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География путешествий Христофора Колумба

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Aaaaeaiea

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo noieaoee oaia iooaoanoaee e ioe?uoee auea
aeooaeueia iaaeaeo anaie nioeeaeueiuie eeannaie. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae iia
iicaieeoue naaa ioi?aaeoueny a iooaoanoaea ia ii?aaeae?iioth noiio
aeaiaa, eiathueeny o iaai ia ?oeao. Ciaoiue ia?iae ioaaouaaei aeaeaiea
iciaeiieoueny e ociaoue /oaeoth eoeueoo?o e iau/ae.

O?enoioi? Eieoia- aaeeeee ii?aieaaaoaeue

1. Aeia?aoey O?enoioi?a Eieoiaa

Eieoia ?iaeeeny a eoaeueyineie ?anioaeeea Aaioy, a naiii ii?oiaii
ai?iaea eee a aai ie?anoiinoyo.

Aeaae ii?aieaaaoaey, Aeaeiaaiie Eieiiai, ia?aaoae a Aaioth ec ai?iie
aea?aaie, ?aniieiaeaiiie e ainoieo io yoiai ai?iaea.

Ianoaeua e aeiia?aaeieee auee iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iooea aaeeeiai
ii?aieaaaoaey – Aeiiaieei Eieiiai, oea/a oa?noyiueea, eioi?ue
iaeiia?aiaiii oi?aiaae nu?ii e aeiii. Aeiieieei Eieoiai aeee n aeaiie,
Nonaiiie Oiioaia?inna, aei/a?ueth oea/a ec Aecaiai. Aeii Eieoiaa
iacuaaeny Eana-aee-Ieeaaeea e iaoiaeeeny o ai?io Nai-Aiae?aa. Caeanue
?aniieaaaeenue ianoa?neay, aaea i?yee eoieaiioth o e?anoueyi oa?noue, a
a ninaaeiai iiiauaiee oai aea Eeao?eeneei e?anoueyiai i?iaeaaaee oa?ieia
ene?enoia aeii. A yoii aeiia iaaeaeo 25 aaaonoa e 31 ieoya?y 1451 aiaea
?iaeeeny ia?aue nui Aeiiaieei Eieiiai-O?enoioi?i. Oi/iay aeaoa
?iaeaeaiey iaeue/eea, eae e iiiaia ae?oaia i aai aeaonoaa e thiioanoaa,
inoaaony aei neo ii? i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey. Nai Eieoia ia i?eaeaaae aeaoa
naiaai ?iaeaeaiey ieeaeiai cia/aiey, oae eae a oa a?aiaia i?acaeiiaaee
oieueei eiaieiu nayoiai, eiy eioi?iai aeaaaeinue i?e e?auaiee.

Oaeay aea neooaoeey auea e n a?aoueyie O?enoioi?i-Aa?oieiia (?iaeeeny
i?eaeeceoaeueii a 1460 aiaeo) e Aeaeaeiii, aieaa ecaanoiiai iiae
eniaineei eiaiai Aeeaai (?iaeeeny ieiei 1468 aiaea). Yoe aeaou iaoi/iu,
a nii? i aeaoao ?iaeaeaiey nano?u Aueyieeiaoou e ?aii oia?oaai
Aeaeiaaiie Iaeeaa?eii cao?aaeaaao aieueoa, a ianeieueei eao, i?iiaaeooee
a?aiaie.

I iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee naiuee Aeiiaieei Eieiiai e aai ia nianai
/anoiii oa?aeoa?a aiai?eo neo/eaoeeny ia naaaeueaa Auyieeiaoou
iai?eyoiue yieciae. Cyoue oi?aiaaoe nu?ii, iaaeiee Aeiieieei a oii, /oi
ii ia ioaeaao i?eaeaiiia, iaauaiiia ca aei/a?ueth. Iioa?eaeueiua aeou
oiai a?aiaie iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea Aeiieieei auei
oae?o/athuei. Iniaaiii e?oiiua ?aciiaeaney n e?aaeeoi?aie aicieeee ec-ca
aeiia, a eioi?ue naiuey ia?aaoaea /a?ac 4 aiaea iinea ?iaeaeaiey
O?enoioi?i. Ia ooiaeaiaioa yoiai aeiia iicaea auei iino?iaii caeaiea,
iacaaiiia Eana-aee- Eieiiai, a ia oanaaea a 1887 aiaeo auaaee iaaeienue:
Ie iaeei ?iaeeoaeueneee aeii ia iiaeao auoue oae ii/eoaai, eae yoio.
Caeanue i?iaae O?enoioi? Eieoia aeaonoai e ?aiithth thiinoue. E ana-oaee
Aeiieieei Eieiiai aue oaaaeaaiui /eaiii oeaoa ?aianeaiieeia. A 1470
aiaeo aio aeiaa?ytho aaaeioth ienneth a Naaiio, aaea ii aeieaeai
ianoaeeoue n oea/aie aiciiaeiinoue aaaaeaiey aaeeiuo oeai ia eo
i?iaeoeoeeth. Iaaa?iia, iiyoiio a 70-a aiaeu Aeiieieei Eieoiai
ia?anaeyaony a Naaiio. Oai ii iieo/aao a?aiioo, a eioi?ie cia/eony eae
Oea/ e oi?aiaaoe (textor pannorumet taber narius). Ii ii-i?aaeiaio
oi?aoao aeiii. Iioiaea, /oi iinea nia?oe aeaiu e nuia, iinea caioaeanoaa
aei/a?e e ooiaea ec aeiia noa?oeo nuiiaae Aeiiaieei Eieoiai noae ana
/aua e /aua iaoiaeeoue ooaoaiea a aeia.

I aeaonoaa aaeeeiai ii?aieaaaoaey i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia ecaanoii. O/aiua
ia iiaoo i?eeoe e aaeeiiio iiaieth e ioiineoaeueii ia?aciaaiey Eieoiaa.
Ecaanoii eeoue, /oi aeiaieueii ?aii Eieoia ia/ae oiaeeoue ia oi?aiauo
noaeao ii N?aaeecaiiiio ii?th.

O O?enoioi?a auee o?e ieaaeoeo a?aoa (Aa?oieiiai, Aeaeiaaiie-Iaeeaa?eii
e Aeaeaeiii) e ieaaeoay nano?a (Aueyi/eiaooa). Aa?oieiiai e Aeaeaeiii
o/anoaiaaee a yeniaaeeoeeyo Eieoiaa iinea 1492 a Iiaue Naao e
eiaiiaaeenue ia eniaineee iaia? – Aa?oieiia e Aeeaai.

Noaey ii ienueiai, Eieoia noae ii?yeii a iaiau/ii ?aiiai aic?anoa e
ieaaae ii N?aaeecaiiiio ii?th ia oi?aiauo noaeao ia ainoie aieioue aei
i.Oein, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoaai oiaaea Aaioa. Aiciiaeii, ii aue eoioeii e ii
e?aeiae ia?a iaeei ?ac eiiaiaeiaae noaeiii. A na?aaeeia 1470-o aiaeia
Eieoia inae a Ii?ooaaeee e i?eniaaeeieeny e iaaieueoie eieiiee
eoaeueyineeo eoioeia a Eennaaiia. Iiae ii?ooaaeueneei oeaaii, oi?aiaui
eee aiaiii-ii?neei, ii ieaaae ia naaa? a Aiaeeth e E?eaiaeeth, a
aiciiaeii e a Eneaiaeeth. Ii iinaoee oaeaea Iaaeae?o e Eaia?neea i-aa e
oiaeee aaeieue caiaaeiiai iiaa?aaeuey Ao?eee aei ii?ooaaeueneiai
oi?aiaiai ioieoa Nai-Oi?oa-aea-Ieia (nia?. Aaia).

A Ii?ooaaeee Eieoia aeaieeny, noaa /eaiii niaoaiiie eoaei-ii?ooaaeueneie
naiuee, eoaeueyineea i?aaeee eioi?ie iinaeeeenue a yoie no?aia a eiioea
14 a. e aeinoeaee oai aunieiai iieiaeaiey. Ieaaeoee ec /eaiia yoie
naiuee, Aa?oieiiao Ia?aoo?aeo, aue acyo a ei?ieaaneee aeai?aoe eae
oiaa?eu i?eioeaa AEoaia e Aai?eoa (Aai?eoa Ii?aieaaaoaey). Aa?oieiiao
?aii iaaeiaae e iieo/ee a ianeaaenoai /ei eaieoaia ia i.Ii?oo-Naioo aeec
Iaaeae?u. Yoi aeaaaei aio iaieioie aeioiae, ii iniaiai aiaaonoaa ii oae
e ia iaaeee. Aoi?ay aeaia Aa?oieiiao, Ecaaae Iiieo, i?eiaaeeaaeaea e
naiuea ciaoiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, eo iiianouey iaoiaeeeenue ia thaa
Ii?ooaaeee e i.Iaaeae?a. O ieo auea aei/ue Oaeeia Iiieo (iieiia eiy
Oaeeia Ia?aoo?aeo y Iiieo), ia eioi?ie e aeaieeny Eieoia a 1478 eee
1479. Ecaaae Iiieo ioaeaea cyoth ea?ou e aeieoiaiou, o?aieaoeany o aa
ioaea, neii/aaoaainy a 1457. Aiciiaeii, ec ieo Eieoia e ii/a?iioe
iaoe?iua naaaeaiey ii aaia?aoee.

Oia? Eieoia a eniaineii ai?iaea Aaeueyaeieeaea 21 iay 1506 a i?enoonoaee
a?aoa Aeeaai, nuiiaae Aeeaai e Y?iaiaei e ianeieueeeo ae?ocae ii
yeniaaeeoeee. Aai inoaiee auee ia?aaacaiu a Naaeeueth a 1513, a caoai
i?eia?ii a 1542, ia?acaoi?iiaiu a niai?a ai?iaea Naioi-Aeiieiai (iuia
Aeiieieeaineay ?anioaeeea).

2. O?iiieiaey iooaoanoaee

1470-a aiaeu – Eieoia iinaeyaony a Ii?ooaaeee, a Eennaaiia. Oaia?ue ii
oiaeeo ia ii?ooaaeueneeo noaeao, caieuaay aeaeaei ia naaa?. Ecaanoii,
/oi eiaiii oiaaea aio oaeaeinue iiauaaoue ia A?eoaineeo ino?iaao, a
aiciiaeii, e a Eneaiaeee. Ea?aaaeeu iiae ii?ooaaeueneei oeaaii oiaeeee e
ia Eaia?neea ino?iaa, a oaeaea aaeieue caiaaeiiai iiaa?aaeuey Ao?eee.

Eiiaoe 1470-o aiaeia – Eieoia aeaieony ia Oaeeia Iiieo, i?ienoiaeeaoae
ec aiaaoie eoaei-ii?ooaaeueneie naiuee. AEaia ?iaeeea Eieoiao nuia.

Oanoue Eieoiaa oaeaea aue ii?aieaaaoaeai, e iinea aai nia?oe aeaia
ioaeaea cyoth ea?ou, aeiaaieee e i?i/ea aeieoiaiou iieieiiai ioaea.
Aiciiaeii, eiaiii ii yoei aeieoiaioai Eieoia i?iaeieaeee eco/aiea
aaia?aoee. E?iia oiai, o/aaieeaie aeey iaai noaee eieae eoaeueyineiai
iiyoa Yiaa Neeueaie Ieeeieiieie, «Ia?ac ie?a» Iuea?a aea Aeeuee, «Eieaa»
Ia?ei Iiei.

1480-a aiaea – a yoio ia?eiae ii?ooaaeueoeu auee icaai/aiu iieneii
ii?neiai iooe a Aceth. Eioa?an e yoie /anoe naaoa iauyniyaony aeiaieueii
i?inoi: iaeie aceaoneea i?yiinoe a oi a?aiy /anoi caiaiyee aeaiueae, a
aaaeue auee aua aeaaiaiiey, oaee, eia?u, i?aaeiaou ?ineioe… Nooiiooiiai
iooe a Aceth oiaaea ia auei – aai ia?ae?uaaea iiaouanoaaiiay Iniaineay
eiia?ey. I?eoiaeeeinue ia?aeoiaoue i?yiinoe, oaee e i?i/ea yecioe/aneea
ainoi/iua oiaa?u o a?aaneeo eoioeia, oa?yy aieueoea i?eauee.
Ii?ooaaeueoeu aeaeaee oieueei iaeei ia?o?oo: iaiaioa Ao?eeo, iiaeiyoueny
a Eiaeeeneee ieaai, e a ia/aea aeanyoeeaoey ei?ieai Ii?ooaaeee AEoaiii
II auea nia?yaeaia e ioi?aaeaia niioaaonoaothuay yeniaaeeoeey. Eieoia
aea i?aaeeiaeee aeueoa?iaoeao: aeinoe/ue Acee, aeaeaaynue ia caiaae.
Oai?ey Eieoiaa iniiauaaeanue ia nianoaaiiuo ?an/aoao ii?aieaaaoaey. Ii
ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee ioaeii neacaoue, /oi Eieoia ia aue iiaaoi?ii –
eaeath caiaaeiiai iooe a Eiaeeth auaeaeaaee aua a aioe/iii ie?a
A?enoioaeue e I?ioaai?.

1483 aiae – aa?y a naith oai?eth, Eieoia ?aoaao ai /oi au oi ie noaei
aeieacaoue aa i?aaeeueiinoue. Ii ano?a/aaony n AEoaiii II e i?ineo aai
iiniaeaenoaiaaoue a i?aaiecaoeee yeniaaeeoeee. Ei?ieue iiaeioae e aeaeo
na?ueacii e nia?ae niaao, ninoiyuee ec aieneiia e aeaoo einiia?aoia.
?an/aou Eieoiaa auee iaeaeaiu iaaa?iuie, a yeniaaeeoeee auei ioeacaii.

1485 aiae – Eieoia iieeaeaao Ii?ooaaeeth e ia?aacaeaao a Eniaieth.

1486 aiae – Eieoia iieo/aao aoaeeaioeeth o ei?iey Eniaiee Oa?aeeiaiaea
A?aaiineiai e ei?ieaau Ecaaaeeu Eanoeeueneie. Iiia?o e aai noi?oaa
caeioa?aniaaeenue i?aaeeiaeaieai Eieoiaa. Oae aea, eae e a Ii?ooaaeee,
auea nia?aia eiienney aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ii yoiio aeaeo, e oae aea
eiienney ia iiaeaea?aeaea ii?aieaaaoaey. Eniaineea «eiiiaoaioiua
niaoeeaeenou» nnueaeenue ia oi, /oi nouanoaiaaiea caiaaeiiai iooe a
Eiaeeth i?ioeai?a/eo oea?eiaiiio o/aieth. Eieoiaa aaeaa ia iauyaeee
a?aoeeii (a yoi aua auee a?aiaia eieaeceoeee). Ei?ieue e ei?ieaaa ?aoeee
ana aea iieoe iaano?a/o iooaoanoaaiieeo, ii n iaeiei oneiaeai – nia/aea
aeieaeia auea caaa?oeoueny aieia n iaa?aie.

1488 aiae – iaeay Aaao?en Yi?eean aea A?aia ?iaeaao Eieoiao nuia
Oa?iaiaei. Eieoia ia oieueei i?eciae ?aaaiea, ii e ia caaue aai
aiineaaenoaee, /a?ac o?eiaaeoeaoue eao acya a iaeio ec naieo
yeniaaeeoeee. Eiaiii Oa?iaiaei iaieoao iioii aeia?aoeth naiaai iooea,
eioi?ay noaiao aeaaiui enoi/ieeii naaaeaiee i aaeeeii ii?aieaaaoaea.

1492 aiae – Eniaiey inaiaiaeaeaia io iaa?ia, e ei?ieue Oa?aeeiaiae e
ei?ieaaa Ecaaaeea iaeiiaoe i?eieiatho ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea ian/ao
oeiaine?iaaiey iienea caiaaeiiai iooe a Aceth. A neo/aa iaoaea/e iie
oa?yee eeoue n?aaenoaa, aeiaeaiiua a i?aaei?eyoea. A neo/aa aea oniaoa
ia?aae Eniaieae ioe?uaaeenue aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiua ia?niaeoeau. Eieoiao
auee iaauaiu: aeai?yineia caaiea, oeooeu aaeie?aea, aeoea-ei?iey e
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a anao ioe?uouo a yeniaaeeoeee ino?iaia e iaoa?eeia.

1492 – 1493 aiaeu – ia?aay yeniaaeeoeey O?enoioi?a Eieoiaa. A Aoeaioeeo
ioi?aaeeenue aeaa ea?aaaeeu, «Ieioa» e «Ieiuey», a oaeaea
/aou?aoia/oiaue ia?oniee «Naioa-Ia?ey». Eiiaiaea ninoiyea ec 90 /aeiaae.

Ieoya?ue 1492 aiaea – ia?aay aunaaeea ia iaeiii ec Aaaaineeo ino?iaia.
Eieoia iacaae yoio ino?ia Nai-Naeueaaaei?. Ii i?aaeiieaaae, /oi aeinoea
Acee.

Iinea Aaaaineeo ino?iaia Eieoia iiiae ia Eoao, a anei?a ioe?ue ino?ia,
eioi?ue iacaae Yniaiueiea (iuia Aaeoe). Ana yoi a?aiy e ii?aieaaaoaeue,
e aai eiiaiaea auniao?eaaee n ea?aaaeeu oi?aiaua ai?iaea Acee.

ssiaa?ue 1493 aiaea – n Yniaiueieu Eieoia ioi?aaeyaony ia?aoii a
Eniaieth. N niaie, a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa ioe?uoey iaaaaeiiuo
caiaeue, ii aa?ao ianeieueei aai?eaaiia. Aa?aaia Eniaiee iooaoanoaaiiee
aeinoea a na?aaeeia ia?oa. Io/eouaaynue ia?aae ei?ieaaneie /aoie, Eieoia
cayaee, /oi Aceaoneee iaoa?ee iaoiaeeony iiaeecinoe io ioe?uouo ei
ino?iaia, a ia naieo ino?iaao ii iaia?ai iniiaaoue eieiieth. Oa?aeeiaiae
e Ecaaaeea niaeaneeenue i?ioeiaine?iaaoue iiaoi?ioth yeniaaeeoeeth e
aiiaue ioe?uoui caieyi.

1493 – 1496 aiaeu – aoi?ay yeniaaeeoeey O?enoioi?a Eieoiaa. Ia yoio ?ac
oeioeeey ninoiyea ec 17 noaeia, a eiiaiaea – ec 1400 /aeiaae. Ei?ieaaa
Ecaaaeea i?eeacaea ia?auaoue aai?eaaiia a o?enoeainoai.

Ai a?aiy aoi?ie yeniaaeeoeee aee ioe?uo ino?ia Aeiieieea. Ia Yniaiueiea
inoaeny oi?aaeyoue a?ao Eieoiaa Aeeaai. Nai iooaoanoaaiiee auiaieaae
cieioi e oi?aiaae iaaieueieeaie. Iicaea ia Yniaiueieo i?eaoae aoi?ie
a?ao Eieoiaa, Aa?oieiiai. A ethia 1496 aiaea O?enoioi? Eieoia aa?ioeny a
Eniaieth.

1498 – 1500 aiaeu – o?aouey yeniaaeeoeey. Ei?ieue Eniaiee e aai noi?oaa
oaea ia oae ioioii aeaee ?ac?aoaiea e aeaiueae ia yoi ieaaaiea, oae eae,
ai-ia?auo, Acey oae e ia auea iaeaeaia, ai-aoi?uo, aeioiae io eieiiee
i?aaeaeaeaeny ia nei?i.

Ia yoio ?ac Eieoia aeinoea aeaeueou ?aee I?eiiei e ianeaaeiaae
iiaa?aaeuea (iuia yoi oa??eoi?ey ainoaea?noaa Aaianoyea) . Iinea yoiai
ii?aieaaaoaeue ioi?aaeeny ia Yniaiueieo. Eieiiey oaea aeaaii
iaoiaeeeanue a oiaaeea, e ieaaeoea Eieoiau ia iiaee iaania/eoue oai
aeieaeiue ii?yaeie. Yeniaaeeoeey caaa?oeeanue iaoaea/ii aeey anao o?ieo:
iineaiaoe ei?iey a?anoiaae a?aoueaa e ioi?aaee a eaiaeaeao a Eniaieth,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii eiioeneiaaa ana eo aeaiueae. A Eniaiee ei?ieaaneay /aoa
aa?ioea Eieoiao oeooeu e eiouanoai, iaeiaei ?ac?aoaiea ia /aoaa?ooth
yeniaaeeoeeth ii?aieaaaoaeue iieo/ee oieueei nionoy aeaa aiaea.

1502 – 1504 aiaeu – /aoaa?oay yeniaaeeoeey Eieoiaa. Aue ioe?uo ino?ia
Ia?oeieea, caoai iooaoanoaaiieee enneaaeiaaee iiaa?aaeuea Oeaio?aeueiie
Aia?eee. Eieoia ana aua aue oaa?ai, /oi iaoiaeeony a Eiaeee.

3. Aaia?aoey iooaoanoaee aaeeeiai ia?aiioe?uaaoaey

3.1. Aaioy

A oeaio?a Eeao?ee, o caeeaa, iinyuaai aa eiy, ia?auaiiay e eaco?iiio
ii?th, eaaeeo Aaioy – aieueiue ai?iae, ai?iae ?anioaeeea, aaeeeieaiiay
Aaioy.

Ii iaeio noi?iio io iaa i?inoe?aeenue ieiaei?iaeiua oieienoua caiee
Naaiiu, ii ae?oaoth – ca?inee eaa?a e aeiia?aaeieee Oineaiu.

Aaioy oaea n X aaea auea ai?iaeii-?anioaeeeie e ea?aea a enoi?ee
N?aaeeiicaiiiii?uey aaaeioth ?ieue. Oae, a 1099 aiaeo aaioycneea aienea
i?eieiaee o/anoea a caoaaoa Ea?onaeeia. Iicaea iinea aeeeoaeueiuo aiaa
auea neiieaia e iiei?aia Ieca. E, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Aaioy iioa?iaea
ii?aaeaiea a 1379 aiaeo io aaiaoeeaineiai aienea e auea neeueii
ineaaeaia iaaaaaie iniaioeaa, iia i?iaeieaeaea inoaaaoueny a na?aaeeia
XV aaea aeinoieiaeoei niia?ieeii Aaiaoeee.

Eiaiii ec Aaioe a 1291 aiaeo ia/aee a?aouey Oaieeii e Aaaeeii Aeaaeueaee
naie ii?neie iooue a Eiaeeth a iaoiae Ao?eee. Iie ia aa?ioeenue iacaae.
Eaia?neea ino?iaa, eiaioaiua a aioe/iua a?aiaia Insulae fortunate
(ino?iaa aeaaeaiiuo), aoi?e/ii auee ioe?uou aaioycoeaie, eioi?ua aeieaia
a?aiy yaeyeenue aaeie?aeaie Ii?ooaaeee. Eieiiecaoeeth Aci?neeo ino?iaia
ia/aee oiaea aaioycoeu.

Oioy O?enoioi?i i?iaae aeaonoai, ?aaioay ca iooeianeei noaieii, ana aea,
aeaeeii, eaeea-oi iinoi?iiiea aeeyiey iai?aaeee eioa?anu iaeue/eea a
ae?oaia ?onei. Aaioy auea a oi a?aiy aeaaiie a?aiie aieiu iaaeaeo
i?eioeai ?aia Aiaeoeneei, ei?ieai Aeueoiini A?aiineei e Neoeeeeae ca
iaaiieeoaineoth ei?iio. *anoi /a?ac ai?iaeneea ai?ioa aeeaaeny a ai?iae
ooiiue iioie eaiaeneiaooia, caeiaaiiuo a aeiniaoe, a a aaaaie a yoi
a?aiy oaa?oiaaeenue aiaaua, aaeeeieaiiiai ?ane?aoaiiua aaea?u.

Aeaaineiaaiiua aeie ?uoea?ae ieiiaae – ianooiaei a?aiy iooae e ii
aeiaiai?o iiea/eaaaiuo iaaiieeia, a?aiy iiiai/eneaiiuo aiei e ianniaie
nia?oe. Aua aieueoaa aia/aoeaiea i?iecaiaeeea ia iaeaiueeiai O?enoioi?i
aaaaiue, aaea oieieeenue e ia?aeeeeaeenue ethaee n ?aciui oeaaoii eiaee,
a ao?ionao, eaooaiao, aa?iiaeneii ieaouea, aaea niaoeaaeenue a?iiaou
yecioe/aneeo i?yiinoae e o?iie/aneiai aea?aaa n caiaoaie ayeie ?uau,
ia?onia e aeaaoy. Eiaiii oai ii ociae, /oi anoue ia naaoa aeeeiaeiiua
caa?e, oaioanoe/aneea ?anoaiey.

O?enoioi?i ia aeieai inoaaaeny noi?iiiei iaaethaeaoaeai.
I?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, oaea a /aou?iaaeoeaoue eao ii ieaaae thiaie a
Ii?ooaaeeth, a iicaea e ia Ei?neeo. A oi a?aiy ia eeao?eeneii
iiaa?aaeuea ?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie aue iaoo?aeueiue iaiai. Aeiiaieei
Eieoiai eiia/ii aea o/anoaiaae a iai, a nui, O?enoioi?i, iiiiaae aio: ii
nii?iaiaeaeae iaeaiueeia, n eaoeineie inianoeie noaeii, a?oaeaiia
oeaiyie, a eaaeauea ?yaeii oi?aiaua oeaio?u, a ioooaea aeinoaaeye a
Naaiio nu? e aeii.

Auneacuaaiea naiiai Eieoiaa ii iiaiaeo aai oiaaeaoiaai iieiaeaiey
aucuaatho niiiaiey: eaeie Aaeie?ae Ii?y-Ieaaia ia caoi/ao i?eoe?aneoue
naia i?ioeia! Iai?eia?, ii niiauaao neaaeothuea: “Ei?ieue ?aia ioi?aaee
iaiy a Ooien caoaaoeoue aaea?o Oa?iaiaeeia. Aeieaey aei ino?iaa
Nai-Iaae?i, eaaeaaoaai o aa?aaia Na?aeeiee iu ociaee, /oi nthaea i?eauee
aua aeaa noaeia – aaea?a e ea?aea. Ethaee iie oae ano?aaiaeeeenue, /oi
ia noaee iaiaaeaoue, a ?aoeee aa?iooueny a Ia?naeue ca iiaeiiaie.
Ieeaeei ia?acii y ia niia neiieoue eo aieth e, n ieie yeiau
niaeaniaaaoenue, ia?anoaaee ciaee ia ea?oooee eiiiana e iicaeiei aa/a?ii
iiaeiye ia?ona. ?aiiei oo?ii, i?e ainoiaea nieioea, iu auee o iuna
Ea?oaoaia, oioue ana iieaaaee, /oi iu eaeai a Ia?naeue.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi eiiaiaea noaeia eaieoaia Eieiiai, aeaeii
ninoiyea ec iaiiuoiuo ethaeae, anee iie ia caiaoeee iiaeaioa, oae eae
oiaaea aeaaea ?yaeiaua iao?inu oiaee iaaethaeaoue caacaeiia iaai e iiaee
ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey noaeia iinea ii/iie aaoou. Ii aeiionoei,
/oi ?anneac Eieoiaa – i?aaaea, oiaaea iaynii, eaeei ia?acii inoaeinue
iacaia/aiiui a ?aeiia iinoiyiiuo aao?ia eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey aao?a,
iaiaoiaeeiia aeey inouanoaeaiey iaiaia. Ca aao?ii, a iniaaiii ca anyeiai
?iaea aai eciaiaieyie ai a?aiaia Eieoiaa neaaeeee iniaaiii aieiaoaeueii.

Enoi?ey nei?aa anaai auea ?anneacaia aeey ?acaea/aiey i?eaeai?iuo,
oieueei ia yoi iia aiaeeeanue. E oiio aea ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo Nai-Iaae?i
e iunii Ea?oioaia ieiei 180 ii?neeo ieeue. Eieoia, aeieaeii auoue, oioae
iaiaaoeoue enoi?eth ia?oniiai ii?aieaaaiey aua iaeiei ?aei?aeii, anee ii
a iaeio ii/ue aeinoea iuna Ea?oaoaia, iaiaioa i?e yoii iianiue iun
Oa?eia. Ai anyeii neo/aa i?e e?eoe/aneii iniuneaiee iiaeiaiuo niiauaiee
ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi enoi?ey aeioea aei iaoeo aeiae ec aeinoaoi/ii
niiieoaeueiie Vida del Admurate; (aeeciue Aaeie?aea – aeia?aoey Eieoiaa,
iaienaiiay nuiii O?enoioi?a Eieoiaa – Oa?iaiaei Eieiiii) e nae/an
aaniethoii ia aeieacoaii, iaienaia iia nianoaaiii?o/ii Eieiiii eee iao.
Iai?ioea, ecaanoii, /oi i?eaeeceoaeueii a yoi a?aiy Eieiiai ninoiye ia
neoaeaa o aaioycneeo oi?aiauo aeiiia Nieiiea , Iaa?i e *aioo?eiie.

Iineaaeiea eiaee iiiai/eneaiiua ioaeaeaiey ai anai n?aaeecaiiiii?uea.
Aac niiiaiey, O?enoioi?i ieaaae ia noaeao *aioo?eiie a Ia?naeue e Ooien,
a oaeaea iaiaeiie?aoii ia a?a/aneee ino?ia Oein, eaaeauee a noa?a
aeeyiey Aaioe.

31 iay 1476 aiaea ec Iiee ?aniieiaeaiiiai aeec Aaioe, auoae oi?ioi
aii?oaeaiiue oi?aiaue ea?aaai, a?oaeaiue oeinneie ianoeeie. Aaaaie,
eoaea iai?aaeyeny oeaiiue a?oc, iaoiaeeeenue ai Oeaiae?ee e Aiaeee. Ia
iaeiii ec noaeia oeaiaiaeneie Aaoaeea ieue a ea/anoaa iao?ina O?enoioi?i
Eieiiai.

13 aaaonoa ieiei iuna Nai-Aenaio ea?aaai aoaeiaaee o?aioeocneea aiaiiua
ei?aaee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaeie?aea Aeeiia Eacaiiaa, ii i?icaaieth
Eoeii eee Eieii. Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi iaiaaeaiea inouanoaeyeinue iiae
oeaaii Ea?ea Niaeiai, aa?oeiaa Ao?aoiaeneiai e a?aoa Oeaiaiaeneiai,
aiaaaaoaai i?ioea o?aioeocneiai ei?iey. A iiaeao auoue, yoi auei naiia
iaueiiaaiiia ie?aoneia iaiaaeaiea? *oi aea eanaaony noiaenoaa oaieeee
aaioycneiai iao?ina e aai i?ioeaieea, oi iii ii?iaeeei iiiai oieeia e
niaeoeyoeee. Iaeiaei ia aeaeueiaeoai aeeciaiiii iooe aoaeouaai aeiia
O?enoioi?a Eieoiaa yoi noiaenoai ieeae ia io?aceeinue. Aaaeii ae?oaia –
oi, /oi caaycaeanue aeanoieay aeoaa. Iiiai/eneaiiua yae?a n a?ioioii
e?ooeee ei?aaee. Ea?oa/ueth ?ac?uaaei /aeiaa/aneea oaea, iie aaeyeenue
ia iaeoaa, ie?aoaiiua e?iaueth e iaiai a y?ei-e?aniue oeaao. Oeaiaiaeoeu
e aaioycnoeu ieacaeenue aeinoieiuie i?ioeaieeaie. Iiaeaee e ooiioee ia
oieueei nioie ethaeae, ii e ?yaeii n o?aiy aaioycneeie iia?oaeaeenue a
aiaeo 4 ie?aoneeo noaeia.

Niaeanii eaaaiaea, ia?aaeeaoee aie O?enoioi?i Eieiiai ia iaeiii ec
iaeiieia ei?aaey aeia?aeny aei ii?oa Eaaooa ia Ii?ooaaeueneii aa?aao.

Caeanue nianoeony i?ethoeee e niaaaeeee anai iaiaoiaeeiui. Iicaea i ieo
iicaaioeeenue /eaiu aaioycneie eieiiee a Eennaaiia. I?eeeth/aiea, anee
iii ia auiunae, noaei iiai?ioiui ioieoii a noaeueaa Eieiiai. Ia iioiio,
/oi ii ia?aian nia?oaeueioth iianiinoue, a iioiio, /oi Aoeaioe/aneea
aiaeu aua?ineee iioa?iaaoaai e?ooaiea, aac n?aaenoa e nouanoaiaaieth, ii
aeayoaeueiiai e ethaiciaoaeueiiai iieiaeiai ii?yea ia iiaa?aaeuea
no?aiu, eioi?ay iiaea i?aaeeiaeeoue iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua i?aaeiinueee
aeey ?acaeoey aai oaeaioia.

3.2. Ii?ooaaeey

Ia ?annoiyiee ianeieueeeo ieeue io oiai ianoa, aaea, aa?iyoii, auieue ia
aa?aa O?enoioi?i, ia eina Naa?eo, iaoiaeeeanue ii?aoiaeiay aaca,
iniiaaiiay aeiiii Yi?eea, ecaanoiui a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoa iiae
eiaiai Aai?eoa Ii?aieaaaoaey.

Ii?ooaaeey auea a oa a?aiaia “finis terrae”- caiaaeiui eiioeii ecaanoiuo
eiioeiaioaeueiuo caiaeue, e iiyoiio, a oaeaea, aa?iyoii, aeaaiaea?y
aeeaeoaeueiui eiioaeoai n ainoi/iuie i?aaeoaeyie iia noaea ioi?aaiie
oi/eie iao/ii, oaoie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey Aa?iiu.

Ii?ooaaeey a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea XVaaea eaaaiaea?iiai o?enoeaineiai
ei?iey-nayuaiieea Eiaiia, o eioi?iai iaaeayeenue iieo/eoue
iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo cieioii a aieia i?ioea ianooiathueo oo?ie, a
oaeaea iieneaie ii?neiai iooe a aiaaooth i?yiinoyie e ae?aaioeaiiuie
iaoaeeaie Eiaeeth, oioy niiieoaeueii, /oiau oaea a oi a?aiy eiaeinue a
aeaeo ieaaaiea a Ia?aaeithth Eiaeeth.

Ii?ooaaeey e iinea nia?oe aeiia Yi?eea i?iaeieaeaea aicaeaaeyoue
ninoycaiey ca iiei?aiea ia aaaeaiiuo caiaeue. Ei?ieaaneee aeii uaae?i
caeeth/ae aeiaiai?u, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo ia/eiathuea ia?aiioe?uaaoaee
iiaee ca naie n/ao nia?yaeaoue yeniaaeeoeee. Eiaaea O?enoioi?i Eieoiai
aue aua?ioai, niaeanii eaaaiaea, ia ieyae aicea Eaaooa, ?acaea/a
iiaeiaiuo eiioeannee aeaaea ia canaeaiiua caiee auea oaea iau/iui
aeaeii. Ei?iia aannii?ii auea caeioa?aniaaia a iinoiyiiii ?anoe?aiea
aaia?aoe/aneeo ciaieyo ia Ao?eeaineii eiioeiaioa, e iia o?aaiaaea
ioaaoiie oneoae. Yoa oneoaa caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ana ioe?uoua caiee
noaiiaeeenue aeaaeaieyie Ii?ooaaeee, eae iai?eia?, ino?iaa Caeaiiai
iuna, eioi?ua canaeyeenue a i?eioaeeoaeueiii ii?yaeea. A aeiaiai?,
caeeth/aiiue n Eennaaiineei oi?aiaui aeiiii Oa?iaia Aiiaoa a 1469 aiaeo
ioiineoaeueii eniieueciaaiey Aaeiaeneiai iiaa?aaeuey, niaea?aeae
noaouee, iaycuaathuea Aiiaoa aaeaaiaeii auiea/eaaoue ei?iia 200 ouny/
ia?aaaaee e enneaaeiaaoue ca naie n/ao aa?aa a thaeiii iai?aaeaiee ia
100 ii?ooaaeueneeo ieeue (1 ii?ooaaeueneay ieey6269i). Ii aeieaeai aue
iaianoe ana yoe caiee ia ea?ou e ii ieii/aiee aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a
ia?aaeaoue eo ei?ieaaneiio aeiio. Eeai Aiiaoae e ninoiyaoea o ieo ia
neoaeaa ii?yee ii?aaaeaee iaeeaeaiey. Ca iyoue eao naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
a yoii iaeaieaa aiaaoii ?aaeiia Ao?eee iie ioi?aaeee a Ii?ooaaeeth iiiai
?aaia, a oaeaea ia?oea e neiiiaie einoe e aeioee a thaeiii iai?aaeaiee
aei caeeaa Aeao?a.

A ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa aeeaoeo oiaaea a Ii?ooaaeee aaioccoeaa
O?enoioi? ia eiae eaieoaea e aeieaeai aue aua?aoue iaiaa i?eaueueioth
noacth. A ia/aea 1477 aiaea ii caaa?aiaaeny a naia ia?aia aieueoia
ieaaaiea a A?enoieue, Aieaae e Eiaeeth. Iooaaua caiaoee oiai a?aiaie,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea yeiau Eieoiao, eniieuecothony /anoi aeey oiai, /oiau
iinoaaeoue iiae aii?in i?ei?eoao ia?aiioe?uaaoaey. I?ioeaieee Eieoiaa
cayaeytho, /oi naaaeaiey ii aaia?aoee e iaoai?ieiaee oao iano,
eiathueony a caiaoeao, ia niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iai?ioea, aai noi?iiieee, enoiaey ec yoeo caiaoie, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
Eieoia iiauaae a A?aieaiaeee e Iuethoaoiaeeaiaea.

Eieoia inaauaao iieiaeaiea aauae oaeei ia?acii, eae yoi iiaeao aeaeaoue
/aeiaae, /ae aeooiaiue ie? iaoiaeeoueny iiae aeeyieai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
ie?iaicc?aiey. N/eoaeinue, /oi anee Eieoia iiauaae a Eneaiaeee, oi ii
aeieaeai aue au oai ociaoue i iooaoanoaeyo aeeeiaia a no?aio Aeieaiae e,
oaeei ia?acii, oaea a oi a?aiy eiaoue eioi?iaoeeth i nouanoaiaaiee
eaaeaaoaai ia caiaaea eiioeiaioa. Ae?oaea aaoi?u aeaeathuea aeaeaoue
?aiooaoeeth Eieoiaa ia caiyoiaiiie, n/eoaee aiciiaeiui nianai ia
o/eouaaoue yoiai iooaoanoaey. A ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa iie i?eaiaeeee
caienue ec “Ei?aaaeueiiai aeiaaieea Eieoiaa naeaeaiioth 21 aeaeaa?y 1477
aiaea:

«24 aiaea y ieaaath ii ii?th e ie ?aco ie oaeaeyeny io iaai ia aeieaia
a?aiy. ss eco/ee aanue ainoie e caiaae [N?aaeecaiiia ii?a]. ss iiauaae e
a naaa?iuo aiaeao aei Aiaeee, iioii aei Aaeiae… Ean Eanan, iai?ioea,
oeeoe?oao Eieoiaa: A oaa?aea 1477 aiaea y i?iieue aei ino?iaia Ooea
[Eneaiaeey] 100 eea. THaeiay /anoue aai ionoaao io yeaaoi?a ia ia 63
a?aaeona, eae n/eoatho, a ia 73 a?aaeona… E yoio ino?ia, eioi?ue
noieue aea aaeee, eae Aiaeey, iinauaaony Aiaee/aiaie, iniaaiii ethaeueie
ec A?anoiey. A oi a?aiy, eiaaea y oai aue, ii?a ia caia?caei. A ?aciuo
ianoao iii iiaeieiaeinue e iioneaeinue n i?eeeaii e ioeeaii ia 50
a?ania.»

Oeeoaoa niaea?aeeo iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa ioeaee. Ai ia?auo, Eneaiaeey
iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo 64-i e 67-i a?aaeonii naaa?iie oe?iou, ai aoi?uo,
?acieoea a o?iaia aiaeu iaaeaeo i?eeeaii e ioeeaii ieeiaaea ia
aeinoeaaao 50 a?ania. Aunioa i?eeeaa a ?aeeueyaeea a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao
13 a?ania. Iaeiei ?acoeueoaoii naaa?iiai iooaoanoaey aue ai anyeii
neo/aa aannii?ai. Eieiiai caaiaaae aeiaa?ea *aioo?aiie – aaioycneiai
oi?aiaiai aeiia, eiathuaai naie oeeeaeu e a Ii?ooaaeee. Eae oieueei ii
aa?ioeny, Eennaaiineee eiiiaiueii *aioo?eiie, aeaao aio naiinoiyoaeueiia
oi?aiaia caaeaiea, Eieiiai, eioi?ue anaai eeoue aeaa aiaea iacaae ia iia
iacaaoue naiei aeaaea iaeiiie ei?aaey, ia eioi?ii ii auieue iinea
n?aaeaiey, aue oaia?ue iineai a Ooioaea ia Iaeaea?a, aaea aeieaeai aue
caeoieoue naoa? e aeinoaaeoue aai a Aaioth. Ii aeaei, iniiaaiiia ia
e?aaeeoa, ni?aaeinue, e Eieiiai i?eauaaao eaoii 1479 aiaea a Aaioth aac
oiaa?a.

E?iia Iaiei aee Iaa?i aua a Eennaaiia aiceaaae aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu ia
iieiaeiai aaioycoea, a /anoiinoe Oaeeia aea Iiiec. A 1479 aiaeo
O?enoioi?i i?ineo o aeiiiu Ecaaaeeu aea Iiiec ?oee aa aei/a?e e iieo/aao
niaeanea. Ecaaaeea aea Iiiec auea aei/a?ueth aeiia Ai?oieiiai
Ia?ano?aeei, eioi?ue aue iacia/ai Aai?eoii Ii?aieaaaoaeai aoaa?iaoi?ii
ino?iaa Ii?oo-Naioo n i?aaii ianeaaeiaaiey ca caneoae i?e aai
eieiiecaoeee. Aeiiia Ecaaaeea i?aa?auaea yoi i?aai a caiieoth iiiaoo, ii
ieeaaaoaiiay nuiii, auea auioaeaeaia naa?iooue aeaea e ia?anaeeoueny a
Eennaaii. Oeeeia ainieouaaeanue a Eennaaiineii iiianou?a Naiooo.

Oaia?ue iiianou?ue, eiaaoee ?aiooaoeeth ?aniaeoaaaeueiiai,
i?aaeiacia/aeny aeey ciaoiuo aeai. Aeaeeii O?enoioi?i niia
iiciaeiieoueny n Oaeeiie a iiianou?neie oea?eae, eoaea ai a?aiy neoaeau
eiaee aeinooi e ai?iaeaia. I?eaeeceoaeueii a 1479 aiaeo iieiaeay
noi?oaeaneay ia?a inoaiiaeeanue ia ino?iaa Ii?oo-Naioo. Ia neaaeothuee
aiae caeanue ?iaeeeny Aeeaai, ia?aaiaoe Eieoiai. I aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaa
Oaeeiu, iaoa?e aoaeoththuaai aeoea-ei?iey Ea?eaneeo aeaaeaiee Eniaiee,
ie/aai ia ecaanoii. Nei?aa anaai iia oia?ea a Eennaaiia a 1485 aiaeo.

Iaeuecy oaeaea onoaiiaeoue ni naiae ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth, eiaaea aa ioaeo
i?eoea eaeay i caiaaeiii ia?o?ooa a Eiaeeth. Onoaiiaeaii ai anyeii
neo/aa, /oi eaeay noaea aai aieiiaaoue ieiei 1479 aiaea, iinea
iineaaeothuaai aica?auaiey ec iineaaeiaai ieaaaiey a Aaioth.

Aa?oieiia, a?ao O?enoioi?i, n 1477 aiaea aeee a Eennaaiia e caieiaeny
ea?oia?aoeae. Eiia/ii, O?enoioi?i iieo/ee io a?aoa iiiai oeaiiuo e iiauo
aaia?aoe/aneeo ciaiee. Iiaeao auoue, a?aouey aeaaea aianoa ?aaioaee iaae
ecaioiaeaieai ii?neeo ea?o e eioeee. Oa?iaiaei, aoi?ie nui Eieoiaa,
niiauaao i oii ia?eiaea aeecie iooea: Oieueei a Ii?ooaaeee Aaeie?ae
i?eoae e iunee, /oi ia caiaae iiaeii oaeaea aeieai ieuoue, eae
ii?ooaaeueoeu ieuaoo ia tha, e /oi ia yoi iooe oiaea anoue caiee”. Aeey
iaeiia?aciaaiiiai O?enoioi?i Eieoiai a?aiy i?aauaaiey a Eennaaiia noaei
a?aiaiai eeoi?aaei/iiai o/aiey. Aaaeue ecaanoii, /oi ii ieeiaaea ia
ienae ia oineaineii, ec eioi?iai ?acaeeny iaoeeiiaeueiue eoaeueyineee
ycue, a eeao?eeneia ia?a/ea ia eiaei naiinoiyoaeueiie ienueiaiiinoe.
Oiaiaea Eieiiai ciae oieueei iniiau “aeaeiaie” eaouie. Oaia?ue a
Eennaaiia ii auo/ee ii?ooaaeueneee e eanoeeueneee ycuee, a oaeaea
“iao/ioth” eaouiue, eioi?ay auea iniaaiii ioaeia aeey eco/aiey
einiia?aoe/aneeo o?oaeia.

Iinoiyiii aiae?noaothuee ?acoi Eieiiai, eioi?ue iaeiaaeaeu aue
ieieaeiaai iuneueth i iooe ia caiaae, eneae e a Ii?oo-Naioo iaiaee ia
eiioeiaio, ae?aiethuee aaea-oi a Aoeaioeea. Eieoia nai niiauae i oii,
eae aeoaiei aai aieiiaaee iiaeiaiua eaaaiaeu, eae iinoiyiii ii eneae
iauanoai ethaeae, eioi?ua aeaeueoa anao i?iieeee a caaaaei/iue
Aoeaioe/aneee ieaai. A 1452 aiaeo aue ioe?uo Ei?ao, iineaaeiee ec
Aci?neeo ino?iaia, e ieeoi oiaaea ia aeoiae, /oi yoi oaeaea iineaaeiee
ioe?uoue ino?ia a Aoeaioeea. Aeoiaee /oi aaea-oi oai iaoiaeeeenue
iaae/aneea ino?iaa A?aiaeaia, eioi?ua aa?iiaeoeu eneaee aieioue aei
XVIII aaea. A ino?ia, iacaaiiue ii?ooaaeueoeaie Nai-A?aiaeai, oi e aeaei
aeaeaee ecaeaee, ii ie ?aco ia iaai ia nooiaea iiaa /aeiaaea. Eneaee
oaeaea Aioeeeth – ino?ia, canaeaiiue yeiau naiueth ii?ooaaeueoeaie
aieneiiaie, eioi?ua aua a VIII aaea aaaeaee io a?aaneeo caaiaaaoaeae
/a?ac ieaai ia caiaae.

Ano?a/aeenue i?aaaeeaua eiie?aoiua oeacaiey ia nouanoaiaaiey caiaaeiuo
caiaeue. Oae, ei?i/ee Ia?oei Aenaeioa ?anneacuaae Eieoiai, eioi?ue
caai?iaeaii aai neooae, /oi ia ?annoiyiee 450 ieeue  io ii?ooaaeueneiai
iiaa?aaeuey ii aueiaee aea?aayiioth aauue, naeaeaiioth i/aiue eneonii
yaii ia iaoaeee/aneei i?oaeeai. Naiye Eieoiaa Iueaae?i Ei??aa aeaeae
iioiaeee aea?aayiiue i?aaeiao ia ieyaea Ii?oo Naioo. Ooaea aea i?eaeaaei
e naoa?iue o?inoiee. Ia ino?iaa Oei?ao ii?a aua?ineei ia aa?aa o?oiu
aeaoo ethaeae n i/aiue oe?ieeie eeoeaie e /a?aiaie niaa?oaiii iaiau/iie
oi?iu. E?iia oiai, e Aci?neei ino?iaai /anoi i?eaeaaei noaieu iaciaeiiuo
aea?aaueaa e ae?oaea iaaaaeiiua i?aaeiaou. Yoa eioi?iaoeey i?aaaeeaa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii eaaeea ieaao/ea iaoa?eaeu iinoiyiii i?eiineeenue
Aieueono?eiii n Aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa ia ieyaee aiaoieo Aci?neeo
ino?iaia, a eiiaaea aeaaea ia ino?iaa Iaaeae?u. E naaiaeiy ia Ii?oo
Naioo iaoiaeyo no?aiiua, a?inathueany a aeaca naiaia auethuaainy
aia?eeaineiai ?anoaiey ?iaenoaaiiiai aa?iiaeneie ieiica.

AEeoaee ino?iaa iacuaatho aai “favas colom”, n/eoay, /oi Eieiiai ociae i
aeecinoe iaecaanoiie caiee aeaaiaea?y yoiio ?anoaieth. Ii?aaeaeythuoth
?ieue a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee eaeae, aicieeoae a Eennaaiia, eiaei
ciaeiinoai Eieoiai n ea?oia?aoe/aneeie ?aaioaie Ai?oieiiai Ia?ano?aeei,
a oaeaea e ae?oaeie aeieoiaioaie, eioi?ua ii i?eaac n niaie a Ii?oo
Naioo. Ean-Eanan, ii/eoaoaeue e aai aeia?ao, niiauae i oii a?aiaie; Aeey
iaai, iieiinoueth iiaeiuaiiie naiae eaeaae, ana yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa auee
a aunoae noaiaie aaaeiu, e ii i?eieiae ethaia ec ieo i/aiue aeecei e
na?aeoeo. Oi auee aeey iaai i?aaeciaiaiiaaiey, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo aia
ianoaaee aai ia i?aaeeueiue iooue.

*a?ac aeaa aiaea iinea i?eauoey a Ii?oo -Naioo naiuey Eieiiai
ia?anaeyaony ia Iaaeae?o a noieeoeo Ooioaeo. Ai?iae, ?aniieiaeaiiue o
iiaeiiaeey oa??an, iie?uouo aeiia?aaeieeaie ni?oa iaeaace, auaacaiiiai
aeiiii Yi?eea n E?eoa. I?ioeaaoay, O?enoioi?i, noaa eoioeii, i?eieiae
o/anoea a i?eaueueiie oi?aiaea iaaeae?neie ioaieoeae e naoa?iui
o?inoieeii. Ii Eieoiai ia caauaae naieo ieaiia i ieaaaiee ia caiaae. Ii
ouaoaeueii eco/ae naaa?i-ainoi/iua iannaou, noa?aeny caiaoeoue ana
iniaaiiinoe oneiaee ieaaaiey caiaaeiaa Iaaeae?u. A ?acoeueoaoa Eieoiai
noae, eae iu oaeaeei iicaea, ia i?aacieaeaiiui ciaoieii aao?ia e oa/aiee
yoiai ?aeiia.

O?enoioi?i Eieoiai, noaaoee oai a?aiaiai iaania/aiiui e aeaaiaea?y
oaieeueiui naycyi aeeyoaeueiui eoioeii e oiaeui ii?yeii, n/eoaao iiiaio
iiaeoiaeyuei, /oiau ia?aoeoue naie caiunae a caiieoth iiiaoo.

3.3. Caiaaeiui iooai ia ainoie.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia aieiaiea aa?iiaeneeo eoioeia i?eaeaeee oaeea
i?eaueueiua aceaoneea oiaa?u, eae i?yiinoe. Oai ia iaiaa a eiioea 15 a.
oi?aiaoeu ec Aa?iiu ana aua ia iiaee i?iieeiooue a no?aiu Acee iacaiiui
iooai e auee auioaeaeaiu i?eia?aoaoue aceaoneea oiaa?u o a?aaneeo
eoioeia a Aeaenaiae?ee eee ae?oaeo ii?oao. Iiyoiio aa?iiaeoeu
caeioa?aniaaeenue iieneii ii?neiai iooe a Aceth, /oi iicaieeei au ei
i?eia?aoaoue aceaoneea oiaa?u, ieioy iin?aaeieeia. A 1480-o aiaeao
ii?ooaaeueoeu iuoaeenue iaiaiooue Ao?eeo, /oiau i?iieeiooue /a?ac
Eiaeeeneee ieaai a Eiaeeth. Eieoia auaeaeioe i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi a
Aceth iiaeii iiianoue, aeaeaaynue ia caiaae.

Yoa eaeay i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia oieueei Eieoiao. Aa iiaeii ano?aoeoue aua o
A?enoioaey, Y?inoinoaia, I?ioaai?a. I?ioai?, iai?eia?, oeeoe?iaae a
ia/aea iaoae y?u auneacuaaiea Y?aoinoaia – aaoi?a iiiaioiiiie
“Aaia?aoee”, /oi anee au ia iaeiiaa?iay oe?eia Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia,
aai iiaeii auei au ia?aieuoue, a anee aea?aeaoueny iaeiie e oie aea
oe?iou, oi iiaeii n Eaa?eeneiai iieoino?iaa iiianoue a Eiaeeth.

Aa?iyoii, i?aaenoaaeaiey Eieoiaa i ie?a e caiaaeiii iooe a Aceth
neeaaeuaaeenue iinoaiaiii. Aai i?aaeiieiaeaiey iniiauaaeenue ia ioe?uoee
ino?iaia a Aoeaioeea (Eaia?neeo, Aci?neeo, Caeaiiai Iuna, Iaaeae?u), ia
neooao i ae?oaeo ino?iaao, ?acee/iuo iaoiaeeao, a oaeaea ia /oaiee
iiiai/eneaiiuo iao/iuo eiea ii aaia?aoee, aeeth/ay Ea?oeio ie?a (Imago
mundi) o?aioeocneiai oaieiaa Iuea?a ae’Aee e Aaia?aoeth a?a/aneiai
o/aiiai Eeaaaeey Ioieaiay.

Oai?ey Eieoiaa iniiauaaeanue ia aeaoo iaaa?iuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo:
ai-ia?auo, /oi Aceaoneee iaoa?ee i?inoe?aaony ia ainoie i?eia?ii ia 30°
aeaeueoa, /ai ia naiii aeaea, e, ai-aoi?uo, /oi ssiiiey iaoiaeeony a
2400 ei e ainoieo io yoiai iaoa?eea. Eieoia oaeaea iaaa?ii onoaiiaee
aeeeio ie?oaeiinoe Caiee. Oioy ii e ?acaeaeee caiiie oa? ia 360°,
ioeaiea aeeeiu aai ie?oaeiinoe ia o?iaia yeaaoi?a ieacaeanue
caieaeaiiie. Eieoia iieaaae, /oi Eaia?neea i-aa ionoiyo i?eaeeceoaeueii
ia 4440 ei io ssiiiee, oiaaea eae ia naiii aeaea yoi ?annoiyiea ?aaii 19
615 ei. Noiaeiua caaeoaeaeaiey auee i?enoue e ae?oaei ia?aciaaiiui
ethaeyi oie yiioe, aeeth/ay oei?aioeeneiai aoiaienoa e aaia?aoa Iaiei
aeaeue Iioeoei Oineaiaeee, n eioi?ui Eieoia, aiciiaeii, ia?aienuaaeny.

I?eaeeceoaeueii a 1483 Eieoia iiiuoaeny caeioa?aniaaoue ii?ooaaeueneiai
ei?iey AEoaia II naiei ieaiii yeniaaeeoeee a Aceth caiaaeiui iooai. Aeey
ioeaiee i?iaeoa auea nicaaia eiienney o/aiuo. Caoai ii iaecaanoiui
i?e/eiai ei?ieue ioeacae Eieoiao. Aiciiaeii, ii?ooaaeueneea yenia?ou
oniiieeenue a aai ioeaieao ?acia?ia caiiiai oa?a e ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo
Aa?iiie e Aceae. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi a yoi aea a?aiy AEoai II oaea
ioi?aaee yeniaaeeoeeth ia iiene ii?neiai iooe a Eiaeeth aie?oa Ao?eee.
Ia eneeth/aii, /oi Eieoia iio?aaiaae neeoeii iiiai aeey naay ee/ii.
Aiineaaenoaee ei?ieue iaoiaeee ii?aieaaaoaeae, aioiauo ioi?aaeoueny ia
caiaae ca naie n/ao, ia o?aaoy ei?ieaaneeo noaneaeee eee e?oiiuo eueaio.
Iaeiaei oae eee eia/a a Ii?ooaaeee i?iaeo Eieoiaa ia iieo/ee iaeia?aiey.

Eniaiey iiaeaea?aeeaaao Eieoiaa. A 1485 Eieoia iieeioe Ii?ooaaeeth,
/oiau iiiuoaoue n/anouey a Eniaiee. A ia/aea 1486, eiaaea aeai?
iaoiaeeeny a Aeueeaea-aea-Yia?ana, Eieoia aue i?aaenoaaeai ei?ieaaneiio
aeai?o e iieo/ee aoaeeaioeeth o ei?iey e ei?ieaau. Ei?ieaaa Ecaaaeea
Eanoeeueneay e aa noi?oa ei?ieue Oa?aeeiaiae A?aaiineee i?iyaeee eioa?an
e i?iaeoo Eieoiaa. Ei?ieaaneay /aoa iacia/eea eiienneth iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Oaeaaa?u aeey auyniaiey aii?ina i oeaeaniia?aciinoe
iooaoanoaey ia caiaae. Eiienney auianea iaaeaaii?eyoiia caeeth/aiea,
iaeiaei ei?ieue e ei?ieaaa iaiae?eee Eieoiaa, caaa?ea aai a oii, /oi
iiaoo iiaeaea?aeaoue aai iinea caaa?oaiey aeeeoaeueiie aieiu ii
inaiaiaeaeaieth A?aiaaeu io iaa?ia.

Iaeeaeay ieii/aiey aieiu ca A?aiaaeo, Eieoia iiciaeiieeny n iieiaeie
aeaiueiie ec Ei?aeiau Aaao?en Yi?eean aea A?aia. Oioy iie ieeiaaea ia
ni/aoaeenue a?aeii, a 1488 o ieo ?iaeeeny nui Y?iaiaei (ecaanoiue oaeaea
eae Oa?iaiaei). Y?iaiaei nii?iaiaeaeae Eieoiaa ai a?aiy aai /aoaa?oiai
ieaaaiey /a?ac Aoeaioe/aneee ieaai e iicaea iaienae aeia?aoeth naiaai
iooea – aei neo ii? iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo enoi/ieeia naaaeaiee i aeecie
Eieoiaa.

A yiaa?a 1492, ai a?aiy inaaeu A?aiaaeu, ei?ieaaa Ecaaaeea i?eaeaneea
Eieoiaa ei aeai?o. Iinea aeeeoaeueiuo ia?aaiai?ia e ianoaeaeaiey
a?aoiaioia i?eaeai?iuo ei?ieaaneay /aoa iiiyea, /oi iiaeaea?aeea Eieoiaa
noieo iaaieueoiai oeiainiaiai ?enea, e ioaa?aea aic?aaeaiey naieo
niaaoieeia. Iiia?oe niaeaneeenue noaneaee?iaaoue yeniaaeeoeeth e
iiiaauaee i?enaieoue Eieoiao aeai?yineia caaiea e oeooeu aaeie?aea,
aeoea-ei?iey e aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a anao ino?iaia e iaoa?eeia, eioi?ua ii
ioe?iao. Aeieaeiinoue aaeie?aea aeaaaea Eieoiao i?aai auiineoue ?aoaiea
a nii?ao, aicieeathueo ii aeaeai oi?aiaee, aeieaeiinoue aeoea-ei?iey
aeaeaea aai ee/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai iiia?oa, a aeieaeiinoue
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a iaania/eaaea aio aunooth a?aaeaeaineoth e aiaiioth
aeanoue.

3.4. Ia?aay yeniaaeeoeey. 1492–1493.

Iineieueeo ii?yee ec Iaeina-aea-ea-Oiioa?u ia?ooeee ei?ieaaneee caeii,
caieiaynue iaeaaaeueiie oi?aiaeae a ao?eeaineeo aiaeao, iiia?oe
iinoaiiaeee, /oi eiaiii yoio ai?iae i?aaeinoaaeo yeniaaeeoeee Eieoiaa
aeaa noaeia. Yoi auee aeaa ea?aaaeeu, iacaaiiua «Ieioa» e «Ieiuey».
E?iia oiai, Eieoia cao?aooiaae /aou?aoia/oiaue ia?oniee (iai),
iieo/eaoee iacaaiea «Naioa-Ia?ey». Ana o?e noaeia ioee/aeenue
iaaieueoeie ?acia?aie e auee oeie/iuie oi?aiauie noaeiaie oie yiioe.
«Naioa-Ia?ey» eiaea oe?eio 5,8 i e aeeeio 18,3 i, a ae?oaea noaea auee
aua iaiueoa. Eieoia noieeioeny n o?oaeiinoyie i?e iaai?a ethaeae a naith
eiiaiaeo, iineieueeo iao?inu iianaeenue, /oi ia iaeaeoo caieth e ia
niiaoo aa?iooueny aeiiie. Iaeiiaoe, n iiiiuueth ecaanoiiai ii?yea
Ia?oeia Aeiini Ieiniia Eieoia iaa?ae eiiaiaeo ec 90 /aeiaae. Iany/iay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeey eiiaiaeu ninoaaeyea 2000 ia?aaaaee aeey eaieoaiia
e eioeiaiia, 1000 – aeey iao?inia e 666 – aeey thia.

O?e noaeia auoee ec Iaeina ?aii oo?ii 3 aaaonoa 1492. Iaaieueoay
oeioeeey nia/aea iai?aaeeanue e Eaia?neei i-aai, aaea Eieoia ?aoee
aeiaeaeaoueny iiiooiiai aao?a. Iinea ii/eiee noaeia e iiiieiaiey
i?iaeaioa oeioeeey iieeioea i.Aiia?a ia Eaia?neii a?oeiaeaaa 6 naioya?y
1492, acya eo?n ia caiaae. Eieoia e ae?oaea eioeiaiu eniieueciaaee
nenoaio iaaeaaoeee, iniiaaiioth ia o/aoa iai?aaeaiey, a?aiaie e nei?inoe
aeaeaeaiey i?e i?ieeaaeea eo?na noaeia e onoaiiaeaiee aai
ianoiiieiaeaiey. Iie ii?aaeaeyee iai?aaeaiea ii eiiiano, a?aiy – ii
iani/iui /anai, ioia/aaoei eaaeaeua iie/ana, a nei?inoue – ia aeac.
Eieoia aae aeaa nenoaiu ?an/aoa ?annoiyiey a aaooaiiii aeo?iaea, iaeio
aeey naay, a ae?oaoth aeey eiiaiaeu. Aii?aee eaaaiaea, ii ia iuoaeny
iaiaiooue eiiaiaeo. Iai?ioea, ii, aa?iyoii, ?ann/eouaae eo?n nia/aea a
oao ia?ao, eioi?ui iao/eeny a Eoaeee e Ii?ooaaeee, a caoai ia?aaiaeee
yoe oeeo?u a ia?u, i?eiyoua o eniaineeo ii?aieaaaoaeae.

Iooaoanoaea i?ioiaeeei niieieii i?e iiiooiuo aao?ao e ii/oe aac aeaeia
ni noi?iiu eiiaiaeu. 12 ieoya?y a 2 /ana aeiy aaooaiiue ia «Ieioa» Ooai
?iae?eaan Aa?iaoi oaeaeae aia?aaee iaiiae, e ia ?annaaoa noaea anoaee ia
yei?ue o ino?iaa a a?oeiaeaaa Aaaaineeo i-aia, eioi?ue aeeoaee ianoiiai
ieaiaie (oaeii) iacuaaee Aoaiaoaie, a Eieoia ia?aeiaiiaae a
Nai-Naeueaaaei?. Oioy aei neo ii? i?iaeieaeaaony aeeneonney ii iiaiaeo
ia?aiai ianoa aunaaeee, aa?iyoiaa anaai, yoi aue nia?aiaiiue
i.Nai-Naeueaaaei?. I?aaeiieaaay, /oi ii iaoiaeeony a Acee, Eieoia iacaae
aai?eaaiia eiaeaeoeaie.

N iiiiuueth i?iaiaeieeia ec ieaiaie oaeii oeioeeey i?iaeieaeaea ieuoue a
aiaeao Aaaaineiai a?oeiaeaaa e iinaoeea Eoao. Ana yoi a?aiy Eieoia
ouaoii eneae aiaaoua ii?ou Acee. Ieinii aac ?ac?aoaiey Eieoiaa iieeioe
Eoao e ioi?aaeeny ia «Ieioa» ia iiene ae?oaeo caiaeue, /oiau iaeaaeeoue
oi?aiaeth n aai?eaaiaie. Eieoia ia aeaoo inoaaoeony noaeao iiieue e
ino?iao, eioi?ue ii iacaae Yniaiueieie (a ia?aaiaea «eniaineee ino?ia»,
iuia i.Aaeoe), e ianeaaeiaae aai naaa?iia iiaa?aaeuea. ?aii oo?ii iiae
?iaeaeanoai ii aeia iieiaeiai aaooaiiiai iao?ina «Naioa-Ia?ey» naea ia
iaeue e ?acaeeanue. Ia aaeeinoaaiiii noaeia «Ieiuey» Eieoia aeia?aeny
aei aa?aaa e iniiaae ia?aia iinaeaiea Iaaeaeaae (eni. «?iaeaeanoaaineee
ai?iae»), a eioi?ii inoaaee 39 /aeiaae. 4 yiaa?y 1493 ii i?eaioiaeeny e
aica?auaieth a Eniaieth ia «Ieiuea» e iiieue ia ainoie aaeieue naaa?iiai
iiaa?aaeuey Yniaiueieu. Anei?a e iaio i?eniaaeeieeny Ieinii, e 16 yiaa?y
«Ieiuey» e «Ieioa» ioi?aaeeenue a ia?aoiue iooue. Eieoia i?eoaaoee n
niaie naiue ieaiaiiuo eiaeaeoeaa a aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi aeinoea
/anoe naaoa, ?aiaa ia ecaanoiie aa?iiaeoeai.

Iooai i?ia e ioeaie Eieoia iieiae iiiooiue aaoa?, eioi?ue i?eaiae aai
noaea aeiiie. I?e iiaeoiaea e Aci?neei i-aai ao?y ?acaaea noaea a ?aciua
noi?iiu. 15 oaa?aey Eieoia ia «Ieiuea» aeinoea i.Naioa-Ia?ey, ioeoaea
/a?ac aeaayoue aeiae i?iaeieaeee iooue a Eniaieth. Ai a?aiy neaaeothuaai
ooi?ia aeueoay /anoue ia?onia ia «Ieiuea» auea ii?aaia, noaeio e
eiiaiaea oa?iaeaea aeaaeue. 4 ia?oa iie aeia?aeenue aei aa?aaa
Ii?ooaaeee e naaa?o io Eennaaiia e inoaiiaeeenue oai, /oiau
ia?aaeioiooue e ii/eieoue noaeii. Eieoia iaian aeceo aaaeeeainoe ei?ieth
AEoaio II e 13 ia?oa ioieue a Eniaieth. *a?ac aeaa aeiy «Ieiuey» i?eauea
a Iaein. Ia?oei Aeiini Ieinii ia «Ieioa» iiyaeeny a yoii ii?oo a oio aea
aeaiue iaiiiai iicaea Eieoiaa.

Ei?ieaaa Ecaaaeea e ei?ieue Oa?aeeiaiae ieacaee Eieoiao oaieue i?eai. A
aeiiieiaiea e ?aiaa iaauaiiui i?eaeeaaeyi iie aeaee aio ?ac?aoaiea ia
aoi?oth, aieaa iaoe?ioth yeniaaeeoeeth. Eieoia caaa?ee eo, /oi aiaaoue
Aceaoneee iaoa?ee iaoiaeeony iiaeecinoe io ioe?uouo ei ino?iaia, aaea ii
oioae iniiaaoue eieiieth.

3.5. Aoi?ay yeniaaeeoeey, 1493–1496.

Oa?aeeiaiae e Ecaaaeea niaeaenoaiaaee ieaiai Eieoiaa, i?aaeinoaaea aio
noaea e ethaeae aeey ioi?aaee ia Yniaiueieo. Ei?ieaaa i?eeacaea
ia?auaoue aai?eaaiia a o?enoeaineoth aa?o. Eieoia eaaei iaoae 1200
/aeiaae, niaeaneaoeony iiaoaoue n iei a ea/anoaa aoaeoueo iinaeaioeaa.
Oeioeeey ec 17 noaeia ioi?aaeeanue ec Eaaeena 25 naioya?y 1493 e
aeinoeaea Eaia?neeo i-aia 2 ieoya?y, a /a?ac aeanyoue aeiae ionoeeanue a
ieaaaiea ii Aoeaioeea. 3 iiya?y iie aunaaeeeenue ia ino?iaa Ea?eaneiai
ii?y, eioi?ue Eieoia iacaae Aeiieieeie. Ioooaea ii iiieue aaeieue Iaeuo
Aioeeueneeo e Ae?aeineeo ino?iaia, ieioy Ioy?oi-?eei, e Yniaiueiea.

E aaee/aeoaio oaeeaeaieth i?eauaoeo, ieacaeinue, /oi ana 39 /aeiaae,
inoaaeaiiua a yiaa?a a Iaaeaeaaea, iiaeaee, aeaaiui ia?acii a
?acoeueoaoa nou/ae n aai?eaaiaie. Ianiio?y ia yoi, Eieoia iniiaae iiaia
iinaeaiea, iacaaa aai Ea-Enaaaea a /anoue ei?ieaau Eniaiee. E
niaeaeaieth, ianoi aeey iinaeaiey auei aua?aii iaoaea/ii: iiaeecinoe ia
auei i?aniie aiaeu, e ec-ca yoiai iii auei aiineaaenoaee caa?ioaii.
E?iia iieneia cieioa e ii?aaeaeaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey ii?oia «Aaeeeiai
eeoaeneiai oainoaa», Eieoia caieiaeny oi?aiaeae iaaieueieeaie. Ii e aai
ethaee, aii?oaeaiiua a?eaaocaie, aianoa n eioaaeueie (aia?aua iiiaaoeie
a Aia?eeo ai a?aiy yoiai iooaoanoaey) e aiaauie niaaeaie i?ioee ii
Yniaiueiea, auiaieaay cieioi, a anee ano?a/aee nii?ioeaeaiea, oi
ioae?aee cieioi neeie e caoaaouaaee ieaiieeia.

Inoaaea naiaai a?aoa Aeeaai i?aaeoue Yniaiueieie, aaniie 1494 Eieoia
i?aaei?eiye yeniaaeeoeeth aaeieue thaeiiai iiaa?aaeuey Eoau. Ii iieaaae,
/oi Eoaa yaeyaony /anoueth Aceaoneiai iaoa?eea, e aeaaea canoaaee /eaiia
yeeiaaea iiaeienaoue aeieoiaio, a eioi?ii oaa?ye naieo ei?iiiaaiuo
iie?iaeoaeae, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii iaoae Aceth.

Ai a?aiy ionoonoaey Eieoiaa ia Yniaiueieo i?eaue iaaieueoie oeio iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai Aa?oieiia Eieoiaa e canoae eieiieth a ninoiyiee oaina.
?aci/a?iaaiiua eieiienou aa?ioeenue a Eniaieth e ioa?aeoa?eciaaee
Eieoiaa e aai a?aoueaa eae iaaiaeiuo aaeieieno?aoi?ia. Iai?/aiiua yoeie
niiauaieyie, eniaineea iiia?oe ioi?aaeee aeey einiaeoeee Ooaia Aaoaaei,
eioi?ue a eiioea 1495 iiaeoaa?aeee eo iaeooaeoea iianaiey: nia?oiinoue
n?aaee eiaeaeoeaa auea neeoeii aunieie, aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca iieeoeee
eieiienoia (a 1508 auei iiaen/eoaii, /oi ca i?aaeuaeouea 16 eao
/eneaiiinoue ianoiiai ianaeaiey nie?aoeeanue n 250 oun. aei 60 oun.
/aeiaae). E?iia oiai, ec-ca aieaciae e aeaca?oe?noaa neeueii
oiaiueoeeanue /eneaiiinoue aa?iiaeoeaa. Iiiaea i?inoi iieeaeaee eieiieth
e ioieuaaee ia ei?aaeyo a Eniaieth. Eieoia ioi?aaeeny a Eniaieth 10
ia?oa 1496, inoaaea ia Yniaiueiea aianoi naay naiaai a?aoa Aa?oieiia.
Aai e?ioioiay oeioeeey ninoiyea ec aeaoo noaeia – «Ieiuey» e
o/anoaiaaaoae a ia?aie yeniaaeeoeee «Eiaeee», iino?iaiiie ia Yniaiueiea
ec inoaoeia aeaoo ea?aaaee. Eieoia i?eaue a Eaaeen 11 ethiy 1496.

3.6. O?aouey yeniaaeeoeey, 1498–1500.

E 1496 Oa?aeeiaiae e Ecaaaeea oaea ia iaaeayeenue iieo/eoue nei?oth
auaiaeo io i?aaei?eyoee Eieoiaa. Noaei ynii, /oi oieueei a?aiy e oyaeeee
o?oae i?eianoo aeioiae io eieiiee. Iaace?ay ia iaaeiaiey a ionoonoaee
niiniaiinoae e oi?aaeaieth, Eieoiao oaeaeinue oaaaeeoue iiia?oia aeaoue
?ac?aoaiea ia o?aoueth yeniaaeeoeeth, eniieuecoy iai e aeaa ea?aaaeeu
aeey ianeaaeiaaiey iiauo caiaeue, a oaeaea aua o?e ea?aaaeeu aeey
aeinoaaee ia Yniaiueieo i?iaeiaieuenoaey, 300 ioae/ei e 30 aeaiuei aeey
iiiieiaiey eiioeiaaioa eieiienoia.

Oeioeeey, auoaaeoay a iaa 1498 ec Eniaiee, ?acaeaeeeanue o i.Aiia?a ia
Eaia?neii a?oeiaeaaa. O?e noaeia acyee i?yiie eo?n ia Yniaiueieo. Eieoia
ia o?ao inoaeueiuo noaeao ioi?aaeeny aeaeueoa e thao, aeioae aei i-aia
Caeaiiai Iuna e caoai 7 ethey iiaa?ioe ia caiaae. Iinaoea i.O?eieaeaae
31 ethey, ii ioieue ia naaa?i-caiaae e aa?aaai Aia?eee. Iaia?oaeea
iaoe?ioth aeaeueoo ?aee (?.I?eiiei a nia?aiaiiie Aaianoyea), Eieoia
iiiye, /oi oai iaoiaeeony ia?iiiue iannea nooe. Aio eacaeinue, /oi yoe
caiee ?aniieaaathony iaiiaeaeaeo io iienaiiiai a Aeaeee Yaeaia.

Iinea ianeaaeiaaiey iiaa?aaeuey a ?aeiia aeaeueou I?eiiei Eieoia
ioi?aaeeny ia Yniaiueieo, aaea Aa?oieiia e Aeeaai ia iiaee iaaanoe
ii?yaeie. Ano?aaiaeaiiua io/aoaie Eieoiaa, Oa?aeeiaiae e Ecaaaeea
iai?aaeee O?aioeenei aea Aiaaaeeeueth ?anneaaeiaaoue aeaea a eieiiee e
i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaei?eiyoue yeno?ai?aeeia?iua ia?u. Auno?i ioeaiea
neooaoeeth, ii a?anoiaae anao o?ao a?aoueaa Eieoiaia ca ianiiniaiinoue
iaaanoe ii?yaeie a eieiiee, eiioeneiaae eo aeaiueae e, caeiaaa a
eaiaeaeu, a aeaeaa?a 1500 ioi?aaee a Eniaieth. N?aco ii aica?auaiee
Eieoia aue aucaai ei aeai?o a A?aiaaeo. Au?aaeay naie neiiaoee e
Eieoiao, iiia?oe oaa?yee, /oi ieeiaaea ia i?eeacuaaee caeiauaaoue aai a
eaiaeaeu. Oai ia iaiaa aieioue aei naioya?y 1501 iie caaea?aeeaaee
?anniio?aiea aai cayaeaiee i ainnoaiiaeaiee a i?aaao.

Oa?aeeiaiae e Ecaaaeea aa?ioee Eieoiao /anoue oeooeia e ana eiouanoai,
ii ia inoaaeee aeanoiuo iieiiii/ee. Iiia?oe oaeaea ia aeaaaee ?ac?aoaiey
ia neaaeothuoth yeniaaeeoeeth e noaee nicaeaaaoue iiaoth no?oeoo?o
oi?aaeaiey eieiieyie, iacia/ea aoaa?iaoi?ii Yniaiueieu Ieeieana aea
Iaaiaei. Iaaiaei ioieue a Ea?eaneee ?aaeii a oaa?aea 1502 ia 30 ei?aaeyo
n aieueoie a?oiiie iinaeaioeaa. Oieueei a ia?oa 1502 Oa?aeeiaiae e
Ecaaaeea ?ac?aoeee Eieoiao aicaeaaeoue iiaoth o?ainaoeaioe/aneoth
yeniaaeeoeeth.

3.7. *aoaa?oay yeniaaeeoeey, 1502–1504.

Oeioeeey Eieoiaa ninoiyea ec /aou?ao ia i/aiue oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
iaaieueoeo ea?aaaee, eiaaoeo iin?aaenoaaiiua yeeiaaee. Eieoia, eioi?iio
eniieieeny 51 aiae, e aai 13-eaoiee nui Y?iaiaei ioieuee ia oeaaiaineii
noaeia ec Eaaeena 11 iay 1502. Iieeioa 25 iay Eaia?neea i-aa, iie
ia?anaeee Aoeaioe/aneee ieaai e 15 ethiy aeinoeaee ino?iaa, eioi?ue
aai?eaaiu iacuaaee Iaoeieiuei, a Eieoia ia?aeiaiiaae a Ia?oeieeo.
I?iieua /a?ac Aioeeueneee a?oeiaeaa, oeio aeinoea Yniaiueieu 29 ethiy,
oioy Oa?aeeiaiae e Ecaaaeea cai?aoeee Eieoiao oai aunaaeeaaoueny. Eieoia
ciae, /oi aoaa?iaoi? Iaaiaei niae?aaony ioi?aaeoue ia ?iaeeio aieueooth
oeioeeeth. Caiaoea i?eaeeaeaaoeeny o?aaai, ii i?aaeoi?aaeee Iaaiaei i
ooi?ia e iii?inee ?ac?aoaiey aieoe a aoooo Yniaiueieu. Iaaiaei iniaye
iianaiey Eieoiaa e i?eeacae iiaeiyoue ia?ona. Eae e i?aaeneacuaae
Eieoia, ?ac?aceeny ooi?i, e aanue oeio Iaaiaei, ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai
ei?aaey, caoiioe.

Iieeioa Yniaiueieo, Eieoia e aai niooieee i?aaei?eiyee aeaeueiaeoaa
iooaoanoaea, aeaaiui ia?acii aaeieue aa?aaia Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee.
Eieoia ana aua iieaaae, /oi iaoiaeeony a Acee, iaaeaeaei io ?.Aaia.
Eiaeaeoeu aoayie, aeeaoea ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie Iaiaiu, oi?aiaaee
cieioii n yeniaaeeoeeae Eieoiaa, ii y?inoii i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaee iiiuoeai
aa?iiaeoeaa iniiaaoue iinaeaiea. A ai?aea 1503 aoayie canoaaeee
aa?iiaeoeaa iieeiooue eo caiee. Ai a?aiy ionooieaiey iaeei ei?aaeue
caoiioe, a o?e inoaaoeony n o?oaeii aea?aeaeenue ia ieaao. Eieoia a?inee
a ii?a aua iaeii noaeii, a caoai ioi?aaeeny ia ssiaeeo. Ii aica?aoeeny a
Eniaieth 7 iiya?y 1504.

Caeeth/aiea

Ii oa?aeoa?o Eieoia aue /aeiaaeii aeiaieueii ?aceei. Aio i?eoiaeeeinue
niaa?oaoue iinooiee, i eioi?uo ii iioii aeaeae. Ii nia?aiaiieee aeaeaee
a iai ia i?ioeai?a/eaoth oeao?o n ?acaeaiaiiui niciaieai, a oeaeinoioth
e oeaeaono?aieaiioth ee/iinoue.

Eieoia ?aaeei ?anneacuaae i naiae iieiaeinoe. Aiciiaeii, aio auei i?inoi
ia aei oiai. Aiciiaeii oaeaea, /oi ii, auaoee aaioycneee aaaeiye, ia
aeaeae ioee/aoueny io ie?oaeaaoae aai eniaineie ciaoe. Ii a caaauaiee ii
aniiiiee Aaioth e aaioycoeaa, oao, n eai aue naycai n iaeuo eao.

O?enoioi? Eieoia aeioae aei iaoaai a?aiaie o?oaeiethaeaui /aeiaaeii,
eioi?ue 1492 aiaea ia ioe?ue Aia?eeo, a aeinoea eeoue Eaia?neeo ino?iaia
e auaeae eo ca Eiaeeth, a eiiaaea aeaaea aaaioth?enoii, ia aiooaaoeiny
oaeenoaaie e ?acaiai, eioi?ue neo/aeii aeaaiaea?y oaeiui ciaieyi,
aeinoea caiaaeiiai eiioeiaioa. Ainaiue no?ai inia?eaaee /anoue e i?aai
iacuaaoueny  ?iaeeiie Eieoiaa.

Iaaei i?eiyoue e naaaeaieth, /oi O?enoioi? Eieoia ia aue ia?aui
aa?iiaeoeai, nooieaoei ia Aia?eeaineee eiioeiaio. Aua a eiioea X-ia/aea
XI aaea naaa?iaa?iiaeneea ii?aieaaaoaee aeinoeaaee iiaa?aaeuey Aia?eee.
Iiaee auoue e ae?oaea i?aaeoanoaaiieee, ii Eieoia ia yoii ia ciae.

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