueneee e A?eoe/aneee iiyna e eiioeo
iaeaicieneie y?u iieiinoueth i?aa?aoeeenue a iieiaeua ieaooi?iu.
?anniio?ei aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai e
O?aei-Iiiaieueneiai iiynia.

N?aaeecaiiiii?neee aaineieeeiaeueiue iiyn

Yoio iiyn, auoyiooue a oe?ioiii iai?aaeaiee, ioaaouaaao iaoe?ioth
oa??eoi?eth iaaeaeo Aiiaeaaiie e ae?aaieie ieaooi?iaie —
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie, Oa?eineie e THaeii-Eeoaeneie. Ii i?ioyaeaaaony
/a?ac anth Aa?iio e Aceth io iiaa?aaeuey Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia ia
caiaaea aei Iiaie Aaeiae ia ainoiea. A i?aaeaeao iiyna a iaeaicia
nouanoaiaaee iiiai/eneaiiua nenoaiu aaineieeeiaeueiuo i?iaeaia, eioi?ua
aoiaeeee a ninoaa ?yaea aaineieeeiaeueiuo iaeanoae. Aieueoie eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeyao iicaeiaiaeaicieneay enoi?ey Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneie iaeanoe.

Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneay aaineieeeiaeueiay iaeanoue

Yoa iaeanoue, ?aniieiaeaiiay ia caiaaea N?aaeecaiiiii?neiai iiyna,
yaeyaony iaeaieaa oi?ioi eco/aiiui o/anoeii iiyna. Eiaiii caeanue aua a
ia?aie iieiaeia i?ioeiai noieaoey auee onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua
no?aoea?aoe/aneea iiae?acaeaeaiey aeaaiineie, eaiaiiioaieueiie e
ia?ineie nenoai. A ninoaa Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneie iaeanoe aoiaeeee
O?aioeey, *aoey, thaeiua /anoe Aiaeee, Aaeueaee, Aa?iaiee e Iieueoe.

A aeaaiineii ia?eiaea ai iiiaeo aaineieeeiaeueiuo i?iaeaao,
ia?aciaaaoeony aua a ia/aea iaeaicieneie y?u, oei iaeiieaiea iiuiuo
ii?neeo inaaei/iuo e aoeeaie/aneeo oieu, oi?ioea ?ac?acu eioi?uo
eiathony a A?aeaiiao e ?aeineeo Neaioeaauo ai?ao. Aeaaiineea ioeiaeaiey
eiatho aieueoea iiuiinoe, a ?aeineeo Neaioeaauo ai?ao iie aeinoeaatho
10—15 ei. E ninoaa ioeiaeaiee, e aieueoea iiuiinoe iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi
iaeanoue iaoiaeeeanue ia aeaaiii aaineieeeiaeueiii yoaia.

A aieaa neiaeiuo oneiaeyo i?ioaeaea aaieiae/aneay enoi?ey
Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneie iaeanoe a eaiaiiioaieueiii ia?eiaea. Oi?ioei
i?eia?ii iiaoo neoaeeoue Naeniineea ?oaeiua e Oth?eianeea ai?u ia thaa
Aa?iaiee. Caeanue a ?aiiai ea?aiia ?aniieaaaeny oe?ioiue
aaineieeeiaeueiue i?iaea, a eioi?ii oi?ie?iaaeenue ?aciua oaoeee. Ia
naaa?a iaeaieeaaeanue iaeeiaiaeiay ea?aiiaoiay oaoeey ecaanoiyeia, a ia
aieueoae /anoe i?iaeaa oei ia?aciaaiea aieaa aeoaieiaiaeiie aeeienoie
oaoeee n i?ineiyie e?aiienouo, ian/aiuo e aoeeaie/aneeo ii?iae. Iniiaiay
iaeanoue niina auea ia thaa, aaea ?aniieaaaeny i?eiiaeiyoue *aoneee
iannea. Yoi aeieacuaaaony oaaee/aieai iiuiinoe a thaeiii iai?aaeaiee.
Iiuiinoue aeeienoie oaoeee cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaea iiuiinoue ecaanoiyeia
e aeinoeaaea 4—5 ei.

A eiioea ?aiiaai ea?aiia i?iecioee neeueiua eciaiaiey. Iie auee aucaaiu
eioaineaiuie ai?iia?aciaaoaeueiuie i?ioeannaie, iieo/eaoeie iacaaiea
aa?oeeineie neeaae/aoinoe. Ia ianoa oe?ieiai i?iaeaa aicieeee
neeaae/aoua ai?iua oeaie Noaeao, ?oaeiuo e Oth?eianeeo ai?. Iiuiua oieue
aeeienouo ioeiaeaiee ieaeiaai ea?aiia auee niyou a neiaeiua neeaaeee e
i?aa?auaiu a aeeienoua neaioeu, eioi?ua ia thaa Aa?iaiee (a Naeniiee e
Oth?eiaee) ecaeaaia neoaeao i?ae?aniui e?iaaeueiui iaoa?eaeii aeey e?uo.
I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey ai?iie neeaae/aoie iaeanoe nii?iaiaeaeaeny
oi?ie?iaaieai e?aaaiai i?iaeaa, eioi?ue aiciee ia naaa?a. A iai a
oa/aiea n?aaeiaai ea?aiia iaeiieeanue iiuiay oaeaiiniay na?ey (aei 3—5,
ei). Ianoiiieiaeaiea yoiai oe?ioiiai e?aaaiai i?iaeaa oi?ioi
onoaiiaeaii; iii oeene?oaony iieinie e?oiiaeoeo oaieueiuo aannaeiia
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu: THaeii-Oyeuenneiai, o?aiei-Aaeueaeeneiai,
?o?nei-Aanooaeueneiai, Aa?oianeeacneiai.

Oaeaiiniay na?ey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiuioth oieuo, ninoiyuoth ec
/a?aaeothueony ian/aieeia e aeeienouo neaioeaa n iiiai/eneaiiuie
i?ineiyie eaiaiiiai oaey. Iia oi?ie?iaaeanue ia i?eii?neie ?aaieia, aaea
i?iec?anoaea aiaaoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue. I?enoonoaea a oaeaiiniie na?ee
i?ineiaa ii?neeo ecaanoiyeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi yoa i?ea?aaeiay
?aaieia ec?aaeea caeeaaeanue ii?ai. Ii ninoaao eneiiaaiie oei?u
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a n?aaeiai ea?aiia
nouanoaiaae o?iie/aneee eeeiao. Oaee, ia?aciaaaoeany a i?ea?aaeiuo
?aaieiao, eiatho aunieia ea/anoai. Iie iacuaathony ia?aee/aneeie (io
a?a/aneiai neiaa «ia?aeea» — i?ea?aaeiue).

A iicaeiai ea?aiia iioneaiey e?aaaiai i?iaeaa caeii/eeenue e
inaaeeiiaeiieaiea i?ae?aoeeinue. Any oa??eoi?ey Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneie
iaeanoe i?aa?aoeeanue a neeaae/aooth ai?ioth no?aio. A eiioeiaioaeueiuo
oneiaeyo inaaeeiiaeiieaiea i?ienoiaeeei a ioaeaeueiuo iaaeai?iuo
aiaaeeiao, aaea oi?ie?iaaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii eiiaeiia?aou, ian/aieee e
aeeienoua ii?iaeu n i?ineiyie eneiiaaiuo oaeae. Oaeaiaeiieaiea caeanue
i?ienoiaeeei a ica?iuo oneiaeyo e, a ioee/ea io ia?aee/aneeo, yoe oaee
iieo/eee iacaaiea eeiie/aneeo (ica?iuo). Ea/anoai yoeo oaeae
cia/eoaeueii ieaea ia?aee/aneeo, oae eae iie niaea?aeao aieueoia
eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo i?eianae.

Eiioeiaioaeueiua oneiaey nio?aiyeenue e a ?aiiae ia?ie, ii eeeiao noae
nooa. I?ioeannu oaeaiaeiieaiey i?ae?aoeeenue, iianaianoii oi?ie?iaaeenue
a?oaua e?aniioeaaoiua ian/aieee, eiiaeiia?aou, ian/aienoua aeeiu. Oe?iei
i?iyaeyeny iacaiiue aoeeaieci. Ninoaa ii?iae, eo ?ani?ino?aiaiea e
aieueoea iiuiinoe iicaieytho naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ia/eiay ni n?aaeiaai
ea?aiia aei iicaeiae ia?ie Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneay iaeanoue iaoiaeeeanue ia
caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey, eioi?ue i?ioaeae a
iniiaiii a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo.

A iicaeiae ia?ie aaineieeeiaeueiue ?aaeei niaieeny ieaooi?iaiiui.
Aieueoay /anoue iaeanoe i?iaeieaeaea iaoiaeeoueny a eiioeiaioaeueiuo
oneiaeyo, ii ia naaa?a aicieeea iaoe?iay Naaa?i-Aa?iaineay neiaeeeca, a
eioi?ie a ii?neeo oneiaeyo iaeaieeaaeenue nia/aea iaeiiiuiua ecaanoiyee,
a caoai aeeiu n aeinii, eaeeeiie e eaiaiiie nieueth. Ii?iaeu aa?oiae
ia?ie caeaaatho ai?eciioaeueii, eiatho iaaieueooth iiuiinoue, n?aaee ieo
ionoonoaoao aoeeaie/aneee iaoa?eae.

E?aoeia ciaeiinoai n iicaeiaiaeaicieneie aaieiae/aneie enoi?eae
Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneie aaineieeeiaeueiie iaeanoe iicaieyao iaiaoeoue o?e
iniiaiuo yoaia. Ia?aue ec ieo — aeaaiue aaineieeeiaeueiue — ioaaouaaao
aeaaii e ?aiiee ea?aii. Aoi?ie, caeeth/eoaeueiue, eee i?iaaiiue,
i?iaeieaeaeny ni n?aaeiaai ea?aiia aei iicaeiae ia?ie. O?aoee yoai —
ieaooi?iaiiue — ia/aeny a iicaeiae ia?ie e i?iaeieaeaaony a iaoa a?aiy.

O?aei-Iiiaieueneee aaineieeeiaeueiue iiyn

Nouanoaiaaaoea a iicaeiai iaeaicia ia oa??eoi?ee yoiai ia?iiiiai iiyna
aaineieeeiaeueiua neeaae/aoua iaeanoe ioee/aeenue ae?oa io ae?oaa
aaieiae/aneie enoi?eae e no?iaieai.

O?aei-Oyiue-Oaiueneay aaineieeeiaeueiay iaeanoue. O?aeueneay
aaineieeeiaeueiay nenoaia. N iicaeiei iaeaiciai naycaii oi?ie?iaaiea
aeaaiaeoeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo O?aea. Iiyoiio aai
iicaeiaiaeaicieneay enoi?ey ainnoaiiaeaia aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii.

A aeaaiineii ia?eiaea e ?aiiai ea?aiia ia O?aea i?iaeieaeaee
nouanoaiaaoue aeaa ia?eaeeiiaeueii auoyiooua ciiu aaineieeeiaeueiuo
i?iaeaia, ?acaeaeaiiua aaiaioeeeeiaeueiui iiaeiyoeai. Eae e a ?aiiai
iaeaicia, a caiaaeiie ciia i?ienoiaeeee oia?aiiua i?iaeaaiey, oei
iaeiieaiea oa??eaaiiuo e ea?aiiaoiuo inaaeeia, aoeeaie/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia i?iyaeyeanue. Iiuiinoue ioeiaeaiee aeaaiia e ieaeiaai
ea?aiia caeanue ia i?aauoaao 2—3 ei.

Ia ainoiea O?aea i?ienoiaeeee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua aeaeaeaiey caiiie
ei?u n ?aceei i?aiaeaaeaieai iioneaiee. Caeanue iaeiieeenue iiuiua
ii?neea oi?iaoeee, ninoiyuea ec aoeeaie/aneeo, aoeeaiiaaiii-inaaei/iuo e
e?aiienouo ii?iae: eaa, oooia, yoi, ian/aieeia, aeei ia?iiiie iiuiinoe —
aei 12—13 ei (aeaaii e ieaeiee ea?aii). N aeaaiineeie ioeiaeaieyie
naycaiu ianoi?iaeaeaiey i/aiue oeaiiuo e ?aciiia?aciuo ii ?anoeaaoea
o?aeueneeo yoi, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie e?aiienoua ii?iaeu aoeeaie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Iao niiiaiey a oii, /oi O?aeueneay aaineieeeiaeueiay
nenoaia a aeaaiia e ?aiiai ea?aiia iaoiaeeeanue ia aeaaiii yoaia
aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

Caeeth/eoaeueiue (i?iaaiiue) yoai aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey O?aea
ia/aeny a n?aaeiai ea?aiia e i?iaeieaeaeny aei eiioea ia?ineiai
ia?eiaea. Yoio yoai ioee/aeny io aeaaiiai aaineieeeiaeueiiai
i?aiaeaaeaieai iiaeiyoee iaae iioneaieyie, iaeiieaieai iieanniauo
oi?iaoeee a iaaeai?iuo aiaaeeiao e e?aaaii i?iaeaa, aiaae?aieai
a?aieoiuo eio?ocee. Ai?iia?aciaaoaeueiua e neeaaeeiia?aciaaoaeueiua
i?ioeannu ia/aeenue a n?aaeiai ea?aiia a ainoi/iie ciia O?aeueneie
nenoaiu, a a eiioea ea?aiia e a ia/aea ia?ie ioaaoeee aanue O?ae.
Aa?oeeineee i?iaaiac aeinoea iaeneioia a ?aiiaia?ineoth yiioo, eiaaea
any O?aeueneay aaineieeeiaeueiay nenoaia i?aa?aoeeanue a neeaae/aooth
ai?ioth nenoaio, iiaeaa?aaaoothny i?ioeannai ?aciuaa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioeannaie neeaae/aoinoe ai aioo?aiieo /anoyo
O?aeueneie nenoaiu i?ienoiaeeei aiaae?aiea iiiai/eneaiiuo a?aieoiuo
eio?ocee, n eioi?uie naycaiu naiua ?aciiia?aciua ianoi?iaeaeaiey
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. N?aaee ieo iniaaiii iiiai ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaoaeeia
(Fe, Au, Mo, W, Sn, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co e ae?.) e ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae
(ecoi?oaeia, oiiacia, aiaoenoia e ae?.).

Oi?ioi ainnoaiiaeaia aaieiae/aneay enoi?ey I?aaeo?aeueneiai e?aaaiai
i?iaeaa. Oae eae iia yaeyaony oeie/iie e aeey ae?oaeo e?aaauo i?iaeaia,
oi aoaeao, ?anniio?aia a ea/anoaa i?eia?a. Eco/aiea enoi?ee
I?aaeo?aeueneiai e?aaaiai i?iaeaa eiaao aieueoia iao/iia e i?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea — n yoei i?iaeaii naycaiu e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey eaiaiiuo
nieae e eneiiaaiiai oaey.

Oi?ie?iaaiea I?aaeo?aeueneiai e?aaaiai i?iaeaa oanii naycaii n
i?iyaeaieai aa?oeeineie neeaae/aoinoe ia O?aea. I?iaea ia/ae
ia?aciauaaoueny a eiioea eaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea e ?acaeaaeny a
?aiiae ia?ie. Ii i?ioyaeaaeny aaeieue anae O?aeueneie ai?iie neeaae/aoie
nenoaiu, iaeeaaeuaaynue ia e?ay Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ae?aaiae ieaooi?iu
e Oeiaii-Ia/i?neie iaeanoe aaeeaeeae. Inaaeeiiaeiieaiea a i?iaeaa
i?ienoiaeeei ca n/ao ?aciuaa o?aeueneeo aa?oeeineeo ai?iuo nii?oaeaiee.
A ?aiiae ia?ie ia thaa e a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe I?aaeo?aeuey a e?aaaii
i?iaeaa a ii?neeo oneiaeyo iaeaieeaaeenue nia/aea iiuiua
eiiaeiia?aoi-ian/aiua oieue, a caoai a eaaoiiuo oneiaeyo — nieaiiniay
oi?iaoeey. Ian/aieee e eiiaeiia?aou iiuiinoueth aei 2000—3000 i
oi?ie?iaaeenue a ainoi/iie /anoe i?iaeaa o iiaeiiaeey ai? ca n/ao
ia?iiiuo iann a?oaiiaeiii/iiai iaoa?eaea, niineiiai ?a/iuie iioieaie n
ai?iuo o?aaoia. Yoe o?aaou, aa?iyoii, aeinoeaaee ianeieueeeo ouny/
iao?ia e auee iie?uou eaaeieeaie e niaaaie, ca n/ao oayiey eioi?uo e
aicieeaee iieiiaiaeiua e ao?iua ?a/iua iioiee. Nieaiiniay oi?iaoeey
iaeaieeaaeanue a oeaio?a i?iaeaa. A ieaeiae /anoe iia ninoieo ec aeei e
aeinia, a auoa — ec eaiaiiie, eaeeeiie e iaaiaceaeueiie nieae. Iauay
iiuiinoue nieae aeinoeaaao 800 i, iie aeiauaathony a iaeiii ec
e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a — Nieeeaineii ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Ia?aciaaiea nieae
i?ienoiaeeei a oneiaeyo aea?eiai e nooiai eeeiaoa a iaoe?iuo inieiiaiiuo
ii?neeo eaaoiao.

A naaa?iie /anoe I?aaeo?aeueneiai i?iaeaa, a ioee/ea io aieaa thaeiuo
?aeiiia, aianoi nieaiiniie iaeaieeaaeanue oaeaiiniay oi?iaoeey
iiuiinoueth aei 1000 i. Iia ninoieo ec ?eoie/ii /a?aaeothueony aeeienouo
neaioeaa, ian/aieeia, eiiaeiia?aoia n i?ineiyie eaiaiiiai oaey.
Iaeiieaiea a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy ?aciuo ii ninoaao ioeiaeaiee auei
naycaii n ?acee/eyie eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee. Naaa?iay /anoue e?aaaiai
i?iaeaa ?aniieaaaeanue a ciia oia?aiiiai aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa, aaea
i?iec?anoaea iuoiay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ec eioi?ie e ia?aciaaeenue
oaeaiiniua ieanou. Ia?ineea oaee ?ac?aaaouaathony a Ia/i?neii oaieueiii
aannaeia a ie?anoiinoyo Ai?eoou. A iicaeiae ia?ie I?aaeo?aeueneee
e?aaaie i?iaea caeii/ee naia ?acaeoea. I?iaeaaiey a iai i?ae?aoeeenue, e
ia iaoe?iuo ieiuaaeyo, i?eiueathueo e O?aeueneie ai?iie nenoaia,
iaeaieeaaeenue eiioeiaioaeueiua e?aniioeaaoiua ioeiaeaiey.

Aeoaa-Nayineay aaineieeeiaeueiay iaeanoue. Any yoa ia?iiiay iaeanoue, a
eioi?ie i?iyaeeanue ?aiiaiaeaicieneay (?aiia- e iicaeiaeaeaaeiineay)
neeaae/aoinoue a iicaeiai iaeaicia iaoiaeeeanue ia caeeth/eoaeueiii
yoaia aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Caeanue a e?oiiuo iaaeai?iuo
aiaaeeiao, ie?oaeaiiuo aieaa eee iaiaa aunieeie iiaeiyoeyie,
iaeaieeaaeenue iiuiua, i?aeiouanoaaiii eiioeiaioaeueiua ioeiaeaiey.
Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie aiaaeeiaie auee Eociaoeeay, Ieioneineay e Ooaeineay.

Aeaaiineea ioeiaeaiey a yoeo aiaaeeiao i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii
iiuiuie e?aniioeaaoiuie eiiaeiia?aoaie e ian/aieeaie iieanniaie
oi?iaoeee (iiuiinoueth aei 5—6 ei), n iaeeueiuie i?ineiyie aacaeueoiauo
eaa e oooia. Eeoue a n?aaeiai aeaaiia i?enoonoaotho ii?neea aeeiu e
ecaanoiyee, ia?aciaaaoeany a ?acoeueoaoa e?aoeia?aiaiiie o?aina?annee
ii?y n thaa. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea e?aniioeaaoiuo eiioeiaioaeueiuo ioeiaeaiee
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aea?eii nooii eeeiaoa aeaaiineiai ia?eiaea.

Ii?a caeeaaei aiaaeeiu a ?aiiai ea?aiia, a ia/eiay ni n?aaeiaai ea?aiia
aieioue aei iaoaai a?aiaie any oa??eoi?ey Aeoaa-Nayineie iaeanoe
iaoiaeeeanue a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo. Eeeiao noae oia?aiiui,
aeaaeiui; iianaianoii i?iec?anoaea aiaaoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, n?aaee
eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeaee aeaaioneea ei?aeaeou. Oaeaiaeiieaiea a ea?aiia
i?ienoiaeeei ai anao e?oiiuo iaaeai?iuo aiaaeeiao, a a ia?ie iii
i?iaeieaeaeinue a Eociaoeeie e Ieioneineie. Aiaaoa eaiaiiuie oaeyie
oaeaiiniay na?ey Eociaoeeie aiaaeeiu, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony iaeei ec
ecaanoiuo a ?innee oaieueiue aannaei n caianaie aunieiea/anoaaiiiai
oaey.

Aeaaea e?aoeia ?anniio?aiea iicaeiaiaeaicieneie enoi?ee aeaoo
aaineieeeiaeueiuo iaeanoae O?aei-Iiiaieueneiai iiyna iieacuaaao, /oi iie
?acaeaaeenue ii-?aciiio. Aa?oeeineee i?iaaiac i?iyaeeny a
O?aei-Oyiue-Oaiueneie iaeanoe e i?eaae e ieii/aieth aeaaiiai
aaineieeeiaeueiiai yoaia a ?aiiai ea?aiia. Ia/eiay ni n?aaeiaai ea?aiia
aei eiioea ia?ie caeanue i?iaeieaeaeny caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai
aaineieeeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. A Aeoaa-Nayineie iaeanoe caeeth/eoaeueiue
yoai ioaaoee aanue iicaeiee iaeaicie.

Aa?oeeineee i?iaaiac i?eaae e ia?aciaaieth iaoe?iuo ai?iuo ianneaia, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?uo ainiiaenoaiaaee eiioeiaioaeueiua oneiaey. Ia
iaeaiaaia?aoe/aneeo ea?oao oi?ioi aeaeii, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
neeaae/aoiai O?aei-Iiiaieueneiai iiyna, a oaeaea any oa??eoi?ey
Neae?neie ieaooi?iu ia/eiay ni n?aaeiaai ea?aiia e aei eiioea ia?ie
aoiaeeee a ninoaa aieueoiai iaoa?eea, iieo/eaoaai iacaaiea Aiaa?eaea.
Aaineieeeiaeueiia ?acaeoea O?aei-Iiiaieueneiai iiyna iieiinoueth
caaa?oeeinue a ia/aea iaciciy. Ianooiee iiaue — ieaooi?iaiiue yoai.

5. Enoi?ey aaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey ae?aaieo ieaooi?i

Iicaeiaiaeaicieneay enoi?ey ae?aaieo ieaooi?i auea oanii naycaia n
?acaeoeai ?aniieiaeaiiuo ?yaeii aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynia. Aieueoia
aeeyiea ieacae aa?oeeineee i?iaaiac, ioaaoeaoee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
iicaeiaai iaeaiciy aieueoea oa??eoi?ee aaineieeeiaeueiuo iiynia. Iiyoiio
aeaaiineee e eaiaiiioaieueiue ia?eiaeu auee a?aiaiai i?aeiouanoaaiiiai
i?iaeaaiey ae?aaieo ieaooi?i naaa?iiai iieooa?ey, a ia?ineee ia?eiae —
a?aiaiai iinoaiaiiiai eo aicaeuiaiey e iieiiai inooaiey a eiioea
ia?eiaea. THaeiue iaoa?ee Aiiaeaaia a oa/aiea anaai iicaeiaai iaeaiciy
aue i?eiiaeiyo, e oieueei iaaieueoea e?aaaua aai /anoe ia?eiaee/anee
iie?uaaeenue iaaieueoeie iaeeiaiaeiuie ii?yie.

Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneay ae?aaiyy ieaooi?ia

Iicaeiaiaeaicieneay enoi?ey yoie ieaooi?iu ainnoaiiaeaia n aieueoie
iieiioie, iia nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io ?aiiaiaeaiciineie. Iioneaiey ia
iaoe?iuo ieiuaaeyo i?eaaee e aicieeiiaaieth e?oiiuo neiaeeec —
Iineianeie, I?eeanieeneie, Iieuenei-Eeoianeie, a eioi?uo aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy nouanoaiaaee ii?neea oneiaey. A thaeiie /anoe ieaooi?iu aiciee
i/aiue aeoaieee a?aaaiiia?aciue i?iaea — Aeiai?iai-Aeiiaoeeee aaeaeiaai,
a eioi?ii a oa/aiea iicaeiaai iaeaiciy iaeiieeenue ioeiaeaiey
eieinnaeueiie iiuiinoe. Aa?oiaiaeaicieneea ioeiaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia
ieaooi?ia cia/eoaeueii oe?a ieaeiaiaeaicieneeo.

Aeaaiineea ioeiaeaiey i/aiue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?ia. N?aaee ieo i?aiaeaaeatho ii?neea ii?iaeu
— aeaaiineee ia?eiae aue a?aiaiai iaeneiaeueiie o?aina?annee ca ana
a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey ieaooi?iu. Aeaaiineoth enoi?eth iiaeii oi?ioi
i?ineaaeeoue ia noaiaoe/aneii ?ac?aca /a?ac anth ieaooi?io a oe?ioiii
iai?aaeaiee ii eeiee ?eaa — Iineaa — Eacaiue — i?aaeai?uey O?aea.
Ionoonoaea ieaeiaaeaaiineeo ioeiaeaiee ia ?ac?aca oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi a
ia/aea aeaaiia ieaooi?ia auea i?eiiaeiyoa. Iioneaiey ia/aeenue a
n?aaeiai aeaaiia, iie i?eaaee e ia?aciaaieth iaoe?iiai ii?neiai
aannaeia, eioi?ue aeinoea iaeneioia naiaai ?acaeoey a ia/aea iicaeiaai
aeaaiia. Ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee a iaeeiaiaeiii aannaeia oei oi?ie?iaaiea
ea?aiiaoiuo inaaeeia. Iaeaieueoea i?iaeaaiey auee ia ainoiea ieaooi?iu,
caeanue iiuiinoue aeaaiineeo ii?neeo ioeiaeaiee i?aauoaao 900 i, e
n?aaee ieo iaaethaeathony aeaaea aeoaieiaiaeiua aeeienoua oaoeee. Ia
caiaaea — a I?eaaeoeea — n?aaee aeaaiineeo ioeiaeaiee i?aiaeaaeatho
eiioeiaioaeueiua e?aniioeaaoeua ii?iaeu, i/aiue iioiaeea ia ae?aaiee
e?aniue ian/aiee Aiaeee. Iiuiinoue aeaaiineeo ioeiaeaiee caeanue ii/oe
aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai a ainoi/iie /anoe ieaooi?iu. Aieueoay iiuiinoue
aeaaiineeo e?aniioeaaoia ia caiaaea e cia/eoaeueiay ieiuaaeue eo
?ani?ino?aiaiey oeacuaatho, /oi iaaeaeaei iaoiaeeeanue iaeanoue
eioaineaiiai ?aciuaa. A eiioea aeaaiineiai ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeeei
iinoaiaiiia nie?auaiea ieiuaaee ii?neiai aannaeia; aai aiaeu eiaee
iiauoaiioth nieaiinoue (i?enoonoaea i?ineiaa aeina e oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea aeieiieoia).

Ioeiaeaiey ea?aiia ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?ia
oe?iei, ii ia iaiueoae ieiuaaee, /ai aeaaiineea. Iie ii/oe iianaianoii
ninoiyo ec ecaanoiyeia, ia?aiieiaiiuo ieaiaiaeinoyie: a?aoeiiiaeaie,
ei?aeeaie, i?inoaeoeie, eaeieiaeeie e ae?oaeie ii?neeie aaniicaiii/iuie.
Iiuiinoue ecaanoiyeia ea?aiia aic?anoaao a ainoi/iii iai?aaeaiee: a
Iiaeiineiauea iia ninoaaeyao 400—450 i, a a I?aaeo?aeuea aeinoeaaao 1000
i. Iaoe?iue iaeeiaiaeiue ii?neie aannaei ?aniieaaaeny a Iineianeie
neiaeeeca, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyea niaie i/aiue iieiaoth aiaaeeio ia
naaa?i-ainoiea e a oeaio?a ieaooi?iu aaee/eiie nauoa 1 iei. ei2 (iia
i?aauoaea oaeaiaiioth ieiuaaeue O?aioeee). A caiaaeiie e thaeiie e?aaauo
/anoyo neiaeeecu ?ani?ino?aiaiu ianee e aeeiu, n?aaee eioi?uo caeaaatho
eneiiaaiua oaee (Iiaeiineiaiue oaieueiue aannaei) e aieneou (ie?anoiinoe
Oeoaeia). Oaee ao?ua, niaea?aeao iiiai ieia?aeueiuo i?eianae (45%) e
aiaeu (35%). Ianiio?y ia ieceia ea/anoai, yoe ao?ua oaee eiatho aieueoia
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea e oe?iei eniieuecothony eae oiieeai. Ia
naaa?i-caiaaea oaeaiiniua ioeiaeaiey caiauathony aieneoiiiniuie
(Oeoaei), ii aieneou caeanue oaea aeaaii au?aaioaiu. A ainoi/iii
iai?aaeaiee oaeaiiniua ioeiaeaiey caiauathony iaooaiiniuie ianeaie e
aeeiaie ii?neiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

A oa/aiea eaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiiia nie?auaiea
ii?neiai aannaeia ia Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?ia, e a iicaeiai
ea?aiia ii i?eia?ae ia?eaeeiiaeueioth oi?io, niiauaynue ia thaa e naaa?a
n aiaeaie Aoe?iaiai ieaaia.

A ia?ineii ia?eiaea ii?neie aannaei ioaaouaae cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iu, ii aai ?acia?u auee iaiueoa
eaiaiiioaieueiiai. Iniaaiiinoueth ?acaeoey ia?ineiai ii?neiai aannaeia
auei iinoaiaiiia nie?auaiea aai ieiuaaee e i?aa?auaiea a ia?iiioth
eaaoio. A ia/aea ?aiiae ia?ie aannaei eiae ii?iaeueioth nieaiinoue e a
iai oei iaeiieaiea ea?aiiaoiuo inaaeeia, eae e a eaiaiiioaieueiii
ia?eiaea. A nayce n iiaeiyoeyie ieaooi?iu ?acia?u aannaeia
oiaiueoaeenue, nieaaie ?aaeei ia?ooaeny, nieaiinoue a iai ana aieueoa e
aieueoa iiauoaeanue. Yoiio niinianoaiaae nooie aea?eee eeeiao ia?ineiai
ia?eiaea, aucuaaaoee eioaineaiia enia?aiea. Aianoi ecaanoiyeia noaee
oi?ie?iaaoueny aeieiieou, caoai a inaaeie noaee auiaaeaoue aeinu e
?acee/iua niee. Iaeaieueoae nieaiinoe ii?neea aiaeu aeinoeaee a eiioea
?aiiae ia?ie, eiaaea a inaaeie noaee auiaaeaoue iiaa?aiiay e eaeeeiay
niee; inieiiaiea iiaeieiaeinue a?aiaiaie aei 25—30% (aianoi ii?iaeueiie
nieaiinoe a 3,5%). A enoi?ee Caiee yoi auea naiay a?aiaeeiciay ii naiei
?acia?ai eaaoia, ieeiaaea e ieaaea aieaa ia iiaoi?eaoayny. Iia inoaaeea
iinea naay eieinnaeueiua caianu naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo nieae e
niioonoaothueo ei ieia?aeia.

A iicaeiae ia?ie i?iecioea e?aoeia?aiaiiay o?aina?anney ii?y n naaa?a,
ec A?eoe/aneiai aannaeia. Iinea yoiai ii?a iaaeieai iieeioei oa??eoi?eth
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iu. A oneiaeyo nooiai aea?eiai eeeiaoa oei
iaeiieaiea eiioeiaioaeueiuo e?aniioeaaoiuo ii?iae ia ia?iiiie ?aaieia.
Yoi auee ?a/iua, ica?iua, yieiaua e i?iethaeaeueiua ioeiaeaiey. Iniiaiie
iaeanoueth niina yaeyeenue ai?iua oeaie o?aeueneeo aa?oeeieae.

Iiaeiyoey, eioi?ua ioaaoeee Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneoth ieaooi?io a ia?ineii
ia?eiaea, naycaiu n i?iyaeaieai aa?oeeineie neeaae/aoinoe a
O?aei-Iiiaieueneii e N?aaeecaiiiii?neii iiynao.

Niaa?oaiii ii-eiiio oei ?acaeoea thaeiie /anoe Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie
ieaooi?iu. Caeanue a n?aaeiai aeaaiia i?iecioee ?aceea iioneaiey, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo ooiaeaiaio aue ?acaeo ?yaeii ?aceiiia
naaa?icaiaaeiiai iai?aaeaiey. Aaeieue yoeo ?aceiiia ia?aciaaeny oceee,
ii cia/eoaeueiue ii i?ioyaeaiiinoe i?iaea a aeaea ia?iiiiai a?aaaia –
Aeiai?iai-Aeiiaoeeee aaeaeiaai (a aai ainoi/iie /anoe iaoiaeeony
Aeiiaann). A aeaaiineii ia?eiaea a aaeaeiaaia i?ienoiaeeei iaeiieaiea
ii?neeo e eiioeiaioaeueiuo inaaeeia, eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaeinue eceeyieai
eaa ii ?aceiiai. Iiuiinoue aeaaiineeo ioeiaeaiee a Aeiiaanna aeinoeaaao
1300 i.

Iniaaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao enoi?ey aaeaeiaaia a eaiaiiioaieueiii
ia?eiaea. A ?aiiai ea?aiia, eae e ia anae inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee
ieaooi?iu, iaeaieeaaeenue ea?aiiaoiua inaaeee, a a oa/aiea n?aaeiaai e
iicaeiaai ea?aiia oi?ie?iaaeanue oaeaiiniay na?ey eieinnaeueiie
iiuiinoe. Ia thai-ainoiea Aeiiaanna iia aeinoeaaao 18 ei. Iaeiieaiea
oieue ii?iae oaeie iiuiinoe auei aiciiaeii eeoue a oneiaeyo eioaineaiiai
i?iaeaaiey aaeaeiaaia n iaeiia?aiaiiui iinooieaieai a iaai aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa iaeiii/iiai iaoa?eaea. Oae eae iaeiieaiea oaeaiiniie na?ee
i?ienoiaeeei a eiioeiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo (n e?aoeia?aiaiiuie
o?aina?anneyie ii?y), oi i?iaeaaiea ana a?aiy eiiiaine?iaaeinue
iinooieaieai iaeiii/iiai iaoa?eaea n ?yaeii ?aniieiaeaiiuo
aicauoaiiinoae.

Oaeaiiniua ioeiaeaiey aeaoaeueii eco/aiu a Aeiiaanna, a eo no?iaiee
iaaethaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay caeiiiia?iinoue. Any oaeaiiniay na?ey
ninoieo ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ia/ae-?eoiia, ioaeaeaiiuo ae?oa io
ae?oaa neaaeaie ?aciuaa. A iniiaaiee ?eoia caeaaaao ian/aiee ?a/iiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, auoa neaaeotho aeeienoua ii?iaeu n i?ineiyie oaey. Yoi
ica?ii-aieioiua e i?ea?aaeii-ii?neea inaaeee. Caeai/eaaaony ?eoi
ii?neeie ecaanoiyeaie e ia?aaeyie. Oaeia no?iaiea oa?aeoa?ii aeey
oaeaiiniie na?ee ia?aee/aneiai oeia, o. a. noi?ie?iaaaoaeny a oneiaeyo
i?eii?neie ?aaieiu, ia?eiaee/anee caeeaaaoaeny ii?ai. A Aeiiaanna
ecaanoii aei 300 i?ineiaa oaeae, ec ieo 60 ?ac?aaaouaathony. Oaee eiatho
aunieia ea/anoai, oaeaiaeiieaiea i?ienoiaeeei a o?iie/aneeo oneiaeyo.

A ia?ie i?iaeieaeaeinue i?iaeaaiea Aeiai?iai-Aeiiaoeeiai aaeaeiaaia, ii
a iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai a ea?aiia. A oneiaeyo nooiai eeeiaoa ia?ineiai
ia?eiaea oaeaia?aciaaiey ia i?ienoiaeeei, a i?iaeaa oei iaeiieaiea
aeeienouo ii?iae n eaiaiiie nieueth e aeinii. A o?eaniaii ia?eiaea
i?iaeaaiey a Aeiai?iai-Aeiiaoeeii aaeaeiaaia caeii/eeenue e ii i?ae?aoee
naia nouanoaiaaiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaiaion A. *a?ac ai?u a?aiaie. – I., 1993

2. Io?aoia I.A. I?ienoiaeaeaiea iaoa?eeia e ieaaie/aneeo aiaaeei. – I.,
1975

3. Iaieia A.E. Eaaeoeeee A.N. e ae?. E?aoeee eo?n iaeaiioieiaee. – I.,
2000

Ie/oaei A.A. Eco/aiea aaieiaee a n?aaeiae oeiea. – I., 1997

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